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GPRS Principles

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Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

1
Foreword
z GPRS principle is the basic part of the whole GPRS system
and the succeeding products learning.

z This slide will help us to understand the GPRS system


networking and wireless subsystem etc.

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Objectives
z Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:
‡ Know the GPRS system structure

‡ Describe the GPRS important interfaces

‡ Understand the GPRS channel structures

‡ Master the GPRS relevant numbering

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3
Contents
1. GPRS System Overview

2. GPRS Architecture

3. GPRS Network Interfaces & Protocols

4. GPRS Wireless Subsystem

5. GPRS Location Area

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4
Circuit Switch (CS)
A G
CS CS
B
H

C I
CS

D
J

K
CS CS
F
L

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5
Packet Switch (PS)

PS
PS
A PS 1 3
3 1
C
1
2 2 2
3 1 3
2

2
3
2
1 PS 2 1 3 1 2 3
B D
PS PS

PS

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6
GSM Development Evolution

3G UMTS 384 Kb/s

2.75 G ECSD EGPRS EDGE


38.8 Kb/s 59.2 Kb/s

2.5 G HSCSD GPRS


14.4 Kb/s 21.4 Kb/s

CS

2G GSM 9.6 Kb/s PS

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What is GPRS and EDGE?
z Abbreviation of General Packet Radio Service.
z GPRS is an end-to-end packet switching technology
provided on the basis of GSM technology.
z It has much interactive services with the existing GSM
circuit switching system.
z GPRS supports wireless access rate of up to 171.2Kbps.
z EDGE (Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution)
‡ EGPRS (Enhanced GPRS)
„ EGPRS supports wireless access rate of up to 473.6Kbps.
‡ ECSD (Enhanced CSD, Enhanced HSCSD-High Speed Circuit
Switched Data)

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•GPRS is the abbreviation of General Packet Radio Service.


•GPRS network introduces packet switching functional entities in the GSM network
to implement data transmission in the packet mode.
•GPRS can be regarded as the service expansion based on the GSM network for
supporting mobile subscribers access the Internet of other packet data networks via
packet data mobile terminal. Making full use of the existing GSM network,small
investment and quick rewarding,all of these benefit to protect the existing
investment and obtain maximum benefits for the operators.

8
GPRS&EDGE Coding Rate
Kbps
59.2
60.00
54.4

50.00 GPRS 44.8

EGPRS
40.00

29.6
30.00
21.4 22.4
20.00 17.6
15.6 14.8
13.4
11.2
9.05 8.8
10.00

0.00 CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-4 MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-8 MCS-9

GMSK 8PSK

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Adjustments to GSM Network

BSS A CS Core
Network
Pb
PCU
Gs

Gb PS Core
Network

BSS NSS

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Most Popular GPRS Applications

z E-mail
Sport Report
z Web Browsing
Public
z Information Services Information
Weather Forecast Service Traffic Information

z Moving Images
z Still Images Stock Market Live News

z Remote LAN Access Moving Bank

z File Transfer
Still Images Personal Email
z Job Despatch Information
Service

File Transfer Web Browsing

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Advantages and Disadvantages of
GPRS
z Advantages
‡ Share resource with GSM

‡ High resource utilization

‡ Fast transmission rate

‡ Always on line

‡ Short access time

z Disadvantages
‡ Slower data rates in practice than anticipated in theory

‡ Suboptimal modulation technique

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12
Contents
1. GPRS System Overview

2. GPRS Architecture

3. GPRS Network Interfaces & Protocols

4. GPRS Wireless Subsystem

5. GPRS Location Area

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CS & PS Logic Structure
C

GMSC
PSTN

D
CS A
MSC/VLR
TRAU HLR
B Abis
BSC AUC
T PCU PS
S Gs GPRS
Register
G-Abis Pb Gb Gr
SGSN
BSS
Gn
Gc Internet

GGSN
Gi
CN

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GPRS System Structure
HLR
MSC/VLR SMS-GMSC
SMS-IWMSC

EIR

SS7
WAP Gateway

BSS Gs Gd Gr Gf Gc Firewall
BSC
MS Gb Gn GGSN Gi Intranet/Internet
Abis RADIUS
BTS PCU GPRS
SGSN CG
Backbone Ga
Gi
Gn ATM/DDN/ISDN/Ethernet, etc
X.25
BSS SGSN
BSC GGSN
MS Gb
CN-
CN-PS
Abis DNS BG Other PLMN
BTS PCU
Gp

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GPRS MS
z Class A
‡ The MS is attached to both GPRS and other GSM services and the
MS supports simultaneous operation of GPRS and other GSM
services.
z Class B
‡ The MS is attached on GPRS network and GSM network
simultaneously but not enabling circuit switching and packet switching
services at the same time.
‡ services are selected automatically.
z Class C
‡ The MS is attached to either GPRS or other GSM services. Alternate
use only.
‡ services are selected manually or default selected service.

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Functions of PCU (Packet Control Unit)
z Packet wireless resource management function (RLC/MAC
protocol function)
‡ Wireless resource management functions of GPRS BSS

‡ Circuit paging coordination

z G-Abis interface processing function


‡ Function related with GPRS BTS

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Functions of PCU (Packet Control Unit)
z Pb interface processing function
‡ LAPD link between BSC and PCU

‡ Layer-3 signaling between BSC and PCU

z Gb interface processing function


‡ Data packet relay on wireless interface and Gb interface

‡ Mobility management (cell updating procedure)

‡ Downlink traffic control (wireless QoS guarantee)

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Provides physical and logical data interface out of the BSS for packet data
traffic

LLC layer PDU segmentation/reassembly of RLC blocks

Packet data transfer scheduling

ARQ functions

Radio channel management function

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Functions of SGSN (Serving GPRS
Support Node)
z Packet routing

z MS Session management

z Authentication and Ciphering

z Mobility management

z Billing information collection

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Functions of GGSN (Gateway
GPRS Support Node)
z Interface between GPRS backbone and external PDNs.

z PDP Conversion and context management

z IP address assignment management

z Packet routing to/from SGSNs

z Billing information collection

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Functions of CG (Charging
Gateway)
z Real-time collection of GPRS bills

z Temporary storage and buffering of GPRS bills

z Pre-processing of GPRS bills

z Sending GPRS bills to the billing center

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Functions of MSC/VLR
z When Gs interface is installed, MSC/VLR can support
z Establishment and maintenance of the association between
SGSN and MSC/VLR.
z GPRS combined mobility management procedure.
‡ Combined IMSI/GPRS attachment/detachment.
‡ Combined location area/routing area updating.
z Circuit paging coordination function.

z The wireless resource usage can be greatly improved.

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Functions of HLR/AUC
z Saving and updating GPRS subscriber subscription data

z User authentication

z Providing location/routing information and processing


needed in mobility management and routing, for example:
‡ Saving and updating user service SGSN number and address

‡ GPRS user location deletion indication

‡ Whether MS is reachable.

z Subscriber tracing (optional)

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Functions of SMS-GMSC/SMS-IWMSC
z The SMS-GMSC and SMS-IWMSC are connected to the SGSN
via the Gd interface to enable GPRS MSs to send and receive
SMs over GPRS radio channels.

z After Gd interface is installed, short messages can be sent via


GPRS, which reduces the occupation on SDCCH and cuts down
the influence on voice services by SMS services.

z The operator can select to send SMS via MSC or SGSN.


SMS Gd

SGSN SMS-IWMSC
MS SMS-GMSC

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SMS-IWMSC(Interworking MSC For Short Message Service):A function of an MSC capable of


receiving a short message from within the PLMN and submitting it to the recipient SC.
For example:The MSC forwards the SM to the SMS-IWMSC, which is responsible for processing
SMs submitted by the MS.
SMS-IWMSC:The SMS Interworking MSC acts as an interface between the PLMN and a Short
Message Service Centre (SC) to allow short messages to be submitted from Mobile Stations to the
SC.
SMS-GMSC(Gateway MSC For Short Message Service):A function of an MSC capable of receiving
a short message from an SC, interrogating an HLR for routing information and SMS info, and
delivering the short message to the VMSC of the recipient MSFor example:The SMS system submits
the message transfer request to the SMS-GMSC, which is responsible for processing delivered SMs.
SMS-GMSC:The SMS Gateway MSC (SMS-GMSC) acts as an interface between a Short Message
Service Centre and the PLMN, to allow short messages to be delivered to mobile stations from the
Service Centre (SC)。

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Functions of BG (Border Gateway)
z BG enables the following protocols necessary for interworking between
operators
‡ Security protocol: IPSec and firewall are recommended
‡ Routing protocol: BGP is recommended
‡ Billing protocol: determined by the operators with negotiation; BG might be
needed in collecting billing information
z It is normally based on routers
z It can be combined with GGSN in physical.
z BG does not exclusively belong to the GPRS network.

Gp
GSN R
R R
R
BG BG GSN
PLMN A PLMN B

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IPsec (IP security) is a standardized framework for securing Internet Protocol (IP)
communications by encrypting and/or authenticating each IP packet in a data stream.
A protocol for exchanging routing information between gateway host s (each with
its own router ) in a network of autonomous system s. BGP is often the protocol
used between gateway hosts on the Internet.

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Functions of DNS (Domain Name System)
z The following two types of DNSs may be adopted in the GPRS
network:
‡ The DNS between the GGSN and external networks
‡ The DNS on the GPRS backbone network. Provides two types of
functions:
„ a. Resolve the GGSN IP address based on the Access Point Name (APN)
in the process of the PDP context activation;
„ b. Resolve original SGSN IP address based on the original routing area No.
in the process of the update of inter-SGSN routing area.
DNS Server
z DNS does not exclusively
belong to the GPRS network.
GPRS
SGSN Backbone SGSN

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DNS(Domain Name System)


The following two types of DNSs may be adopted in the GPRS network:
The DNS between the GGSN and external networks: Implements resolution of the
domain name of external network, and functions as the ordinary DNS on the Internet.
The DNS on the GPRS backbone network. Provides two types of functions:
a. Resolve the GGSN IP address based on the Access Point Name (APN) in
the process of the PDP context activation;
b. Resolve original SGSN IP address based on the original routing area No.
in the process of the update of inter-SGSN routing area. The DNS is not a
proprietary entity of the GPRS network.

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Functions of RADIUS Server (Remote
Authentication Dial In User Service Server)
z It is a protocol used by Remote Access Server's for user
Authentication.

z The RADIUS server stores the authentication and


authorization information of subscribers.

z It also performs subscriber identity authentication in the


case of non-transparent access.

z RADIUS Server does not exclusively belong to the GPRS


network.

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27
Contents
1. GPRS System Overview

2. GPRS Architecture

3. GPRS Network Interfaces & Protocols

4. GPRS Wireless Subsystem

5. GPRS Location Area

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Contents
3. GPRS Network Interfaces & Protocols
3.1 Interface and Protocol Stack

3.2 Um Interface

3.3 G-abis/Pb Interface

3.4 Gb Interface

3.5 Gs Interface

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Network interface types
GPRS backbone
SGSN network
SGSN Gi
Gn GGSN
GGSN
IP interface PDP network
SGSN
SGSN (IP/X.25)

SS7 interface
Gc

Gb Gd
Gr

Gs
MT

TE
Um A SMS-
BSS MSC HLR
GMSC

MS

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Interface in GPRS Network
Interface Description
The reference point between the Mobile Terminal (MT) (for example, mobile
R phone)
and the Terminal Equipment (TE) (for example, the portable computer).

Um The interface between MS and GPRS network side


Gb The interface between the SGSN and BSS.
Gc The interface between the GGSN and HLR (optional).
The interface between SMS and GMSC
Gd
The interface between SMS-IWMSC and SGSN
Gi The reference point between the GPRS and external packet data
Gn The interface between SGSNs and between SGSN and GGSN in the PLMN.
Gp The interface between GSNs of different PLMNs.
Gr The interface between the SGSN and HLR.
Gs The interface between the SGSN and MSC/VLR (optional).
Gf The interface between the SGSN and EIR (optional).

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Data transmission plane
Application

IP/X.25 IP/X.25 IP/X.25

relay GTP
SNDCP SNDCP GTP
LLC LLC UDP/TCP UDP/TCP
L2 (MAC)
RLC RLC relay BSSGP BSSGP IP IP
MAC Network Network
MAC Service Service L2 L2

Physical Physical Physical Physical Physical Physical Physical


Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer

Um Gb Gn Gi
MS BSS SGSN GGSN
z MAC: Media Access Control z BSSGP: BSS GPRS Protocol
z RLC: Radio Link Control z SNDCP: Sub-Network Dependency Convergence Protocol
z LLC: Logical Link Control z GTP: GPRS Tunneling Protocol

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The Relay function provides buffering and parameter mapping between the RLC/MAC and the BSSGP. For example, on the
uplink the RLC/MAC shall provide a TLLI. The Relay function shall then make it available to BSSGP.

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MS-SGSN signaling plane

GMM/SM GMM/SM
LLC LLC
relay
Relay
RLC RLC BSSGP BSSGP

MAC MAC Network Network


Service Service
GSM RF GSM RF L1bis L1bis
Um Gb
MS BSS SGSN
z GMM: GPRS Mobility Management
z SM: Session Management

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Um interface:
Physical layer: wireless coding/decoding, channel multiplexing and mapping, wireless link
control and wireless measurement

RLC/MAC: wireless interface media access and link control function


LLC: providing a reliable logic link between MS and SGSN for data transmission. LLC
protocol can support both acknowledged mode and unacknowledged mode. It supports both encryption and
decryption modes

SNDCP: Layer-3 transmission protocol. As the transition between the network layer and the
subnet layer, it implements segmentation/assembling and compression/decompression on IP/X.25 subscriber data
GMM/SM: Layer-3 signaling protocol
Gb interface:

L1bis: physical transmission layer based on E1 or T1

NS: based on FR; used to transmit BSSGP PDU of the upper layer
BSSGP: On the transmission platform, this protocol is used to provide a
connectionless link between BSS and SGSN for unacknowledged data transmission; on the
signaling platform, it is used to transmit QoS and routing information related with the
wireless section; it is also used to process paging requests and implement traffic control on
data transmission

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Contents
3. GPRS Network Interfaces & Protocols
3.1 Interface and Protocol Stack

3.2 Um Interface

3.3 G-abis/Pb Interface

3.4 Gb Interface

3.5 Gs Interface

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Protocol Layer of Um Interface
z GMM (GPRS Mobility Management): operates in the signalling

GMM/SM

SNDCP

SMS
plane of GPRS supports mobility management functionality.
z SM (Session Management): processes procedure that GPRS
MS connects to the external data network. LLC

z SNDCP (Subnetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol): RLC


Multiplexing of several PDPs, compression / decompression
and Segmentation of user data. MAC

z LLC (Logical Link Control ): This layer provides a highly Physical Link
reliable ciphered logical link between an MS and its SGSN.
RF
z RLC:Segmentation and re-assembly between LLC PDUs and
RLC blocks.
z MAC: defines the procedures that enable multiple mobile
stations to share a common transmission medium.

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GMM (GPRS Mobility Management)


This protocol that operates in the signalling plane of GPRS supports
mobility management functionality such as GPRS attach, GPRS detach,
security, routing area update, location update, roaming, authentication, and
selection of encryption algorithms.
SM (Session Management)
It is the processing procedure that GPRS MS connects to the external data
network. The main function is to support the processing of PDP mobile
scenario.

Logical Link Control (LLC): This layer provides a highly reliable ciphered
logical link between an MS and its SGSN.
LLC includes functions for
the provision of one or more logical link connections discriminated between
by means of a DLCI.
sequence control, to maintain the sequential order of frames across a logical
link connection.
detection of transmission, format and operational errors on a logical link
connection.
recovery from detected transmission, format, and operational errors.
notification of unrecoverable errors.
flow control.
ciphering.
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MM State
>GMM context is not established; MS is not reachable.
IDLE „ Data transmission to and from the mobile subscriber as well as the paging of
the subscriber are not possible

>GMM context is established; MS can receive paging but


STANDBY cannot implement data transmission.
„ The location information in the SGSN MM context contains only the GPRS RAI.
„ Pages for data or signalling information transfers may be received. It is also
possible to receive pages for the CS services via the SGSN. Data reception
and transmission are not possible in this state.

>MS can implement data transmission.


READY „ The MS performs MM procedures to provide the network with the actual
selected cell.
„ SGSN performs the MM on cell level.

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The Mobility Management (MM) activities related to a GPRS subscriber are


characterised by one of three different MM states.

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MM State Model
READY timer expiry or
GPRS Attach Force to STANDBY

MM State Model IDLE READY STANDBY


of MS
GPRS Detach PDU transmission

READY timer expiry or


Force to STANDBY or
GPRS Attach Abnormal RLC condition

MM State Model IDLE READY STANDBY


of SGSN
GPRS Detach or PDU reception
Cancel Location

Implicit Detach or Cancel Location

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RLC/MAC Block Generation

Network Layer Subscriber IP packet (N-PDU)

SNDCP Layer SNDCP PDU(SN-PDU)

LLC Layer LLC frame

RLC/MAC Layer RLC/MAC block

Subscriber data SNDCP head LLC head LLC FCS RLC/MAC head

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Physical Channel
z The same as in GSM
z The same frequency
z The modulation mode Application
z The same TDMA frame definition
z The same burst pulse definition IP/X25

z …
SNDCP

LLC
z The differences between GPRS and GSM
RLC RLC Relay
z The Multi-frame structure BSSGP
Frame
z The channel coding MAC MAC relay
z … Physical Physical Physical
Layer Layer Layer

MS BSS

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Packet Logic Channels
Packet Logic Channel

Packet service channel Packet control channel

PBCCH PCCCH PDCCH


BCCH

PDTCH/U PDTCH/D PACCH


PPCH PRACH PAGCH PNCH
TCH
PCH, RACH, AGCH,NCH
PTCCH/U PTCCH/D
SACCH

z The specific type of PDCH (except PRACH) is determined by


RLC/MAC head and RLC/MAC control message type.

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Channel Abbreviation
z Packet Data Traffic CHannel Uplink - PDTCH/U
z Packet Data Traffic CHannel Downlink - PDTCH/D
z Packet Broadcast Control CHannel - PBCCH
z Packet Common Control CHannel - PCCCH
z Packet Dedicated Control Channel - PDCCH
z Packet Paging CHannel - PPCH
z Packet Random Access CHannel - PRACH
z Packet Access Grant CHannel - PAGCH
z Packet Notification CHannel - PNCH
z Packet Associated Control CHannel - PACCH
z Packet Timing advance Control CHannel Uplink - PTCCH/U
z Packet Timing advance Control CHannel Downlink -
PTCCH/D
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PDTCH (Packet Data Traffic CHannel)
z All packet data traffic channels are
uni-directional.
Packet service channel
‡ Uplink (PDTCH/U) for a mobile
originated packet transfer.
PDTCH/U PDTCH/D
‡ Downlink (PDTCH/D) for a mobile
terminated packet transfer.

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PBCCH (Packet Broadcast Control
CHannel)
z The PBCCH broadcasts parameters
used by the MS to access the network for
packet transmission operation. Packet control channel

z The PBCCH also carries the information


transmitted via the BCCH to allow circuit PBCCH
switching operation.
‡ The MS in GPRS attached mode monitors
the PBCCH only, if PBCCH is available,
otherwise, the BCCH shall be used to
broadcast information for packet operation.
‡ The existence of the PBCCH in the cell is
indicated on the BCCH via SI13.

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PCCCH (Packet Common Control
CHannel)
z PPCH
‡ Downlink only, used to page MS.
z PRACH
‡ Uplink only, used to request allocation of one or
PCCCH
several PDTCH/Us or PDTCH/Ds.
z PAGCH
‡ Downlink only, used to allocate one or several
PDTCHs.
z PNCH
PPCH PRACH PAGCH PNCH
‡ Downlink only, used to notify MS of PTM-M call.
z If no PCCCH is allocated, the information for
packet switching operation is transmitted on the
CCCH. If a PCCCH is allocated, it may transmit
information for circuit switching operation.

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PDCCH (Packet Dedicated Control
Channels)
z PACCH
PDCCH
‡ Bi-directional, used to transmit the packet
signaling in data transmission.

z PTCCH/U PACCH

‡ Used to transmit random access bursts to


allow estimation of the timing advance for PTCCH/U PTCCH/D

one MS in packet transfer mode.

z PTCCH/D
‡ Used to transmit timing advance updates for
several MS. One PTCCH/D is paired with
several PTCCH/U's.

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Combinations of Packet Logic
Channel
Mode 1: PBCCH+PCCCH+PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH
Mode 2: PCCCH+PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH

With the increase of traffic, the


packet public channel should be
configured in the cell. Channel
combination mode 1 and mode 2
should be adopted.
Mode 3: PDTCH+PACCH+PTCCH

In case of small GPRS traffic, GPRS


and circuit services share the same
Mode 4: PBCCH+PCCCH BCCH and CCCH in the cell. In this
case, only combination mode 3 is
(PCCCH=PPCH+PRACH+PAGCH+PNCH) needed in the cell.

