Case Studies Mr.

Leon Moser

Moderator: Ms. Rita Hindle 2B

CASE STUDIES FOR TEXTILE PRINTING

Textile Printing- The application of color to a fabric in a design or pattern (localized dyeing)

Modern printing generally incorporates one of the following techniques:

1. 2. 3.
4.

Flat-bed Screen Printing Rotary Screen Printing Engraved Roller Printing Heat Transfer Printing

FLATBED SCREEN -WOVENS. SOME KNITS -SLOW -IMPROVING DETAIL -LARGE REPEATS ROTARY SCREEN -WOVENS & KNITS -VERY FAST -BETTER DETAIL ROLLER -WOVENS -FAST -EXCELLENT DETAIL -EXPENSIVE ROLLERS -LONG RUNS HEAT TRANSFER -KNITS -SLOW -EXCELLENT DETAIL -GREAT FOR SMALL YARDAGES -SMALL REPEATS .

Binders.WASTE CHARACTERISTICS FOR TEXTILE PRINTING Hard to Treat Wastes Color from Dyes or Pigments Toxic Organic Chemicals Metals Phosphates Dispersible Wastes Print Paste Components Thickeners. Warm and Cold) . Humectants. Hazardous or Toxic Wastes Metals Organic Solvents High Volume Wastes Scour and Afterwash Water (Hot. etc.

Afterwashing BOD . Clean-ups METALS .MAIN PROBLEMS IN PRINTING COLOR .Carpet Printing . Photo Developing Print Paste and Clear Discards Emulsion Thickeners and Clean-ups HOT WATER .Dye and Paste Dumps. SUSPENDED SOLIDS SOLVENTS - Screen Making.Desizing. Print Paste and FOAM (Floating Solids) Clear Discards .Dye Dumps.

Fixation of Dyestuff 5. Drying 4. Washing .off .STEPS IN PRINTING PROCESS 1. Preparation of Print Paste 2 Printing of Fabric 3.

the type of printing machine.fiber.the colorant system used. binders. to some extent.surfactants water-retaining agents (humectants) adhesion promoters defoamers catalysts hand modifiers . cross-linking agents dispersing agents .

V ATS . D ISPERSIBILITY E XCELLENT W ETFASTNESS COTTON - REACTIVES.DYESTUFFS USED IN PRINTING SAME AS THOSE USED IN DYEING S PECIAL H IGH R EQUIREMENTS S OLUBILITY . N APHTHOLS WOOL - ACID. METALIZED N YLON ACRYLIC - ACID. DISPERSE . CATIONIC T RIACETATE - D ISPERSE P OLYESTER - D ISPERSE QIANA - ACID. METALIZED CATIONIC ACETATE - DISPERSE.

OXIDIZING AND REDUCING AGENTS IN PRINT PASTE. BASES.AUXILIARY CHEMICALS THOSE NECESSARY FOR FIXATION OF DYE INTO FIBER REACTIVES - ALKALI V ATS - REDUCING AGENT A C I D S . ACID AGER L ATENT (S ODIUM R EDUCING A GENTS FORMALDEHYDE ) S ULFOXYLATE .ACID CATIONIC - ACID DISPERSE - CARRIER Do NOT INCORPORATE STRONG ACID.

Water-in-oil Polyacrylic Acid (Acrylics) EMA (Monsanto) Mixed Monomer Thickeners .

THICKENING AGENTS MUST HAVE PSEUDOPLASTIC FLOW BEHAVIOR Low HIGH SHEAR = HIGH VISCOSITY = LOW VISCOSITY SHEAR PSEUDOPLASTIC BEHAVIOR .

-not necessary when using dyes -very important in determining fastness .A product of high molecular weight which is capable of forming a three-dimensional film used to hold the pigment particles in place on the surface of a textile substrate.

often used to soften water .EDTA .most popular to use with dyes Calgon .

used to disperse solid particles. Similar in use are protective colloidsincreasing paste stability. promote paste stability.Dispersing agents Surfactats . and increase paste penetration into the fiber. .

Humectants Materials added to print paste formulations to print paste formulations to prevent water evaporation .

Pigment printing of fiberglass is enhanced by using aminosilane .e.Increase adhesion of binder system to substrate i.

.Catalysts A chemical formulation to increase the speed of a chemical reaction.

Hand Modifiers Normally softeners because binders tend to stiffen the fabric. .

REASONS REMOVE REMOVE REMOVE IMPROVE IMPROVE PRINT PROBLEMBACK THE FOR SCOURING AGENT THICKENING AUXILIARIES EXCESS DYESTUFF OF PRINT OF BRILLIANCE FASTNESS PROPERTIES STAINING OF UNDYED AREAS .

