Regional planning in India.

PLANNING EFFORTS IN INDIA SINCE INDEPENDANCE

ADITYA A. PUNAGAVKAR. (09AR6017)

Regional planning in India.

INDEX CONTENTS _______________________________________________________ PAGE NO

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Introduction to region. Planning regions - basic postulates. Hierarchy of planning regions. Regional development planning in india. Urban scenario. Urban and regional planning since independence of india Post-Independence Period. Planning Legislation. Status of Regional Development Planning in India. Efforts for Regional Development Planning in India. Conclusion. Prospects. Bibliography.

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Regional planning in India.

REGIONAL PLANNING IN INDIA
ADITYA A. PUNGAVKAR DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE AND REGIONAL PLANNING INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KHARAGPUR

Abstract

The regional development problems are not only multifaceted, they are complex and multidimensional in nature. No single discipline alone could tackle such intricate problems and need an interdisciplinary approach to analyze them, formulate development policies and programme and prepare rational plans and projects. The development problems vary from place to place, region to region and occur in space with varying degree of intensity and complexity. The problems necessarily could be effectively tackled by spatial planning process. The regional scientists are engaged in developing tools and techniques of analysis while regional planners based on such analysis formulate policies, put forward strategies and find desirable solution not only to tackle the present-day problems but also develop mechanism. Introduction In developing economies like India, the issue of social equity has become the need of the day This needs emphasis on regional approach to developmental planning as against a microeconomic sectoral approach, because regional planning in its true perspective, tends to be much more responsive to the emerging socio-economic problems at various territorial levels. Basically, regional planning is spatial development planning, which tends to utilize the natural and human resources to the fullest-extent for the enrichment of the quality of life of its population and to distribute the gains of development among the regions and groups within the regions, thereby minimizing socio-economic imbalances and improving living conditions of the masses. Regional planning fits Into this general classification but differs from other forms of planning in that it is specifically concerned with the regional level, This level lies somewhere between the national and local levels, and the region Is a continuous and localized area at this level. similar to other types of planning in that it possesses the some basic features and may be a combination of the variety of alternative forms already outlined. But it is also distinct from other types of planning In that It Is Planning for a region, in general terms, o region is a flexible concept, referring to a continuous and localized area Intermediate between national and urban levels. As such regional planning can be seen as fitting into a continuum of planning regional planning Is the process of formulating and clarifying social objectives.

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Regional planning in India.

Region A formal region Is a geographical area which is uniform or homogeneous in terms of selected criteria, A functional region Is a geographical area which displays '-a certain functional coherence, an Inter-dependence of parts. Ebeneizer Howard was one of the early pioneers of the concept of the nodal region He suggested that the solution to the problems of a large urban area such as London In developing a cluster of new towns linked to the central city In a functional relationship. Patrick Gedd'es also stressed the inter-dependence and Inter-relationships of factors In a region, using him famous 'place-work-folk' diagram. It was Geddes also who coined the term city region' which has come to be the most widely used form of nodal region. Planning regions - basic postulates Regions for planning are in the nature of subnatlonal areas’ and they are to be used for the purpose of translating the national planning objectives and targets into regional (spatial) programmes and policies. Therefore, in the first instance, planning region must be adequate to achieve the plan objectives which essentially seek maximization of benefits-arising from the utilization of resources to achieve a minimum acceptable standard of living. To ensure this. It will be necessary to consider for each planning region the nature of resource endowments of the area, the present level of economic, social and physical development and the potentials of future development. In other words, o planning region should inherently possess on assured economic and social viability, developed or developable derived from the resources within the region. A planning region' must be a viable economic entity; Economic viability may be expressed in terms of self-sufficiency of existing and potential resources to reach a desired level of development. The degree of economic viability may vary, depending upon the level at selfsufficiency aimed at Two major criteria defining this ore 'production' and 'employment' At the highest level, the region must be capable of engendering activities that would assure near-full employment and production of agricultural and non-agricultural commodities which enables it to meet the requirements of food and other manufactured and consumer goods at a level laid down by the national plan. Production of all consumer goods may not be achieved, but there should be enough to make exchanges possible. Self-sufficiency Self-sufficiency is mainly quantitative and not qualitative; quality is dependent upon the resource endowments of each area which will induce a process of flow and exchange of goods ond services. In addition to economic viability, a planning region must aim at a natural balance amongst the resources and their exploitation. This natural balance or 'ecological balance' as we may call It, assures a stability of a different type and lasting character. The fauna and flora of natural region are : always balanced and help to complete to the natural cycle, where the natural cycle is not completed or obstructed, these are bound to result In ravines, dust bowls, ; depletion of soils, desiccation and so on. To complete the natural cycle, a region must not only mountains but also plains, not only barren land but also rich vegetation and so Iong. The degree of Aditya A. Pungavkar 09AR6017 Page 4

