OF

(., f ' •

..

DESIGN CALCULATION

WALL FORMWORK

MAXIMUM POUR HEIGHT <=7500MM

SEPTEMBER 2005

. ,

. ,

I .0 Summary of Wall form work.

Max. Pour Spaclnc:J of Vertical Bearer 5pacln43 of Honzontal 5l'acln'j of Tie Bolt
Hel'9ht Wahn'9
2 x 50 x I 00 Timber JOI~t
S 7500mm 50 x 100 Timber JOISt (Gr,oe SC4) @ 650 de I 2mm c:l10iI. T~ Bolt
(Graae SC4) @3S0 de or GSO cJe
4 x 50 x2S x J .Smm RH5
@ GSOt:.Jc · '.

I . I Wall EQnnWOrk Acranraement

___ ~ '2 Grade 4.6

tie bolt5 WIth Wil5her5

~ G50 .::c~J.:::.c _ ___;max~""

.2J- -I~~+--,,-- ...... g+

17 ~

J

o

o

0 ..-?
/. m
/

p '" ~
c
,... .., .--. =f!J= - f---- -E h,
~ --& -,,!r 1-1' _ 4 )( " x 2" x , .5 nm
.--
RHS he l10ntill wah ~
@ G5 c lc mall
~ ";;;.;,' .!F
!2.r I!! L!.r
50 )( 100 m
,...- Timber Ie ruca I S.tl
@l 35 c k: m<L1
~ 0 0 =@== o

-f--

o

to

~ -e- olE . . b.

8 ~ ~ .. l-..... __ ._ ._" ~

tv) E '" I -c ~

~ __ -w~~~._~ __ ~ __ ~~ ~~._ t_ __ ~~. ~~~

L- 19 mm thick plyw()j~~:>4'----f-------~~t-~ ~ •

G50 GSa G50 ~" (D

Ea[OlWQ[kArran'O"tncot ~II 5~ban A _I A ~1'

(N.T.5) (N.T.S) D N

t-'~

~1 ... 350 ... 1.350 ... 1 350
~ _",I -

1I t9 11" 19 t9

'.'_ , .
li ~ li ~ ~ ~

f---- 19 mm thick plywood Vanes

5c:ctton B ~ B (N.T.S)

GSa

G50

GSa

2

· ,

2.0 Desl!an Codes and References

- BUIlding (Construction) Regulations, CAP 123, 1990 t 1985 Ed

- The Structural Use of Steel, Hong Kong 1987.

- 55 52G8:Part 2: 1984 Structural Use of Timber.

- 55 5975:Code of Practice for Falsework, 199G

- CIRIA Report 108: Concrete Pressure on formwork

- Formwork - A GUide to Good Practice, Concrete Society.

- Code of Practice on Wind Effects. Hong Kong 2004

3

Slump

::;: 100 mm

.' I

3.0 De51~n Notes and Data

- All structural timber shall be of Strength Class 5C4 complying with B5 52GB: Part 2 : 1984.

- All structural steel shall be Grade 43 complying With 55 43GO: 198G. The deSign shall be In accordance With the Structural Use of Steel, Hong Kong, I 987.

- Form tie shall be high Yield bar With minimum permissible tensile strength of 230MPa.

- The allowable deflection for formwork shall be less than (span/270) as recommended by Section 2.7, "Formwork - A gUide to Good Practice".

- The determmatlon of maximum concrete pressure on formwork IS In accordance With CIRIA Report 108.

- Properties. of concrete pour:

Concrete denSity

= 24~O kN/m.3

Rate of placement of concrete

Concrete temperature

- Maximum pour height

- Maten;1 properttes

- For structural timber of stren9th class SC4 to 5552GB as wall formwork

Bendmg stress parallel to gram = 9.54 N/mm2
Tensile stress parallel to gram = 5.62 N/mm2
Compressive stress perpendicular to gram = 3.07 N/mm2
Shear stress perpendicular to gram = 1.50 N/mm2
Modulus of elasucity E = 8554 N/mm2 1.50 x 100 timber JOist ae wall formwork (Allowable Strength)

4

- ____~~

.' .

moment resistance = 0.872 kNm

maximum shear loa. = 5.00 leN

( )0.11

K7 = 300 = I. I 26

depth

Ke == 1.1

maximum shear loa, = 7.GG leN

( )0.11

K7 = 300 = I. I 26

depth

Ke = 1.1

2. 50 x . 75 timber JOist as wall formwork (Allowable Strength)

moment resistance = 0.49G kNm

maximum shear loa, = 3.83 kN

K7 == ( 300 )0, 1 j == I. I G5 depth

Ke::::; ;.1

3.75 x J 00 timber JOiSt as wall formwork (Allowable Strength)

moment resistance = 1.338 kNm

Z = I 13.0 x 103 mm3

4. I Bmm thick plywood (Canadian Douglas Fir) as wall formwork (Allowable 5tren'3th)

moment resistance = 0.42G kNm/m

maximum shear loae = G.18G kN/m

_ All structural steel to be Grade 250 which 15 equivalent to Grade 43A m accordance With 6543GO.

DenSity = 78.5 kN/rna
Yield Stress 250 I\Vmm 2
=
Allowable bendmg stress == 150 N/mm2
Allowable shear stress =: 92.5 N/mm2
Allowable axial tensile stress = 150 N/mm2
Modulus of elastictty 2)(10" N/mm 2
=
5 · ,

4.0 Formwork Design for Wan

4. I Concrete Pressure on formwork

Density of concrete

( Maximum Pour Height < =

7500 mm)

( Ref: CIRIA Report No. I 08 )

o = 2450 ko/m3 = 24.03 kNJm3

R..:lte of placmg of concrete R = I .50 rnlhour

Slump = 100 mm
Concrete temperature T = 30 °c K :: (T~616r = O.GI
Wall thicknees d = 300 mm (max)
Height of walt H = 7.5 m
Vertical pour height h = 7.5 m ..

Maximum concrete pressure on wall formwork

Where C I = 1.0 for Walls

2

Oh kNim , wlnchever is the smaller.

(Table I, CIRIA Report No. 108)

C2 = 03 for Ordinary Portland Cement

Dh = 24.03 x 7.5 = 100.3 kN/m2

P fNJ( = 24.03 x [ 1.0 x Fs + 0.3 x O.G I x ~7.5

= 40.50 kN/m2

__

Height of concrete

h = 7.5 m

_L-

1.0 fI.5 J

-. IFof1UX =

i ~ 1 •• 9 m

1-. __ DeSign pressure envelope

I~

~I

f ffljK = 40.50 kN/m2

G

-_._._-_. -----

· .