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Packet Wireless Channel
Configurations
z Reason of adopting static PDCH
‡ To enable that GPRS MS is constantly online in the cell.
‡ To ensure certain QoS of GPRS services.
z Reason of adopting dynamic PDCH
‡ GPRS and GSM share wireless resources.
‡ Wireless resources should be adopted in priority; on the other hand,
QoS of voice services should be ensured.
‡ In a cell, the percentage of packet switching services and the
percentage of circuit switching services are constantly changing.
‡ Dynamic PDCH is not visible for voice services.

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Packet Wireless Channel
Configurations
z General principles
‡ The cell should be configured with static PDCH to enable MS to
be normally attached on GPRS network as well as certain QoS of
GPRS services.
‡ Dynamic PDCH should be configured according to the GPRS
traffic forecast, which should be adjusted as TCH or PDCH usable
in the operation process according to the cell traffic status.
‡ Circuit switching services can seize the channel used by GPRS
services.

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Mapping of Packet Logic Channel
z A radio block is a 4-normal-burst sequence that carries a
RLC/MAC PDU (Protocol Data Unit).

0 25 51

B0 B1 B2 T B3 B4 B5 I B6 B7 B8 T B9 B10 B11 I
456 bits

01234 56 7 I = Idle frame


01234 567 012 34 567 01234 567
T = Frame used for PTCCH
B0 ~ B11 = Radio blocks
1 TDMA frame

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Mapping of Packet Logic Channel
0 50

BCCH 0 F S B B B B C C C C F S C C C C C C C C F S C C CC C C C C F S C C C C C C C C F S C C C C C C C C I

1
12 25 51

PDCH 2 B0 B1 B2 T B3 B4 B5 I B6 B7 B8 T B9 B10 B11 I

3
25

TCH 4T T T T T T T T T T T TSTT T T T T T T T T T T I

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Transmission Principle of Data Packet
on Um Interface
Subscriber IP packet

SNDCP PDU

LLC PDU

RLC/MAC block

N N N N
B B B B Physical layer

B0 B1 B2 T B3 B4 B5 I B6 B7 B8 T B9 B10 B11 I

Subscriber data SNDCP head LLC head LLC FCS RLC/MAC head

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Allocation of Wireless Packet
Resources
TS 0 B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B1 B1
0 1

TS 1 B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B1 B1
0 1

TS 2 B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11

MS1 MS2 MS3

z Wireless resource allocation and wireless transmission adopt the wireless block
(BLOCK) as the basic unit.
z Each PDCH can be used by several MSs; each MS can use multiple PDCHs at the
same time.

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page51

52
Basic Conceptions about Radio Block
z USF(Uplink State Flag) is sent in all downlink
RLC/MAC blocks and indicates the owner or use
of the next uplink Radio block on the same
I
F=4
timeslot. SF
=4
US
U
F=4
US
The USF field is three bits in length T I
z F=3
US B0
US
F=3
B1
I US
F=3
T B2
DL US
F=3
B3
US
F=2
B4 USF=1 MS1
F=2 5
T
US
I B
U SF
=1
B6
US
F=1
B7 USF=2 MS2
U SF
=1
B 8
U SF
=1
B 9T
……
B 10 UL USF=3
MS3

I B1 1
B0 USF=4 MS4
……

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page52

The USF field is three bits in length and eight different USF values can
be assigned, except on PCCCH, where the value '111' (USF=FREE)
indicates that the corresponding uplink Radio block contains PRACH.

53
Basic Conceptions about Radio Block
z TBF (Temporary Block Flow)
‡ A Temporary Block Flow (TBF) is a physical connection used by the
two RR entities(the RR entity of the MS and that of the BSS) to
support the unidirectional transfer of LLC PDUs on packet data
physical channels.

‡ A TBF is temporary and is maintained only for the duration of the data
transfer.

z TFI (Temporary Flow Identity)


‡ Each TBF is assigned a Temporary Flow Identity (TFI) by the network.

‡ The TFI field is five bits in length.

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page53

The same TFI value may be used concurrently for TBFs in opposite directions. The
TFI is assigned in a resource assignment message that precedes the transfer of LLC
frames belonging to one TBF to/from the MS. The same TFI is included in every
RLC header belonging to a particular TBF as well as in the control messages
associated to the LLC frame transfer (e.g. acknowledgements) in order to address
the peer RLC entities.

54
Contents
4. GPRS Wireless Subsystem
4.1 Packet Channels

4.2 Medium Access Modes

4.3 MS Multi-TS Ability

4.4 Power Control

4.5 Network Control Modes

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55
Medium Access Modes
z Uplink resource allocation mode
‡ Dynamic allocation (supported by all MSs and all networks)
„ The mobile station detecting an assigned USF value for each assigned PDCH and
block or group of four blocks that it is allowed to transmit on that PDCH.

‡ Fixed allocation (supported by all MSs and all networks)


„ Fixed bit mapping is adopted to determine the allocated blocks in the allocation period
without an assigned USF.

‡ Extended dynamic allocation (optional for the network)


„ The mobile station detecting an assigned USF value for any assigned PDCH allowing
the mobile station to transmit on that PDCH and all higher numbered assigned
PDCHs in the same block or group of four blocks.

z Downlink resource allocation mode


‡ Dynamic allocation and fixed allocation.

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page55

Three medium access modes are supported:


- Dynamic Allocation characterised by that the mobile station detecting an assigned USF
value for each assigned PDCH and block or group of four blocks that it is allowed to transmit on that
PDCH;
- Extended Dynamic Allocation characterised by the mobile station detecting an assigned
USF value for any assigned PDCH allowing the mobile station to transmit on that PDCH and all
higher numbered assigned PDCHs in the same block or group of four blocks
- Fixed Allocation characterised by fixed allocation of radio blocks and PDCHs in the
assignment message without an assigned USF. Fixed Allocation may operate in half duplex mode,
characterised by that downlink and uplink TBF are not active at the same time. Half duplex mode is
only applicable for multislot classes 19 to 29.

Either the Dynamic Allocation medium access mode or Fixed Allocation medium access mode shall
be supported by mobile stations and all networks that support GPRS. The support of Extended
Dynamic Allocation is optional for the network.

The Dynamic Allocation and Fixed Allocation modes shall be supported in all mobile stations. The
support of Extended Dynamic Allocation is mandatory for mobile stations of multislot classes 22, 24,
25 and 27. The support of Extended Dynamic Allocation for mobile stations of all other multislot
classes are optional and shall be indicated in the MS Radio Access Capability.

In the case of a downlink transfer, the term medium access mode refers to the measurement time
scheduling, for the MS to perform neighbour cell power measurements

56
Contents
4. GPRS Wireless Subsystem
4.1 Packet Channels

4.2 Medium Access Modes

4.3 MS Multi-TS Ability

4.4 Power Control

4.5 Network Control Modes

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57
MS Multi-TS Ability
z Concept of MS multi-TS ability
‡ Types
„ Type 1: Non-simultaneous TRX
„ Type 2: Simultaneous TRX

‡ the multi-TS ability level is 1-29; the bigger the level, the stronger the
multi-TS ability.
„ 1~12 (Type 1),up to 4 timeslots in any direction
„ 13~18 (Type 2),ranges between 3~8 timeslots
„ 19~29 (Type 1)

z BSS allocates resources according to the MS multi-TS ability,


requested QoS and current resource configuration.

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58
Contents
4. GPRS Wireless Subsystem
4.1 Packet Channels

4.2 Medium Access Modes

4.3 MS Multi-TS Ability

4.4 Power Control

4.5 Network Control Modes

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59
Power Control
z Power control can improve the spectrum usage and system
capacity as well as reduce MS power consumption.

z As there is no continuous bi-directional connection in the packet


data transmission process, GPRS power control is very
complicated.

z Uplink power control includes open-loop and close-loop power


control.

z About downlink power control, there is no specific definition in


protocol. It lies on the BTS and its algorithm needs information
about downlink, so downlink power control needs MS sends
channel quality reports to BTS.
Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page59

60
Contents
4. GPRS Wireless Subsystem
4.1 Packet Channels

4.2 Medium Access Modes

4.3 MS Multi-TS Ability

4.4 Power Control

4.5 Network Control Modes

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61
Network Control Modes
z During the network controlled cell re-selection, the network
may request measurement reports from the MS and control
its cell re-selection. Hence, three types of mode are defined
as follows:
‡ NC0: Normal MS controls

‡ NC1: MS control with measurement reports

‡ NC2: Network control

z The network subsystem must support NC0 and should


gradually support NC1 and NC2.

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page61

During the network controlled cell re-selection, the network may request
measurement reports from the MS and control its cell re-selection. Hence, three
types of mode are defined as follows:
NC0: Normal MS controls. The MS shall perform autonomous cell re-selection.
NC1: MS control with measurement reports. The MS shall send measurement
reports to the network. The MS shall perform autonomous cell re-selection.
NC2: Network control. The MS shall send measurement reports to the network. The
MS shall not perform autonomous cell re-selection.
The network subsystem must support NC0 and should gradually support NC1 and
NC2.

62
Network Control Modes
MS NC0 MS NC1

The MS shall send


measurement reports
to the network

The MS shall perform autonomous cell re-selection The MS shall perform autonomous cell re-selection

NC2
MR
The MS shall not
MS BTS perform autonomous cell
re-selection
Cell re-selection
command

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63
Contents
1. GPRS System Overview

2. GPRS Architecture

3. GPRS Network Interfaces & Protocols

4. GPRS Wireless Subsystem

5. GPRS Location Area

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64
Relationship among Location
Areas
SGSN1
SGSN2
BSC1
BSC3

BSC2
CELL

CELL CELL
CELL
CELL
CELL
CELL
CELL
RA2
CELL RA3

RA1 LA1 LA2

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65
LAI (Location Area Identification)
z MCC:Mobile Country Code, it consists of 3 digits. For example: The
MCC of China is "460"
z MNC:Mobile Network Code, it consists of 2 digits. For example: The
MNC of China Mobile is "00"
z LAC:Location Area Code, it is a two bytes hex code. The value 0000
and FFFF is invalid
z For example: 460008C90

MCC MNC LAC

Location Area Identification

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66
RAI
z Routing area is the sub-set of the location area. In special cases, the two
areas are equal
z The division of the routing area is related with traffic distribution and
SGSN processing ability

MCC MNC LAC RAC

Location Area Identification

Routing Area Identification

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67
CGI
z CI (Cell Identity): This code uses two bytes hex code to identify the radio
cells within a LAI.
z RAC is only unique when presented together with LAI.
z CI is only unique when presented together with LAI or RAI.
z CGI = MCC+MNC+LAC+{RAC}+CI

MCC MNC LAC RAC CI

Location Area Identification


Routing Area Identification

CGI

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68
Relationship among location areas
z LAI
‡ MCC+ MNC+ LAC

LAI

z RAI
‡ MCC+ MNC+ LAC+RAC
RAI

z CGI /CellID
‡ MCC+ MNC+ LAC+{RAC}+CI

CGI

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page68

69
Summary
z GPRS System Overview

z GPRS Architecture

z GPRS Network Interfaces & Protocols

z GPRS Wireless Subsystem

z GPRS Location Area

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page69

70
Thank you
www.huawei.com

71
GPRS EDGE Mobile
Management
Algorithm

www.huawei.com

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

72
Foreword
z GPRS Mobility Management is a GPRS signaling
protocol that handles mobility issues such as roaming,
authentication and selection of encryption algorithms.
It is important to enable the network to keep track the
current location of the MS in order for the paging to be
performed smoothly. With the proper setting of the
GMM parameters, we can shorten the access delay of
the MS.

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page1

73
References
z GBSS8.1 BSC6000 Feature Description

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page2

74
Objectives
z Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:

‡ Understand the GPRS Mobility Management procedure

‡ Familiar with the GMM state model

‡ Understand the cell reselection algorithm

‡ Recognize the cell update and routing area update flow

‡ Realize the GMM related parameters

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page3

75
Contents
1. Overview of GPRS Mobile Management

2. Location Update

3. GPRS Cell Selection & Reselection

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76
Overview for GPRS Mobile Management
z The main purpose of the mobility management is to keep track
of the user’s current location. Thus, the paging can be
performed.
z MS perform cell selection and reselection when it moves
around the coverage area. It also sends the location update
message to the SGSN so that the network can be always
aware of the MS’s current location.
z There are 3 states exist in the GPRS mobility management
and different location information is available in each state
(please see the following figure – MM State).

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77
GMM State
> GMM context is not established; MS is not reachable.
IDLE „ Data transmission to and from the mobile subscriber as well as the paging of
the subscriber are not possible

> GMM context is established; MS can receive paging but


STANDBY cannot implement data transmission.
„ The location information in the SGSN MM context contains only the GPRS RAI.
„ Pages for data or signalling information transfers may be received. It is also
possible to receive pages for the CS services via the SGSN. Data reception
and transmission are not possible in this state.

> MS can implement data transmission.


READY „ The MS performs MM procedures to provide the network with the actual
selected cell.
„ SGSN performs the MM on cell level.

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78
GMM State Model
READY timer expiry or
GPRS Attach Force to STANDBY

MM State Model IDLE READY STANDBY


of MS
GPRS Detach PDU transmission

READY timer expiry or


Force to STANDBY or
GPRS Attach Abnormal RLC condition

MM State Model IDLE READY STANDBY


of SGSN
GPRS Detach or PDU reception
Cancel Location

Implicit Detach or Cancel Location

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page7

z By performing GPRS attach, the MS gets into READY state and if the MS does not
transmit any packet for a long period of time until the READY timer is expired, the MS will
get into STANDBY state.
z It is possible to transmit data only if the MS is in READY state, thus the MS in STANDBY
state can switch back to the READY state, if a PDU transmission occurs and in the same
way, at READY state if the GPRS detach is performed, the MS will be back into IDLE
state and all PDP context will be deleted.
z In STANDBY state, the MS sends the location update message seldom, so its location is
not known exactly and the paging is necessary for every downlonk packet, resulting in a
delivery delay.
z In READY state, the MS updates its location frequently. Consequently the MS‘s location
is known precisely and no paging delay during delivery downlonk packet. Howeverm this
consumes much more the uplink radio capacity and battery of the MS.

79
GMM State vs Location Information
z During GMM IDLE state, MS is detached from GPRS. Thus
MS can not receive paging nor data transmission.
z During GMM STANDBY state, MS is attached to the GPRS
network and it will perform routing area update (RAU), MS-
controlled cell reselection and monitor paging. It only report
RA changes.
z During GMM READY state/ packet transfer mode, MS will
perform both routing area update (RAU) and cell update (both
MS-controlled and Network-controlled cell reselection). It
report the cell changes and RA changes.

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80
Contents
1. Overview of GPRS Mobile Management

2. Location Update
2.1 Relationship between Cell, Routing Area & Location Area

2.2 LAI, RAI, CGI

2.3 Signaling flow for Cell Update, RA Update & LA Update

3. GPRS Cell Selection & Reselection

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81
Relationship among Location Areas
SGSN1
SGSN2
BSC1
BSC3

BSC2
CELL

CELL CELL
CELL
CELL
CELL
CELL
CELL
RA2
CELL RA3

RA1 LA1 LA2

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page10

z When MS across Location Area border, LAU & RAU is necessary


z When MS moves within same LA and across Routing Area boarder, RAU is necessary
z When MS moves within the same LA and RA, cell update may be needed may be
needed. It depends on the current state of the MS.
a) READY state: MS updates the location every cell change. This strategy ensures that
the accurate location of the MS is always known and packet data can be delivered faster
as no paging procedure is necessary. However the MS battery is drained more and
uplink radio capacity is wasted for cell updates.
b) STANDBY state: MS updates the location only when the MS moves to a new routing
area (RA). In this strategy, when data packet is sent to the MS, paging is required in
order to find out the current location of the MS. Thus, uplink capacity will be wasted for
paging response and every downlink packet requires paging of the mobile delay.

82
Relationship among Location Areas

z LAI
‡ MCC+ MNC+ LAC
LAI

z RAI
‡ MCC+ MNC+ LAC+RAC
RAI

z CGI /CellID
‡ MCC+ MNC+ LAC+{RAC}+CI
CGI

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83
Contents
1. Overview of GPRS Mobile Management

2. Location Update
2.1 Relationship between Cell, Routing Area & Location Area

2.2 LAI, RAI, CGI

2.3 Signaling flow for Cell Update, RA Update & LA Update

3. GPRS Cell Selection & Reselection

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84
LAI (Location Area Identification)
z MCC:Mobile Country Code, it consists of 3 digits. For example: The
MCC of China is "460"
z MNC:Mobile Network Code, it consists of 2 digits. For example: The
MNC of China Mobile is "00"
z LAC:Location Area Code, it is a two bytes hex code. The value 0000
and FFFF is invalid
z For example: 460008C90

MCC MNC LAC

Location Area Identification

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85
RAI (Routing Area Identification)
z Routing area is the sub-set of the location area. In special cases, the two
areas are equal.
z The division of the routing area is related with traffic distribution and
SGSN processing ability

MCC MNC LAC RAC

Location Area Identification

Routing Area Identification

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86
CGI (Cell Global Identity)
z CI (Cell Identity): This code uses two bytes hex code to identify the radio
cells within a LAI.
z RAC is only unique when presented together with LAI.
z CI is only unique when presented together with LAI or RAI.
z CGI = MCC+MNC+LAC+{RAC}+CI

MCC MNC LAC RAC CI

Location Area Identification


Routing Area Identification
CGI

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page15

87
Contents
1. Overview of GPRS Mobile Management

2. Location Update
2.1 Relationship between Cell, Routing Area & Location Area

2.2 LAI, RAI, CGI

2.3 Signaling flow for Cell Update, RA Update & LA Update

3. GPRS Cell Selection & Reselection

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88
Cell Update Flow

MS Old Cell New Cell SGSN

Uplink LLC-PDU PDU (CGI) in BSSGP-PDU SGSN received and


recorded the cell update
[MS ID]

RLC Radio Block SGSN send the


subsequence service
to MS through the
new cell

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page17

1. When the MS moves from one cell to another within the same RA and LA, cell
update procedure will happen during the READY state.
2. During the READY state/ packet transfer state, MS will keep monitor its current
location and cell reselection will happen. When MS discover another better cell
according to its own measurement. The MS stops listening to the old cell and
start to read the necessary SYSINFO in the new cell.
3. MS make an access in the new cell and send a cell update to the SGSN
(transparent to the PCU).
4. SGSN will obtain the cell update (cell change information) from the uplink LLC-
PDU and record the cell update information and discovers that there was
already an ongoing downlink packet transfer.
5. SGSN will then sends a Flush message to the respective PCU. The Flush
message contains the addresses to both the old and new cell as well as the MS
identity.
6. The PCU check whether it is responsible for the new cell. In that case all the
buffered frames/ the subsequence service will be moved to a queue towards the
new cell. The PCU assign new resources to the MS in the new cell and
transmission is restarted.
7. If the PCU is not responsible for the new cell, it will delete all the frames
destined to the MS ang leave the retransmission to higher layers.

89
Intra-SGSN Routing Area Update Flow
MS BSS SGSN
ROUTING AREA UPDATE REQUEST ROUTING AREA UPDATE REQUEST
[Old RAI, old P-TMSI, update type] [Old RAI, old P-TMSI, update type, new CI]

SECURITY FUNCTIONS (optional)

ROUTING AREA UPDATE ACCEPT


[P-TMSI, P-TMSI signature]

ROUTING AREA UPDATE COMPLETE


[P-TMSI] optional]

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page18

1. When MS moves to new RA, it sends RA update request including the RAI of
the old RA to its assigned SGSN. When the message arrives at the BSS, the
BSS adds the CI of the new cell. Based on the RAI and CI data, SGSN can
derived the new RAI.
z Intra-SGSN routing area update: The MS has moved to an RA, assigned to the
same SGSN as the old RA. In this case, the SGSN knows already all necessary
user profile, and can assign a new packet temporary mobile subscriber identity
(P-TMSI) to the user without the need to inform other network elements.
z Security function: authentication and ciphering/encrpytion

90
Inter-SGSN Routing Area Update Flow
New Old
MS BSS SGSN SGSN GGSN HLR
ROUTING AREA UPDATE REQUEST
[Old RAI, old P-TMSI, update type] PDP CTT REQ

PDP CTT ACK


[GGSN address]

PDP CONTEXT UPDATE

PDP CONTEXT UPDATE ACK

DATABASE UPDATE

ROUTING AREA UPDATE ACCEPT INSERT SUBCRIBER DATA

ROUTING AREA UPDATE COMPLETE

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page19

z Inter-SGSN routing area update: In this case, the MS has moved to an RA,
assigned to a different SGSN, thus, the new SGSN does not have the user
profile of the MS. The new SGSN contacts the old SGSN and requests the PDP
context of the user.
z After receiving the PDP context of the user, the new SGSN informs the involved
network elements,
‡ GGSN about the new PDP context of the user
‡ HLR about the user’s new SGSN
z HLR cancels the MS information context in the old SGSN and loads the
subscriber data to the new SGSN. New SGSN acknowledges to the MS
z The old SGSN is requested to transmit the undelivered data to the new SGSN.

