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Principles of Teaching
Prepared By Nahdi Samae G0921795
Instructor: Dr Mohyani Razikin
28 October 2010
this view of learning calls for a dramatic lessening of dependence on an instructive. It also challenges popular views about the nature of knowledge. David Ausubel and Jerome Bruner as well as the work of John Dewey. curriculum designers. 2008). Lev Vygotsky. ―transmission‖ of knowledge approach to the teaching and learning in the classroom. . From one perspective the concept of learning environment has been influence by ―constructivist‖ theories whereby in education it is consistent with curricula and instruction that encourage students to make decisions about what to study and how. Frederic Barlett. and educators such as Jean Piaget. however. textbook-based. open to question rather than certain—are more likely than acknowledged to promote disagreement among experts about how best to conceptualize knowledge. does not mean that it embraces an everything-is-acceptable approach. to name a few. the Gestalt psychologists. What is also clear is that constructivists who endorse views that oppose the mainstream view who argue. The fact that constructivism rejects commonplace views about knowledge. and (iii) the physical environment. psychologists. Answer ( I ) Constructivist theory Constructivism is a learning theory based on the notion that students actively ―construct‖ knowledge. The theory also suggests the participation and interactions of students in their social environment are vital importance to the knowledge construction (Salkind. that worthwhile knowledge tends to be complex rather than simple. It can be traced back to the theories developed by philosophers.The learning environment within a particular school is the interplay of three important variables namely (i) teacher-student relationship (ii) leadership styles and teaching methods.
that is the knowledge is self-constructed and comes from reflection on our own cognition. . they all focus on the inner psychological life of people. Constructivism views learning the active and personal construction of knowledge. the Zone of Proximal Development explain an area where children can solve problem with the scaffolding of adult or more able peer that area is the place where culture and cognition create each other. these outcomes could include both new strategies and knowledge. beliefs. For example. second group represents social constructivist is concerned with social interaction. self-concept or identity so they are called individual or cognitive constructivist. The student or learner internalizes the outcomes produced by working together. These constructivists are called psychological and social constructivist. not link directly from environment. Thinking at each stage incorporates previous stages as it becomes more organized and adaptive. In the meantime. those constructivists can be categorized to two forms of views: psychology and social construction. The cognitive theories assume individuals construct their cognitive structures as they interpret their experience in particular. Despite sharing common understanding toward students’ knowledge construction.As mentioned earlier. the cognitive science can be seen as a partner supporting this idea. he gives us a way to consider both psychological and social. One way to look at what Vygotsky’s view is to think of knowledge as individually constructed and socially mediated. Piaget’s psychological perspective presents four cognitive stages to all humans pass through. These constructivists are interested in individual knowledge. the former build up certain element of their cognitive or emotional apparatus. Vygotsky is pioneer psychologist who introduced this concept. cultural tools and activities shape individual development and learning. The first group is concerned with how individuals build up certain elements of their cognitive or emotional apparatus. For instance.
teacher-student interactions. Relationships involve many component entities and processes integrated within a dynamic system. early in Dewey’s writing and in texts by Vygotsky. beliefs about the self or other. diverse literatures attended to teachers’ and students’ expectations of one another. particularly a sense of being cared for. the study of teacher-student relationships traces its roots to many sources in psychology and education. In a school or classroom setting. Social relations. Relationships between teachers and students have been a focus of educators’ concerns for decades although this attention had taken different forms and had been expressed using a wide range of constructs and paradigms. affects. each of these components has its own extensive literature. Educational psychology. Over many years. and teacher education each provide rich sources of intellectual nourishment for the study of relationships between teachers and children. were considered an important component in Dewey’s . From a historical perspective. teaching and learning as socially mediated. Therefore. on teacher expectations or the role of social processes as mediators of instruction.Answer (II) Factors affect Learning Environment A positive and effective learning environment is paramount to students’ achievement and it must be established and maintained throughout the year. teachers’ own self. I strongly agree that a school is required at least three critical variables aforementioned in the first paragraph. discipline and class management. to identify a few. To address the second question. there are frequent references to relationships between teachers and student. Components include expectations. and interactions. curriculum and instruction. school belonging and caring. for example.and efficacy-related feelings and beliefs.
With regards to Shepard (1996) it was suggested that school leadership is critical for . These literatures are thus significant evident to the importance of establishing and maintaining relationship between teacher and student. behaviors. notably studies by Rosenthal on the influence of expectations on student performance. and expectations in their everyday work with staff. modeling. Somewhat similar to the focus of many researches on classroom interactions was the emergence of the broad literatures on interpersonal perception that took form in research on attribution and expectation. Either they encourage and or reward effective teachers and accomplished students. The effective leader recognizes his or her personality and how operation factors or daily tasks affect his or her relationship with others. but instead a complex. memos. According to many literatures. and even non verbal behavior send message and over time shape culture. He communicates core values.conceptualization of the school as a context. perceptions. Their actions. or they ignore them and bury themselves in micromanagement or politics. self-perceptions. These studies strongly indicated that instruction is something more than simply demonstration. including teachers’ attitudes and behaviors toward the child. the school leadership is a key in shaping school environment. and goal attainment has documented strong associations between these child outcomes and school contexts. pointing again to the importance of the relational context created for the student. socially and psychologically mediated process. and certainly Vygotsky’s emphasis on support provided to the child in the context of performing and learning challenging tasks was a central feature of his concept of the zone of proximal development. and motivations in the context of instructional interactions. words. Actively addresses the integration of emotions. The effective leader is able to comprehend how other people differ in temperament and expectations and how they may best be motivated. Work on student motivation. and reinforcement.