4,2 De51!3n for Plywood

( 19 mm thick

Contmuoue

5pan L = 350 50

300

Vertical Be.rer

-I

= 300 mm (Clear :lpan)

Umform dIstributed loads (UDL):

L.l. : Maximum concrete pressure = 40.50 kr-.vm2

=

X

x

=

w = 40.50 kNlm2

Bending moment

Bending Moment

Max. bendmg moment due to UDL ( w):

0.40

M I 2

= IOwl

f 0.30 20.20 ~

.0 0.10

0.00

= 0.3G4 kNmlm

0.0 02 0.4 o.c 0.0 1.0 ( x/L)

Bending capacity of 19 mm plywood

= 0.42G kNrnlm > 0.3G4 kNm'm

:.O.K

Shear force

Shear Force

= 0.5 x 40.50)( ( 0.35 -

0.00 '.00 4.00

E 2.00 ~ 0.00

II..:. -2.000 If) -4.00

-b.OO "'.00

Max. shear force due to UDL ( w):

v = 0.5 wL

0_05 )

= b.07 kNlm

Shear capacity of

I 9 mm plywood

= G.19 kNJm

> b.07 kNJm

:.O.K

7

E =

8554

=

57.1 G

4 em

Deflection

Maximum deflection

( For continuous and no. of span> ;=5)

lJIhere

w = 40.50 kN/m2

L = 300 rnrn

40.50 x 300 4

5 .. = 0.00G57 x --~=;.::_.....:.:..-=..;:.;=----

8554 x 57.16 X 104

0.'14 mm

AHowabe deflection = span I 270

= 1.11 mm

:.O.K

8

Deslcan loads:

Wahnq

(RJ

C

5C4 )

4.3 DeslCjn for Vertical Bearer

( 50 X 100

(IJL )

Span of bearer L = G50 mm

5pacln'] of bearer = 350 mm (max)

Contmuous

L = G50

Uniform distributed loads (UDl):

l.l. = 40.50 x 350 x 10-3 = 14.17 kN/m (Concrete Pressure)

=

x

X 10-3 =

kN/m

w=

14.17 kN/m

Bending moment

Bending Moment

Max. bending moment due to UDL ( w):

= 0.599 kNm

E ~

~ -0.4

C

-o,c

-0.6 l

I 2 M = -wL 10

(x/L)

Bendmg capacity of 50 x 1 00 timber JOist

:::::: 0.872 kNm

> 0.599 kNm

:.O.K

Shear force

Shear force

v = 0.5 wl

-4.0

--'.0 .. _~ _ _.__._,. ~. ----- ... --. __ ._._o ..... _ ... r··.·

Max. ehear force due to UDL ( w):

= 0.5 x 14.17 x 0.G5

4.GI kN

Shear capacity of

50 x 100 timber J015t

= 5.00 kN

> 4.GI kN

:. OK

9

· .

E =

8554

2 N/mm

=

41G.G7

4 em

Deflection

Maximum deflection

WL4 Ow = O.COG5?

( for continuous span)

EI

Where

w = 1 4. 1 7 kNJm

L = G50 mm

14.17 x G50 4

Ow = 0.OOG57 x __ __;_...:....:...;...;__..;..:._.........::;.:..:;:...___-

8554 X 4 I G.G7 x 104

= 0.47 mm

AUowabe deflection = span I 270

= 2.41 mm

:.O.K

10

(~/LJ

4.4 DeslQn for Honzontat Walm'3

Option 1: (2 N~ 50 x I 00 Timber JOist Class 5C4)

Span of wahng L = GSa mm w= 2G.32 kN/m
T,."j • • ~D~D~I ~I:e I I f
Spacmg of wahng == G50 mm
Contmuous Tie !:>ott
QC:2I1i)O laads: (R I) (R2)
I~ L == G50 ~I
Umform dl5tnbuted load5 (UDL): L.l. == 40.50 x G50 x 10"3 ee 26.32 kN/m (Concrete F're55ure)

=

x

x

=

kN/m

=

x

x

=

kN/m

w == 2G.32 kN/m

BeodUJe Moment

BendloQ moment

A I 2 ~v, = !owl

0.0 ·0.2 Ii ·0.4 ! ·0' :2

.0 ·0.0

·1.0 l

.1.2 -

I

I

_~ .. _ '_"_" __ ~_ .. J

Max. bendmg moment due to UDL ( w):

= !.I 12 kNm

Bendmg capacity of 2 x 50 x 100 timber JOl5t

== 0.872 kNm x 2

= 1.744 kNm

> 1.112 kNm

:.o.K

Shear force

v

0.5 wL

50

10.0

Max. shear force due to UDL ( w ):

00 -5.0

0.5 x 26.32 x 0.G5

·'00

8.56 kN

I I

E =

8554

N/mm2

=

833.3

'" cm

.'

Shea.r capacity of 2 x 50 x I 00 timber JOISt

= 5.00 kN x 2

= 10.00 kN

> 8.5G kN

:. OK

Qeflecboo

Maximum deflection

O.DOG5?

( for continuous span)

Where

w = 26.32 kNfm

L = 650 mm

26.32 x G50 '"

Bw = 0.OOG57 x ----=:..:::..:..::;.::..__;;-..::.:;::.::....---

8554 x 633.3 x I O~

0.43 mm

Allow<lbe deflection

=

~pal1

I

'nO

= 2.41 mm

:.O.K

12

4.5 Design ofJ:loflZontal Waling

Option 2: (4 Nos. 50 x 25 x f.5 mm RHS)

w = 26.32 kN/m

Span L = 650 mm

Spacmg of beams = G50 mm (max)

Design loads:

Uniform distributed loads (UDl):
l.L. = 40.50 )( G50 x 10-3 = 2G.32 kN/m (Concrete Pressure)
x X 10-3 = kN/m
::: X X 10-3 = kNim
= x X 10-3 = kN/m
w= 2G.32 kN/m Bending moment

Max. sagging bendmg moment due to UDl ( w ) at mid-span of beams:

0.10

2 x wl

= 1.112 kNm

Max. hogging bendmg moment due to UDl ( w ) at mtenor support:

Mho<3 = O. 10 )( WL2

I.t 12 kNm

13

---------- ... _---------------------------

= 28.02

4 em

Shear force

Max. Schear force due to UDl ( w):

v = 0.5 x wL

8.56 kN

Reactions at supports

Reactions due to UDL ( w );

Rt_ = 0.50 x wl

R~ = 0.50 x wL

= 0.50 x 26.32 x O.G5

= 0.50 x 26.32 x 0.G5

= 8.56 kN

= 8.56 kN

~ = 1.00 x wL

= I .00 x 26.32 x 0.G5

= 17.11 kN

Deflection

MaXimum deflection

wL4 Ow = 0.00657

( for continuoue span)

E = 2.0 x 10= N/mm2

EI

26.32 x GSa 4

= 0.OOG57 x --_;:,;;.;.;:;:..=....~-~=-----.-

2.0 xlOs X 28.0 x 104

= 0.55 mm

o I span = 0.55 / GSO

= 0.00085 < I I 270 = 0.00370

14

'.

4.5.1

I2elf:rmlDaboo of Proporll •• 01 Hon20ntallll'aho", (RH5;1 ~

1.5

51ze of RH5: 50:x 25 x 1.5 mm j_~ ___,

T

Second moment of Area
2 50 3
Ix = 2 x x +
12
2 x ( 22 x 1.5 ) x ( 25
= 31250.00 + 38812.1
700G2.1 '"
= mm
7.01 4
= em 1.5

x

I ..