91
Contents
1. Overview of GPRS Mobile Management

2. Location Update

3. GPRS Cell Selection & Reselection


3.1 Cell Reselection Algorithm

3.2 Parameter for Cell Reselection

3.3 Type of Cell Reselection

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92
GPRS Cell Reselection Algorithm
z If no PBCCH exists, the GPRS cell selection &
reselection is basically the same as GSM cell
selection & reselection (C1, C2):

C2 = C1 + CRO – TO*H(PT-T) when PT=/31

C2 = C1 – CRO when PT=31

C1 = RLA_C – RxLev_Acc_Min –

Max((MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCCH – P), 0)

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page21

1. C1 = RLA_C - RxLev_Access_Min - Max((MS_TxPwr_MAX_CCH - P), 0)


2. C2 = C1 + CRO - TO * H(PT-T) when PT=/31
3. C2 = C1 - CRO when PT= 31

93
GPRS Cell Reselection Algorithm
z If no PBCCH exists, the GPRS cell selection & reselection is
basically the same as GSM cell selection & reselection (C1, C2)
excepts for the following conditions:
a) When MS in STANDBY mode,
‡ Cell reselection within the same RA/LA:
C2(nei) > C2 (serving) for t>5s
‡ Cell reselection between different RA/LA:
C2(nei) > C2 (serving) + CRH for t>5s
b) When MS in READY mode,
‡ Cell reselection within the same RA/LA:
C2(nei) > C2 (serving) + CRH for t>5s
‡ Cell reselection between different RA/LA:
C2(nei) > C2 (serving) + CRH for t>5s

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page22

1. C1 = RLA_C - RxLev_Access_Min - Max((MS_TxPwr_MAX_CCH - P), 0)


2. C2 = C1 + CRO - TO * H(PT-T) when PT=/31
3. C2 = C1 - CRO when PT= 31

94
Cell Reselection in Standby Mode

RA 2
RA 1
AC2>BC2 CC2>BC2+CRH
Cell B

Cell A Cell C

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95
Cell Reselection in Ready Mode

RA 1

BC2>AC2+CRH

Cell A

Cell B

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96
GPRS Cell Reselection Algorithm
z If PBCCH exists, new cell selection & reselection algorithm
(C31, C32) is applicable:
C31(s) = RLA_P(s) – HCS_THR(s) (Serving cell)
C31(n) = RLA_P(n) – HCS_THR(n) –
GPRS_TO(n)*H(GPRS_PENALTY_TIME-T)*L(n) (Neighbor cell)

C31 = signal threshold criterion


RLA_P = actual received level of the GPRS cell
HCS_THR = signal level threshold of cell reselection of HCS GPRS
GPRS_TO = GPRS temporary offset
L = 0; when PRIORITY_CLASS (s) = PRIORITY_CLASS (n)
L = 1; when PRIORITY_CLASS (s) =/ PRIORITY_CLASS (n)

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page25

z C31 = signal threshold criterion/ signal level threshold criterion of HCS and is used to
judge whether to adopt preference cell reselection
z HCS_THR = Hierarchical Cell Structure signal level threshold of cell reselection of HCS
GPRS. It is broadcast on PBCCH of the service cell.
z RLA_P = Received level of the GPRS cell
z TO = Temporary offset given to the neighbor when the neighbor cell’s
PRIORITY_CLASS is different from the PRIORITY_CLASS of the serving cell

97
GPRS Cell Reselection Algorithm
z If PBCCH exists, new cell selection & reselection algorithm
(C31, C32) is applicable:
C32(s) = C’1 (Serving cell)
C32(n) = C’1 + GPRS_RESELECT_OFF –
GPRS_TO*H(GPRS_PENALTY_TIME – T) * (1-L) (Neighbor cell)

H(X<0) = 0; T > GPRS_PENALTY_TIME


H(X>0) = 1; T < GPRS_PENALTY_TIME
L = 0; when PRIORITY_CLASS (s) = PRIORITY_CLASS (n)
L = 1; when PRIORITY_CLASS (s) =/ PRIORITY_CLASS (n)

C’1 = RxLev – GPRS_Acc_Level_Min – Max( (GPRS_MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH – P), 0)

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page26

z C32 = Perfection of C2 applied to GSM. It applies the offset and the delay value to the
cell reselection which needs execution of cell update program or route update program.
When the PBCCH channel does not exist in the service cell, the MS will execute cell
reselection according to the C2 algorithm.
z T = timer with initial value =0. When a cell is recorded by the MS into the 6 strongest cell,
the counter corresponding to this cell, T will begin to count at a precision of one TDMA
frame (4.62ms). When this cell is removed from the 6 strongest cell list, the timer is reset.
z GPRS TO = temporary offset, which counts from the counter T. T to the

98
GPRS Cell Reselection Algorithm
z In additional, it is necessary to consider the routing area for
the serving cell and adjacent cell:
‡ When MS in STANDBY mode, and within the same RA
C32’(n) = C32(n)

‡ When MS in READY mode, and within the same RA


C32’(n) = C32(n) - CELL_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS

‡ When MS in READY or STANDBY mode, with different RA

C32’(n) = C32(n) - RA_RESELECT_HYSTERESIS

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page27

z C32’(n) = Final calculated/ actual value of the C32 criterion after consider the routing
area of the serving cell and neighbor cell.

99
Cell Reselection Trigger Condition
z Cell reselection triggering condition:

With C1, C2 criterion With C’1, C31, C32 criterion

1 C1 < 0 C’1 < 0

2 Downlink signaling failure Downlink signaling failure

3 Serving cell is barred Serving cell is barred

4 Random access attempt is Random access attempt is unsuccessful


unsuccessful after MAX_RETRANS after MAX_RETRANS

5 Better neighbor cell detected: Better cell with the highest C32 among:

Same RA: C2(n) > C2(s) for t>5s (a) Highest PRIORITY_CLASS, C31>=0

Dif RA: C2(n) > C2(s)+CRH for t>5 (b) All cell, if no cell fulfils C31 criterion

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page28

100
Contents
1. Overview of GPRS Mobile Management

2. Location Update

3. GPRS Cell Selection & Reselection


3.1 Cell Reselection Algorithm

3.2 Parameter for Cell Reselection

3.3 Type of Cell Reselection

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page29

101
Network Control Mode
z Cell Attribute -> GPRS Attributes

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page30

z Parameter Name: Network Control Mode


z Description:
In the cell reselection required by the network, the network requests the MS to send
measurement reports to control its cell reselection. There are three network control
modes. nc0: Normal MS control. The MS performs automatic cell reselection.nc1: MS
control with measurement reports. The MS sends measurement reports to the network
and performs automatic cell reselection.nc2: Network control. The MS sends
measurement reports to the network but does not perform automatic cell reselection.
z GUI Value Range: [nc0,nc1,nc2]
z Default Value: nc0

102
Parameter for GPRS Cell Reselection
z Network Control Mode (NCO)

Whether the Cell


Mode Definition MS send the MS mode Selection
M.R Mode
Normal MS Ready & Controlled by
NC0 No
Control Mode Standby MS
MS Control with Controlled by
NC1 Yes Only Ready
M.R Mode MS
Network Control Controlled by
NC2 Yes Only Ready
Mode network

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page31

z NC0: MS performs autonomous cell reselection without sending measurement reports to


the network.
z NC1: MS performs autonomous cell reselection and sends measurement reports to
network.
z NC2: Network controls cell reselection and MS sends measurement reports to the
network.

103
Support NC2
z Cell Attributes ->
Other Attributes

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z Parameter Name: Support NC2


z Description:
z This parameter specifies whether the cell supports the Network Control 2 (NC2) function.
In NC2, the MS reports the measurement report of the reference cell and neighbor cells
to the BSC. The BSC controls cell reselection (including normal reselections and load-
based reselections) of the MS.
z GUI Value Range: [No,Yes]
z Default Value: No

104
NC2 Support in External Neighbour Cell
z BSC6000 -> Configure
2G External Cell

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z Parameter Name: NC2 Support in External Neighbour Cell


z Description:
This parameter specifies whether the GSM external cell supports NC2.
z GUI Value Range: [Not Support,Support]
z Default Value: Not Support

105
Parameter for GPRS Cell Reselection
z Cell Attributes -> GPRS Attributes -> Advanced -> Ps
Other Parameters

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z Parameter Name: Cell Urgent Reselection Allowed


z Description: This parameter specifies whether enabling the
critical cell reselection algorithm is allowed.
z GUI Value Range: [Forbid,Permit]
z Default Value: Permit

z Parameter Name: Cell Load Reselection Allowed


z Description: This parameter specifies whether enabling the
cell load-based reselection algorithm is allowed.
z GUI Value Range: [Forbid,Permit]
z Default Value: Permit

z Parameter Name: Cell Normal Reselection Allowed


z Description: This parameter specifies whether enabling the
normal cell reselection algorithm is allowed.
z GUI Value Range: [Forbid,Permit]
z Default Value: Permit

106
Support NACC
z Cell Attributes ->
Other Attributes

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z Parameter Name: Support NACC


z Description:
This parameter specifies whether the cell support the Network Assisted Cell Change
(NACC) function.In network control mode NC0, NC1, or NC2, when the MS is in the
packet transmission mode, the network informs the MS of the system information about
neighbor cells in advance. Therefore, the cell reselection of the MS is accelerated.
z GUI Value Range: [No,Yes]
z Default Value: No

107
Contents
1. Overview of GPRS Mobile Management

2. Location Update

3. GPRS Cell Selection & Reselection


3.1 Cell Reselection Algorithm

3.2 Parameter for Cell Reselection

3.3 Type of Cell Reselection

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page36

108
GPRS Cell Reselection Type
z There are 3 type of cell reselections:
‡ MS controlled cell reselection

‡ Network controlled cell reselection

‡ Network assisted cell reselection

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109
MS-Controlled Cell Reselection
z MS-Controlled Cell Reselection
‡ MS periodically measures the RX levels of all the BCCH carriers of the
serving cell and its neighboring cells.

‡ With no PBCCH configured, MS calculates C2 value.

‡ With PBCCH configures, MS calculates C31/C32 value.

‡ Based on the calculated value, MS decided whether to reselect a new


serving cell.

‡ Also call as autonomous cell reselection.

z Parameter setting:
‡ Support NC0/ NC1 to YES

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110
Network-Controlled Cell Reselection
z Network-Controlled Cell Reselection
‡ MS periodically sends measurement reports to the BSC based on the
parameters in the SYSINFO broadcast in the cell.

‡ Based on the measurement reports and neighboring cell load, BSC


sends a cell change command to the MS if all conditions are met, leading
the MS to a suitable cell.

z Parameter setting:
‡ Support NC2 to YES

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111
Network-Controlled Cell Reselection
(NC2)
MS BSS
PACKET MEASUREMENT REPORT
PACKET ENHANCED MEASUREMENT REPORT

NC2 Cell Reselection Algorithm

PACKET NEIGHBOR CELL DATA

PACKET CELL CHANGE ORDER

PACKET CELL CHANGE FAILURE

[P-TMSI] optional]

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page40

1. MS in the GMM Ready mode state periodically sends PACKET


MEASUREMETN REPORT to the BSC.
2. After receive the MR, NSC process the MR. According to the NC2 cell
reselection algorithm, BSC determines whether to perform cell reselection.
3. If BSC determines to initiate a cell reselection, it send PACKET CELL CHANGE
ORDER to MS to instruct MS to reselect the target cell. If NACC support,
PACKET NEIGHBOR CELL DATA containing SYSINFO will be sent before the
PACKET CELL CHANGE ORDER so that the reselection can be accelerated.
4. If cell reselection fails, MS sends PACKET CELL CHANGE FAILURE message
to BSC. After receive this message, BSC subtracts CELL PENALTY LEVEL
from the RxLev of the target cell.

112
NC2 Cell Reselection Algorithm
z The NC2 cell reselection algorithm follows the priority
sequence in descending order of:
‡ Urgent reselection algorithm

‡ Load reselection algorithm

‡ Normal reselection algorithm

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z Urgent reselection is based on the receive quality of the radio link on the Um interface. If
BER increases, the possible reason is that the signal level is too low or there is
interference on the channel.
z In the network, load in some cells are heavy and some are light. To balance the load in
these cells, load reselection is performed.
z In load reselection procedure, MS in heavy-loaded cell are directed to light-loaded cell.
MS in neighbouring cell should not be reselected to the heavy-loaded cell.
z Normal reselection is based on Receive Level. When urgent reselection an load
reselection are not met, normal reseelction is started to handover MS to a neighboring
cell with higher signal strength if the RxLev (serving cell) < [Min Access Level Threshold]

113
NC2 Cell Reselection Algorithm
Begin

Measure RxLev & RxQual


MS in the MR

MS RxQual
[Cell Urgent Yes deterioration ratio > Yes
Reselection Allowed]? [MS Rx Qual Worsen
Threshold]

No No

Yes Channel multiplexing Yes Any MS RxLev<[Load Yes


[Cell Load Reselect rate>[Load Reselect Reselect Level Thres]
Allowed]? Start Thres]
No
No No

Trigger urgent cell


Yes Receive Level (serving Yes Yes reselection and select cell
[Cell Normal Reselect cell) < [Min Access Satisfy P/N? with the highest priority in
Allowed]? Level Thres] cell list.
No
No No

Continue
End

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page42

z NC2 cell reselection algorithm follow the priority of:


urgent reselection -> load reselection -> normal reselection
z Each type of reselection have different trigger condition.

114
NC2 Cell Reselection Algorithm
Continue

Trigger urgent cell reselection and select cell


with the highest priority in cell list.

For GSM Cell For FDD Cell For TDD Cell

RxLev>MAX(RxLev(s), Ec/No>[PS FDD EcNo


[Min_Acc_Level_Thres])+ No
Quality Thres] or RSCP>[PS FDD RSCP
[Cell Reselect Hyst] AND RSCP>[PS FDD RSCP Quality Thres]
non-congestion state Quality Thres]
No End No

Yes Yes Yes

[Cell Penalty Level] given to


No
Cell reselection successful? target cell with [cell Penalty
Last Time]

Yes

End

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page43

z The priority of the target cell is determined by receive level and the characteristics
information such as cell type, cell priority, support for EDGE, and load status.
z Different cell type will need to fulfill the specified condition to be the candidate cell.
z When cell reselection fails, penalty is given to the target cell. If penalty time within [Cell
Penalty Last Time (s)], [Cell Penalty Level] is subtracted from the receive level of the
target cell.

115
NC2 Cell Reselection Algorithm
z Each NC2 cell reselection algorithm contains three NC2
cell reselection type:

Cell Serving cell


Reselection &Target cell Condition
Type position

Intra-BSC Same BSC Highest priority in the cell list.

Inter-BSC Different BSC, RxLev (Ext nei) = RxLev (n) – MAX(2, [Cell
both GSM cell Reselection Hyst/2])

GSM to Serving cell is For FDD cell : Ec/No>[PS FDD EcNo Quality Thres]
UTRAN GSM cell, target or RSCP>[PS FDD RSCP Quality Thres]
cell is UTRAN For TDD cell: RSCP>[PS TDD RSCP Quality Thres]

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page44

‡ Intra-BSC cell reselection:


Serving cell and target cell are controlled by same BSC. The selected target cell
is the one that has highest priority in the cell list.
‡ Inter-BSC cell reselection:
Serving cell and target are in different BSC and both is GSM cell. The priority for
the external neighbouring cell is lower. Thus,
RxLev (Ext nei) = RxLev (n) – external cell reselection offset
RxLev (Ext nei) = RxLev (n) – MAX(2, [Cell Reselection Hyst/2])
‡ GSM to UTRAN cell reselection:
Serving cell is GSM cell and target cell is UTRAN cell. The 3G MR and the
2G/3G cell priority strategy should be processed during the cell reselection.
For FDD cell: Ec/No>[PS FDD EcNo Quality Thres] or RSCP>[PS FDD
RSCP Quality Thres]
For TDD cell: RSCP>[PS TDD RSCP Quality Thres]
[2G/3G Cell Reselection Strategy] : Preference for 2G cell, Preference for 3G cell

116
Network-Assisted Cell Reselection
z Network-Assisted Cell Reselection
‡ It is also known as NACC, Network Assisted Cell Change.

‡ MS originates a cell change notification (CCN) procedure, and the BSC


sends the system information (SYSINFO) about the neighboring cell to
the MS before the cell reselection.

‡ NACC accelerates the cell reselection and shortens the service


disruption time during cell reselection.

z Parameter setting:
‡ Support NC0/ NC1/ NC2 to YES

‡ Support NACC to YES

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117
Network Assisted Cell Change (NACC)
z Purposes:
‡ MS is able to request BSC to send the target cell’s SYSINFO
during the cell reselection.

z Advantages:
‡ According to the SYSINFO, MS accelerates the packet service
access in the target cell.

‡ Reduce the period of packet service disruption during a cell


reselection .

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page46

118
Network Assisted Cell Change (NACC)

Receive System
information of cell B
before reselection

Cell A Cell B

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page47

119
Network Assisted Cell Change (NACC)
z MS can initiate an NACC procedure only when autonomous cell
reselection is triggered:
‡ In NC0/ NC1 mode and packet transfer mode:
„ C1 <0

„ C2/ C23 is met

„ Downlink signaling reception fails

„ Authentication fails

z NACC procedure is not initiated when:


‡ In GMM standby state

‡ In DTM mode

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page48

120
Network Assisted Cell Change (NACC)
z The system supports:
‡ Intra-BSC NACC

‡ Inter-BSC NACC

‡ UTRAN to GERAN NACC (Gb must support RIM procedure)

z The system does not support the GERAN to UTRAN NACC


procedure.

z When PBCCH exists in target cell, the system does not


support NACC procedure or the PACKET SI STATUS
procedure.

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page49

z GERAN : GPRS EDGE Radia Access Network


z RIM : RAN Information Management
z RIM procedure refer to the procedure of getting SYSINFO about the external
neighboring cell from the serving cell
z 2 types of RIM procedures in the inter-BSC and UTRAN to GERAN NACC
a) Inter RAN SYSINFO request procedure: initiated by controlling BSC/RNC to request
the SYSINFO about the serving BSC
b) Inter RAN SYSINFO update procedure: initiated by the serving BSC to ask the
controlling BSC/RNC to update SYSINFO about the external neighboring cell
z RIM association between a cell in the serving BSS and the controlling BSS that requests
the application information about this cell. It consists of 3 identities:
a) ID of the cell in the controlling BSS
b) ID of the cell in the serving BSS
c) RIM application identity

121
Intra-BSC NACC Flow
MS BSS
PACKET CELL CHANGE NOTIFICATION

Obtain system messages of the target cell

PACKET NEIGHBOR CELL DATA

PACKET CELL CHANGE CONTINUE

PACKET SI STATUS

PACKET SERVING CELL DATA


[P-TMSI] optional]

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page50

1. After MS determines to initiate an autonomous cell reselection, it enter CCN


mode. But the MS does not change the cell immediately, it sends a PACKET
CELL CHANGE NOTIFICATION to BSC to request SYSINFO about the target
cell.
2. When BSC received PACKET CELL CHANGE NOTIFICATION, it sends a
PACKET NEIGHBOUR CELL DATA that contains SI1, SI3, SI13. Then BSC
send PACKET CELL CHANGE CONTINUE to ask the MS to proceed the cell
reselection.
3. After receive PACKET NEIGHBOUR CELL DATA, MS save the SYSINFO. After
receive the PACKET CELL CHANGE CONTINUE, MS changes from CCN
mode to NC0/NC1 mode and continue cell reselection.
4. After MS changes the cell, the MS uses the SYSINFO for initial packet access
procedure.
5. If target cell support PACKET SI STATUS (YES), MS does not receive all
SYSINFO. MS needs to send PACKET SI STATUS message to request the
SYSINFO. After BSC received PACKET SI STATUS, it sends PACKET
SERVING CELL DATA which contain the SYSINFO of the serving cell.
6. Then MS saves the SYSINFO in the PACKET SERVING CELL DATA.

122
Inter-BSC NACC Flow
Control Serving
MS BSS/RNC BSS

RIM Procedure

PACKET CELL CHANGE NOTIFICATION

Obtain system messages of the target cell

PACKET NEIGHBOR CELL DATA

PACKET CELL CHANGE CONTINUE

PACKET SI STATUS

PACKET SERVING CELL DATA

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page51

1. After MS determines to initiate an autonomous cell reselection, it enter CCN


mode. But the MS does not change the cell immediately, it sends a PACKET
CELL CHANGE NOTIFICATION to BSC to request SYSINFO about the target
cell.
2. When BSC received PACKET CELL CHANGE NOTIFICATION, it sends a
PACKET NEIGHBOUR CELL DATA that contains SI1, SI3, SI13. Then BSC
send PACKET CELL CHANGE CONTINUE to ask the MS to proceed the cell
reselection.
3. After receive PACKET NEIGHBOUR CELL DATA, MS save the SYSINFO. After
receive the PACKET CELL CHANGE CONTINUE, MS changes from CCN
mode to NC0/NC1 mode and continue cell reselection.
4. After MS changes the cell, the MS uses the SYSINFO for initial packet access
procedure.
5. If target cell support PACKET SI STATUS (YES), MS does not receive all
SYSINFO. MS needs to send PACKET SI STATUS message to request the
SYSINFO. After BSC received PACKET SI STATUS, it sends PACKET
SERVING CELL DATA which contain the SYSINFO of the serving cell.
6. Then MS saves the SYSINFO in the PACKET SERVING CELL DATA.

123
Summary
z We have understand the below from this training:
‡ GPRS Mobility Management procedure

‡ Cell reselection algorithm

‡ Cell reselection and routing area update flow

‡ Parameters related to GMM.

