# Boothroyd & Dewhurst’s DFA Analysis

• B&D offer eight rules or guidelines which are important during design for manual assembly (listed in decreasing order of importance):
1. Reduce part count and part types 2. Strive to eliminate adjustments 3. Design parts to be self-aligning and self-locating 4. Ensure adequate access and unrestricted vision 5. Ensure the ease of handling parts from bulk 6. Minimize the need for re-orientations during assembly 7. Design parts that cannot be installed incorrectly 8. Maximize part symmetry if possible or make parts obviously 1 asymmetrical

Boothroyd & Dewhurst’s DFA Analysis (cont.)
Step 1: Obtain information about the product or assembly from drawings, prototypes, or an existing product Step 2: Take the product or assembly apart and assign an identification number to each item as it is removed Step 3: Begin to reassemble the product beginning with the highest identification number and add the remaining parts one-by-one – Complete one row of the DFA worksheet for each part – Never assume that parts are grasped one in each hand and then assembled together before placing them in a partially-completed assembly • Step 4: Complete DFA worksheet, computing total manual assembly time, cost, and design efficiency
2

0 1

Name of Part

Part ID #

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 TM CM NM

# of times the operation is carried out consecutively 2 3 manual handling time per part two-digit manual insertion code manual insertion time per part operation time, sec, (2) x [(4) + (6)] operation cost, cents, 0.4 x (7) two-digit manual handling code

DFA Worksheet
estimation of theoretical minimum # of parts, 0 or 1 4 5 6 7 8 9

Obtained from B&D Manual Insertion Worksheet

Obtained from B&D Manual Handling Worksheet

Design Efficiency EM = (3 x NM)/TM
3

Estimating Theoretical Minimum Number of Parts
Add a part Is there a need for significant movement between parts?
No Yes

First Part; Theoretical # of parts = 1

Is there a need for interfacing parts to be isolated?
No

Yes

Would assembly or disassembly of the product be prevented by combining two parts?
No

Yes

Combine the two parts Add zero to the minimum theoretical number of parts Add next part

Keep the two parts separate Add one to the minimum theoretical number of parts

4

Assumptions for BDI DFMA • Parts are provided in bulk and randomly oriented in a bin. • Parts are handled and inserted one at a time. • Products weigh a few grams to a few tens of kilograms and are electro-mechanical in nature. • Assembly sequence is optimized for one operator.

5

Assembly Time Estimate by Boothroyd/Dewhurst DFMA
Estimate assembly time: – Time to assemble a part: »Time to handle a part »Time to insert a part – Time to assemble all parts, one at a time

6

BDI DFMA: Assembly Time • Time to handle a part: – Pick a part, orient & get ready to insert it – 1.13 ~10 seconds depending on: »Symmetry; Primary(α-) & secondary(β-) »Size: Thickness, dimension, weight, … »Handling ease: Tool, flexible, tangling, ...

7

8

BDI DFMA: Part Symmetry • Primary (α-) symmetry: Rotational symmetry perpendicular to the axis of insertion α = 180o α = 360o

9

BDI DFMA: Part Symmetry • Secondary (β-) symmetry: Rotational symmetry about the axis of insertion

β = 0o

β = 360o
10

DFA Worksheet Part Orientation
• α asymmetry: rotational symmetry •about an axis perpendicular to the •axis of insertion

α = 1800

α = 3600
= =

α = ?

11

DFA Worksheet Part Orientation
β symmetry: rotational symmetry about its axis of insertion

β = 00

β = 180

0

β =?

12

BDI DFMA: Part Symmetry

13

14

BDI DFMA: Part Size

15

BDI DFMA: Assembly Time • Time to insert a part: – Time to insert and secure a part – 1.5 ~ 12 seconds depending on: » Ease of access: Visual & hand access » Ease of positioning: Hold-down, alignment, insertion force, .. » Securing requirement: Screw, snap, bending, soldering, …. • Time to assemble all parts, one at a time

16

BDI DFMA: Assembly Time • Time to insert a part

• Two-digit insertion codes for piston: __ __
17

BDI DFMA: Assembly Time • Time to insert a part

• Two-digit insertion codes for washer: __ __
18

BDI DFMA: Assembly Time • Handling Time

19

BDI DFMA: Assembly Time • Insertion Time

20

BDI DFMA: Assembly Time • Total Assembly Time
Part # Part Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 Total Assembly Time Qty Handling Handling (n) Code Time Insertion Code Insertion Assembly Time Time (n Parts)