25

ElastiC modulus
z. = _1_
y
700G2.13
=
25
= 2802.49 mm3
2.00 em3 Area of eection

A = 50 )(

2 x 2 + 22 )( 1.5 x 2

= 2.IG em2

15

x 0 ''If)

~I

y

= 99.22 NJmm2

< 150.0 NJmm2

-.o«

4.5.2 ~h~.ck SectIon of HorIzontal Waling (RHS)

Maxnnurn bendmg moment

M = 1.11 kNm

Maximum shear force

v = 8.5G leN

Effective length

Le = G50 mm

For 4 Nos. 50 x 25 x 1.5 mm thick RHS

z = 11.21 cm3 f= 28.02 4 r = 0.99G em
~ x em 'I
A= B.G4 2 t= 1.5 mm T= 1.5 mm
cm
B 25 t 1.5
- .. = 0.5 > 0.25 - .- = 1.0 > 0.25
D 50 T 1.5 .. Checking of flexural torsional buckling 15 not requIred

The permissIble benchrua strese

:.P" = O.G Y5

YS:::: 250 NJmm2

=

150.0 NJmm2

The maximum desl~n bendl~ stress

fl:lc = _.;_l ;,.... 1_...,;x...,;I.,..;O_b_ If.2 X 103

The permissIble shear stress

P = 0.37Y, q

=

92.5 N/mm2

IG

, .

The design shear stress

8.G x 103 8.G x td

= B.90 N/mm2

< B2.S N/mm2

:.O.K

Check Combined Bending and Shear Stresses

The equivalent stress I, due to bending and shear stresses

= ( 99.2 2~ 3 x B.90 2) 1/2

=

100.7

<!

N/mm

< Ys/I.I = 227.3 NJmm<::

:.O.K

17

r------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------~

4.G TIe Bolts Through S,des of Wall

Use 12 mm d,a. Gra.cle 4GO n.r bolt @ G50 c I c max

as tie bolt for formwork

De51gn tensile force on bolt T = 1.100 X 2G.32 x 0.G5

= 15.32 kN

Allowable teneile stress

For Grade 4GO 1"1. T lv11 2 bolts to C52 : 1995

DesIgn tensile stress on bolt ft = 4 T

1t '2 2

= I GGA N/mm2

< 230 N/mm2

18

· "

Design of R.C. beams and slab Falsework

§.1 fillewgds deslao fo[ 200 mm thick slab
04.1.1) LoadilJG Assessment
Self-Weight of RC. Slab :: 4.8 kNint
where (Concrete Density :: 24.0 kNlrrf )
(Size of R.C. Slab = 200 nun lhick)
Conslructlon load :: 1.5 kNlm'
Self Weight of Soffit Foonwork = 0.5 kNIJnI
Total UDl, WT = 6.8 kN/mI =

2.22

:>

1.58 nvn O.K.

4.1.2} Check

19mm

Canadian COFI Douglas Fir 7 Ply or compatible

Maxirrun Span:: 600 mm

, .. 19mm

t W· 3.SkN

~f!'!!!!'tj!II!I!!lm!I!!'!"~

tr '~~

}-L+l+-L:t

Check B > 2t B= 50

>

2t= 38

.~, W :: (6.S - 0.5) x 0.6
.. 3.~ kNperm run
a) Check Bendng
Max. Bending Moment .. 0.095 WI..
.. 0.2155 kNrit per m run
b) Check Shear Stress
MaxImum Shear :: 0.525 W(b - B - t}
L
= 1.756 kN perm run
c} Check Deftectlon
Maximum OefIecIion .. 0.0066 WP
EI
where bending stiffness of plywood, EI = 3.400 kNmt per m run
Allowable Deflection = L I 270 < Moment of Resistance:: 0.398 O.K •

< ShearResislance:: 5.n4 O.K.

= 1.58 mm

< • ,
..
Design of R.C. beams and slab Falsework
x 100 SecoOOa!y Timber Bearer @ 600 rJc GradeSC4
Maximum Span. L = 1.219 m

w ::: 6.8xO.6
= 4.08 kNim
L- 1.219m
W = wxL = 4.91 kN
RA RB
a) Check Bending
Max. Bending Moment = 0.10 'M..
= 0.606 kNm < Moment of Resistance ::1 0,814 O.K.
b) Check Shear Stress
Maximum Shear = 0.6 W
= 2.984 kN < Shear Resistance = 4.670 O.K.
c} Check Deflection
Maximum Deflection = 0.00541 ~ = 1.60 mm (assumed continuous over two spans)
EI
where Bending Stiffness of Joist, EI = 30.540 kNfn2
Allowable OeftecUon = l I 270 = 4.51 > 1.60 nvn O,K.
..... I '.'

..

Design of R.C. beam. and slab Falsework

4.1.4) Check

2no .:

x

50

x

'tOO Primal)' Timber Bearer 'GradeSC4

< Shear Reslstance::: 8.480 O.K. .

Distance Between Rows of Scaffold ::: 1219 .mm
Spacing Between Scaffold ::: 1219 mm
W. 10.1 kN
11111111111111111111111111111111111 W ::: 6.8 x (1219+ 1219) 11000/2 x 1.219
A. • • & ::: 10.10 kN
l L-J!219mm J. ! Max, Reaction ::: 1.10 W
., ::: 11.11 kN
L l L a) Check Banang
Max. Bending Moment ::: 0.10 WI..
::: 1.23 kNm·
b} Cbec~ Shear Stress
Max. Shear ::: 0.6 W
::: 6.06 kN < Moment of ResIstance::: 1.480 O. K.

c} Check Deflection
Maximum OeflectJon ::: 0.00688 ~ ::: 3.09 mm
B'
where Beildng Stiff~ of Joist EI ::: 20.360 x 2.0 ::: 40.7 kNm'
Allowable Deflection ::: L I 270 ::: 4.51 > 3.09 mm O.K. 4.1.5) Check Capacity of Scaffold Frame

Scaffold frame @ 1219. mm c/o

Max. Vertical load per leg ::: 6.8 x (1219 +1219) 11000 12 x 1.219 x 1.1 ::: 11.11 kN

Capacity of Scaffold frame::: 24.5 kN per leg > 11.11 kN O. K.