A survey of dyes in the mid 1970's showed that 95% of the capper in an N.70 2.50 2.00 0.68 3.70 1. 1 Description .C.00 2.00 3.00 3.50 .CASE STUDIES FOR TEXTILE PRINTING CASE NO. company's effluent originated from 13 dyes.00 2.00 3. Dye Belamine F Red 3BL Belamine B Blue LT Pyrazol F Violet MXD Solantine Brown BRL Atlantic Blue 8 GLN-K Atlantic Resinfast Blue 2R Sirius Supra Turquoise LG Superlitefast Blue 2GLL Direct Navy OFS Belamine Red 3BL Solophenyl Brown BRL Fastolite Blue L Atlantic Black NR They were: Percentage Cu Content 4.70 4.29 1.

pH. and auxillary chemicals content.All of the previous dyes have copper as a part of the dye molecule structure. In this case. Possible Courses of Action: (1) Substitute for metal containing dyes with nonmetal dyes. . reducing the metal content discharged. direct dyes with non-metal content were substituted where possible. (2) Insure maximum fixation of dye by optimizing all processing parameters such as time and temperature of fixation. therefore. salt concentration.

40 1. Here also the copper is bound as an integral part of the chromophore molecule. Pigment Inmont Respad Green GB3W Inmont Respad Blue G3W Inmont Respad Blue GH3W Inmont Respad Blue GL3W Inmont Respad Violet V3W Inmont Respad Grey R3W Percentage & Content 0.80 1.35 0.PIGMENTS IN TEXTILE PRINTING In some cases.10 1.10 . textile printing companies may use metal containing pigments which may not appear in the Color Index.15 0.

(3) Spent bleach solutions are recovered and regenerated by chemical additions.2 Description . (2) Color developer is regenerated using an ion exchange system. Inc.PCA International. Courses of Action: (1) An electrolytic recovers silver from the color negative film fixer solutions. attaining 90% reuse capability. Savings: PCA saves over $1. Silver recovery adds another approximate $800. recovery. is a color portrait processing firm. this study easily relates to the photographic processes used in textile printing screen design and manufacture. The process results in a 96% reuse of the fixer solutions.CASE STUDIES FOR TEXTILE PRINTING CASE NO.1 million each year in reusing process solutions.000 per year. Total processing results in an 84% recovery of the color developer solution. PCA has undertaken a number of projects to recover and recycle process waste especially silver . As can be seen.

(2) The volume of solvent has been reduced by process modifications.CASE STUDIES FOR TEXTILE PRINTING CASE NO. Courses of Action: (1) Waste acetone is distilled and recovered at approximately a 70% rate. Savings: American Colors cut production costs by reducing volumes of waste solvent and reclaiming what solvent waste was generated. especially going from light to dark coatings. This yields an overall reduction in cleanup waste. in equipment cleanup. Waste acetone is generated during the coating or printing . 1 Description: process. The net savings were many thousands of dollars This reclaimed solvent is used American Colors coats or prints on fiberglass. per year.

In equipment cleanup the company uses isopropyl acetate. 4 Description: Thiele .Engdahl.CASE STUDIES FOR TEXTILE PRINTING CASE NO. significant savings result. . Savings: Before the distillation system the company sent 5. The solvent is recovered on-site Distillation bottoms are sent using batch distillation.000 gallons of used solvent to off-site disposal every 45 days. uses printing inks. paying for the distillation system in 2 years. Courses of Action Thiele-Engdahl uses solvent twice for cleanup before recovery and reuse. Inc. Since reclaiming and reuse reduce both the volume of waste and the volume of virgin solvents purchased. off-site for disposal.

months.000 per year in material and disposal costs. Savings: Lenoir Mirror saves over $5. are sent to an incinerator. uses xylene solvent in equipment cleanup. This overall case relates to solvent recovery in printing from screen and machine cleanups. Total system payout will be thirteen Approximately 95% solvent was recovered by distillation and still bottoms . 5 Description: Lenoir Mirror Co.CASE STUDIES FOR TEXTILE PRINTING CASE NO. Courses of Action: The company reduced their waste costs by recovering and reusing spent solvent on-site.