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page52

124
Thank you
www.huawei.com

125
GPRS EDGE Radio
Network Optimization
Parameters
www.huawei.com

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

126
Foreword
z The PCU performance parameters are essential to the
GPRS network. Proper setting of such parameters can
improve performance of the packet services.

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page1

127
Contents

z GPRS Cell Parameters

z GPRS Power Control

z GPRS Cell Reselection

z Performance Parameters

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page2

128
GPRS Cell Parameters

z NOM z PAN

z T3168 z N3101

z T3192 z N3103

z DRX_TIMER_MAX z N3105

z BS_CV_MAX

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page3

129
Network Operation Mode

GPRS
Network Configure Configur Channel for
Mode e PCCH circuit paging
Paging Idle Mode
Gs Channel
PPCH PPCH
PCCCH
I Yes Yes PCH PCH PACCH
Or CCCH
PACCH -
II No No PCH PCH CCCH CCCH
PCH PPCH
III No Yes CCCH CCCH
PCH PCH

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page4

130
T3168
T3168 is used to set the maximum duration for the
MS to wait for the packet uplink assignment message
PCU

PACKET CHANNEL REQUEST


PACKET UPLINK ASSIGNMENT/
IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT COMMAND

PACKET RESOURCE REQUEST


T3168 PACKET UPLINK ASSIGNMENT

T3168 recommendation
Condiction BLER
(ms)
Very Good BLER<2% 500
Good 2%<BLER<5% 1000
Bad 5%<BLER<10% 2000

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page5

z The timer T3168 is used to set the maximum duration for the MS to wait for the
packet uplink assignment message. The MS should start the timer T3168 to wait
for the packet uplink assignment message after sending the packet resource
request message.
z If the MS receives the packet uplink assignment message before timeout of T3168
and gets into the status of waiting for packet uplink assignment message, the MS
will reset T3168; if T3168 times out, the MS will trigger the packet access process
again until this process repeats for 4 times. Then the MS will believe that TBF
establishment failure occurs. If the value of this paramter is smaller, the period of
the MS determining failure of TBF establishment will be shorter, and the average
time of packet access will be shorter. However, in severe wireless conditions, that
will make the TBF establishment success rate lower. Moreover, too low values will
make the MS increase the probability of retransmitting the packet access requests,
which will increase the probabilty of the PCU performing repeated assignment and
lead to waste of system resources. On the other hand, if this value is higher, the
period of the MS determining failure of TBF establishment will be longer, and the
average delay of the packet access will be longer.Value range: This parameter
value is measured in 500ms, and its range is: 500ms, 1000ms, 1500ms… 4000ms.
z The recommended value is 500ms.

131
T3192
The timer is for the MS to wait for TBF release after receiving
the last data block.
PCU

PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK (FAI=1)

Final ACK
T3192 Identifier
PACKET DOWNLINK ASSIGNMENT
TFI

value(ms) 500 1000 1500 0 80 120 160 200

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z After receiving the RLC data block which contains the Final Block Identifier (FBI)
and confirming that all RLC data blocks in TBF are received, the MS should send
the packet downlink acknowledgement/unacknowledgement message, set its
Final Acknowledgement Identifier (FAI) to 1 and start T3192. If T3192 times out, the
MS will stop all allocated listening tasks on PDCH, begin to listen to the paging
channel and get into the packet idle status. If this parameter value is greater, the
time for the MS to reserve the TFI and timeslot assigned by the system will be
longer, and the risk of congestion will be higher. On the other hand, if this value is
smaller, the MS will release TBF quickly. If new downlink packet data comes to the
network, the network will have to originate the paging again or assign the program
promptly, which prolongs the time of establishing the downlink TBF greatly. Value
range: This parameter value is measured in 500ms, and its range is: 0ms, 80ms,
120ms, 160ms, 200ms, 500ms, 1000ms and 1500ms. The recommended value is
500ms.

132
DRX_TIMER_MAX
The MS request keeps the maximum value of non-
DRX mode.

Non_DRX Non_DRX DRX

Packet transmission mode Packet idle mode Packet idle mode

DRX_TIMER_MAX (s)

Value(Sencond) 0 1 2 4 8 16 32 64

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page7

z Set the maximum value of the duration for MS to execute the non-DRX mode when
shifting from the packet transmission mode to the packet idle mode. This parameter
value is measured in seconds. Values: “0” – Get into the DRX mode immediately after
the transmission mode, “1s” - 1 second, “2s” - 2 seconds, “4s” – 4 seconds… “64s” – 64
seconds. The typical value is “4s". If the value is higher, the TBF establishment duration
will be shorter, but the MS power consumption will increase. If the value is lower, the
battery consumption is lower, but the paging process will be longer, the system signaling
load will be heavier and the data transmission delay will be longer.

133
Packet Signaling Processing
RLC DATA BLOCK

RLC DATA BLOCK (FBI)

PACKET DOWNLINK ACK/NACK (FAI=1)

T3192=500ms
Ready Mode
Non DRX mode= 4s

DRX mode

DRX mode

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134
BS_CV_MAX

PCU

CV=X
设BS_CV_MAX=10
RLC DATA BLOCK

T3198 200ms
RLC DATA ACK

CV=X

RLC DATA BLOCK


Timeout

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page9

z Set BS_CV_MAX. It is a parameter used for the MS to calculate the Countdown Value
(CV). If the PBCCH channel does not exist, this parameter will be broadcast in the
system message 13.
z When the RLC data block to be sent is the last but (x-1) data block, if x<= BS_CV_MAX,
CV=x; otherwise CV=15. Ensure that the last RLC data block is being sent in case CV=0.
z Value range of BS_CV_MAX: 0~15
z When the MS sends an RLC data block, the MS starts the timer T3198. After timeout of
the timer, the MS will allow the status of this RLC data block to be “unacknowledged”
and retransmit the data block. The default value of T3198 is duration of BS_CV_MAX
blocks. The duration of each block is 20ms.
z The empiric value of transmission delay between MS and PCU is 100ms, so T3198
value > 100ms, i.e., BS_CV_MAX >5.1. If the BS_CV_MAX value is higher, the
efficiency of the slide window program will be lower; 2. If the BS_CV_MAX value is lower,
the probability of retransmission will be higher, and more wireless resources will be
occupied.

135
BS_CV_MAX

suppose PCU
BS_CV_MAX=
3

CV=0 CV=1 CV=2 CV=3 CV=15 CV=15 CV=15 CV=15

MS buffer – UL RLC blocks

More data CV=0 CV=1 CV=2 CV=3 CV=15 CV=15

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page10

z The default value of the MS-side timer T3198 is duration of BS_CV_MAX RLC blocks.
The T3198 begins counting after the MS sends the RLC block. After timeout of T3198,
the block is marked as “unacknowledged” and needs to be retransmitted.
z To retransmit the erroneous RLC Block as soon as possible, the value of the
BS_CV_MAX should be as small as possible, but cannot be less than the delay of
transmission from MS to PCU. According to empiric values, the BS_CV_MAX value
should be over 5.

136
PAN
z PAN_DEC

‡ Set the decrease step length of the N3102 counter of the MS

z PAN_INC

‡ Set the increase step length of the N3102 counter of the MS

z PAN_MAX

‡ Set the maximum value of the N3102 counter of the MS

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page11

137
PAN

N3102 Packet Uplink Ack/Nack


- PAN_DEC
PAN_MAX + PAN_INC

Abnormal Release
Perform Cell Re-selection

T3182 T3182
T3182 T3182 T3182

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z This parameter is used to avoid unpredictable link failure. It is used together with the
MS-side counter N3102, and consists of three sub-parameters. PAN_DEC: Decremental
value of PAN counter PAN_INC: Incremental value of PAN counterPAN_MAX:
Maximum value of PAN counter The MS sets the counter N3102 according to PAN_MAX.
When the MS receives a Packet ACK/NACK message, the N3102 increases by
PAN_INCWhen N3102=PAN_MAX, the MS starts the timer T3182If the MS still receives
no acknowledgement message upon timeout of T3182, the MS will decrease N3102 by
PAN_DEC. In case N3102<=0, the MS will execute exception release of this TBF, and
trigger cell reselection.

138
PAN

PCU

RLC DATA BLOCK 设PAN_INC=2

PACKET DATA ACK


N3102+2

RLC DATA BLOCK


设PAN_DEC=1

T3182
PACKET DATA ACK

N3102- 1
Timeout

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139
N3101

PCU

RLC DATA BLOCK/PACKET UPLINK


ASSIGNMET (valid USF)

RLC DATA ACK


N3101+1

POLLING REQUEST

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page14

z If N3101 expires, the network release the uplink TBF.

140
N3103

PCU

PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK (FAI=1)

PACKET CONTROL ACK


N3103+1

PACKET UPLINK ACK/NACK (FAI=1)

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page15

z If N3103 expires, the network release the uplink TBF.

141
N3105

PCU

RLC DATA BLOCK (RRBP)

PACKET DOWNLINL ACK/NACK


N3105+1

RLC DATA BLOCK (RRBP)

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z If N3105 expires, the network release the uplink TBF.

142
Case 1
z Phenomenon Description:
‡ Three cells of a satellite transmission BTS under a BSC are
unable to access the network through GPRS. View the cell
status and channel status. They are all normal. The PCU traffic
measurement, Um interface and cell signaling tracing, and
configuration data are collected on site.

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page17

z The possible causes are as follows:


1. The configuration data of the PCU and BSC is incorrect.
2. The PCU version is incorrect.
3. The cell is exceptional for various reasons.
4. The parameter related to satellite transmission is not properly set.

5. Handling Process:
a. Check the data. No exception occurs in other cells and the satellite transmission
parameter on the PCU is set to Yes.
6. b. View the traffic measurement. The traffic measurement item "number of uplink
assignment successes on PACCH" is 0. The traffic measurement item "number of uplink
TBF establishment successes" is also 0 and the basic cause value is "uplink TBF
establishment failures owing to no response from the mobile station".
7. c. View signaling messages. There are only a large number of RACK_RES_REQ and
PACK_UL_ASSI messages over the air interface. This is obviously abnormal.
8. d. Analyze the traffic and signaling messages. After the MS sends a
RACK_RES_REQ message and the PCU returns a PACK_UL_ASSI message, the MS
makes no response and continues sending a RACK_RES_REQ message.5. Check the
GPRS table about the PCU cell data. Timer T3168 is set to 500 ms, which is the same
as that for other GPRS cells of terrestrial transmission. 6. Run the
mt sattrans show delay command to view the transmission delay of the satellite
transmission cells. The transmission delay is 725 ms.7. Find the cause. After the MS
sends a RACK_RES_REQ message, timer T3168 is started. If the timer expires before a
PACK_UL_ASSI message is received, the MS resends a RACK_RES_REQ message 143
for four times at most. The duration of the onsite timer T3168 is less than the delay of
Contents

z GPRS Cell Parameters

z GPRS Power Control

z GPRS Cell Reselection

z Performance Parameters

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page18

144
GPRS Power Control
z GPRS Power Control Purpose
‡ Save the power

‡ Reduce the interference of the network

z GPRS Power Control is complex than GSM for discontinuous


transmission.

z Normally now just uplink power control is implemented.

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page19

z Because for the downlink blocks, it is not only contained TFI for downlink but
also USF which may be is for another MS. The two subscribers perhaps one is
near the BTS, one is far away. So downlink power control is not implemented
for GPRS.

145
GPRS Power Control
z According GPRS principle, GPRS MS output power as
below:
‡ Pch = Min〔 Ro - Rch – a*( C+48) , Pmax〕
„ Pmax: GPRS MS max transmitting power

„ a:ALPHA,normally is 1

„ Ro:39dBm for 900M cell, and 36dBm for 1800M cell

„ Rch:GAMMA

„ C:MS receiving level

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page20

146
GPRS Power Control

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> The ALPHA parameter is used by the MS to calculate the output power value PCH of its uplink
PDCH
> For open loop power control, it should be set to 1.0.

> GAMMA:Expected receiving signal strength at the BTS side when the MS GPRS dynamic power
control is active
> Value range: 0~62dB, default value is 14

147
Contents

z GPRS Cell Parameters

z GPRS Power Control

z GPRS Cell Reselection

z Performance Parameters

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page22

148
GPRS Cell Reselection
z During ready and standby mode, MS will occur cell
reselection

z Cell reselection will be triggered upon the following 5


kinds conditions.
‡ current serving cell is prohibited

‡ down link fails

‡ C1 of serving cell is lower than 0 last 5s

‡ Neighbor cell C32 and C31 higher than serving cell last 5S

‡ MS starts a cell reselection if the access times exceed the MAX


retrans.

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page23

‡ If the C2 value of the target cell is higher than that of the serving cell by at least
the value of CRH for longer than 5 seconds, a location update process and the
cell reselection process will be performed.
‡ Only after the PBCCH is configured, C31 and C32 will be worked.

149
NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER

Definition Whether the


Cell Selection
MS send MS mode
Mode
the M.R
Normal MS Control Ready & Controlled by
NC0 No
Mode Standby MS
MS Control with M.R Controlled by
NC1 Yes Only Ready
Mode MS
Network Control Controlled by
NC2 Yes Only Ready
Mode network

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page24

150
NETWORK_CONTROL_ORDER

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151
NC2 Feature

Neighbor
change to cell C cell B

Neighbor
cell c

Serving
cell A

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z For MS receiving level of cell B is higher than cell C, but the load of cell B
is too higher. So PCU will make the MS cell change to cell C instead of
cell B. NC2 is just like load handover.

152
GPRS Cell Reselection
z If PBCCH no exists, the cell reselection is basically the
same as GSM cell reselection
‡ When the two cells locates in the different routing areas or the
MS is in READY mode, the NC2 must be greater than
SC2+CRH (>5s)

‡ When the two cells locates in the same routing area and the
MS is in STANDBY mode, the NC2 must be greater than SC2
(>5s)

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page27

z Two consecutive cell reselections caused by C2 have a time interval of 15


seconds. In other words to say, if because of C2 a MS reselected to a cell,
then the MS cannot reselect to another cell by the cause of C2 within 15
seconds.

153
Cell Reselection in Standby Mode

RA 1 RA 2
AC2>BC2 CC2>BC2+CRH
Cell B

Cell A Cell C

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154
Cell Reselection in Ready Mode

RA 1
BC2>AC2+CRH

Cell A Cell B

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155
NACC

System information
of cell B

Cell B
Cell A

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page30

z In network control mode NC0, NC1, or NC2, when the MS is in the packet
transmission mode, the network informs the MS of the system information
about neighbor cells in advance. Therefore, the cell reselection of the MS is
accelerated.

156
NACC

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page31

z NACC (Network Assisted Cell Change): shorten the duration of cell reselection
z NACC will be used during packet transmission mode, network will inform
neighbor cell system information to make the cell reselection quickly.
z NC0:Before the cell reselection decision, MS will send “PACKET CELL
CHANGE NOTIFICATION” to BSC, which carry ARFCN and BSIC of target
cell. If serving cell support NACC, BSC will send the SI1,SI3 and SI13 of target
cell .

z Before the GBSS8.1 version, just support intra-BSC NACC; GBSS8.1 or later
version also can support inter BSC or inter RNC NACC.
z For Inter-BSC NACC,BSC and core network should support RIM (RAN
Information Management)to get external cell system information.
z RIM flow means BSS requires the target cell system information from target
BSC/RNC through core network. BSC implements RIM flow during provider
service, and stores all the external cell system information. BSC also will
update these external cell system information periodical. And during the inter-
BSC NACC, if BSS did not find the target cell system information, it will trigger
RIM flow.

157
Contents

z GPRS Cell Parameters

z GPRS Power Control

z GPRS Cell Reselection

z Performance Parameters

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page32

158
Dynamic PDCH Channel Conversion
z When dynamic PDCH conversion will be triggered?
‡ PDCH required failure (such as reach the max threshold)

‡ No meet the multiple timeslot

‡ The TBF numbers higher than ”Uplink (Downlink) Multiplex


Threshold of Dynamic Channel Conversion”

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page33

z Parameter Name Uplink Multiplex Threshold of Dynamic Channel Conversion


z Description This parameter specifies the uplink multiplex threshold of
dynamic channel conversion.When the number of subscribers carried over the channel
reaches the threshold/10, dynamic channels are used.
z GUI Value Range [10,70]
z Default Value 20
z Configuration Policy If this threshold is high, it is difficult to seize dynamic channels.
If this threshold is low, it is easy to seize dynamic channels.

z Parameter Name Downlink Multiplex Threshold of Dynamic Channel Conversion


z Description This parameter specifies the downlink multiplex threshold of
dynamic channel conversion.When the number of subscribers carried over the channel
reaches the threshold/10, dynamic channels are used.
z GUI Value Range [10,80]
z Default Value 20

159
Dynamic PDCH Channel Conversion
z Which channel will be convert to dynamic PDCH
‡ TCH/F channels can be converted to dynamic PDCH, the
maximum dynamic PDCH number will be restricted by reasons
listed below:
„ The max PDCH number restricted by License

„ Maximum Ratio Threshold of PDCHs in a Cell

„ Maximum PDCH numbers of carrier

„ Reservation Threshold of Dynamic Channel Conversion

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page34

z Maximum PDCHs number in a Cell= ( TCH/F channels number + PDCH channels


number) * Maximum Ratio Threshold of PDCHs in a Cell

160
Dynamic PDCH Channel Conversion
z When the dynamic PDCH channel will be converted to TCH
channel?
‡ Timer of Releasing Idle dynamic Channel

‡ CS services preemption
„ All dynamic channels can be preempted

„ Control channels cannot be preempted

„ Dynamic channels carrying services cannot be preempted

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page35

161
Dynamic PDCH Channel Conversion

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page36

z Parameter Name Maximum Ratio Threshold of PDCHs in a Cell


z Description This parameter specifies the maximum ratio of PDCHs in a cell. The total number of
TCHs and PDCHs available in a cell is fixed. The PDCH ratio is equal to PDCHs / (TCHs + static PDCHs).
This parameter determines the proportion of PDCHs to the total number of TCHs + PDCHs.
z GUI Value Range [0,100]
z Default Value 30
z Configuration Policy If this parameter is set to an excessive value, there are excessive PDCHs and
insufficient TCHs. This affects CS services. If this parameter is set to a modest value, there are insufficient
PDCHs and excessive TCHs. This affects PS services.

z Parameter Name PDCH Uplink Multiplex Threshold


z Description This parameter specifies the PDCH uplink multiplex threshold.The uplink PDCH can
carry a maximum of (threshold/10) TBFs.
z GUI Value Range [10,70]
z Default Value 70
z Configuration Policy If this parameter is set to a lower value, the TBFs established on the PDCH and the
subscribers are fewer, and the uplink bandwidth for each subscriber is higherIf this threshold is set to a
higher value, the TBFs established on the PDCH and the subscribers are more, and the uplink bandwidth for
each subscriber is lower.

z Parameter Name PDCH Downlink Multiplex Threshold 162


z Description This parameter specifies the PDCH downlink multiplex threshold.The downlink
PDCH i f (th h ld/10) TBF
Parameter Name Level of Preempting Dynamic Channel
z Description This parameter specifies the levels of dynamic channels
preempted by CS services and PS services. Only full-rate TCHs are the dynamic
channels that can be preempted. All dynamic channels can be preempted: It indicates
that the CS services can preempt all the dynamic channels.Control channels cannot be
preempted: It indicates that the CS services can preempt all the dynamic channels
except for the control channels.Dynamic channels carrying services cannot be
preempted: It indicates that the CS services cannot preempt the dynamic channels that
carry services.
z GUI Value Range [Preempt all dynamic TCHFs,No preempt of CCHs,No
preempt of service TCHF]
z Default Value All dynamic channels can be preempted

z Parameter Name Reservation Threshold of Dynamic Channel Conversion


z Description This parameter specifies the number of channels reserved for
the CS services.
z GUI Value Range [0,8]
z Default Value 2
z Configuration Policy If this parameter is set to an excessive value, the PS services
are affected.If this parameter is set to a modest value, the CS services are affected
when there are too many PS services.

z Parameter Name Maximum PDCH numbers of carrier


z Description This parameter specifies the maximum number of PDCHs
allocated to a TRX.
z GUI Value Range [0,8]
z Default Value 8

163
GPRS Channel Priority Type

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page38

z Value Range GPRS Channel, EGPRS Normal Channel, EGPRS Priority Channel, EGPRS Special Channel, None-
GPRS Channel

z Default Value When Channel Type is set to non-PDTCH, the default value is None-GPRS Channel. When Channel
Type is set to PDTCH and the cell does not support EDGE services, the default value is EGPRS Normal Channel. When
Channel Type is set to PDTCH and the cell supports EDGE services, the default value is EGPRS Normal Channel.

z Description When Channel Type is set to non-PDTCH, the default value is None-GPRS Channel.
z When Channel Type is set to PDTCH and the cell does not support EDGE services, the default value is EGPRS Normal
Channel.
z When Channel Type is set to PDTCH and the cell supports EDGE services, the default value is EGPRS Normal Channel.

164
GPRS Channel Priority Type

TRX2

EGPRS
Normal

EDGE MS GPRS MS

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page39

z EGPRS normal channel can support GPRS MS and EDGE MS at the same
time. But sometimes it will decrease the EDGE MS speed.