~ I.ii,tlt duty scaffold @ 1219 mm c/o

Design of R.c. .beams and slab Falsework

, "

~ EaJsewo~ deslg!l for R.C. Beam 550 ~Ide lS 600 gg
.
4.2.1) Loading Assessment
Size of R.C, Beam = 600 high
Thickness of R.C. Slab ::: 150 mm thick
Self·Weight of RC. Beam :: 10.8 kN/mt
SeH~Weight of RC. Slab = 3.6 kNlrrf
Construction loa~ = 1.5 kNJrnl
Self Weight of Soffit Fonnwork = 0.5 kNJmi
Total UDl, Wr ::: 16.4 kNJm1 x 550 wide

(excluding slab thickness)

4.2.2) Check

19mm

Canadian COA Douglas Fir 7 Ply or compatible

t- 19 mm Maximum Span, L =

i. W· 5.25kN

330mm

>

2t= 38

w =( 16,4 0.5 )x 0.330
*~
::: 5.25 kNpermrun
a} Check Bendiog
Max. Bentlng Moment ::: 0.095 1M.
= 0.1645 kNm perm run < Moment of Reslstance :: 0.398 O.K.
b) Check Shear Stress
Max!mlm Shear ::: 0.525 W(!" B - t}
L
= 2.179 kN perm run < Shear Resistance = 5.774 O.K.
e} Check Cetiecdon
Maximum DeflectiOn :: 0.0066 .~ = 0.37 mm
B
where b6ndiilg stiffness of plyWood. EI = 3;400 kNmtpermllJl'l
Allowable Deflection ::: '. L I 270 .= 1.22 > 0.37 mm O.K. Design of R.e. beams and slab Falsework

---~--------------------------~--------------------~----~----~~~~~.

50

x

100 Second8ly Timber Bearer@ 330 mm cJe GradeSC4 .

4.2.3) Check

11'10.

x

0.3345

1.219 0.5 1.50

w- 3.56kWm

Maximum Span, L = Max. Moment at x =

ws ={ 3.6 +

= 1.85 kNIm

m l

0.5

)x

0.330

+

w = 10.8 x 0.330
= 3.56 kNm
R. = 1,85 x 1.219 {2 + {O.55 12 + O.3345} x 3,56 x 0.55/1.219
== 2.106 kN
R., :: 1.85 x 1.219/2 + (0.55/2 + 0.3345) x 3.56 x 0.55/1.219
:: 2.106 kN Ex

L" 1.2f9m

a) Check DeflectiQ!]
Max. Deflection :: ~8L~-4W+b~l+5ws!. .. = 3.94 mm
384EI
where Bending Stiffness of JoIst, EI = 30.54 x 1no. = 30.5 kNnf
Allowable DefleCtIon = L I 270 = 4.51 > 3.94 mm O.K.
b.1_ghecl! ~g(lding_~
. Max. Bending Moment = wf(0.5lP-a') + ytJ!
2 6
= 0.806 kNm < Moment of Resistance == 0.814 ·O.K.
.><t-«"
c) Qbeck Sbeac §tress
Max. Shear = Max Support Reaction
:: 2.106 kN < Shear Resistance = 4.670 O.K,
4.2.4) Check. 200. x 50 x 100 Primary Timber Bearer GradeSC4
Distance Between Rows of Scaffold :: 1219 mm
Spacing Between Scaffold = 1219 mm
W-11.94kN
111111111.11111111111111111111111111 W = (10.8 x 0.55 + (3.6 + 1.5 + 0.5) (1.219 + 1.219)) /2 X 1.219
jA •• .. • = 11.94 kN
l .. l.J!219mm l l Max. Reaction :: 1.10 W
" " 'I : 13.1 kN
L L' L
. a} Check B!!)din9
Max. Bending Moment = 0.10 VeJL
= 1.46 kNm '< Mom!!nt of Resistance :: 1.480 O.K.
b} Cbeck §bg5!t SimSs
Max. Shear = 0,6 W
.. 7.17 kN < Shear Resistance .. 8.480 O,K.
c] Check DeflecUon .
Max. Deflection 0.00688 ~ = 3.65 mm
el
where Bending Stiffness of Joist EI = 20.360 x 2no. = 40.7 kNml
Allowable Deflection = .. L I 270 = 4.51 > 3.65 mm O.K.
4.2.5) Check Capacity of Scaffold frame
. Scaffold frame @ 1219 mm clc
Max. Varticalload psi leg = Max Support Reaction :: 13.1 kN
Capacity of Scaffold frame = 24,5 kN per leg < 13.14 kN· O.K.
Adopt Light duty scaffold@ 1219 mm C/C , , ,

Design of R.C. beams and slab Falsework

4.3 Falsework design for R.C; Beam 550 wide x 900 Dp
4.3.1) Loading Asses$ment
SizeofRC. Beam :; 900 high
Thickness of R. C. Slab = 150 mm thick
Self·Weight of ac. Beam :; 18.0 kNlml
Self·Welght of R.C. Slab = 3.6, kNlroJ
Construction Load = 1.5 kNfm'
Self Weight of Soffit Formworll: = 0.5 kNfw
Total UDL, Wy = 23.6 kNfIlf x 550 wlde

(excluding slab thickness)

4.3.2} Check

19mm

Canadian CaFI Douglas Flr 7 Ply or compatible

t .. 19 mm Maxlmum Span, L :;

t w .. 5.54kN

240mm

>

2t= 38

.'t-~ W =( 23.6 ,0.5 )x 0.240
= 5.54 kN perm run
ill Check Bendl[Jg
Max. Bending Moment = 0.095 lM..
= 0.1264 kNm,per m run < Moment of Resistance = 0.398 O.K.
b} Cbeck Shea[ §tI!§s
Mwdmum Shear _. 0,525 ' W(l·a~n
L
= 2.074 kNpermrun < Shear Resistance = 5.774 O.K.
e} Qheck Qefiection
Maximum Deflection = 0.0066 ~' = 0.1488 mm
EI
where bendng stiffness of plywood, B = 3.400 kNrrt per m run
Allowable oenectlon = L I 270 = 0.89 > 0.1488 Rim O.K. •

DesIgn of R.C. beam. and .Iab Falsework

4.3.3) Check

l'4'f

50

x 100 Secondary Timber Bearer @ 240 rrm de GladeSC4

lno.

.- 0."" '-1 __ 141 --

X 0.3345

Maximun Span, L = 1.219 m

Max. Moment at x = 0.5 L

ws = ( 3.6 + 1.50 + 0.5 ) x 0.240

= 1434 kN/m

w = 18.0 x 0.240

= 4.32 kNm

R. = 1.34 x 1.219/2 + (0.55/2 + 0.3345) x 4.32 x 0.55/1.219

= 2.007 kN

~ = 1.34 x 1.219/2 + (0.55/2 + 0.3345) x 4.32 x 0.5511.219

= 2.007 kN

w. - 1.3.4kWm

WfREfIM*¥U'@iiWMMREtJ

w- 4.32kNIm

J

x

L" 1219m

~

al Check Deflection

Max. Deflection = wbi8la-4lb'ofbSl+5wsL 4 384EI

3.94

mm

where Bendng Stiffness of Joist, EI = Allowable Deflection =

30.54 x

l I

1 no. 270

30.5 kNm2

4.51 > 3.94 mm O.K.

=

=

b) Check Bending Stress

Max. Bendng Moment = !CCO.5LM 2 .