Regional planning in India. ecological balance that can be attained will be dependent on the diversity of the resources that would be possible. Having explained the requirements for planning regions in broad terms, the specific criteria that should be looked for in delimiting a region may be laid down as follows: 1) The planning region must be large enough to contain a range of resources, conditions and attitudes that would help to establish the desired degree of economic viability but at the same time, not too large as to make a comprehensive approach too general. 2) It should have adequate resources of diverse origin to enable a production pattern to be developed, both for consumption and for ex-change. 3) There should exist an organization In terms of nodal points, either developed or developable to satisfy the organizational needs to the region as a total entity. 4) Planning is a mechanism for dealing with resource development problems. Therefore, the ideal regions for planning purposes will be those In which an area-wise approach to these problems is both feasible and desirable. 5) Planning .deals with anticipating the future and an area with common potentialities and probabilities of development would be logical for planning purposes.

6) Since planning requires the development of Insight consequences of various alternatives, a contiguous, cohesive area, within which various alternatives can be projected and analyzed, has Importance. Such' Internal cohesion may be the result of homogeneity of resource or their linkages through complementarily and intra-areal activity or "flows. 7) As the ultimate objective of planning is to facilitate the making of rational decision, an area where some degree of social unity exists is desirable, so that the public can identify this problems and accept responsibility for meeting thorn. 8) The planning regions cannot completely ignore the basic administrative units. They are. In fact, derived by grouping the smallest administrative unite in right combinations. The advantages keeping the smallest administrative unit Intact lies in the availability of data by such' units and the existence of a system of administrative communication which provides for mutual feed -backs and appraisal of results for the guidance of future problem-solving techniques. 9) Planning regions are essentially operational- in character and therefore a high degree of flexibility and elasticity is called for in their conception as well as their delimitation.

Hierarchy of planning regions Thus, depending on the geographical scope within which various developmental programmes could be effectively organized and dealt with, It is possible to visualize throe major area levels of operation, viz., macro, meso and micro. On this basis it would be possible to derive planning Aditya A. Pungavkar 09AR6017 Page 5

Regional planning in India. region .of various taxonomic ranks by grouping areas according to the purpose of and scale of development. Macro-regions Macro-regions should not only represent areas where Inter-related solutions to many problems are especially necessary, but should also have within their, confines a complete matrix of all essential resources for Integrated development. Among these resources, power resources are one of the most Important, as they play vital role In determining the major lines of economic development and In bringing about a dispersion of economic activity which Is very necessary for achieving balanced regional development, It has* therefore, been sought that each macro-region should have one or more existing or potential Industrial nucleus may also be an apex centre for the region, which will have Its linkages In a hierarchy of urbanIndustrial development. Each macro-region should be characterized by a high degree of Internal cohesion, forming an economic system by Itself and having the liability to generate exchanges between itself Bind the other regions within the country. This Compiles both complementarily of resources and economic specialization within. each macro-regions and involves an analysis of economic ties within the region and Its eco-Gnomic connections with the rest of the country. The concept of self-sufficiency referred to here must be carefully understood. It does not seek to Isolate the regions into closed circuit or water-tight systems. It only Implies some sort of balance In the export-Import situation between each region and the rest of the country, which should be achieved in any long term planning, This is really a test of regionalization and has been applied In the present study only In a qualitative sense. This should be done by more resource analysis. Involving the preparation of a number of 'balance sheets', by drawing a up inter-industrial and Inter-regional balances of production and distribution of commodities and by building economic and mathematical models of planned economy for each region and the country as a whole. Meso-regions The meso-regions are sub-divisions of macro-regions. They really form the primary economic units for the purposes of planning the main objective of delineating meso-region is to carve out viable areal effective exploitation, conservation and utilization of resources. Economic viability implies that a meso-regions is to carve out viable areal units for effective exploitation, conservation and utilization of resources. Economic viability at the minimum level Is the primary consideration for grouping areas to form meso-regions. Such economic viability Implies that a meso-region has adequate resource potential and established a production pattern sufficient to meet the employment needs of the people in that unit over a period of time and, at the same time, produce enough food or offer goods which can be exchanged for food to meet minimum or offer goods which can be exchanged for food to meet minimum consumption needs. Economic viability could be tested by examining the per capita income of the component units (districts). Such figures are available only for some places and cannot be used with any reasonable degree of reliability. In the pres-ent case, therefore, economic viability of the • meso-reglons has been tested by examining indicators like per capita usable land, productivity Index and manufacturing potential. Aditya A. Pungavkar 09AR6017