165
GPRS Channel Priority Type

TRX2

EGPRS EGPRS
Priority Priority

× reject
EDGE MS GPRS MS
GPRS MS

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page40

z EGPRS normal channel can support GPRS MS and EDGE MS at the same
time. But sometimes it will decrease the EDGE MS speed.

166
GPRS&EDGE Coding Scheme
Kbps
59.2
60.00
54.4

50.00 GPRS 44.8

EGPRS
40.00

29.6
30.00
21.4 22.4
20.00 17.6
15.6 14.8
13.4
11.2
9.05 8.8
10.00

0.00 CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-4 MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-8 MCS-9

GMSK 8PSK

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page41

167
Appendix

Codec CS1 CS2 CS3 CS4

MC MC MCS MCS MC MC MCS MCS MCS


S1 S2 3 4 S5 S6 7 8 9

Idle
1+0 1+1 1+2 1+3
timeslot

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page42

168
Appendix

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page43

169
In this course, we have learned:
Summary z The function of GPRS cell parameters

z The function of GPRS cell reselection parameters

z The function of GPRS performance parameters

Copyright © 2009 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page44

170
Thank you
www.huawei.com

171
GPRS EDGE Build-in PCU
Packet Radio Resource
Management Algorithm
and Parameters

www.huawei.com

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

172
Foreword
z Radio resource management (RR) is an important protocol in the
GSM system.

z The channel management and load control is a part of the GPRS


resource management.

z The appropriate channel management and load control algorithm can


improve the PS assignment success rate, decrease the congestion
ratio, provide proper service resources for subscribers, and improve
the network service quality.

z This document describes the specific algorithms and parameters of


the GPRS/EDGE channel management and load control.

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page1

173
Objectives
z After studying this course, you will:
‡ Understand the purposes of the PS resource management and
load control.
‡ Master the procedure for allocating channels and main factors
to be considered.
‡ Master the percentage of each factor in the channel allocation
and adjustment method.
‡ Master the dynamic channel allocation and release algorithm
principles.
‡ Be familiar with the main parameters of the dynamic channel
allocation and release algorithm.

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page2

174
Contents
1. Packet Radio Resource Management Algorithm Overview

2. Packet Channel Assignment Algorithm

3. Packet Channel Conversion Algorithm

4. Packet Channel Release Algorithm

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page3

175
Overview of PS Resource
Management Algorithm
Phase 1 access on Phase 2 access on TBF reassignment/
CCCH/PCCCH CCCH/PCCCH timeslot re-configuration

Establishment of the Establishment of the Establishment of the


downlink uplink downlink
TBF on the CCCH/PCCCH TBF on the PACCH TBF on the PACCH

Conversion algorithm of
PDCH allocation algorithm
dynamic PDCH

For CS service, no idle For CS service, no idle


Idle dynamic PDCH radio channel resources Abis resources available
released available for preemption for preemption

Dynamic PDCH release


algorithm

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page4

z The PS resource management algorithm is intended to guarantee the load balance


between channels by allowing a single subscriber to obtain a high throughput rate
simultaneously, thus improving the channel usage efficiency of the entire network.
z Upon the receipt of the service application from a subscriber, the BSS allocates
appropriate resources to the subscriber after the processing through the PS resource
management algorithm.
z The PS resource management algorithm consists of the following parts:
‡ PS channel allocation algorithm

‡ Dynamic channel conversion algorithm

‡ Dynamic channel release algorithm

176
Basic Concepts of PS Resource
Management Algorithm

RLC/MAC TAI
Block resource
resource

Radio
channel
resource
PS resource TFI
management resource

USF
Abis
resource
timeslot
resource

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page5

z Radio channel resources


‡ For the PDCH resources of a cell, one TBF can occupy multiple channels. At least one

timeslot among the timeslots occupied by the uplink/downlink TBF of the same subscriber is
shared. Multiple MSs can be multiplexed on the same channel. Available channel resources
in the cell can be taken into account on the basis of these conditions.
z Abis resource
‡ In Fix Abis mode, the channel is fixedly bound to an active link (16 kbps) after configuration.

After code adjustment, the idle timeslots can be bound.


‡ Flex mode

„ For static PDCHs, the description is the same as the preceding description.
„ The active link is not bound after the dynamic PDCH is configured. The active link is
bound after the activation of the channel. A proper idle timeslot is applied for the
binding. When no Abis resources are available, the channel cannot be allocated.
z Block resource
‡ One block budget is required for every 60 blocks. For a guaranteed bit rate (GBR) subscriber,

the maximum number of occupied blocks is specified according to the TBF rate
threshold/100 of the GBR. For other types of subscribers, the maximum number of blocks is
allocated according to the priority of remaining blocks.

177
‡ The GBR service can be applied for through registration. If the GBR attribute is
subscribed to during registration, the service rate is guaranteed. For streaming
subscribers, the rate is fixed. The corresponding resource is provided according
to rate evaluation. The rate requirement is met after evaluation.
z USF resource
‡ The uplink status flag is used to control multiple MSs to use radio channels in

dynamic allocation mode. The USF has three bits in total, labeling eight (0-7)
uplink subscribers in total. For Huawei devices, the setting of USF to 7 is
reserved. For example, if the USF of the RRBP block is set to 7, seven (0 – 6)
USFs are left for allocation to subscribers.
‡ The USF applies to data transmission. The RRBP subscribers make response to

corresponding data, for example, Ack or Nack.


z TFI resource
‡ TFI is an identity of the TBF. The TBF is uniquely identified through the TFI and

data transmission direction. The TFI has five bits in total, identifying subscribers
of 0-31 bits. There are 32 independent TBFs at the uplink and downlink
respectively.
„ Different channels of the same TRX can use the same TFI value.
„ Any TFI value of the same channel at the same time belongs to a unique
uplink or downlink TBF.
„ The uplink and downlink TBFs of the same MS can use different TFIs or
the same TFI.
z TAI resource
„ A total of 16 TAIs are available for allocation to subscribers for the TA
adjustment.

178
Basic Concepts of PS Resource
Management Algorithm
z PDCH types - by configuration mode
‡ Static channel: fixedly unconvertible in the case of use by PS service
‡ Dynamic channel: applies to CS or PS services

z PDCH types - by PS service bearer capability


‡ GPRS channel: applies to only GPRS services
‡ EGPRS normal channel: applies to both GPRS and EGPRS services
‡ EGPRS priority channel: preferentially applies to EGPRS services
‡ EGPRS special channel: applies to only EGPRS service

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page7

179
Data Configuration

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page8

z Common EGPRS channel


‡ GPRS and EGPRS subscribers can use this channel, with the same priority.

Therefore, GPRS subscribers and EGPRS subscribers may exist in this channel
at the same time. The modulation mode corresponding to the channel encoding
used by these subscribers must be the GMSK. Therefore, the configuration may
affect the high speed performance of the EDGE.
z EGPRS preferred channel
‡ The GPRS service can use this channel when it is idle. When the EGPRS

service is available on this channel, the GPRS service is swapped and relevant
resources are allocated for the EGPRS subscribers. If no channel is available for
the GPRS service in the case of swap, call drop occurs in the GPRS service.
‡ Therefore, only GPRS subscribers or EGPRS subscribers can use this channel

at the same time. This channel is allocated for EGPRS subscribers with priority.
z The GPRS channel assignment is initiated by MSs, which is similar to the GSM channel
assignment. One channel may be applied for signaling and data transmission, which is
similar to the early assignment in the GSM system.
z Alternatively, one PDCH is applied for and then PS resources are applied for on the
basis of this PDCH. This is similar to the immediate assignment and then assignment in
the GSM.

180
Contents
1. Packet Radio Resource Management Algorithm Overview

2. Packet Channel Assignment Algorithm

3. Packet Channel Conversion Algorithm

4. Packet Channel Release Algorithm

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page9

181
PS Channel Assignment Process
TRX:0 TRX:1
Main BCCH SDCCH
RACH-Channel Request
SDCCH TCH Cause: PS access, random number
TCH TCH
SDCCH TCH
Imm Assignment decision
TCH PDTCH
TCH PDTCH
PDTCH TCH AGCH-Imm Assignment
PDTCH TCH (random number, PDCH channel description)

TRX:2 TRX:3 PDCH-Packet Resource Request


TCH TCH/H (TLLI, pre-emption decision)
TCH TCH/H
TCH TCH/H
TCH TCH/H Packet assignment decision
TCH TCH/H
TCH TCH/H
PDCH-Packet Assignment
TCH TCH/H
(TLLI)
TCH TCH/H

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page10

z The GPRS channel assignment is initiated by the MS, which is similar to channel
assignment in the GSM system. One channel may be applied for signaling and data
transmission, which is similar to early assignment in the GSM system.
z Alternatively, one PDCH is applied for and then PS resources are applied for on the
basis of this PDCH, which is similar to the immediate assignment in the GSM.

182
PS Channel Assignment Process
Immediate Assignment request Reassignment
assignment request on the PACCH request

Channel assignment
pre-processing

PS channel allocation algorithm

Is the channel Yes


assignment successful?

No

Processing after the initial


assignment failure

End

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page11

z According to the received assignment request, the BSS checks the assignment request
type during channel assignment pre-processing to determine the channel type of the
assignment and assignment process.
z The PS channel allocation algorithm is used to find the proper TRX, channel group, and
calculation weight for the allocation processing.
z If once assignment is successful, the assignment process ends. If no appropriate
channel is used for the assignment, it is subject to the processing after the initial
assignment failure.
z The dynamic channel conversion and twice assignment are performed until the
assignment is complete after the initial assignment failure.

183
General Process of PS Channel
Allocation Algorithm
Start
Obtain the assignable
channel group

Obtain the assignable Is the assignable No


TRX channel group
available?

Yes
Calculate the weight of the
Is the assignable Yes assignable channel group
TRX available?

No
Maximum channel group of
the allocation weight

End

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page12

z The PS channel allocation algorithm includes four steps:


‡ Obtaining the assignable TRX information.

‡ Obtaining the assignable channel group information from the assignable TRX.

‡ Performing the weight calculation for all assignable channel groups to obtain the

appropriate channel group.


‡ Selecting the channel group with the greatest weight for allocation.

184
Obtaining the Allocable TRX
No
Start
Concentric cell or not?

No Yes
Multi-band cell or nor? No
Specify the overlaid
subcell or underlaid
Yes subcell?
Yes

Is the MS band support Specify the TRX of the concentric


capability known? Yes subcell attribute
No

Main BCCH TRX band and TRX of the


band being compatible with the main Bands supported by the MS
BCCH TRX No
Do the MS and cell support
the EGPRS?

No
Yes
Double-timeslot extension cell?

Yes TRX supporting the EGPRS


No
TA>63?

Yes
End
Select the double-timeslot extension
TRX

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page13

z The procedure for obtaining the assignable TRX is as follows:


‡ TRX requirement: To allocate the PDCH for MSs, check whether the cooperative
TBF exists according to the ingress TRX index. If yes, allocate the PDCH for the
MS on the specified TRX.
‡ For a multi-band cell, the capability of the MS supporting the frequency bands
must be taken into account when assigning the PDCHs.
„ If the BSC does not know the radio access capability of the MS, only the
PDCHs over the main BCCH frequency band and the frequency bands
compatible with the main BCCH frequency band should be assigned.
„ If the BSC knows the radio access capability of the MS, only the PDCHs
over the frequency bands supported by the MS are assigned.
‡ If the cell is a double timeslot extended cell as defined by the cell attribute
parameter 【Cell Ext Type】, and if the TA reported by the MS is greater than
63, then the PDCHs on a double timeslot extended TRX should be assigned to
the MS.
‡ If the cell is a concentric cell as defined by the cell attribute parameter 【Cell
Type】, and if the BSC specifies the overlaid subcell or underlaid subcell upon a
PDCH request, then the PDCHs on an overlaid TRX or underlaid TRX should be
assigned accordingly. If the overlaid subcell or underlaid subcell is not specified,
the PDCHs on a concentric TRX should be assigned without specific tendency.
‡ In the case of applying for the allocation of channels, the service type (EDGE or
GPRS service, or EDGE + GPRS service) is contained. According to the TRX
attribute parameter 【TRX capability】, the TRX supporting the EGPRS is
selected if the MS and cell support the EGPRS.

185
Obtaining the Allocable Channel
Start

Is the idle PDCH with normal


No statusY& Match the service type to the
available Abis timeslot & channel priority type
channel priorityemeeting the
service requirements available?

Yes Perform polling for all


PDCHs Yes
Allow E Down G Up
Switch?
Does the number of MSs No
multiplexed on the PDCH
reach the threshold?
No
Yes
Perform processing related to Prohibit
E Down G Up Switch?

The corresponding PDCH is


unavailable

End

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page14

z To obtain the assignable channels, do as follows:


‡ Check whether the channel type of the sub timeslot is PDCH.
‡ Check whether the valid status of the PDCH is configured, that is, whether the
location occupied by the channel can be replaced. If it is not configured, it is
unavailable. If it is configured, it is available.
‡ Obtain the management status of the current channel. Check the channel
management status. If the channel is in the blocked state, do not perform the
processing.
‡ Check the resource status recorded through 8 bits on the left and the control
status recorded through 8 bits on the right. Make sure that they are normal.
‡ Check whether the main control status of the channel is in the idle state.
‡ Check whether the channel recorded in the radio resource management module
is available.
‡ Make sure that the number of available Abis is not zero.
‡ Check whether the channel priority meets the service type.
„ For GPRS services, the GPRS channel group, EGPRS normal channel
group, and EGPRS priority channel group can be allocated.
„ For EDGE services, the EGPRS special channel group, EGPRS normal
channel group, and EGPRS priority channel group can be allocated.

186
z According to the cell attribute parameter 【 PDCH Uplink/Downlink Multiplex 】
Threshold, make sure that the number of MSs multiplexed on the channel does not
reach the upper threshold.
‡ For the PBCCH or PCCCH, the number of MSs multiplexed on the channel must

be smaller than 7.
‡ Otherwise, the number of MSs multiplexed on the uplink PDTCH should be equal

to or smaller than 7, and the number of MSs multiplexed on the downlink PDTCH
should be equal to or smaller than 8. In the latest version, the downlink PDTCH
supports 16 MSs.
z Match the service type with the channel priority type:
‡ The GPRS services cannot occupy the EGPRS special channels.

‡ If an EGPRS priority channel bears the EGPRS services, the EGPRS priority

channel cannot be assigned to the GPRS services.


z Make decision according to the BSC attribute parameter 【 Allow E Down G Up
Switch 】. If the switch is off (that is, the EGPRS OFF GPRS ON is prohibited),
‡ If a channel carries the EGPRS downlink services, the channel cannot be

assigned to the GPRS uplink services.


‡ If a channel carries the GPRS uplink services, the channel cannot be assigned to

the EGPRS downlink services.


z Obtain the assignable channel groups.
‡ If an available channel exists according to the preceding decision, obtain all

channel groups that can be allocated to MSs based on the MS multi-timeslot


capability.

187
Data Configuration

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page16

z PDCH Uplink Multiplex Threshold


‡ Description: This parameter specifies the PDCH uplink multiplex threshold.The
uplink PDCH can carry a maximum of (threshold/10) TBFs.
‡ Value Range: [10,70] Default Value: 70
‡ Configuration Policy: If this parameter is set to a lower value, the TBFs
established on the PDCH and the subscribers are fewer, and the uplink
bandwidth for each subscriber is higherIf this threshold is set to a higher value,
the TBFs established on the PDCH and the subscribers are more, and the uplink
bandwidth for each subscriber is lower.
z PDCH Downlink Multiplex Threshold
‡ Description: This parameter specifies the PDCH downlink multiplex
threshold.The downlink PDCH can carry a maximum of (threshold/10) TBFs.
‡ Value Range: [10,160] Default Value: 80
‡ Configuration Policy: If this parameter is set to a lower value, the TBFs
established on the PDCH and the subscribers are fewer, and the downlink
bandwidth for each subscriber is higher.If this threshold is set to a higher value,
the TBFs established on the PDCH and the subscribers are more, and the
downlink bandwidth for each subscriber is lower.

188
Data Configuration

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page17

z Allow E Down G Up Switch


‡ Description: This parameter specifies whether to enable the multiplexing of
EDGE download and GPRS upload onto the same channel. If this parameter is
set to Open, the EDGE download and GPRS upload can use the same
channel;If this parameter is set to Close, the EDGE download and GPRS upload
cannot use the same channel.In dynamic allocation or extended dynamic mode,
the downlink block must use the GMSK coding scheme (including CS1-4,
MCS1-4) to detect the USF assigned for the uplink by the GPRS MS. Then, the
downlink cannot use the high-rate coding scheme, thus decreasing the EGPRS
rate.If the Allow E Down G Up Switch is set to Open, this can prevent the
EGPRS downlink and GPRS uplink from multiplexing the same channel to
ensure the EGPRS rate. However, the channel needs to be properly allocated,
the GPRS channel configured is to prevent decreasing the access of the GPRS
MS due to no GPRS channel.If the Allow E Down G Up Switch is set to Close,
the downlink uses the GMSK coding scheme, thus decreasing the EGPRS
rate.At present, this parameter is usually set to Open.
‡ Value Range: [Open,Close] Default Value: Open

189
BITMAP Mapping of Available Channel
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
B SD TF GS EN EN ES EP GPRS service BITMAP
mapping: 00010100
GPRS service BITMAP EGPRS service BITMAP
User
mapping: 00011101 multiplexing mapping: 00000111
is full.
EGPRS service BITMAP
mapping: 00001111
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
B SD TF GS EN EN ES EP
Allow E Down G Up
Switch is OFF. The
EGPRS downlink
multiplexing is not The EGPRS
full. subscriber is available
and the multiplexing is
not full.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Uplink GPRS service BITMAP
B SD TF GS EN EN ES EP mapping: 00010101
Downlink GPRS service BITMAP
EGPRS service BITMAP mapping:
mapping: 00011101
00001111

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page18

z Channel type:
„ B: BCCH channel
„ SD: SDCCH channel
„ TF: TCH full rate channel
„ GS: GPRS special channel
„ EN: EGPRS normal channel
„ ES: EGPRS special channel
„ EP: EGPRS priority channel
z In the case of the existing channel resources, generate the corresponding available
channel BITMAP according to the service type. See the preceding example.
‡ In the case of the request for allocating uplink channel, the allocation fails when
the number of the multiplexed uplink TBFs on the channel is equal to or greater
than 【PDCH Uplink Multiplex Threshold】. In the case of the request for
allocating downlink, the allocation fails when the number of the multiplexed
downlink TBFs on the channel is equal to or greater than 【PDCH Downlink
Multiplex Threshold】.
‡ The EGPRS special channel cannot be allocated for the GPRS request. The
GPRS channel cannot be allocated for the EGPRS request.
‡ The EGPRS priority channel occupied by the EGPRS (including the uplink and
downlink) cannot be allocated for the GPRS.
‡ When 【Allow E Down G Up Switch】 is off, if the EGPRS downlink is
available, the resource should be allocated to the GPRS uplink. If the GPRS
uplink is available, the resource cannot be allocated to the EGPRS downlink.
190
z All available channel groups are generated through the AND and OR operations among
the BITMAP mapping of available channels and all possible BITMP tables of
Obtaining the Assignable Channel Group
z The bitmap mapping of multi-timeslot ability. For
example for 4 multi-timeslots ability

Enable “Allocate Continuous Disable “Allocate Continuous


Timeslot Switch” (by default ) Timeslot Switch”

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page19

“Allocate Continuous Timeslot Switch” can not be configured.

191
Obtaining the Downlink Channel Group
Number of
Channels
Contained
in the Channel
Group/
MS Multi-timeslot
Consecutive Capability EDA
timeslot Function

Obtain
the
downlin
k channel
TAI/TFI group Cooperation
Resource TBF

Frequency Receive/send
Hopping Sharing
Parameter Timeslot

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page20

z After obtaining the allocable channel group, attempt to obtain available uplink or
downlink channel group of a TRX according to the service status. The method for
obtaining the downlink channel group is as follows:
z If the number of channels contained in the assignable channel group in the TRX is
smaller than or equal to the MS multi-timeslot capability channel group, these channel
groups can be used for the allocation.
‡ If the MS multi-timeslot capability is unknown, up to one PDCH is allocated.
‡ If the MS multi-timeslot capability is known, the maximum number of channels
supported by the MS multi-timeslot capability is allocated.
z The channel group supports multi-timeslot capability meeting the MS. For type 1 or 2
MS, check the following (for type 1 MS, the simultaneous receiving and transmitting is
not allowed. For type 2 MS, the simultaneous receiving and transmitting is allowed).
‡ Calculate the number of received and transmitted timeslots of a TDMA frame.
‡ Check whether the number of received and transmitted timeslots meets the
multi-timeslot capability.
‡ For the MSs with the multi-timeslot levels from 1 to 12, check whether the
timeslot sum of the receiving and transmitting is in the range [1, Sum].
‡ Make sure that the transmitting timeslot does not exist between two receiving
timeslots in a TDMA frame.
‡ Make sure that the receiving timeslot does not exist between two transmitting
timeslots in a TDMA frame.