= 0.810

~

+

8

<

Moment of Resistance =

0.814

kNm

cl Check Shear Stress

.. ~~

Max. Shear = Max Sl4lPOI1 Reaction

= 2.007' kN

<

Shear Resistance =

4.670 O.K.

4.3.4) Check 2no, X 50 X 100 Primary 11mber Bearer GradeSC4
Distance Between Rows of Scaffold = 1219 mm
Spacing Between Scaffold lie 914 mm
W-10.76kN
11111111111111111111111111111111111 W = (18 x 0.55 + (3.6 + 1.5 + 0.5) (1.219 + 1.219)) /2 x 0.914
" • & A. - 10.76 kN
l L.~14mm l l Max. Reaction .. 1.10 W
., ., ., ., = 11.8 kN
L L L
11 Qb~ ae[l!;jog
Max. Bencing Moment = 0.10 WI..
= 0.98 kNm < Moment of ResIstance .. 1.480 O.K.
bl Qb~~ ~hear stress
Max. Shear = 0.6 W
lie 6.46 kN .< Shear Resislance = 8.480 O.K. c) Check Deflection
MaX. Deflection O.OO688 .: ~ = 1.39 mm
B
where Bending Stiffness of Joist, EI = 20.360 x 200. ;: . 40.7 kNm'
Allowabl e Deflection ;: l·/ 270 :: 3.39 > 1.39 mm O.K. 4.3.5} Check Capacity of Scaffold Frame

Scaffold frame @. 914 mm cle

Max. Vertical load per leg ;: Max S~ Reaction =

Capacity of Scaffold frame = . 24.5 kN per leg <

. Adopt light duty scaffold @914 mm C/C

11.8 kN

11.84 kN O.K.

O.K.

Design of R.C. beams and slab Falsework

~ Falsework design for B.C, Beam 1050 wJde x 850 OR

4.4.1) loading Assessment
Size of RC. Beam = 850 high x 1050 wide
Thickness of R.C. Slab .. 150 mm thick
Self-Welght ofRC. Beam = 16.8 kNfmt (excludng slab thickness)
Self-Weight of R.C. Slab = 3.6 kNfmt
ConstruCtIon Load = 1.5 kNlmt
Self Weight of Soffit FoJ'TllWOf1( = 0.5 'kNlml
Total UDL, WI = 22.4 ~ 4.4.2) Check

19mm

Canadian COFI Douglas Ar 7 Ply or compatitde

,_ 19 mm Maximum Span, L ::

t W= 4.27kN

195mm

:>

2t= 38

w =( 22.4 0.5 )x 0.195
.",!, = 4.27 kN perm run
a) Cbeck Benclng
Max. Bending Moment '" 0.095 WI..
= 0.0791 kNmpermrun < Moment of Resistance = 0.398 O.K.
bl Cbs!Q~ Shear stress
MavJmum Shear = 0.525 WtL-B-ll
L
= 1.449 kNpermrun c Shear Resistance :: 5.774 O,K.
Q} Chg Qml~QD .
. Maximum Deflectlon = 0.0066 WJ! = 0.06 mm
EI
where bencing stiffness of plywood,.B .. 3.400 kNmt per m run
Allowable Deflection = L J 270 = 0.72 :> 0.06 mm O.K. Design of R.C. beams and slab Falsework

4.4.3} Check

r~:

50

x 100 Secondary Timber Bearer @ 195 nvn c/c GradeSC4

x 0.0845

Maximum Span, L = 1.219 m

Max. Moment at x:: 0.5 L

W8 :: ( 3.6 + 1.50 + 0.5 ) x 0.195

= 1.09 kNlm

w.: 16.8 x 0.195

.: 3.28 kNm

.R. .: 1.09 x 1.219 J 2 + (1.05/2 + 0.0845) x 3.28 x 1.05/1.219

.: 2.385 kN

Ro .: 1.09 x 1.219 J 2 + (1.05 J 2 + 0.0845) x 3.28 x 1.05/1.219

= 2.385 kN

WUEutj~WWilEiij5M'@ZEjEfiil

'111'- 3.28kWm

r

L· 1219m

.... 1

~l Qheck QeUecUon
Max.. Deflection :;; v.b(i.l-4~+5WIL .. :: 4.04 mm
384EI
where Bending Stiffness of Joist, EI = 30.54 x 11'10. = 30.5 . kNot
Allowable Deflection = L J 270 = 4.51 > 4.04 mm O.K.
bl Qbs Beildill!l Stres!
Max. Bending Moment = waO.51..)I-at} + ~
2 .. 8
;: 0.800 ~Nm < Moment of ResIstance '" 0.814 O.K.
!2} Check Shear stress
... t· Max. Shear '" Max Sl4lPO.rt ReactIOn
.: 2.385 kN < Shear Resistance .: 4.670 O.K.
.U.4) Check 200. x 50 x 100 Primary TiIT'ber Bearer GradeSC4
Distance Between Rows ~ Scaffold :;; 1100 mm
Spacing Between Scaffold :;; 914 mm
W ... 14.00 leN
111111 1111111111 [11111111111 1111111 W .: {16.8 x 1.05 + (3.6 + 1.5 + 0.5) (1.219 + 1.1)) 12 x 0.914
• A' A • :: 14.00 kN
l l.~14mm . '1 !. Max. Reaction .: 1.10 W
" 1 . .: 15.4 kN
L . L l
8l91~~ f,lendlna
Max. Bmng Moment :;; 0.10 'M.
. - 1.28 kNm < Moment of Resistance .: 1.480 O.K.
bl Cheek Shear SUess
Max. Shear :;; 0.6 W
.: 8.40 kN < Shear Resistance = 8.480 O.K.
c} Check Deflection
Max. Deflection '0.00688 ~. .: 1.81 mm
B
where Sending ~tiffness of Joist, EI .: 2{l.360 x 2no. = 40.1 kNm'
Allowable Deflection = L I 270 = 3.39 > 1.81 mm O.K.
4.4.5) Check Capacity of Scaffold Frame
Scaffold frame @ 914 mm clc
Max. Vertical load per leg :: Max ~ ReactIon = 15.4 kN
Capacity of Scaffold frame = '24.5 kN per leg < 15.40 kN O.K.
Adopt Light duly scaffold @ 914 mm C/C ,._......;;. ..;..._ D_e_sl,;:;,9n_o_f_R._C_. b_eam_s_a_n_d_SI_ab_F_a_fs_ew_ork_

4.5 Ealseworts design for RoC. Beam 650 wjde x 1200 Dp

4.5.1) Loading Assessment
Size of R.C. Beam = 1200 high
Thickness of R.C. Slab = 150 rT1D thk:k
Setf-Weight of R.C. Beam = 25.2 kNlmt
Self-Weight of RC. Slab = 3.6 kNImt
Construction Load = 1.5 kNfm2
Self Weight of Soffit Fonnwork = 0.5 kNfmt
Total UDL, Wr :: 30.8 kNlmt x 650 wide

(excludng slcb thickness)

4.5.2) Check

19mm

Canadian COR Douglas Fir 7 Ply or compatible

t'" 19 mm Maximum Span, l =

i W· 5.15kN

170mm

>

2t = 38

~'!f;~ W =( 30.8 0.5 )>t 0.170
=" 5.15 kNpermrun
aJ Check Bendog
Max. Bending Moment = 0.095 WI..
= 0.0832 kNmpermrun < Moment of Resistance :: 0.398 O.K.
bl Chec~ Shear Stress
Maximum Shgar :: 0.525 WQ,- II-I)
l
:: 1.607 kN perm RIl < Shear Resistance = 5.n4 O.K.
!tl Check DeflectiQ!]
Maximum Deflection :: 0.0066 Wl.! = 0.05 mm
B
wnere bending stiffness of plywood. EI = 3.400 . kNmt per m run
Allowable Deflection = l I 270 = 0.63 > 0.05 rnm O.K. ...