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Regional planning in India. Micro-level regions Micro-level, the region should have some unifying core (problem of interest. It should include all territory, tributary to the core. The areas within a micro-region should be characterized by absence of serious conflicting interests within the area. -Its population must share certain basic attitudes, values, needs and desires. Thus the micro-regions must be designed to rep resent a "community of interests" particularly with regard to dynamic types of production, market relationships and labor supply and demand. in this way, they will form the best possible combination of structural, organizational and functional factors. The micro-regions are Intended to be suitably units for the formulation of area development plans, as they will, be sufficiently close to the grass roots, affording opportunities for direct Inter action between the citizens and the administration to decide the key a Issues In area development. They can be of three broad types. a) They may be nodal regions consisting of urban Centers and the Influence areas around them. In the case of certain nodal regions, such as those of big cities (e.g. Calcutta, Delhi, etc.), the influence areas can be very large comprising a part of even the whole of a macro-region. The nodal region, In such case, has been interpreted as the minimum Influence areas (the metropolitan area) and not the total hinterland.

b) The micro-regions may also be primarily rural areas with a large number of minor nodes without any organization hierarchy influencing the entire area. Here they may be conceived essentially as service areas centered around potential growth points* which may subsequently develop into one or more systems.

c) It is also possible for micro regions to be essentially problem areas of back ward areas; for example, a coal belts a famine-prone area or a reclamation area. The Rayalaseema area, the Chambal ravines and the. Regional development planning in india. Regional development planning started in india as early as 1947, when Damodar Valley Corporation was set up by an Act of of Parliament. The importance of Regional Planning was further recognized in the seminar on Regional Planning held in Tokyo from 26th of July to 8th August 1958. in ' the various deliberations of the Tokyo seminar, ft was realized that unprecedented growth of cities has given rise to various problems, which need to be controlled and channelized into the region for striking a balance of development between rural and urban areas. Actually it was hi this seminar that the growing need for Regional Development Planning on global scale was recognized.

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Regional planning in India.

Urban scenario. India is experiencing some significant phenomena in its demographic structure, namely massive growth of population, urbanization and megalopolitanisation. The last two decades witnessed a strong trend towards emergence of metropolises in India; The next two decades are likely to be marked by a dominance of mega cities. India recorded a population of 844.3 million in 1991, of which 25.7% (217 million) was Urban and rest 627.3 million i.e. 74.24% was Rural. It is expected that the level of urbanization will rise to 30 to 32percent by the year 2001. The number of metropolitan urban agglomerations (cities with more than one million population) have almost doubled during the last decade i.e. from 12 in 1981 to 23 in 1991. As much as 1/3rd of our country's urban population is living in these centre’s. Keeping in view the present rate of urbanization, it is expected that the number of such cities would increase to around 40 with over 350 million population by the turn of the century. Three hundred class I cities including metro cities have registered an increase in their share of urban population from 60% in 1981 to 65% in 1991. It is thus evident that the growth of urban population in India, when coupled with the present urban scenario foreshadows chaos of alarming proportions in respect of living environment work centre’s, social facilities and services. While urbanization is considered to provide opportunities for economic upliftment to the ever increasing population; definite policy interventions are desirable to disperse the benefit of growth of large urban centre’s into the region. This is likely to make cities manageable and also foster development of the region, The number of urban centre’s in India were 3609 in 1981 and increased to 3768 by 1991 and the number of villages continued to be around 5.5 lakhs. The increasing trend of urbanization in the country can be seen from the following tables:

Table 1: Percentage of urban population to total population in India: 1921 1951 1971 1981 1991 11.12 17.29 19.87 23.73 25.72

These figures reveal the increasing trend of urbanization in the country.

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Table 2: Percentage of Urban Population in the Most Urbanized States in India (1991) Maharastra Gujarat Tamil Nadu Karnataka 38.73 34.40 34.20 30.91

The United Nations prepared in 1990 a list of 26 mega cities each of which was expected to reach a population of 10 million (one crore) and above by 2010 AD, with 21 of them in developed countries. Out of them India will have three mega cities viz, Bombay, Calcutta and Delhi. The number of urban agglomerations with more than one million populations In India increased from 12 to 23 between 1981 and 1991. Between 1990 and 2030 global population is expected to grow by about 3.7 billion. Ninety per cent of this increase will take place in developing countries and again ninety per cent of it will be urban. India will continue to face the problem of urbanization in the coming decades of the 20th century. In USA a new type of sporadic growth is taking place in the middle area between urban/suburban and the rural landscape, known as "Exurbs" with sub-division of land, large farms, small settlements, some factories, ranchetts and hobby homes extending outward 100 to 120 kms from metropolitan areas More than 60 million people of USA are estimated to live in such exurbs. Similar trend can be observed even in India, if we look at sporadic location of resort towns, holiday homes, institutional areas, factories and settlement colonies around major urban centers. This uncontrolled growth cannot be regulated without legally enforceable regional plans. Urban and regional planning since independence of india With rapid industrialization and urbanization, after Independence of India, it was found necessary to regulate the growth of urban centers Before Independence town planning system in India was almost similar to that practiced in England and master plans with town planning schemes were prepared for areas covered within the municipal limits of some cities and towns. The Bombay Town Planning Act, 1915 and Madras Town Planning Act, 1920 were the earliest legislations on town planning. Side by side City Improvement Trust Acts were enacted for extension and improvement of cities to accommodate the influx of population. Retrospect Considering the urban problems during and after World War If, Government of Preindependence India set up the Health Survey and Development Committee under the chairmanship of Sir Joseph Bhore. The recommendations of the Committee, made in 1946, Aditya A. Pungavkar 09AR6017

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Regional planning in India. include all aspects of public health and environmental hygiene including town and country planning. The recommendations pertaining to town planning were: i) establishment of a Ministry of Housing and Town Planning In each province. ii) enactment of legislations to regulate planning of not only towns but also the rural settlements on a fairly uniform basis. iii) certain number of selected individuals to be sent to Europe for training and if necessary town planning experts from abroad be recruited on short-term contracts, and iv) training centre’s for town planners should be set up at least in a few universities in the country. The first recommendation of Sir Joseph Bhore Committee resulted, after the Independence of the Country, in the creation and strengthening of the Directorates of Town Planning at state level and creation of the Central Regional and Urban Plan nig Organization (CRUPOPredecessor of the present TCPO), under the Ministry of Health. Post-Independence Period Independence of India brought in its wake both happiness and sorrow. The partition of the country into three parts created tremendous problems of refugee rehabilitation in the north-west and the north east of the country. The brunt of the problem was borne by Delhi, Calcutta and the surrounding towns and cites* The resettlement of displaced persons caused the creation of a number of planned new towns In Punjab. Uttar Pradesh and Bengal apart from Delhi and surroundings Industrial activity added new dimension to urban and regional planning through planning and development of many new steel plant cities and project towns in different states New capital cities like Chandigarh, Bhubaneshwar and Gandhinagar. apart from Ghazibad. Fandabad etc. are best examples to illustrate the amount ofplanning effort that has gone in planning new towns. But legal framework for regulating planned growth of human settlements was lacking in the country. Planning Legislation It is only after Independence that all the States started putting their heads together to evolve a common policy on urban and regional planning matters. Excepting a few Slates which had enacted special Town Planning Acts, the other States in the country had to depend upon the legal provisions contained in various City Corporation Acts, Municipal Acts. City Improvement Acts, Village Panchayat Acts. Cantonment Board Acts, etc.. for planned development of urban and rural areas. Another important aspect to be considered in this context is the Constitution of India coming into force with effect from 26th January 1950 and the fundamental rights that every citizen enjoys as far as his property rights are concerned. Certain provisions contained in the earlier Town Planning Acts required revision under the changed circumstances and to face the challenges