Average solvent losses were 15% with some as high as 40%. Savings: Initially this resulted in a $90. They also obtained a much superior recovered solvent at a 90% efficiency rate.500. Courses of Action: The company purchased a used distillation system for $7.CASE STUDIES FOR TEXTILE PRINTING CASE NO.00 Some modifications were made to the unit for use with their product. (now BASF) produces nylon Previously the company employed an outside Isopropyl alcohol was used as a solvent for a firm for the distillation and reuse of solvent.00 per year savings over their previous contract fees. fatty amine.000. This project also relates to solvent recovery and reuse possible by textile printing operations. 6 Description: yarn. the project was approximately one month. . The solvent was also aften contaminated and required analysis before reuse. They now use far more of the recovered Total payback for alcohol and also utilize the still bottoms as an asphalt emulsifier in another product line. American Enka Co.

gloss finish labels could not be There was also a net decrease in printed this way. some operator retraining was required. systems was 5 months. this example relates directly to many textile printing operations.800 per year in waste disposal costs.000 per year in virgin solvent costs and $22. Because the company also purchased an onsite distillation system for solvent recovery for $16. 7 Description: Rexham Corp.000. saves $15. Rexham substituted water based inks for the traditional solvent based materials. Courses of Action: The company was able to reduce its waste generation through process modification. however. Savings: This modification did not require Rexham to incur any large capital costs. Rexham Corp. printing speed using the water-based inks. As can be seen.CASE STUDIES FOR TEXTILE PRINTING CASE NO. Total payback for the process modifications and solvent recovery . The net result was to reduce the quantity of solvent waste generated and the quantity of solvent released to the atmosphere. prints product labels using alcohol/acetate based formulations using flexographic printing techniques. However.

is a paper printing The company was having a great deal of problems with air emissions from its printing presses.7 million net cost savings.655 gallons per day. RJR Archer. . This amounted to an average This solvent could be either By properly recirculating air exhaust from its drying ovens before distillation. all inks formulations were reviewed and reformulated using a maximum of two solvents per blend. After payback. Courses of Action: RJR Archer installed a carbon adsorption system to capture and recover 98% of the solvents lost to the atmosphere from drying ovens.CASE STUDIES FOR TEXTILE PRINTING CASE NO. RJR Archers estimated an annual $1.5 years. the size of the system was smaller than originally predicted. of 2. therefore increasing the recovery system efficiency. 8 Description: operation.300 per day in solvent costs. Savings: RJR Archer saves over $6. The payback for the $4.3 million recovery system was 2. Inc. reused or sold. Air emissions are also very important to a number of textile printers. Additionally.

The level of phosphorous in the company's United Piece Dye Works was able to meet these effluent was reduced from 7. the use of hexametaphosphate was reduced and the use of phosphoric acid was totally eliminated. Where possible. mg/liter. Savings: Through this substitution. . Courses of Action: The company was able to meet stringent discharge limits on phosphorous by making chemical substitutions in their production processes. company because of its processing operations had a problem with phosphorous containing materials in its effluent. a detailed chemical analysis and evaluation of their processing was performed to identify sources of phosphorous. 7 Description: United Piece Dye Works is a textile dyeing The and finishing operation located in North Carolina. Initially.7 mg/liter to less than 1 effluent limits without any capital expenditure for phosphorous removal or quality reduction in their products. nonphosphorous or non-phosphate containing chemicals were substituted.CASE STUDIES FOR TEXTILE PRINTING CASE NO.

Savings: The company invested $100.000 in a heat recovery and exhange system reducing the effluent temperature from 130°F to 70°F. hosiery company.000 gallons of fuel oil per year. Total payback for the system . a North Carolina The water temperature of 130° F. This removed heat was used to preheat incoming feed water for dye tubs from 55°F. caused many problems for the sewer treatment system. This preheating operation alone saved approximately 52. This type system is generally only cost effective The net result of this action was reduced if there is a sufficient flow of water at a high enough temperature. was two years. reduced waste treatment costs and recovery and reuse of energy.CASE STUDIES FOR TEXTILE PRINTING CASE NO. thermal pollution. was discharging spent dye bath water to a municipal sewer system. to 105°F. 10 Description: Ellen Knitting Mills. Courses of Action: The company decided to purchase a heat reclaimation system.

Offsite recovery of solvent was used and this solvent reused in processing. This was all accomplished with no major capital outlay. Courses of Action: With only minor changes in operating procedures. These waste solvents were reused.CASE STUDIES FOR TEXTILE PRINTING CASE NO. the company substituted water-based inks for the solvent-based inks. As a furniture manufacturer. Savings : The net result of this initial change was to reduce solvent waste by 30 . where possible.40%. the traditionally used solventbased inks to print wood grain on plywood and fiberboard. . to clean pumps and piping. 11 Description: Kemp Furniture used several process modifications to reduce their overall waste volume.

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