. ..~~~ ~D_es~ig~n~o~fR~~~b~ea~m~I~~~d~.~la~b~f~af~sew~om~

x

100 Secondary TllTlber Bearer @ 170 mm c/c GradeSC4

4.5.3) Check 1 no. X 50

r ~ .. 0 .... -14'1 0.,""

w. - O.95kNIm EtfiUmfltfBm .. EJtMB,I$6RJ

Maximum Span, L = 1.219 m
Max. Moment at x = 0.5 L
WS =( 3.6 + 1.50 + 0.5 )x 0.170
= 0.95 kNfm
w = 25.2 x 0.170
= 4.28 kNm
R. = 0.95 x 1.219/2 + (0.65/2 + 0.2845) x 4.28 x 0.65/1.219
= 1.973 kN
Ro = 0.95 x 1.219/2 + (0.65/2 + 0.2845) x 4.28 x 0.65/1.219
= 1.973 kN w- 4.~

L· 1219m .

x

a) Check Deflection
Max. Deflection = wb{!l'~L.bl#l+5w,b 4 = 3.91 mm
384B
where Bendng Stiffness of Joist, EI = 30.54 x 1no. = 30.5 kNnf
Allowable Deflection = L I 270 = 4.51 > 3.91 mm O.K. bl Check Bendna Stress

Max. Bencing Moment = wf(O.5!J1-aI) + ~

2 . 8

= 0.799 kNm

<

Moment of ResIstance =

0.814' O.K.

c) Check Shear Stress

Max. Shear = Max S~Reactlal

:: 1.973 kN

<

Shear Resistance =

4.670 O.K.

50

x

100 Primary TIlriler Bearer GradeSC4

2no.

4.5.4} Check

x

Distance Between ROW$ of Scaffold = Spacing Between Scaffold ::

W" 13.13kN

1220 mm 914 ·mm

W = (25,2 x 0.65 + (3.6 + 1.5 + 0.5) (1.219 + 1.22») J 2 x 0.914

:: 13.73 kN

111111111111111111111 " IIII " IIIIII

l

..

J.

A ..

l L.J~14mm

t.Aax. ~tion. = . 1.10 W

:: 15.1 kN

L

..

~ L . L

a) Check Bending
. Max. Bendng Moment = 0.10 WI..
= 1.25 kNm
b} Check Shear SIres§
Max: Shear ::; 0.6 W
. - 8.24 kN < Moment of Reslstaooe = 1.480 O.K.

< Shear Resiataooe = 8.480 O.K .

c) Check DeOection

0.00688 ~ EI

=

1.77 mm

Max. DetIectlon

where Bending Stiffness ofJols~ EI::; 20.360 x

ABowabje DenecUon :: L f

=

40.7 kNrnZ

3.39 > 1.n mm O.K.

2no. 270

4.5.5) Check Capacity of Scaffold Frame

Scaffold frame @ 914 mm elc

Max. Vertical ioad per Jeg =' Max Support ReactIon =

Capacity of Scaffold frame = 24.5' kN per leg <

Adopt Ught duty scaffold @ 914 mm c/o

15.1 kN

15.10 kN. O.K.

Plywood Particle Board
(clipboard)
Face Canadlan FbIIIish American Type m or DIlII
Grain 19 mm COFl 18 nun (l3 Ply) 19 mm (APAl to BS B669
relative ~Jas~. S·C Grade: 18mm 23mm
to span Group 1
No,. (lJ 6 Ply 7 PI, Birch· Birch (5 orB Ply)
faced
Bending , Parallel 3.14 3.40 3.02 3.23 2.99 1.12 aoo
Stiffness
EI (kNm1hn) Perp'r 1.54 1.54 1.58 2.23 199 1.12 aoo
Moment of Parallel 0.367 0.398 0.611 0.178 0.395 0.202 0.267
Resistance
rz (kNm/m) Peip'r 0.221 0.228 0.465 0.518 0.488 0.002 0.261
Sheu Parallel 1.141 5.774 9.832 14.465 9.412 4.334 5.324
Load
qA(kNIm) Perp'c 4.110 4.862 5.899 12.782 6.263 ' 4.334 5.324 Notes 10 (1) The face gnin reIatM fa ;ts span incticareI rhe disposiOOtl of the plywood Ita! oram

ThbIe 8: NbltiN /0 Ib SJU. See Fig.·19. "

(2) The raIuei- d betiding ~ are IJOI.rnodi/ied by the durallOn oIlot1d.

(3) The shear·.bId incb:Jes .• modilblion 4Idor of 1.1, see tes: '

Table 8. Structural Properties of Wood-based Sheet Materials

General Fotmwork and SoDir Applications I<a ~ I . .,.

. ,
, ' PlyWOOd
Puticle Board .
(cbipboud)
Face CaNadIan Finnish American Type m or IIIm
Grain 19 mmCOFJ 18 mm (13 Ply) 19mm (APA) fOBS 8669.
reladve ~~ B-C Grade;· 18 mm . 33.nun
to span Groupl
HOle (/} 6 Ply 7. Ply JJircb. Birch (S or 6 Ply)
fK:id
Benc:Ung ParaDeI 3.14 3.40 3.02' 3.23 2.99 1.12 2.08
SciffrIeSs
EI(kNmYm) Perp'r 1.54 1.54 J.s8 :a23 2.99 1.12 ' 2,08
Moment of Parallel 0.393 0.426 0.655 0.834 0.423 0.217 0.286
Jtesistanc:e '
fZ(kNmlm) Perp'r 0.243 0.245 0.499 0.619 0.522 ' 0.217 0.286
Shear " Parallel, 7.652 8.18S 10.534 15.499 10.1-48 4.642 5.698
:1Dad<."
qA (kN1m) Perp'r' ,5.045 9.210' 6.320 13.694 6.111 4.642 5.698 ,*,-/0' T.lbIe9:

(l) 7fIe IlK» QJaJiI mati_to its span Illdicetlf$lhe cli.rpc.wuon oIlMt plywtxxllac:ft grllS

. relIJIiWIIO i,. fPIIL s.e Fig. 19.. ' ' , .. . ,

(Z) 7be f'altw oI.beriding"'_ are IlOl modJ6ed by lire dwalJon 01 bid

(3) 7lJe 6IJeaj Joe ~. ~ fIct,r of I.J. see lex!. . , .