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Regional planning in India. posed by the rapidly expanding unban centre’s A comprehensive legislation was found necessary for checking haphazard and unhealthy development in our urban and rural areas. Status of Regional Development Planning in India Regional Development Planning in India has addressed itself to unified development of urban communities and their environs and of states, regions and the nation. Regional Planning has now become a scientific methodology of complex analysis of all factors and their relationship, which go together to make a potentially prosperous area. Besides helping in the identification of national goals, regional development plans also help in restricting the rural population from migrating to bigger urban centre’s and industrial areas. Maximum utilization of natural resources and social upliftment is only possible through balanced regional development With the directions which were set out in the Third Five Year Plan, the central Town and Country Planning Organization from the early sixties has identified at sub national level, on the basis of complementarity of natural and man-made resources, socio-economic and geo-physical factors, a set of economically viable macro regions. These form the basis of resource-based regional development plans translating the national five year plans into the space oriented physical development plans at the sub national level. An integrated development plan was prepared for one of the macro resource regions, namely, the South East Resource Region comprising parts of U.P., Bihar, West Bengal, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh. At the instance of Planning Commission, development plans for specific area like backward hill regions, mineral rich regions and ecologically vulnerable areas were drawn up providing guidance in regard to optimum development confirming to environmental, ecological and resource conservation policies. A critical appraisal of the earlier Five year Plans depicts that even the Third five year plan could not achieve the objectives of balanced planning at grass root level. This very fact became apparent during the assessment of the Fourth Five year plan benefits, which could not percolate at the grass root level. As such, while formulating the objectives in the fourth plan, the necessity of district plans was thought. It is at this stage that the Regional Development Planning In India has been thought to be prepared at the following levels: i) ii) Regional Development plan at the National level. Regional Physical plans for the sub regions within sub states and working out the economic plan for the state. iii) Preparation of area development plans for districts and blocks

Efforts for Regional Development Planning in India One of the important objectives of a regional plan is to evolve an improved pattern of urban and rural settlements in the region with a view to provide the basic economic services and community facilities required for the development of the region, thereby striking a regional balance and reducing regional disparities. Our planners have been quite serious in the process Aditya A. Pungavkar 09AR6017

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Regional planning in India. of identifying the regions of tow economic growth and areas of comparatively higher and better economic potentialities. Such an effort cam into existence right from the First Five year plan, when some major industrial and river valley projects for agricultural development were initiated, keeping in view the necessity as to how the economic benefits of such mega projects can be made to percolate for the benefit of masses at the grassroots level During the last three and a half decades, specific regional and sub regional plans have been prepared for many areas of the county, both at the central and state level. Important regional development plans prepared by Central Town & Country Planning Organization are as under: i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vit) viii) National Capital Region South East Resource Region Dandakaranya Sub-Region Malkangiri Area Plan Goa Regional Plan Agra Bharatpur and Morena Sub-Region of Chambal Valley Naurangdesar Sub-Region of Rajasthan Canal Region Western Ghats Region