192
‡ Check whether the Tta, Ttb, Tra, and Trb conditions of multi-timeslot capability
are met, that is,
„ Time of the channel group supporting the MS from neighbor cell power
measurement to transmitting (number of timeslots) Tta
„ Time of the channel group supporting the MS transmitting (number of
timeslots) Ttb
„ Time of the channel group supporting the MS from neighbor cell power
measurement to receiving (number of timeslots) Tra
„ Time of the channel group supporting the MS receiving (number of
timeslots) Trb

193
Obtaining the Uplink Channel Group
(Non-EDA Mode)
Number of
Channels
Consecutive
Contained
Timeslot
in the Channel
Group

Obtain the
TAI/TFI Uplink Cooperation
Resource Channel TBF
Group

Frequency MS
Hopping multi-timeslot
Parameter Capability

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page22

z In non-EDA mode, consider the following factors when obtaining the uplink channel group:
‡ The number of channels contained in the channel group is less than or equal to the
maximum number of assignable channels.
‡ The timeslots that carry the channels must be consecutive.
‡ For the cooperation TBF, consider the following items:
„ If the cooperation TBF does not exist, the channel with the largest timeslot
number in the uplink channel group must able to be assigned to the downlink.
„ If the cooperation TBF exists, the control channel of the channel group must be
the same as the control channel of the cooperation TBF, and the control channel
of the cooperation TBF must have TAI resources. If there are m timeslots
allocated to the channel group and n timeslots allocated to the cooperation TBF,
there should be Min (m, n) timeslots for transmission and reception.
‡ The frequency parameters (MAIO, HSN) of the channels in the channel group must be
the same.
‡ The channel group assigned to the MS must match the multislot capability of the MS.
‡ The TFI and TAI resources are available for assignment.

194
Obtaining the Uplink Channel Group (EDA
Mode)
Channel
Group
Downlink
including
Channel
Channel
Number

Obtaining
TAI/TFI the Uplink Cooperation
Resource Channel TBF
Group

Frequency EDA
Hopping Function
Parameters

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page23

z When the BSC software parameter 【Support EDA】 is set to “Support”, and if the
MS supports EDA, then only one channel should be assigned on the downlink. Note this
channel corresponds to the timeslot numbered smallest of the uplink channel group.
z If the cooperation TBF exists, the control channel of the channel group must be the
same as the control channel of the cooperation TBF, and the control channel of the
cooperation TBF must have TAI resources. If there are m timeslots allocated to the
channel group and n timeslots allocated to the cooperation TBF, there should be Min (m,
n) timeslots for transmission and reception.
‡ Note: The uplink (or downlink) TBF of the MS is the cooperation TBF of the
downlink (or uplink) TBF.
z If the number of receiving timeslots of the MS is m and the number of transmitting
timeslots of the MS is n, there must be Min (m, n) same timeslots in the transmitting and
receiving timeslots.
z The frequency parameter (MAIO, HSN) of the channel in the channel group must be the
same. If the frequency parameter of the channel in the channel group is different, the
channel group cannot be allocated.
z The TFI and TAI resources exist in the channel group.
z The timeslots that carry the channels must be consecutive.

195
Data Configuration

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page24

z Support EDA
‡ Description:This parameter specifies whether the EDA is supported.
‡ Value Range:[Not Support,Support]
‡ Default Value:Not Support
z Allow EDA Multiplex
‡ Description:This parameter specifies whether the EDA multiplexing is allowed.
‡ Value Range:[Not Allow,Allow]
‡ Default Value:Not Allow

196
Calculating the Weight of the Allocable
Channel
Weight table
Priority of Priority of Priority of the Priority of number Priority of the
Priority of Reserved
non-double timeslot number of channels load of of estimated downlink channel group
service type
channels in the channel group channel groups channels bandwidth
31 30 29-27 26-20 19-17 16-1 0

Higher priority

Weight table Extended weight table


Lower priority

Priority of the Priority of Priority of the


Reserved Reserved
downlink bandwidth of the channel type channel group
estimated channel group timeslot ID

31 30-15 14-10 9-6 5-0

Extended weight table

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page25

z If there are channels groups available for assignment, their weight must be calculated to
select the optimal channel group for the MS. The following describes the channel weight
table and channel extension weight table.
z After comparing the weights of the assignable channel groups on the basis of the channel
weight table and channel extension weight table, the optimal channel group for assignment
is determined.
z The channel extension weight table is used only when two channel groups have the same
weight.
z The following describes the factors listed in the channel weight table.
‡ Bit 31 service type priority: When the EGPRS service is requested, the EGPRS
channel is allocated with priority and is set to 1.
‡ Bit 30 Non- double timeslot channel priority: Check whether it is the double timeslot
channel. According to the situation of the actual TA, set the weight of the non
double-timeslot channel and double-timeslot channel. If TA is larger than 63, it
indicates the high priority for the double timeslot TRX. Otherwise, it indicates the
high priority for the common TRX.
‡ Bits 29 to 27 (priority of the number of channels in the channel group): This field
specifies the number of channels in a channel group.
‡ Bit 26-30 channel group load priority: It indicates the total number of MSs
multiplexed on the channel. The larger the total number of MSs, the lower the
assigned value and the priority.
‡ Bit 19-17 number of estimated downlink channels priority: For the uplink TBF, the
number of allocable channels can be estimated when the service type is neutral or
downlink priority. The larger the number of downlink channels, the higher the priority.

197
‡ Bits 16 to 1 (priority of the bandwidth of the channel group): The higher the bit
rate provided by a channel group, the higher the priority of the channel group.
z When the BSC software parameter 【Support EDA】 is set to 【Support】, and if the
MS supports EDA and uplink service is preferred, the rules for determining the uplink
channel group are as follows:
‡ The number of channels contained in the channel group is less than or equal to
the maximum number of assignable channels.
‡ The number of channels contained in the channel group is greater than or equal
to 3.
‡ If the cooperation TBF does not exist, the downlink channel corresponding to the
timeslot numbered smallest of the uplink channel group must be assignable; that
is, the uplink threshold is not exceeded.
‡ Only one channel is assigned on the downlink, and the timeslot number of the
timeslot that carries the channel must be the smallest.
‡ If the BSC software parameter 【Allow EDA Multiplex】 is set to 【Not
Allow】, then any channel in the channel group cannot be multiplexed with
other MSs.
‡ The frequency parameters (MAIO, HSN) of the channels in the channel group
must be the same.
‡ The TFI and TAI resources are available for assignment.

198
Contents
1. Packet Radio Resource Management Algorithm Overview

2. Packet Channel Assignment Algorithm

3. Packet Channel Conversion Algorithm

4. Packet Channel Release Algorithm

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page27

199
Triggering Conditions of Dynamic
Channel Application
Multi-
Failure to timeslot
allocate the capability is
PDCH not met

Failure to Apply for the dynamic EGPRS


assign a preemption
single block
channel

Channel load
Channel exceeding
reserved the threshold

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page28

z In the case of applying for dynamic channels, check whether the cell is allowed to trigger the
dynamic channel conversion to increase the number of PDCHs according to the cell channel
resource, CPU load, and license. The number of PDCHs does not increase by triggering the
dynamic channel conversion in the cell when one of the following cases occurs.
‡ Channel resources
„ The number of PDCHs activated in the cell is greater than the upper threshold
of the maximum PDCH ratio.
„ The number of convertible TCHs in the cell is equal to or smaller than the
number of reserved TCHs (specified by the Reservation Threshold of
Dynamic Channel Conversion).
„ EGPRS MSs occupy the GPRS channel.
‡ CPU load: If the CPU utilization is high, the dynamic channel conversion is stopped.
‡ License: In the case of the license control, the dynamic channel conversion is not
triggered if the activated PDCH channel is available (that is, the current logical type is
PDCH).
z When any of the preceding conditions is not met, cell conversion is allowed. According to the
triggering condition of the dynamic channel conversion, determine whether the subscriber
needs to triggers the dynamic channel conversion. That is, dynamic channel application is
triggered when any of the following conditions occurs:
‡ Multi-timeslot capability
„ The assignment of the PDCHs to the MS fails.
„ The assignment of the PDCHs to the MS succeeds, but the PDCHs do not
meet the multislot capability requirement of the MS.
‡ Load 200

„ Failure to assign a single block for MSs


Data Configuration

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page29

z Maximum Ratio Threshold of PDCHs in a Cell


‡ Description:This parameter specifies the maximum ratio of PDCHs in a cell.
The total number of TCHs and PDCHs available in a cell is fixed. The PDCH
ratio is equal to PDCHs / (TCHs + static PDCHs). This parameter determines the
proportion of PDCHs to the total number of TCHs + PDCHs.
‡ Value Range:[0,100] Default Value:30 Unit:%
‡ Configuration Policy:If this parameter is set to an excessive value, there are
excessive PDCHs and insufficient TCHs. This affects CS services. If this
parameter is set to a modest value, there are insufficient PDCHs and excessive
TCHs. This affects PS services.
z Uplink Multiplex Threshold of Dynamic Channel Conversion
‡ Description:This parameter specifies the uplink multiplex threshold of dynamic
channel conversion.When the number of subscribers carried over the channel
reaches the threshold/10, dynamic channels are used.
‡ Value Range:[10,70] Default Value:20
‡ Configuration Policy:If this threshold is high, it is difficult to seize dynamic
channels. If this threshold is low, it is easy to seize dynamic channels.

201
z Downlink Multiplex Threshold of Dynamic Channel Conversion
‡ Description:This parameter specifies the downlink multiplex threshold of
dynamic channel conversion.When the number of subscribers carried over the
channel reaches the threshold/10, dynamic channels are used.
‡ Value Range:[10,80] Default Value:20
z Level of Preempting Dynamic Channel
‡ Description:This parameter specifies the levels of dynamic channels
preempted by CS services and PS services. Only full-rate TCHs are the dynamic
channels that can be preempted. Preempt all dynamic TCHFs: It indicates that
the CS services can preempt all the dynamic channels.No preempt of CCHs: It
indicates that the CS services can preempt all the dynamic channels except for
the control channels.No preempt of service TCHF: It indicates that the CS
services cannot preempt the dynamic channels that carry services.
‡ Value Range:[Preempt all dynamic TCHFs,No preempt of CCHs,No preempt
of service TCHF] Default Value:Preempt all dynamic TCHFs
z Reservation Threshold of Dynamic Channel Conversion
‡ Description:This parameter specifies the number of channels reserved for the
CS services.
‡ Value Range:[0,8] Default Value:2

202
Process of Dynamic Channel
Application
Start

Obtain the number of


applied dynamic channels

No
Is the convertible
TRX available?

Yes
Obtain the weight
maximum TRX

Obtain the convertible dynamic


channel

End

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page31

z When the condition for triggering dynamic channel application is met, start the dynamic
channel application process.
z The procedure is as follows:
‡ Obtain the number of dynamic channels through calculation.
‡ Calculate the TRX weight and obtain the highest TRX of the weight.
‡ Locate the dynamic channel bitmap on the TRX and start to apply for the
appropriate dynamic channel.

203
Obtaining the Number of Applied
Dynamic Channels
z Multi-timeslot capability:
‡ Fail to allocate the PDCH. The MS multi-timeslot capability is
unknown.

‡ The allocation of the PDCH for the MS is successful. The MS multi-


timeslot capability is not met.

z Load:
‡ The load reaches Uplink/Downlink Multiplex Threshold of Dynamic
Channel Conversion

‡ Pre-application for the PDCH

‡ Failure to assign a single block for terminals

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page32

z The method for obtaining the number of dynamic channels for request conversion is as
follows:
z Multi-timeslot capability
‡ If the assignment of the PDCH to the MS fails, and if the multislot capability of
the MS is unknown, then the number of dynamic channels requested for
conversion is 1; if the multislot capability of the MS is known, the number of
dynamic channels requested for conversion is equal to the number of timeslots
supported by the MS.
‡ If the assignment of the PDCHs to the MS succeeds, but the PDCHs do not
meet the multislot capability of the MS, then the number of dynamic channels
requested for conversion is: maximum number of channels supported by the
multislot capable MS – number of channels assigned to the MS.
‡ The channel conversion type of the preceding two causes is the multi-timeslot
capability.
z Load
‡ The dynamic channel conversion is triggered due to the restriction by
【Uplink/Downlink Multiplex Threshold of Dynamic Channel Conversion】,
to request for calculating the number of converted dynamic channels. The
method is as follows:
„ Assume that the number of dynamic channels requested for conversion
is X, the multiplexing dynamic channel conversion threshold is H, total
number of uplink TBFs of the cell downlink PDCH channels is S, and the
number of downlink PDCHs in the cell is M. The formula is as follows:
X = S × 10/H – M + 1
This formula is used to check whether the channel resources are
sufficient. The dynamic channel can be applied for when the multiplexing
204
dynamic channel conversion threshold is exceeded. The number of
dynamic channels applied for is equal to the number of the part of load
Obtaining the Convertible
No

TRX Concentric cell or


not?

Yes
Specify the overlaid No
Start subcell or underlaid
subcell?

Yes
No
Multi-band cell? Specify the TRX of the concentric
subcell attribute
Yes

Is the MS band support


No capability known? Yes Select the TRX corresponding to
the service of triggering dynamic
channel application
Main BCCH TRX band and TRX of
the band being compatible with the Bands supported by the MS
main BCCH TRX

Select the TRX where the number of


PDCHs is smaller than
No
Double-timeslot Maximum PDCH number of carrier.
extension cell?

Yes
No Obtain the convertible
TA>63? channel bitmap on the
TRX
Yes
Select the double-timeslot
extension TRX End

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page33

z The TRXs that carry the dynamic channels must be specified prior to the dynamic
channel conversion. The rules for determining the TRXs are as follows:
z For a multi-band cell, the band supported by MSs must be taken into account.
‡ If the MS radio access capability is unknown, only the main BCCH band and the
frequency bands compatible with the main BCCH band is selected.
‡ If the MS radio access capability is known, only the band supported by the MS is
selected.
z For a double timeslot extended cell, if the TA reported by the MS is greater than 63, the
double timeslot extended TRXs should be selected.
z For a concentric cell, the concentric attribute of the TRX carrying the dynamic channels
must be taken into account when performing dynamic channel conversion. The cell
attribute parameter concerned is 【Dynamic Channel Conversion Parameter of
Concentric Cell】. See the following table for details.
‡ If the overlaid subcell or underlaid subcell is specified when requesting PDCH
assignment, and if the channel assignment on the specified subcell fails, then
the dynamic channel conversion in the specified subcell is triggered.
z The TRX of supporting the service is selected according to the service type.
‡ For the dynamic channel conversion triggered by the EDGE service, the
minimum type of the converted dynamic channel is EGPRS TRX TCH.
‡ For the dynamic channel conversion triggered by the GPRS service, the
minimum type of the converted dynamic channel is GPRS TRX TCH.
z Select the TRX on which the number of PDCHs carried is less than that specified by the
TRX attribute parameter 【Maximum PDCH numbers of carrier】.
z Obtain the convertible channel bitmap on the TRX for selecting the optimal dynamic
channel (group). If the dynamic channel conversion type is the multi-timeslot capability,
the convertible channel bitmap on the TRX consists of the TCH channel and available 205
PDCH channel. If the dynamic channel conversion type is load, the convertible channel
Obtaining the Weight Maximum
TRX
TRX conversion weight table

31 30 29 Weight table 2 10
Higher priority Lower priority

Priority of number of
Priority of Priority Priority Priority of number Distance Band
maximum consecutive
main BCCH of the number of the number of of convertible convertible dynamic priority priority
TRX of PDCHs static PDCHs dynamic channels channels
19 18-15 14-12 11-9 8-6 5-3 2-0

Priority of Concentric Priority of Priority of the Priority of Priority of the Frequency Interference
power amplifier cell double timeslot EDGE conversion dynamic hopping priority
Switch priority TRX TRX request satisfaction PDCH channel priority

31-30 29 28 27 26 25-24 23 22-20

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page34

z The TRX with the highest weight should be selected as the optimal TRX for conversion. The following
describes the factors listed in the TRX extension weight table:
‡ Bits 31 and 30 (priority of the TRX power amplifier switch): If the switch of the power amplifier
of a TRX is turned on, the priority of the TRX is higher; if the switch of the power amplifier of a
TRX is turned off, the priority of the TRX is lower.
‡ Bit 29 (Subcell priority): When the requested subcell attribute and the TRX subcell attribute
are the same, the value is 1. Otherwise, the value is 0. If the subcell attribute is not specified
or the access is initial, the underlaid subcell is preferred.
‡ Bit 28: Double-timeslot TRX priority. For the single timeslot TRX, the priority is high. For the
double timeslot TRX, the priority is lower.
‡ Bit 27: EDGE TRX priority (valid only for BTS in the earlier versions such as BTS312 and
BTS3012). For the EGPRS TBF, the EGPRS TRX is preferred. For the GPRS TBF, the GPRS
TRX is preferred.
‡ Bit 26 (priority indicating whether the TRX meets the conversion request): If the number of
convertible dynamic channels on the TRX is equal to or greater than the number of dynamic
channels for request conversion, it is set to the higher priority.
‡ Bit 25 to 24 (TRX dynamic PDCH attribute priority): The highest priority in the channel
attribute priority of all TRX traffic channels (including the converted or configured static
PDCHs) is the priority of the TRX. For the EGPRS TBF, the priorities of the PDCH attributes
from the high to low is {EGPRS special channel, EGPRS priority channel, EGPRS normal
channel, and GPRS channel}, with the corresponding weights 3, 2, 1, and 0 respectively. For
the GPRS TBF, the priorities of the PDCH attributes from the high to low is {GPRS channel,
EGPRS normal channel, EGPRS priority channel, EGPRS special channel}, with the
corresponding weights 3, 2, 1, and 0 respectively.

206
z Please refer to the notes

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page35

‡ Bit 23 (frequency hopping attribute priority): The priority of the TRX without involving the TRX is
higher.
‡ Bit 22 to 20 (TRX interference priority): The priority of the TRX with lower interference is higher.
‡ Bit 19 (priority indicating whether the TRX is the main BCCH TRX): The priority of the main BCCH
TRX is higher.
‡ Bit 18 to 15 (PDCH quantity priority over the TRX): The more the PDCH quantity is, the higher the
priority is (the weight is valid when the number of convertible dynamic channels over the TRX is
equal to or greater than 1).
‡ Bit 14 to 12 (static PDCH quantity priority over the TRX): The more the static PDCH is, the higher
the priority is (the weight is valid when the number of convertible dynamic channels over the TRX is
equal to or greater than 1). The maximum value is 7.
‡ Bit 11 to 9 (priority of the number of convertible dynamic channels on the TRX): The more the
convertible dynamic channels are, the higher the priority is (When the number of convertible
dynamic channels on the TRX is smaller than the number of dynamic channels requested for the
conversion, the weight is valid).
‡ Bit 8 to 6 (priority of the maximum number of consecutive convertible dynamic channels on the
TRX): The larger the maximum number of consecutive convertible dynamic channels is, the higher
the priority is.
‡ Bit 5 to 3 (priority of distance between the maximum number of consecutive convertible dynamic
channels on the TRX and other convertible dynamic channel groups): The shorter the distance is,
the higher the priority is.
‡ Bit 2 to 0 (TRX band priority): The priority of the band differing from the main BCCH TRX band is
high. Otherwise, the priority is low. The priority of two sets of main BCCH same band or main
BCCH different band are as follows (from high to low):
„ 900M band: P band < E band < R band
„ 1800M/1900M band: Only 1800M band or 1900M band exists on a network. Therefore,
only one priority needs to be defined.
„ 850 band
„ 450 band 207

„ 480 band
Obtaining the Convertible Dynamic Channel
z Select the timeslot where the initial configuration is set to TCHF
‡ You are not allowed to adjust the timeslot where the initial configuration is set to
TCHH.

z Consider the value of 【Whether to Allow to Re-adjust the PDCH】

‡ When the value is set to Not allow, select only the idle TCHF or the timeslot
where two TCHHs of the same timeslot are idle.

‡ When the value is set to Allow, all timeslots of the TCH type can be selected,
regardless of whether the TCHH or TCHF of this timeslot is occupied.

z If an independent GPRS request triggers the dynamic conversion, the EGPRS


special channel is not selected. If an independent EGPRS request triggers the
dynamic channel conversion, the GPRS channel is not selected.

z When multiple dynamic channels are selected for the conversion, the
conversion is performed according to the sequence of the timeslot numbers 6, 5,
7, 4, 3, 2, 1, and 0.