"rUle 9. ',Structuial ProPertieS d wood.baseci ~t Materials

WaIl FonnMWk Applications 16 .I.s: '

.a 1 •

Whe~ ca1cu!8ting the pennissible span lor a wood-based sheet material its support conditionS'may alter the theoretical values for span obtained. from formulae Wbicb assume centre to cenlIe spans wilh 'knile-edge' supports. On cOntinuously spanning sheets the S\4)pOn conditions will be atrected by the width of the bearers and walinQs. and at infennediate positions they will act as two supports close together. The width of the supports should always

,. be consider6d when checlciD9 the shear on the sheet material However, this is not always the case when checking the moment of resistance, reaction or deflection It is thereiJre recommended thaI. unless a separate analysis is camed .out. the following procedures are used tor shear, moments. reactions and deDections.

Shear: Sheet ma.eri8J s~ ale usually relatively shan and shear railure is rare, The critical secti:ln or the loaded span in shear is the clear distance between ~ supports with lUI additional reduction ror the thickness of the she:el material (asswning a load dispersion of a 4~ from the edge of the suppori). This is similar 10 the consideration or punching shear.

1

I

.1

. ,

j

IJ

II

11· )1 11"

, I

]

, .

]

"1

"1"

~ ,

ii~ Tf;\t(.o T ~"ty) II Ft#mwo.rt.l'. -.II: " A2..
SE!ction 3.2.2 . ~pe. TQ trcaD P.eAc..·7J .(.~ !i't' -r:!.~T ;:;.
GeomICric pn2penlu
Basic Sizes (mm) 50 x 100 'IS x 100 SO x 180 7S x 160 75 x 225 ./lwttJS_ SOX7S
(B x 0)" A,ppItnc:Ur D. Ta.bIe S9 (6XJl)
'. - (lei. 4),
~inished siie (mm) 41 x ~ 72 x 97 41 x 146 72 x 1-45 12 x 219 . Jf7x 72.. .
Area(~ . 4559 6984 6815 10440 15768 33,q.
Section Modulus Z 73.1 x 10l 113 x IQl 165 x lOS 252 x 101 576 x 103 ~.'xI6
(~
Moment of 3.57 x·1Ql 5.48 x lOS 11.9 x lOS . 18.3 x loa 63.0 x lOS •
Inertia I (nun~) I. ~61<lo
Depth Factor Itt 1.128 1.128 1.019 1.019 1.032 1.1'"
Table 7. Geometric Properties and Depth Factor (X.,) br Basic Sizes 01 Solid Timber Section 3.2.2 - Wood·based Faee CODtact Materlak

Timber is USed eilhBr ill direct mce contact in the shape 01 boards or as sheets or wood-based materials.· The bnneris generally known as 'sawn board' fonnwork when it is ~jfied as a linish. and is considered sepamtely.

. ..

SectloD 3.U.l - Saw. Boucl Fenawodt

FiNih and· Specifi<:atkm: A wid8 ranQe at ftnishes may'be ob~ from sawn board bnnwork. varying from smooth to deeply grcUned markings with expressed joinls. Sawma.rks are often used as the main feature. It is also possible to sculpt limber to ban an even bo1de~ relief. The joints between boerdsIbrms will bno part of Ute IInal appearance and should be designed

See.Figs. 13 aitd 14 ilr eiamp_ of 'sawn board' ftnish. fMlJg& 13 Mtt11f.

All Co~n softwtxlds ~ be used. bUt harchvoods are occasionaUy adopted

lor multi-use birDs. and are usual (or features. strikin9 pieces and wedges.

Timber sOOuld not be too dry, or it wilt sweUwith absorbed moisture and .

make ietmvaJ difIiCull 'Oreen' timber dJstons in rot weather. making

aHgnment awkward. Moisture c:o~1, variations in absorbency and any .

natuial resins, salts. or wood sugars may affect the colour of !he finished

concrete. '!be selecIion of pretreabnent and release agent is covered in

·Section 3.10. . . . '; . . Sec:daD 3. Jo.

Some· timbers. such as keruing and meranle. are IcI10wn to create serious

. problems due to !heir interaction with the concrete. causing retardation of the SUIhce, 8iWere discolOratiOn,· or adheIion .of the timber to the concrete.

AdviCe should be aoughllrom ~ if ~ is any cbubt about the suitability ,o.f a partk:ular ~ (AppendiiF lists addresses)

.,

~ Pl:eParab And Reule: 1imber. may be prepared either with a srriooth finish or to emphasise ils natural grain. The grain tan be enhanced by soaking in water or weak (1.3") ammonium ~ solution. In CUlling the tirilber, marks may form part of the feature.· However. even·with Smooth

. . . timber it is inevilable that Slme ~ marks ,will be tnnsIerred 10 the con~te face. Jointing may be buG, ~ and glOO,ed., or sealed wilh a

plaslic roam strip.· . .

.' I .

. AdditiOnal texture to the cxmcrele surface can be obtaihed by using eilher

. radial or tangentially sawn boards. A deeply exposed grain appearance may ·be achieved bY giil blasting the );Ioards. Rough sawn limber with a haixy or splintery suiface shoukl be avoided, espec:iaUy for 1arge panels. cfue, to diflicul.ties in striking. Boardmarlced features will be emphasised by usino: boatdsof varying thiclcness. Unless'a random finish is required. consistency of timber supply is 8ssentiaL Form joints should be watertight.

. .

Untreated timber boalded formwork. can normally be re-uSed between 1 and 10 times. di!pendino on Ute care taken in slIildng and handling, and the quality of final finish requited. .

Considerably more Uses may be obtained if care is taken to maintain the forms. '1l1e liCe of beading fixed to the surface or !he fOITll is more lihllted. .

CareCUUy selected limber should be used Unless It is to be sealed with either a bamer paint OI a proprietary wax. the form should be treated initially with·

two or three applications of ~elease agent to Sea\Jbe surface and to create

• ','J

Se A3'

ction 3.2.1

Strezi;th
ClaSs SOx.
SC3 27.14 .
Stiffness rot 30.54
EI(kNm') . SC5 33.01'
-.
Moment or SCJ 0.617
. ResIstAnCe SC4 0.872
. Cenlies up to 610 nun fZ Kr''c (kNm) SC5 1.163
. Values assume lout Ol Sheu SC3 4.72
. mont timber.;. Load SC4 5.00
.qAr.(kN) sea 1.04
Beuino SC3
Stress M1fe (2) SOt
(kN~) SCS •

"

. "Ii

"

GenetaUy, ~ ~ in wall and soffit fo':1l1work. as either walings or .

bearers. will be behind face contact matenals which will allow load. sharing 10 be considered. In soffits !he primary limbers may be classified as falsework or fonnwork: load sharing wiU not be appropriate and the permissible stz:esses in Table 3 will apply.