While the important states which have identified regions within their stalls and also preparing Regional Plans are Tamilnadu, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, etc. Institute of Town Planners, India The establishment of the Institute of Town Planners, India in 1951 provided an opportunity for town planners to exchange views on urban and regional planning matters. The planeers who started the ITPI were M.. Fayazuddin SK. Joglekar, TJ. Manickam, V.N. Prasad, Walter George. C.S. Chandrasekhara and others. The .Annual. Town and Country Planning Seminars (now Congress) held in different parts of die country created the needed stage for planners, engineers, administrators, legal experts, representatives of various authorities to get together and discuss important issues on urban and regional planning .A few of such topics like planning legislation and planning education are already discussed It is hoped that the institute will play an important role tn the future. National Commission on Urbanization Another important event that took place in the country during the first 50 years of Independence, is the constitution of the National Commission on Urbanization under the chairmanship of Charles Correea to study and recommend to Government of India: the dimensions of urbanization and proposals for planned development of our urban areas Though the Commission submitted In August 1988 its detailed Report with recommendations, which were Aditya A. Pungavkar 09AR6017 Page 12

Regional planning in India. well publicized and debated, the Union Government did not take further action to place the Report before Parliament Though many of the recommendations were not acceptable to the professional planners, a great opportunity is lost in evolving a "National Urbanization Policy" for India. Constitution 73rd and 74th Amendment Acts, 1992 The 73rd Amendment to the Constitution of India pertains to Zilla Panchayats and 74th Amendment to the municipalities and metropolitan areas. Three important matters which concern both Zilla Panchayats and municipalities and have impact on urban and regional planning are the following: i) The State Finance Commission, to be constituted by the Governor of the State, will be common to Zilla Panchayats as well as Municipalities. ii) District Planning Committee of each district is to be entrusted with matters which concern the Urban-rural interface. This committee has to consolidate the plans prepared by the panchayats and municipalities and prepare a development plan for the entire district. Even after five years of the Constitution 73rd and 74th amendments, district planning committees are not yet constituted in many states. It is also doubtful whether the committee will be able to look after urban and regional planning function (physical planning) or will function like an economic planning committee. iii) Metropolitan Planning Committee has to be constituted for each metropolitan area under the Constitution 74th Amendment Act Similar to District Planning Committee, it will have jurisdiction both on the urban area and the surrounding rural tract within the proposed metropolitan region. With the kind of composition of members proposed In the amendment ft is feared that the committee will not be able to function as a technical organization but as a coordinating agency for the urban and rural settlements within the area. Moreover the existing metropolitan development authorities and infrastructure development authorities will have overlapping functions with those of the metropolitan planning committee Devolopement activities should start from the grass root level i.e. the village should be considered as a basic unit o restrict and control urbanward migration. regional level should aim at following targets: To develop a small medium size towns. To provide better transport linkages to connect the small planning unit i.e. village. To improve and provide health and medical facilities. To provide minimum required educational facilities for the smallest unit of planning.

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Two major events took place in 1951 i.e.,(1) Launching of the First Five Year Plan (19511956) and (2) Establishing the Institute of Town Planners, India. The First Five Year Plan encouraged planning of urban areas. But there was no comprehensive legislation for planning, as discussed earlier. The Central Regional and Urban Planning Organization (CRUPO), created in 1955, started preparation of Comprehensive Development Plan for Delhi in 1957, in collaboration with the Ford Foundation, USA. The Second Five Year Plan (1956-1961) set some guidelines for urban and regional planning. It encouraged preparation of master plans for major cities like Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi Madras. Allahabad. Hyderabad. Bangalore. Kanpur, Lucknow, Puna, etc. Plans for new towns and resource regions and River Valleys like Damodar Valley, BhakraNangal, Hirakud and Chambal were proposed. Delhi Master Plan was published In 1961 and it served as a reference plan for preparation of urban development plans all over the country. The Third Five Year Plan (1961-1966) provided financial assistance for establishing town planning! organizations for preparation of urban development plans for major cities having above 100,000 population and important growth centre’s. The Third Five Year Plan can be considered as the most important Plan which encouraged states to set up Directorates of Town Planning and enact legislations on urban and regional planning, utilizing the financial assistance offered by Government of India The Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-1974) encouraged implementation of Basic Development Plan for Calcutta (1966-1986^ which was prepared by the Ford Foundation Team. The Bombay Metropolitan Regional Planning Broad and Calcutta Metropolitan Development Authority were constituted during the 4 th plan period . Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO) was set up in 1970 as a financing agency for housing and urban development. During the Fifth Five Year Plan (1974-1979) the Institute of Town Planners initiated correspondence with the Prime Minister of India in 1974, as a follow up of the 22nd Town and Country Planning Seminar held at 8hopal(the author was the President of ITPI then), to encourage growth of small and medium towns and cities in tie country. Being convinced, the Union Government appointed a Task Force in 1975 under the chairmanship of Prof. Bp Ghosh to study the prospects of developing small and medium towns In India, its report was submitted ID Government of India in February 1977, after which a programme known as Integrated Development of Small and Medium Towns (IDSMT) was initiated. The Sixth and Seventh Five Year Plans (1980-1985 &1985-90) provided funds for IDSMT programmes throughout the country in order to encourage planned development of small and medium towns, which were not growing when compared to major urban centre’s and metropolices HUDCO continued financing housing and unban development programmes The achievement under IDSMT programme was unsatisfactory in most of the towns selected under the programme, during the Seventh as well as the Eight! Five Year Plans. Aditya A. Pungavkar 09AR6017 Page 14