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page36

z After selecting the optimal conversion TRX, select the convertible dynamic channel on
the TRX according to the requirement. The dynamic channel is not converted when any
of the following occurs:
‡ The number of channels to be converted is equal to or smaller than the number
of channels being converted.
‡ The number of Abis timeslots on the TRX is greater than or equal to the number
specified by the TRX attribute parameter MaxAbisTSOccupied.
‡ The number of PDCHs on the TRX is greater than or equal to the number
specified by the TRX attribute parameter Maximum PDCH numbers of carrier.
‡ The number of PDCHs in a cell is greater than or equal to the maximum number
of PDCHs allowed in a cell.
‡ The maximum number of PDCHs allowed in a cell can be calculated on the
basis of the cell attribute parameter Maximum Ratio Threshold of PDCHs in a
Cell. The formula is as follows:
„ Maximum number of PDCHs allowed in a cell = Maximum Ratio
Threshold of PDCHs in a Cell x number of TCHs and PDCHs in a
cell/100
z CS Repacking function is controlled by PDCH reforming. When PDCH reforming is
set to Allow, the CS Repacking is functional. That is, it is functional when the dynamic
PDCH applying for the conversion is occupied by CS services. If the local cell has the
idle TCH resources, these CS services are switched to the idle TCH. If the idle TCH is
unavailable and Level of Preempting Dynamic Channel is set to All dynamic
channels carrying services not-preempted, the system initiates the forcible release
for the CS service. As a result, the CS calls are dropped. If Level of Preempting
Dynamic Channel is set to All dynamic channels preempted or control channel not-
preempted, the application for converting the dynamic PDCH fails.
208
Data Configuration

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page37

z Maximum PDCH numbers of carrier


‡ Description:This parameter specifies the maximum number of PDCHs
allocated to a TRX.
‡ Value Range:[0,8] Default Value:8
z MaxAbisTSOccupied
‡ Description:This parameter specifies the maximum number of Abis timeslots
occupied by the PDCHs on a TRX.
‡ Value Range:[0,32] Default Value:32

209
Contents
1. Packet Radio Resource Management Algorithm Overview

2. Packet Channel Assignment Algorithm

3. Packet Channel Conversion Algorithm

4. Packet Channel Release Algorithm

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page38

210
General Process of Dynamic Channel Release
CS channels are
insufficient and
CECHM receives the
request for releasing
channels

Obtain the TRX of releasing


dynamic channels

No
Is the TRX obtained
successfully?

Yes

Release the channel with


the highest priority

Recall the dynamic PDCH with load


Release the PDCH resource

End

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page39

z When CS services are busy, the CS services may preempt the dynamic channel of the
PS according to the data configuration because the TCH of the CS is deficient. As a
result, the preceding process is triggered.
z The first step to release channel is to obtain the appropriate TRX of dynamic channel,
with considering the requirements of the band and concentric cell.
‡ The band must be available and the congestion cannot occur.
‡ The frequency bands supported by the TRX must be the same as requested by
the CS services.
‡ For the concentric cell, the overlaid/underlaid subcell attribute of the TRX must
meet the requirement of the CS services on the overlaid/underlaid subcell.
„ When the CS requests the overlaid subcell or underlaid subcell, only the
overlaid subcell or underlaid subcell can be selected.
„ When the CS requests the preferred underlaid subcell, the priority of the
underlaid TRX is higher.
„ When the CS requests the preferred overlaid subcell, the priority of the
overlaid TRX is higher.
z Determine the TRX to release the dynamic channel information. Release the weight
ratio for the target TRX. Then select the channel with the maximum weight for initiating
the release.
z In another case, the timing release of the idle dynamic channel is controlled by Timer of
Releasing Idle Dynamic Channel.
‡ If the value is large, the idle channel fails to be released. As a result, resource is
wasted.
‡ If the value is small, the dynamic channel can be released easily. The
conversion may be triggered if required. As a result, the conversion is performed 211
repeatedly.
Obtaining the Dynamic Channel to be
Released
Channel release weight table

31 30 29 Weight table 2 10
Higher priority Lower priority

Priority of the Priority of the Priority of Priority of Priority of


number of fixed number TRX type channel type timeslot Reserved
channels of PDCHs ID sequence

19-17 16-14 13 12-11 10-8 7-0

Concentric Priority of idle Priority of the Priority of Priority of the


cell priority dynamic number of reserved number of
channels control channels channels dynamic TBFs

31-30 29 28-25 24 23-20

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page40

z Whether to release the channel is specified by 【Level of Preempting Dynamic


Channel】.
‡ When the value is set to 【Preempt all dynamic TCHFs】, the dynamic PDCH
can be released.
‡ When the value is set to 【No preempt of CCHs】, the dynamic PDCH of the
control channel cannot be released.
‡ When the value is set to 【No preempt of service TCHF】, the channels
cannot be preempted if a service exists on this channel. If this channel is idle,
the resource is released actively after relevant PS timers expire when 【PDCH
reforming】 is set to Allow.
z Release the dynamic channel with the highest priority.
z To select the optimal dynamic channel, calculate the priority of each dynamic channel in
the TRX of the dynamic channel to generate the dynamic channel release weight table.
See the preceding table. The factors in detail to be considered are as follows (select the
dynamic channel with the greatest weight value for the release):
‡ Bits 31 and 30: priority of the concentric cell attribute
‡ Bit 29 (priority of the idle dynamic channel): An idle dynamic channel has a
higher priority of being released.

212
‡ Bits 28 to 25 (priority of the number of control channels): The less number the
dynamic channels are used as control channels, the higher the priority of the
dynamic channels are being released.
‡ Bit 24 (priority of reserved channels): During the PDCH pre-application
conversion, the priority of the pre-applied channel is low.
‡ Bits 23 to 20 (priority of the number of TBFs on the dynamic channel): If fewer
TBFs are multiplexed on a dynamic channel, the priority of the dynamic channel
being released is higher.
‡ Bits 19 to 17 (priority of the number of fixed channels on the TRX): If fewer fixed
channels are carried on the TRX that carries a dynamic channel, the priority of
the dynamic channel being released is higher.
‡ Bits 16 to 14 (priority of the number of PDCHs on the TRX): If fewer PDCHs are
carried on the TRX that carries a dynamic channel, the priority of the dynamic
channel being released is higher.
‡ Bit 13 (priority of the TRX type): The dynamic channel carried on the GPRS
capable TRX has a higher priority of being released.
‡ Bits 12 and 11 (priority of channel type): The release priority in descending order
is as follows: GPRS channel, EGPRS normal channel, and EGPRS priority
channel.
‡ Bits 10 to 8 (priority of the timeslot sequence): The priorities of the dynamic
channels being released are decreased in the following order: TS0, TS1, TS2,
TS3, TS4, TS7, TS5, and TS6.

213
Data Configuration

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page42

z Timer of Releasing Idle Dynamic Channel


‡ Description:This parameter specifies the timer set to release the idle dynamic
channel after all TBFs on the dynamic channel are released.If all TBFs on a
dynamic channel are released, the dynamic channel is not released immediately.
Instead, a timer is started when the channel is idle.Before the timer expires, if
there are new services, the dynamic channel continues to be used and the timer
is stopped. When the timer expires, the dynamic channel is released.
‡ Value Range:[10,3600]
‡ Default Value:20
‡ Unit:Seconds
‡ Configuration Policy:If this parameter is set to an excessive value, the dynamic
channel resources may be wasted when there are no services for a long time. If
this parameter is set to a modest value, it is possible that a dynamic channel is
requested immediately after being released. Therefore, the dynamic channel
request is sent frequently.

214
Data Configuration

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page43

z PDCH reforming
‡ Description:This parameter specifies whether the PS services are allowed to
preempt the ongoing channel for CS services when "Level of Preempting
Dynamic Channel" is set to "No preempt of service TCHF".This parameter must
be used together with "Level of Preempting Dynamic Channel", the condition as
follows:1. When "Level of Preempting Dynamic Channel" is set to "No preempt
of service TCHF" and "PDCH Reforming" is set to Yes, PS services can preempt
the CS channel.2. When "Level of Preempting Dynamic Channel" is set to "No
preempt of service TCHF" and "PDCH Reforming" is set to No, PS services
cannot preempt the CS channel.
‡ Value Range:[No,Yes]
‡ Default Value:No
‡ Caution:When this parameter is used:1. "Level of Preempting Dynamic
Channel" must be set to "No preempt of service TCHF"; otherwise this
parameter is invalid.2. The number of TCH/F of current TRX must be more than
the value of the Reservation Threshold of Dynamic Channel Conversion
parameter.3. "Maximum Ratio Threshold of PDCHs in a Cell" must be set
properly; otherwise the TCH/F can not be changed to the PDCH because of the
low ratio.2 and 3 are optional.

215
Summary
z After studying this course, you will learn:
‡ PS channel allocation algorithm

‡ Dynamic channel conversion algorithm

‡ Dynamic channel release algorithm

z By learning the three algorithms, you should master the PS


channel management algorithm and load control policy of
the BSC6000.

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page44

216
Thank you
www.huawei.com

217
GPRS EDGE Radio
Network Optimization
Problem Analysis

www.huawei.com

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved.

218
Objectives

z Upon completion of this course, you will :

‡ Be familiar with the common problems arising in GPRS and


EDGE network optimization

‡ Master the common troubleshooting measures for the


problems discovered during GPRS and EDGE network
optimization

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 1

219
Contents
1. Low TBF Setup Success Ratio

2. Low Downloading Rate

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 2

220
TBF Setup Success Ratio

‡ Formula

‡ Common Analysis Method

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 3

221
Uplink TBF Setup Success Ratio Formula
1 – Air Interface Measured
Uplink GPRS TBF setup success ratio =

A9004: Number of Failed Uplink GPRS TBF Establishments due to MS No Response


1- X 100%
A9001: Number of Uplink GPRS TBF Establishment Attempts

Uplink EGPRS TBF setup success ratio =

1- A9204: Number of Failed Uplink EGPRS TBF Establishments due to MS No Response


X 100%
A9201: Number of Uplink EGPRS TBF Establishment Attempts

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 4

z The formula of the TBF setup success ratio varies with the measured objects.
z If the measured object is the air interface, the preceding formulas are used.
‡ For uplink TBF assignment: If the first uplink data block from the MS is not
received at the network side after an assignment command is sent from the
network side, an uplink TBF setup failure due to no response from MS is counted.
z All the preceding counters are cell-level counters. The system also supports BSC-level
counters as follows:
‡ ZA9001: uplink GPRS TBF setup attempts within the BSC
‡ ZA9004: uplink GPRS TBF setup failures due to no response from MS within the
BSC
‡ ZA9201: uplink EGPRS TBF setup attempts within the BSC
‡ ZA9204: uplink EGPRS TBF setup failures due to no response from MS within
the BSC
z For particular values of the preceding counters, see the GPRS and EDGE traffic
statistics.

222
Downlink TBF Setup Success Ratio
Formula 1 – Air Interface Measured
Downlink GPRS TBF setup success ratio =

A9104: Number of Failed Downlink GPRS TBF Establishments due to MS No Response


1- x 100%
A9101: Number of Downlink GPRS TBF Establishment Attempts

Downlink EGPRS TBF setup success ratio =

A9304: Number of Failed Downlink EGPRS TBF Establishments due to MS No Response


1- x 100%
A9301: Number of Downlink EGPRS TBF Establishment Attempts

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 5

z The formula of the TBF setup success ratio varies with the measured objects.
z If the measured object is the air interface, the preceding formulas are used.
‡ For downlink TBF assignment: If no Packet Control Acknowledgement message
from the MS is received at the network side after an assignment command is sent
from the network side, a downlink TBF setup failure due to no response from MS
is counted.
z All the preceding counters are cell-level counters. The system also supports BSC-level
counters as follows:
‡ ZA9101: downlink GPRS TBF setup attempts within the BSC
‡ ZA9104: downlink GPRS TBF setup failures due to no response from MS within
the BSC
‡ ZA9301: downlink EGPRS TBF setup attempts within the BSC
‡ ZA9304: downlink EGPRS TBF setup failures due to no response from MS within
the BSC
z For particular values of the preceding counters, see the GPRS and EDGE traffic
statistics.

223
Uplink TBF Setup Success Ratio Formula
2 – Resources Measured
Uplink GPRS TBF setup success ratio =

A9003: Number of Failed Uplink GPRS TBF Establishments due to No Channel


1- x 100%
A9001: Number of Uplink GPRS TBF Establishment Attempts

Uplink EGPRS TBF setup success ratio =

A9203: Number of Failed Uplink GPRS TBF Establishments due to No Channel


1- X 100%
A9201: Number of Uplink EGPRS TBF Establishment Attempts

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 6

z The formula of the TBF setup success ratio varies with the measured objects.
z If the measured object is the channel resources, the preceding formulas are used.
‡ For uplink TBF assignment: If the network side sends an assignment rejection
message upon the channel request from the MS due to lack of channel resources
(including channels, TFI, and USF), an uplink TBF setup failure due to lack of
channel resources is counted.
z All the preceding counters are cell-level counters. The system also supports BSC-level
counters as follows:
‡ ZA9001: uplink GPRS TBF setup attempts within the BSC
‡ ZA9003: uplink GPRS TBF setup failures due to lack of channel resources within
the BSC
‡ ZA9201: uplink EGPRS TBF setup attempts within the BSC
‡ ZA9203: uplink EGPRS TBF setup failures due to lack of channel resources
within the BSC
z For particular values of the preceding counters, see the GPRS and EDGE traffic
statistics.

224
Downlink TBF Setup Success Ratio
Formula 2 – Resources Measured
Downlink GPRS TBF setup success ratio =

A9103: Number of Failed Downlink GPRS TBF Establishments due to No Channel


x 100%
1-
A9101: Number of Downlink GPRS TBF Establishment Attempts

Downlink EGPRS TBF setup success ratio =

A9303: Number of Failed Downlink EGPRS TBF Establishments due to No Channel


x 100%
1- A9301: Number of Downlink EGPRS TBF Establishment Attempts

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 7

z The formula of the TBF setup success ratio varies with the measured objects.
z If the measured object is the channel resources, the preceding formulas are used.
‡ For downlink TBF assignment: If the downlink TBF setup fails due to lack of
channel resources (including channels, TFI, and USF) at the network side, a
downlink TBF setup failure due to lack of channel resources is counted.
z All the preceding counters are cell-level counters. The system also supports BSC-level
counters as follows:
‡ ZA9101: downlink GPRS TBF setup attempts within the BSC
‡ ZA9103: downlink GPRS TBF setup failures due to lack of channel resources
within the BSC
‡ ZA9301: downlink EGPRS TBF setup attempts within the BSC
‡ ZA9303: downlink EGPRS TBF setup failures due to lack of channel resources
within the BSC
z For particular values of the preceding counters, see the GPRS and EDGE traffic
statistics.

225
Uplink TBF Setup Success Ratio Formula 3 –
Both Air Interface and Resources Measured
Uplink GPRS TBF setup success ratio =

A9002: Number of Successful Uplink GPRS TBF Establishments


x 100%
A9001: Number of Uplink GPRS TBF Establishment Attempts

Uplink EGPRS TBF setup success ratio =

A9202: Number of Successful Uplink EGPRS TBF Establishments


x 100%
A9201: Number of Uplink EGPRS TBF Establishment Attempts

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 8

z The formula of the TBF setup success ratio varies with the measured objects.
z If the measured object are the air interface and the channel resources, the preceding
formulas are used
‡ For uplink TBF assignment: Both the uplink TBF setup failures due to no
response from MS and those due to lack of channel resources are counted as
uplink TBF setup failures.
z All the preceding counters are cell-level counters. The system also supports BSC-level
counters as follows:
‡ ZA9001: uplink GPRS TBF setup attempts within the BSC
‡ ZA9002: uplink GPRS TBF setup successes within the BSC
‡ ZA9201: uplink EGPRS TBF setup attempts within the BSC
‡ ZA9202: uplink EGPRS TBF setup successes within the BSC
z For particular values of the preceding counters, see the GPRS and EDGE traffic
statistics.

226
Downlink TBF Setup Success Ratio Formula 3 –
Both Air Interface and Resources Measured
Downlink GPRS TBF setup success ratio =

A9102: Number of Successful Downlink GPRS TBF Establishments


x 100%
A9101: Number of Downlink GPRS TBF Establishment Attempts

Downlink EGPRS TBF setup success ratio =

A9302: Number of Successful Downlink EGPRS TBF Establishments


x 100%
A9301: Number of Downlink EGPRS TBF Establishment Attempts

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 9

z The formula of the TBF setup success ratio varies with the measured objects.
z If the measured object are the air interface and the channel resources, the preceding
formulas are used.
‡ For downlink TBF assignment: Both the downlink TBF setup failures due to no
response from MS and those due to lack of channel resources are counted as
downlink TBF setup failures.
z All the preceding counters are cell-level counters. The system also supports BSC-level
counters as follows:
‡ ZA9101: downlink GPRS TBF setup attempts within the BSC
‡ ZA9102: downlink GPRS TBF setup successes within the BSC
‡ ZA9301: downlink EGPRS TBF setup attempts within the BSC
‡ ZA9302: downlink EGPRS TBF setup successes within the BSC
z For particular values of the preceding counters, see the GPRS and EDGE traffic
statistics.

227
TBF Setup Success Ratio

‡ Formula

‡ Common Analysis Method

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 10

228
Low TBF Setup Success Ratio– Common
Analysis Process
Start

Analyze causes for the low TBF setup success ratio

Yes
Is the Abis interface faulty? Check transmission

No
CCCH overload
Is the assignment No
message delivered
normally? No channel
Yes

No Check traffic statistics


Is the air interface normal?
Perform a CQT
Yes

Is a response No
to the assignment and
polling available?
Inappropriate power
Errors of important Check CS domain
control parameter
message parameters
settings

End High rate coding Other incorrect Unbalanced uplink


scheme parameter settings and downlink

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 11

229
Low TBF Setup Success Ratio – Abis
Interface Transmission
z Check whether the Abis link is faulty.
‡ The downlink TBF setup might fail due to transmission problems such as out-
of-synchronization frames and intermittent interruption of the Abis link.

‡ Locate the transmission problems of the Abis interface by checking the G-Abis
frame error rate (FER) in the traffic statistics.

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 12

z RL9A08: FER = ([L9A02: number of received out-of-synchronization frames] + [L9A03:


number of received check error TRAU frames]) x {100}/([L9A02: number of received out-
of-synchronization frames]+[L9A03: number of received check error TRAU frames] +
[L9A01: number of received normal TRAU frames] + [L9A07: number of received
information TRAU frames])
‡ The number of received information TRAU frames equals the number of empty
TRAU frames.
z 1. In normal cases, the FER is lower than 10e-5 (that is, one out of ten thousand) and
one error frame occurs every four minutes in each channel. In this case, the link quality
is high and the MSs transfer data stably.
z 2. If the FER is lower than 10e-4 (one out of one thousand), one to three error frames
occur every minute and the link quality degrades. In this case, the affected MSs easily
suffer rate drop, longer transmission delay, or even call drops due to error frame bursts.
z 3. If the FER is higher than 10e-4, the transmission link is unstable and might easily
suffer out-of-synchronization. The number of out-of-synchronization frames increases. In
this case, the MSs support services with low data traffic (such as high-layer signaling
and low-volume WAP) only. Transmission of large-volume data (such as the FTP
service) is not supported.
z If a leased link (for example, microwave satellite) is used, an FER lower than 5‰ is
acceptable because the link quality is not controlled by the mobile operator. If the FER of
a cell remains high for a long time, it is regarded as a transmission problem and the
230
transmission link needs to be checked and optimized.
Low TBF Setup Success Ratio – Abis
Interface Transmission
z The transmission
quality of the Abis
interface can also
be monitored
through the
maintenance
console.
‡ Monitoring BER

‡ Monitoring port
fault seconds

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 13

z Function supported by both monitoring options:


‡ Monitor the BER of the E1/T1 ports and optical ports, thus learning the operation
conditions of the transmission link and ports.
z Definition of fault seconds:
‡ If one or more block errors are detected in a certain second, the second is called
a fault second.
z Differences between the two monitoring options:
‡ The Monitor BER function requires that remote loopback needs to be enabled at
the opposite end of the monitored port. The Monitor Port Fault Seconds
function, however, does not require remote loopback at the opposite end of the
monitored port.
‡ The unit sampling time of the Monitor BER function is configurable (ranging from
30 to 1000 milliseconds), while that of the Monitor Port Fault Seconds function
is fixed to 1 second.

231
Low TBF Setup Success Ratio – the
Assignment Message Fails to Be Delivered
z The assignment message might fail to be delivered due to the
following cause:
‡ CCCH overload
„ Refer to the following counters:
– L3188A: number of reported DELETE IND messages of the Abis interface
– L3188D: number of reported PACKET CCCH LOAD IND messages of the Abis
interface
– L3188E: number of reported OVERLOAD (CCCH overload) messages of the
Abis interface

„ To remove CCCH overload, add CCCH channels, split the location area, or
modify the CCCH load threshold and the T3168 timer.