The stress values from Table 3 are used with a depth of section factor X, incolPOraled. the. asswnplion being in all cases !hat the timber is Used in the stronger direction The geometric properties and K: factors are given in

Table 7. 'the depth ractor from as S268 (Re! 4) applies 10 solid limber beams assigned to a strength class or graded to as 4978 (Re( al~ as 5156 (Re! 23) .. or NLGA. and NGRDL Joist and Plank Rules (Ref. 24). The use of the depth factor for all stress graded or strength classified timber used in brmwork applications is recommended and the structural properties in Tables 4. 5 and

6 include !he factor. When limber is used in lension the depth factor can also be used to modify the stress Values from Table 3.

Allowance for holes anti notches bas to be made when ca1cuIalingthe bending strength; see also BS 5268, Clause 14.9 (ReC. 4~ &J.ch holes and notches will have little elect on the deflection unless they are of some length. say. with notches exceeding 1296 of depth and holes on the centreline.with .diameters QTeater than 2596 of the depth.

Basic Sizes (rom) .
Strength
Class· . SO x 100 7S x 100 50 x ISO 75 x lSU '15 x 22S
Bending SC3 '37.14 41.66 90.48 139.14 478.99
Stilrl'less SC4 30.54 46.88 IOl.79 156.54 538.90
EI (kNml) SCS 33.01. 50.66 110.02 169.18 582.44
..
Nomentof SC3 0.575 0.882 1.232 1.882 4.114
ResistaDce SC4 0.814 1.248 1.144 2.663 5.822.
Ut, It (lcNm) SC5 1,086 1.665 2.325 3.551 1.763'
Shear sea 4.40 6.15 6.58 10.08 15.23
Load SC4 4.67 1.15 6.98 10.69 16.14
qAK.(kN) SCS 6.51 10.01 9.83 15.05 2.2.73
Bearing SC3 2S9O (2230)
Stress NoIe (2) SC4 3150 (2490)
(kN1Jrit) SCS .' 3680 (3150) .
.. TaNe S. Structural Properlieso/ Load'Sharing 1Ymbem

GeneraJ Fomnvork and Soflit Applications. See Note (1)

Basic Sizes (mm)
75 X 100 50 x 150 75 X ISO 75)(

41.66 90.48 139.14 418.99 . .:~.r.
46.88 101.79 156.54 538.90 12·,5r1'
50,66' 110.02 169.18 582.44: .....
. '
0.945 . 1.320 .. 2,017 .4.408 ' .•.. ~
1.338 1.868 2,853 6;238 o • .4ia·
. 1.183. 2,491 . 3.805 . 8.311 ..
-
7.23 7.OS 10.80 16,32 ~:- ..
1.66 7.47 n.4S 17.29 . ~;T"
10.19 10.53 16.12 24.35 BS 5368 (RsI, 4), . BS 4918 (Bel 31~ IS 5758 (ReI. .83.1

NLOA IIl'Id NGRDL /Oist MId PhlIk Rules (Rel3f) ..

See BS 5268. Clall$e 14.9 (Ret. 4).

Centres lip to,fjO mm VaJU6S a.ssunte low or more timbers .

3100 (2390)

3370 (2670)

3930 (3310) .

Noreslo '/abies 5 IJIId 6:

~fC'lrrr;vJ ? CI 0, ~ KUI¥I

~e. T'''A~ 7 fM S:Ox1~ $::r.0I'i

. ", /!hfeIt.T,te.. .'

(1) ~ assume h:td sh~ ii; "" 1. J) and thai the face contact ma/erial wi JateraJly

disIIil:IJle the appljecnscis.

(2) In be.aring .suess consKie13tions whe.m wane is pennirred in grading, i.Ise !he values in brackelS. .

._ ... _-------------

. "

"

J

. I -,

I I

!

i

I '

J

II,

~ction l2.l- t;;t~T~n1 'l~w.~A tf6(.IP;' To ~t:> FiZ,..,qite" l3.'f UT.e.,.t.e;T'E- • A'f

The value of pemtissible shear stress sIaled is the maximwn pennitled. 'fo

clarify the relationship between the average and maximwn shear stress fot a

rectangular section. see f'iO. 18::wlUch shows 8 paraboUc shear distribution SH 11g. 18.

Whelt tte cross secOOl\ is not rectari'gular the distribution is not parabolic am

reference should be made to $IIUCtUIa1 design handlxloks for evaluation of

the maximum stress.

Fig. 11

SeCtioti 3.z.t".3 .; StraCtuzal ProputiU fw Solid TfmJMr

To assist the de5ignex to evamato the structural properties of solid timber members Tables 4. 'S ~'6lisl ~ permissible moment o[ resislance 00. permissible bending _ess (El),maximum ~ar load and bearing stress

\'alue for dve sections commonly' used in IonnWOlk The tables are for , fIbIItI' ue lor ~

softwood constructional timber which is ~ an round The geometric ~ timber.

'properties Qf the sections are, listed in Table 1 '

~ structw'alproPertiesare derived ~ the pennissib1e stresSes and '

moduli of elasticity listed in Table 3 8nd modified by applying factors lor the depth of section selected. and under ceI1ain ccinditions for its load sharing ,applicatlqn., .

, ,WhereVer foUr or IOOra timbers. each One spaced not further apart than

610 nun, and which have provision br lateral dislribution of loads (JOI example with plywood race' contact material). then the stresses in 'l'able 3 can , , be inaeased by l~ and U!e mean modulus of elasticity used when

calcufating denectip'ns from concrete PIessureS etc.-See BS 5268. Clause 13.0 See IS" aau. u»

(Ret 4), !}'he load sharirig modific:ation factor r. is'l.1. . ' 'lW4)..

" Bu1c SiJes (nun)
Strength
Class ' 'eo x,lOQ' 78><100 SOx .150 75 x 160 7S x22S
1Iendino SC3' 17.89 ' ' , 27.46 59.63 ' ,91.70 ' 3\5.69,
Stitfnesll set 20.36 31.29 61.85 10435 359,~
EI (kNml) SC5 21.90, . 33.61 '13.00 112.25 ' 386.44
Moment ot SC3 0.523 0.802 1.120 ' 1711 3.140
~ SC4 0.140 . 1.135 1.585 2.4Zl 5.293
fZ~X.(kNrn>' SCS 0.987' 1.513 2.U4 3.228 1.051
Shear SC3 4.00 " 6.13 $,98 9.11 13.84
Lead SC4 ,4.24 6.50 6.34 9.12 14,68
<tA(kN) SCS 5.98 9,15 8,$3 13.68 2O.fr1
Bearlng SC3 2630 (2030)
Stress Note '(2) SC4 2810 (2Z10)
(kN/m2) SCS 33SO (2810) .. e=

Notes to Table 4: OJ A.ssr.imes no Dad 3hanilg ie, r ... 1,0

(2) In bearing SUes! COIISidlllilUoIIS wflere Mille is permitted iii gzadill9. use"~e YCll1es in

brackec.7. '

(p.,,~·M.fu~~1' k7 _;;\~. /:_ .... , ... ~.- .... 1 • .0( .: ~ ~ tv ."'.!.,t ... ~· ... • ·J .. t)~[ •• )

Table 4. Structural ProPerties oflndividuaIly Loaded 1Unbers' ,

, General Fonnwork Applications ' ~

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