and patron can achieve success and satisfaction. Poston Jr. will depend on strong.. et al. . In order to achieve this. based on their research findings. it has been established that favorable physical characteristics of a school are positively linked to student achievement. poorly designed exist encourage pushing and shoving. narrow. As Robore (1985). and small play areas make for fighting and arguing‖. Lastly. in times of turbulence enhances concern for student learning. This means learning will be likely to occur when the environment is conducive to teaching and learning. crowded corridors invite noisy passing periods. Moreover. They conclude. as searching were also supported by Bartky (1956) stated that: ―a poor physical facilities is a source of undesirable behavior. a school campus should be a harmonized environment that allows for maximum efficiency in learning and operational processes while maintaining a pleasant.improving student achievement. secondly to the effects of the ―curriculum‖ and ―teacher instruction‖. For instance. attractive atmosphere in which pupils. Based on these findings the survival of schools. suggesting that principal leadership. that leadership has significant effect on student learning. when mediated by school level factors has a significant effect on student achievement. poorly designed toilet facilities promote all manners of unfortunate behavior. (1992) told that one of the factors which promote school effectiveness is s safe. They added to the discussion.‖ Therefore. stated that: ―Ideally. personnel. the school administration must well plan and design for school facilities. effective leadership that can guide schools through the challenges of improving student achievement. clean and adequate physical facilities. the design of school facilities must be according to the context of educational concepts.
consistent with theories such as Piaget’s that assert learning is best and most complete (i. In recent years. Such guided discovery takes more time than more direct teaching. which is under construction. rather than explaining to students what they should do. Moreover. it requires teachers who know the concepts being taught so well that they can make up questions in response to student attempts and errors as they attempt tasks (Collins & Stevens. understanding is most certain) when children discover concepts for themselves (Piaget. The environmental context of secondary school classroom is somehow similar to that of primary or elementary education. the teacher provides support when needed. with the scaffolding reduced as the child’s mind. they are left to discover both what to do and how to do it. The teacher provides enough support (hints and prompts) for the child to continue to make progress understanding a situation but does not provide the student with answers or complete explanations about how to find answers. such guided discovery teaching has come to be known as scaffolding like the scaffolding of a building. 1982). however.Answer (III) Learning Environment of Secondary School Classroom The constructivist approach to teaching and learning can be seen such an extreme version is discovery learning (Ausubel 1961).e. Similar strategies can be applied according to the Constructivist theories as mentioned earlier. 1970). Teacher input often boils down to answering questions that students might pose as they attempt to do a task. is increasingly able to handle the task. Secondary education is viewed as an important place whereby psychological stage of children will be fully developed to the last stage of ―adult‖. which entails placing children in environments and situations that are rich in discovery opportunities—that is.. .
He or she then has to examine school appropriateness and ensure all teachers are acquainting with suitable teaching material and methodologies for a specific example. To conclude this essay. Teachers by their own effort are encouraged to observe – apart from his teaching duties and materials. teachers can implement as mentioned of discovery learning. how to handle students’ relationship as the theories proven that effective learning is relatively essential to interaction of students and surroundings. school management is responsible to facilitate and accommodate learning environment within the school premise. In micro scope such as classroom. the leadership of Islam is fundamental important to the revival of Islamic education. Allah says: ―Then guard yourselves against a day when one soul shall not avail another‖ (Qur’an 2:123). On this basis the school leader should not think that special favors would exempt him from the personal responsibility he/she is entrusted with. proper classroom facilities. . cooperative learning and so on. In wider and macro environment. problem based learning. Therefore.With the factors stated in the first paragraph. Islamic Perspective The Quran makes it clear that everyone is responsible because Allah has honored him by the faculty of the intellect. man is accountable for his deeds. hence each and every Muslim should play their role in quest of right Muslim leadership. resourceful staff and library and so forth. social interaction and participation of student and teacher are to be encouraged. This tradition of the prophet shows importance of social interaction and inquiry as parallel to the Quranic verse (16:43) ―… ask the followers of Remembrance if ye know not‖.
J. Asma. PROSPECTS: the Quarterly Review of Bartky. (1980) Making School Work. Rebore. Oinstein(1991). Miskawayh. 42(4). R & Gloria E. Nadia Jamal.Bibliography Afsaruddin. Salkind. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. (2005). fethullah gulen’s perspectives.(2003) Handbook of psychology New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. N.. The Alberta Journal of educational Research. Educational Administration – A Management Approach. Poston. Al-Din. Jeddah: King Abdul Aziz University. R. Jr. (1979). Sheppard. Hoboken. (1996).(2008) Encyclopedia of educational psychology.. Aims and objectives of Islamic education. California: SAGE Publications.M. 325-344... The philosophy of islamic education: Classical views and m.. Inc. Exploring the transformational nature of instructional leadership. California: Standford University Press Lunenburg. W. (1994). William M. California: Woodsworth Publishing Company. Inc. (ed). Fred C. Syed Muhammad Naquib. . (1956). Administration as Educational Leardership. (1985). Educational Administration Concepts and Practices. et al. Inc. Inc. & Allan C. B.Practical Management of Support Operations Calfornia: Corwin Press. A. Al-Attas.
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