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 14

z L3188A: number of reported DELETE IND messages of the Abis interface


‡ If the BTS deletes the IMM ASS CMD message sent by the BSC due to downlink
CCCH overload of the cell, the BTS reports a DELETE IND message to the BSC.
This counter is used to measure the number of the DELETE IND messages
received by the BSC from the measured cell.
z L3188D: number of reported PACKET CCCH LOAD IND messages of the Abis interface
‡ The BTS stores the paging messages sent through the downlink CCCH (PCH
channel) for circuit services and those for packet services in two different receive
buffer queues. If the length of either receive buffer queue exceeds the specified
threshold, it is indicated that downlink CCCH overload occurs. In this case, the
judges whether the overload is caused by excessive downlink packet services or
excessive circuit services. If the overload is caused by excessive circuit services,
the BTS reports a CCCH LOAD IND message to the BSC. If the overload is
caused by excessive packet services, the BTS reports a PACKET CCCH LOAD
IND message to the BSC. The BSC then forwards the PACKET CCCH LOAD
IND message to the PCU. This counter is used to measure the number of
PACKET CCCH LOAD IND messages received by the BSC from the BTSs within
the measured cell.
z L3188E: number of reported OVERLOAD (CCCH overload) messages of the Abis
interface
‡ If the BTS detects the CCCH overload, the BTS reports an OVERLOAD (cause:
232
CCCH overload) message and a CCCH LOAD IND message to the BSC. This
counter is used to measure the OVERLOAD (cause: CCCH overload) messages
Low TBF Setup Success Ratio – the
Assignment Message Fails to Be Delivered
z The assignment message might fail to be delivered due to the
following cause:
‡ No channel is available (including insufficient channel resources and
hardware faults).
„ Check whether the hardware is faulty by referring to the following counters:
– RR307: TCH availability
– RK3255: TRX carrier availability

„ Check whether channel resources are insufficient by referring to the


following counters (take the uplink GPRS TBF setup as an example):
– A9003: uplink GPRS TBF setup failures due to lack of channel resources
– A9010: uplink GPRS TBF abnormal releases due to lack of channel resources
– AA9013: average number of concurrent uplink GPRS TBF
– R9343: callbacks of dynamic PDCH
– R9344: callbacks of loaded dynamic PDCH

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 15

z Channel resources are insufficient in any of the following cases:


‡ 1. The cell is configured with a small number of channels when heave traffic of
packet services exists. As a result, the channels reach the maximum capacity of
MS multiplexing. To solve the problem, add more dynamic and static channels or
set the PDCH uplink multiplexing threshold in the PS domain channel
management parameters to a higher value.
‡ 2. Check whether the resources are insufficient because voice services preempt
the dynamic PDCHs. If counters A9343 (callbacks of dynamic PDCH) and A9344
(callbacks of loaded dynamic PDCH) record high values, in indicates that circuit
services preempt the channel resources of data services due to heavy traffic. To
solve the problem, add more dynamic PDCHs or set Dynamic Channel
Preemption Level to Control Channel Preemption Forbidden.
‡ 3. If the uplink GPRS TBF setup success ratio is low due to lack of channel
resources but the uplink EGPRS TBF setup success ratio is high, check whether
the GPRS channels are insufficient due to the configuration of dedicated or
preferred EGPRS channels. If dedicated or preferred EGPRS channels are
configured, modify some of them into common EGPRS channels and, if
necessary, turn on the EGPRS Downlink and GPRS Uplink Allowed switch.

233
Low TBF Setup Success Ratio – Air
Interface Abnormal
z The MS might fail to receive the downlink assignment message or
polling message due to poor quality of the air interface.
‡ Check the BEP distribution based on the following traffic statistics:
„ Number of different 8PSK_MEAN_BEP values

„ Number of different GMSK_MEAN_BEP values

‡ Locate the problem through a CQT.

‡ Locate the air interface problem through the traffic statistics of the CS
domain.

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 16

z If the air interface suffers severe interference, adjust the frequency points to improve the
quality of the air interface.

234
Question
z What are the CS domain traffic statistics items that help to
locate air interface problems?

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 17

z Answers:
‡ Measurement report — interference band measurement (carrier)
‡ Measurement report — full-rate channel Rx level measurement (carrier)
‡ Measurement report — half-rate channel Rx level measurement (carrier)
‡ Measurement report — Rx quality measurement (carrier)
‡ Measurement report — radio link exception measurement (carrier)
‡ Measurement report — measurement of TA-based distribution of radio link
exceptions (carrier)
‡ Measurement report — measurement of TA-based RQI distribution (carrier)
‡ Measurement report — RQI distribution measurement (carrier)
‡ Measurement report — Rx quality distribution measurement (carrier)
‡ ……

235
Low TBF Setup Success Ratio – No
Response from the MS
z Check the following counters to determine whether the MS responds to the assignment or polling
message:
‡ A9004: uplink GPRS TBF setup failures due to no response from MS
‡ A9104: downlink GPRS TBF setup failures due to no response from MS
‡ A9204: uplink EGPRS TBF setup failures due to no response from MS
‡ A9304: downlink EGPRS TBF setup failures due to no response from MS
z The MS might fail to respond to an assignment or polling message due to any of the following
causes:
‡ High rate uplink coding scheme
‡ Inappropriate settings of uplink power control parameters
‡ Inappropriate settings of other parameters
‡ Incorrect cells in the assignment message
‡ Unbalanced uplink and downlink
‡ Inappropriate CS domain parameters

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 18

z When the radio environment is poor, the BLER is extra high and the uplink data blocks
cannot be decoded correctly at the network side if a high rate uplink coding scheme is
used.
z If the uplink power control parameters are configured improperly, the MS supports low
Tx power and the uplink data blocks cannot be decoded correctly at the network side.
z Other parameters that might be configured improperly are as follows:
‡ Downlink reassignment attempts (affecting the downlink TBF setup): During the
setup process of a downlink TBF, the network side fails to receive a valid Packet
Control Acknowledge message on the reserved uplink RLC block and then re-
sends a downlink assignment message. This parameter specifies the maximum
number of downlink reassignment attempts. If the downlink reassignment
attempts exceed the value of this parameter, the network side releases the
downlink TBF.
‡ Polling retransmission times (affecting the downlink TBF setup): This parameter
specifies the maximum number of polling messages retransmitted by the network
side during the setup process of a downlink TBF.
z Check whether the important cells in the assignment message are incorrect, including
frequency hopping parameters and uplink power control parameters.
‡ Frequency hopping parameters: Check whether GPRS Mobile Allocation in the
SI 13 message and the Frequency Parameters in the assignment message are
consistent with the actual configurations.
236
‡ Uplink power control parameters: Check whether the Alpha and GAMMA
t i I di t A i tC d P k t U li k
z Unbalanced uplink and downlink: If the uplink and the downlink are unbalanced, the
uplink or downlink signals might fail to be received at the edge of coverage, thus
resulting in a failure of TBG setup.
z To verify whether the uplink and the downlink are balanced, check the uplink Rx level
and the downlink Rx level in the measurement report. Refer to the measurement unit in
Huawei traffic statistics: measurement report — uplink and downlink balance
measurement (carrier).
‡ Usually, the uplink and the downlink are regarded as unbalanced (the downlink
signals are too weak or the uplink signals are too strong) if the sum of the
percentage of uplink and downlink balance level 1 plus the percentage of uplink
and downlink balance level 2 is higher than 15%.
‡ The uplink and the downlink are regarded as unbalanced (the downlink signals
are too strong or the uplink signals are too weak) if the percentage of uplink and
downlink balance level 11 is higher than 30%.
z The low TBF setup success ratio might also result from incorrect settings of CS domain
parameters. Check the KPI of the CS domain to identify any exceptions. The relevant
CS domain parameters include the call drop rate, congestion rate, assignment success
ratio, balance between uplink and downlink, and call setup success ratio.

237
Question
z What are the respective solutions to the exceptions that
prevent the MS from responding to an assignment or polling
message?

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 20

z Answers:
‡ If a high rate uplink coding scheme is used, modify the default uplink MCS and the
maximum value of the counter N3101.
‡ Inappropriate settings of uplink power control parameters: Modify the Alpha parameter
and the initial power class.
‡ Inappropriate settings of other parameters: Modify the number of downlink reassignment
attempts and the number of polling retransmissions.
‡ If the uplink and the downlink are unbalanced, check the following factors:
„ Installation of antenna feeder: Usually, a small antenna, lightning arrester,
conversion connector, grounding solder connection, and antenna (and a power
splitter in some cases) are installed between the BTS top interface and the
antenna. The installation of such components might affect the receiving and
transmitting performance of the BTS. For example, a loosened jumper connector
results in severe influence on the uplink Rx level but no significant influence on
the downlink level. This is because the transmitted signals are often strong
(usually 30 dBm inside the feeder) while the received signals are weak (usually
80 dBm).
„ Installation of the tower amplifier: Tower amplifiers are active components that
amplify uplink signals only. If a tower amplifier is installed, the Tower Amplifier
Attenuation Factor parameter is configured as follows at the RF front end of
Huawei BSC6000: If the actual gain of the tower amplifier is G, the tower amplifier
attenuation factor equals G minus 4 (4 dB here is the estimated compensation for
the feeder loss). Therefore, the value of downlink level minus uplink level in the
uplink/downlink balance measurement report decreases by 4 dB if an uplink tower238
amplifier is installed. Particularly, the uplink level increases by 4 dB.
Contents
1. Low TBF Setup Success Ratio

2. Low Downloading Rate

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 21

239
Downloading Rate Measurement
z Measurement methods
‡ CQT

‡ Drive test (DT)

z The maximum downloading rate at the application layer


under idle conditions is as follows:
‡ 225 kbit/s

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 22

z CQT: Call Quality Test


‡ The CQT is often performed in a good radio environment where the C/I seldom fluctuates. The
CQT in idle hours can verify whether all NEs and transmission from the Um interface to the Gi
interface are faulty. In this case, the CQT reflects the equipment performance directly and
accurately. The CQT in busy hours can also verify the performance of the resource (such as
channels, Abis resources, and Gb resources) management algorithms. The CQT in busy hours,
however, features randomness. For example, the tested downloading rate might be severely
affected if another subscriber is also downloading data during the CQT. In this case, the CQT
cannot reflect equipment performance accurately because the test results are significantly related
to the quantity of configured resources. Therefore, the CQT in busy hours is used only for
performance comparison before and after migration.
z DT: Drive Test
‡ Compared with the CQT, the DT faces severe C/I fluctuation and cell reselection. Differing from the
CQT, the DT can measure radio coverage and interference, performance of the coding scheme
adjustment algorithm, and system processing in the case of cell reselection (since PS handover is
not really supported yet). The DT, however, also feature randomness. For example, the radio
conditions (high C/I or deep fading point) at the location where the testing vehicle waits for traffic
light affect the tested average rate obviously.
z The maximum downloading rate at the application layer under idle conditions is as follows: 59.2 Kbit/s x (4 -
2%) x 95.52% = 225.06 Kbit/s
‡ The items in the equation are defined as follows:
„ 59.2 Kbit/s: the theoretical rate of a single channel when the MCS-9 coding scheme is
used
„ 4: the assumed number of channels for transmission
„ 2%: the minimum ratio of control messages in a single channel to all messages in the
channel
„ 95.52%: LLC layer efficiency (The efficiency is lower than 100% due to frame header
overhead in each layer)

240
An Example of Idle Conditions

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 23

z Differing from the CQT, the DT faces cell reselection and change of the coding scheme
due to C/I fluctuation (The link quality control algorithm achieves a compromise between
higher coding scheme and fewer retransmissions. The bandwidth of the air interface
changes as the coding scheme changes). Compared with downloading of large files, the
downloading of small files features severer influence brought by the slow start process
upon setup of the TCP connection. Therefore, to locate the cause for a low downloading
rate, download large files in idle hours at a place where the C/I is high.
z Slow start means that the data is delivered slowly to avoid network congestion when the
TCP layer is not aware of the transmission bandwidth and quality or when it is known
that the transmission bandwidth decreases or the transmission quality degrades.
Therefore, the amount of initially delivered data is insufficient. In addition, loss of packets,
frames, or blocks needs to be minimized in all stages (including IPBB, core network, GB
interface, PCU, G-Abis interface, BTS, and Um interface).
z If control blocks (actually dummy blocks) exist in a non-control channel or a high
percentage of control blocks exist in the control channel, it indicates that the system
transmits dummy control blocks because no data needs to be sent.
‡ Dummy control block: The system sends a block every one millisecond
(transmission priorities: NACK block > VS block > PACK block). If none of those
blocks is available, the system sends dummy control blocks that are counted by
the TEMS as control blocks. That is to say, the control blocks counted by the
TEMS include control messages and dummy control blocks.
„ NACK block: the block that the MS fails to receive as indicated in the 241

Packet Downlink ACK/NACK message


Common Causes for a Low Downloading
Rate

Common causes

Unmatched
rate
Insufficient High
Low High between
channel percentage Abnormal
coding block the RLC
occupation of control TBF release
rate error rate layer and
blocks
the application
layer

Degrading the QoE of customers

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 24

z Quality-of-experience (QoE) describes the system-level activities focusing on the joint


optimization of experienced multimedia quality and energy consumption in wireless
multimedia systems.

242
Insufficient Channel Occupation
z To check the number of channels occupied by MSs, check the latest Packet
Downlink Assignment or Packet Timeslot Reconfiguration message, as shown in the
following figures.

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 25

z The figure on the left shows the Packet Downlink Assignment message, while that on
the right shows the Packet Timeslot Reconfiguration message.

243
Insufficient Channel Occupation
z The possible causes for insufficient channel occupations are as
follows:
‡ Symptom 1: Failing to assign multiple channels
„ Cause 1: The channel resources are insufficient.
„ Cause 2: The MS does not support sufficient multi-slot capability.
„ Cause 3: The channels suffer out-of-synchronization.
„ Cause 4: The Abis interface resources are insufficient.

‡ Symptom 2: Failing to occupy multiple channels stably


„ Cause 1: The channels are preempted by voice services.
„ Cause 2: The channels suffer out-of-synchronization.

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 26

z To verify whether the channel resources are sufficient, check the channel configuration.
z To verify whether the MS supports sufficient multi-slot capability, check the Packet
Resource Request massage for two-stage access or the 11-bit access request and
Attach message (for 8-bit one-stage access, the MS indicates its multi-slot capability in
the Attach request message) for one-stage access.
z To verify out-of-synchronization, check the alarms by running the relevant commands.
For example, run the mt pdch show state <cell ID> all command to check the status of
all PDCHs in the specified cell if the external PCU is used. If the built-in PCU is used,
run the DSP PDCH command to check the channels status.
z To verify whether the Abis interface resources are sufficient, check the idle timeslot
configurations.
z To verify channel preemption of voice services, check the following traffic statistics:
‡ R9343: callbacks of dynamic PDCH
‡ R9344: callbacks of loaded dynamic PDCH
z No channel preemption of voice services is detected during a test in idle hours.

244
Abis Interface Timeslots Required by
Different Coding Schemes
EGPRS GPRS Number of Required
Abis Interface 16
bit/s Timeslots

MCS1–MCS2 CS1–CS2 1

MCS3–MCS6 CS3–CS4 2

MCS7 3

MCS8–MCS9 4

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 27

245
Low Coding Rate
z The possible causes for a low coding rate are as follows:
‡ Symptom 1: using low-rate coding schemes
„ Cause 1: insufficient timeslots at the Abis interface
„ Cause 2: poor quality of the air interface
„ Cause 3: inappropriate initial coding rate or inappropriate conversion threshold for
coding schemes
„ Cause 3: EDGE services not used
„ Cause 4: limited license

‡ Symptom 2: changing coding schemes


„ Cause 1: error bits at the G-Abis interface
„ Cause 2: inappropriate conversion threshold for coding schemes (for GPRS services
only)

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 28

z Solutions to insufficient timeslots at the Abis interface:


‡ If Flex Abis is not used, configure all Abis interface timeslots that are not
configured as idle timeslots.
‡ Increase the multiplexing ratio of signaling links to improve the Abis transmission
capacity.
‡ Use Flex Abis.
‡ Expand the transmission capacity.
z Solutions to bit errors at the G-Abis interface:
‡ Transmission problems: Perform local loopback and remote loopback at the TMU
side to locate the problems.
‡ Faults of the interface board

246
Air Interface Requirements of Different
Coding Schemes
Coding Scheme Rx Level of MS (dBm) TU3 C/I (dB)

MCS-1 >= –102 13

MCS-2 >= –101 15

MCS-3 >= –99 16.5

MCS-4 >= –98 18

MCS-5 >= –97 19

MCS-6 >= –96 20

MCS-7 >= –93 23.5

MCS-8 >= –90.5 28.5

MCS-9 >= –86 30

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 29

z TU3: The speed is 3 km/h in typical urban scenarios.

247
Question
z Where can we check the block error rate?

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 30

z Answers:
‡ 1. The figure in page 43 shows that the BLER/TS(%) parameter indicates the
block error rate calculated by the TEMS based on a certain number of received
blocks.
‡ 2. For fixed MSs, the Packet Downlink ACK/NACK message also indicates the
block error rate.

The message shows that starting sequence number (SSN)


is 64 and that a bitmap exists. This indicates that block 63
is not received. Check the blocks following block 64 (1
indicates that the block is received, while 0 indicates that
the block is not received). The message shows that blocks
63, 65, 66, 68, 69, and 71 to 84 are not received.

248
High Block Error Rate
z The possible causes for a high block error rate are as
follows:
‡ Bit errors at the air interface

‡ A large number of error frames and out-of-synchronization


frames at the G-Abis interface

‡ The MS performs another process such as decoding neighbor


cell messages.

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 31

z If a large number of neighbor cells are configured, the block error rate often increases
because the MS needs to update the system messages of neighbor cells frequently.
According to the relevant protocol, the MS must decode the BCCH data of a new carrier
in 30 seconds. If the signal strength fluctuates and a large number of neighboring cells
are configured, the MS has to parse the system messages of neighboring cells
frequently. To solve this problem, reduce the number of neighboring cells and eliminate
unnecessary neighboring cell configurations.

249
High Percentage of Control Blocks
z The possible causes for a high percentage of control blocks
are as follows:
‡ The contracted peak rate is not high enough.

‡ The LLC layer adopts the acknowledged mode.

‡ The transmission window stops.

‡ The bandwidth at the Gb interface is insufficient.

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 32

z The system assigns only one bidirectional control channel for the MS. Therefore,
the same timeslot is occupied as the control channel in both the uplink and the
downlink. In this way, the control channel can be located.
z The PDP context shows the contracted peak rate. As shown in the following
figure, the peak rate is 128000 octets/s = 128000 x 8/1024 = 1000 Kbit/s that
exceeds the theoretical maximum rate.

250
z If the LLC layer uses the acknowledged mode, the next frame is not sent until the current
frame is acknowledged by the opposite end. In addition, the LLC layer connection needs
to be set up and released, thus resulting in more signaling transmissions in the LLC
layer. In a word, the downloading rate decreases significantly if the LLC layer uses the
acknowledged mode.
z You can also check the MS's PDP context in the TMES to view the operation mode of
the LLC layer . If the LLC uses the acknowledged mode, modify it to the
unacknowledged mode at the SGSN and modify the subscription information of the SIM
card.
z Usually, the transmission window stops only in the GPRS network because the GPRS
system supports 64-block window only. If an error block occurs, the RRBP delay is about
200 ms regardless of the cause for the error block. When the MS reports the reception of
the error block, 200 ms passed. If the MS occupies four timeslots, the system has
transmitted 40 blocks (200 ms/(20 ms/block)). In this case, the transmission window may
stop.
‡ To verify whether the transmission window stops, check whether the amount of
data received at the Gb interface is larger than the amount of data delivered by
the system within a certain period.
z If the traffic at the Gb interface exceeds 70% of the actual bandwidth, it indicates that the
bandwidth is insufficient.
‡ To view the traffic at the Gb interface, check the Downlink data kbytes sent to
FR per NSVC item measured at the SGSN.

251
Abnormal TBF Release
z The possible causes for abnormal TBF release are as follows:
‡ The uplink TBF is released exceptionally when timers N3101 and
N3103 expire.

‡ The downlink TBF is released exceptionally when timer N3105 expires.

‡ The TBF is released exceptionally when the control channel is


preempted.

‡ The TBF is released exceptionally due to cell reselection.

‡ The TBF is released exceptionally due to some internal processing.

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 34

z Loss of packet is not a necessary result of abnormal TBF release, because the PCU
stores the data that the MS has not transmitted and that the MS has transmitted without
acknowledgement within 30 seconds after the TBF is released exceptionally. Usually,
the MS initiates TBF re-setup soon. In this case, the TLLI remains unchanged. Therefore,
the context of the MS can be detected according to the TLLI and then the data stored by
the PCU is sent to the MS.
z According to the TBF release process, the MS sets the FAI bit in the Packet Downlink
ACK/NACK message to 1 if the download TBF is released normally. The system sets
the FAI bit to 1 in the Packet Uplink ACK/NACK message if the uplink TBF is released
normally. To verify whether a TBF is released exceptionally, check whether the FAI bit in
the relevant message is set to 1. If the network side sends a Packet TBF Release
message, the TBF is released exceptionally (the TBF is released exceptionally because
timer N3105 expires if the cause value is normal release).
z The abnormal TBF release decreases the rate because data transmission is not
supported during the abnormal release.

252
Unmatched Rate Between the RLC Layer
and the Application Layer
z This problem often results from careless operations of the relevant
test engineers.

z How to identify the software applications and services that support


automatic connection to the network?

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 35

z This problem often results from careless operations of the relevant test engineers. The software
applications and services (such as automatic update) that support automatic connection to the
network must be disabled during the test. If such software applications or services are not
disabled, the rate at the application layer decreases when they connect to the network
automatically.
z How to identify the software applications and services that support automatic connection to the
network:
‡ After the test, check whether all the packets captured by the Ethereal software are the
data interacted with the IP address of the server. If data interacted with another IP
address exists, enter the IP address into the IE to identify the connected network.

253
Summary
z The GPRS/EDGE network optimization focuses on the
downloading rate and the TBF setup success ratio. Pay
attention to the relevant parameters and configurations.

z Traffic statistics and signaling analysis help to solve the


problems discovered in GPRS/EDGE network optimization
more quickly.

Copyright © 2010 Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd. All rights reserved. Page 36

254
Thank you
www.huawei.com

255