Regional planning in India.

Prospects So far, the efforts made in the country in evolving a new system for planning and development of urban and rural areas are discussed. it will be voluminous to go into details of various other legal and administrative issues concerning urban and regional planning Planners are aware of the impact of industrialization and economic development on human settlements and the efforts made so far in different sectors like housing, infrastructure, slum up gradation and rural development to solve urban and regional planning problems. Still the situation in our urban and rural settlements is far from satisfactory, though some attractive new towns and town extensions have been created on town and country planning principles. Conclusion A high level of urbanization is the characteristic of the developed nations It is observed that rapid urbanization, which was the trend in developed countries in the early part of the twentieth century, has now become almost exclusively a Third World phenomenon Roughly 90% of urban growth In the world is expected to occur in less developed countries (LOCs) in the coming three decades As soon in the case of the developed countries, stabilization of urban population in india may take place when 70% to 80% of a country's population moves into urban areas. The country is expended to reach this stage by the middle of the 21st century. Therefore town planners at the national, state and local levels have to be prepared to face the challenge through preparation of urban and regional development plans covering various regions in me country. The local authorities, which have to prepare local plans' under the regional development plan or tie structure plan, whatever the name may be, are to be strengthened with technical capability by qualified Urban and regional planners Unless this is done the proposals of me urban planners at the nation and state levels will be a cry in the wilderness' as the local authorities will not be able to meet the challenge of rapid urbanization Urban planning and development need proper guidelines and direction at the local level after-the Constitution 74m Amendment Act, 1992 came into force, in a democratic set-up mere are many agencies which need proper direction and co-ordination to achieve me common good at the local level An urban development plan or a regional development plan can succeed when all the agencies concerned follow the proposals sincerely and implement them effectively with the help of urban and regional planners at different levels. When we consider the overall achievements in the last 50 years, we may say that it is satisfactory But the work ahead is stupendous and needs unstinted co-operation of all section of society to make the task of urban and regional planner* easy. Let us be optimistic and continue our work steadfastly, to achieve sustainable development of human settlements

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I WOULD LIKE TO ACKNOWLEDGE AND EXTEND MY HEARTFELT GRATITUDE TO THE FOLLOWING PERSONS WHO HAVE MADE THE COMPLETION OF THIS LECTURE NOTES POSSIBLE:

BONHI CHAKRABORTY, KEYA CHAKROBARTY, INDRANI CHAKRABORTY, FOR THEIR VITAL ENCOURAGEMENT AND SUPPORT. AND UNDERSTANDING OUR H.O.D. MR. BK SENGUPTA DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURAL AND REGIONAL PLANNING KHARAGPUR FOR THE CONSTANT REMINDERS AND MUCH NEEDED MOTIVATION.

ALL FACULTY MEMBERS AND STAFF MOST ESPECIALLY TO MY FAMILY AND FRIENDS AND TO GOD , WHO MADE ALL THINGS POSSIBLE.

REGIONAL PLANNING IN INDIA
ADITYA A. PUNGAVKAR DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE AND REGIONAL PLANNING INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KHARAGPUR

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