21

Pneumatic Pump Exercise with Boothroyd/Dewhurst DFMA

22

BDI DFMA: Pneumatic Pump • Assembly Sequence: 6. Two screws 5. One cover 4. One spring 3. One piston stop 2. One piston 1. One main body • Tool: – A screw driver
23

BDI DFMA: Pneumatic Pump
• Assembly Time:
Part # Part Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 Main Block Piston Piston Stop Spring Cover Screws Qty Handling Handling (n) Code Time 1 1 1 1 1 2 Insertion Code Insertion Assembly Time Time (n Parts)

24

BDI DFMA: Pneumatic Pump
• Assembly Time:
Part # 1 2 3 4 5 6 Part Name Main Block Piston Piston Stop Spring Cover Screws Qty (n) 1 1 1 1 1 2 Handling Code 30 Handling Time 1.95 Insertion Code 00 Insertion Assembly Time Time (n Parts) 1.50 3.45

Total Assembly Time

25

• Assembly Time:
Part # Part Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 Main Block Piston Piston Stop Spring Cover Screws

BDI DFMA: Pneumatic Pump
Qty Handling (n) Code 1 30 1 10 1 1 1 2 Handling Time 1.95 1.50 Insertion Code 00 10 Insertion Assembly Time Time (n Parts) 1.50 3.45 4.00 5.50

Total Assembly Time

26

BDI DFMA: Pneumatic Pump
• Assembly Time:
Part # Part Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 Main Block Piston Piston Stop Spring Cover Screws Qty Handling (n) Code 1 30 1 10 1 10 1 1 2 Handling Time 1.95 1.50 1.50 Insertion Code 00 10 00 Insertion Assembly Time Time (n Parts) 1.50 3.45 4.00 5.50 1.50 3.00

Total Assembly Time

27

BDI DFMA: Pneumatic Pump
• Assembly Time:
Part # 1 2 3 4 5 6 Part Name Main Block Piston Piston Stop Spring Cover Screws Qty (n) 1 1 1 1 1 2 Handling Code 30 10 10 05 Handling Time 1.95 1.50 1.50 1.84 Insertion Code 00 10 00 00 Insertion Assembly Time Time (n Parts) 1.50 3.45 4.00 5.50 1.50 3.00 1.50 3.34

Total Assembly Time

28

BDI DFMA: Pneumatic Pump
• Assembly Time:
Part # 1 2 3 4 5 6 Part Name Main Block Piston Piston Stop Spring Cover Screws Qty (n) 1 1 1 1 1 2 Handling Code 30 10 10 05 12 Handling Time 1.95 1.50 1.50 1.84 2.36 Insertion Code 00 10 00 00 08 Insertion Assembly Time Time (n Parts) 1.50 3.45 4.00 5.50 1.50 3.00 1.50 3.34 6.50 8.86

Total Assembly Time

29

BDI DFMA: Pneumatic Pump
• Assembly Time:
Part # Part Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 Main Block Piston Piston Stop Spring Cover Screws Qty Handling (n) Code 1 30 1 10 1 10 1 05 1 12 2 11 Handling Time 1.95 1.50 1.50 1.84 2.36 1.80 Insertion Insertion Assembly Code Time Time (n Parts) 00 1.50 3.45 10 4.00 5.50 00 1.50 3.00 00 1.50 3.34 08 6.50 8.86 39 8.00 16.60 Total Assembly Time 40.75 Seconds

30

Part Reduction Method by Boothroyd/Dewhurst DFMA

31

BDI DFMA: Part Reduction • Estimate assembly time: • Identify critical parts & candidates for elimination/combination. Let’s assume a product consists of a number of parts: – Are they all critical part? – What if a part is missing or broken? – What if two parts are replaced by a larger or different part • Determine design efficiency
32

BDI DFMA: Part Reduction When ready to assemble a part, should this part: • Move relative to all already assembled parts? • Be made of different material from all already assembled parts? • Be a separate part from all already assembled parts for assembly and disassembly? If any answer is a “yes”, this part is a critical part and may not be eliminated or combined!
33

BDI DFMA: Why Reduce Parts? A non-existing part never: • Causes a quality problem • Adds the cost • Creates an inventory problem • Requires design changes • Creates a shortage problem • Has a lead time

34

BDI DFMA: Pneumatic Pump • Assembly Sequence: 6. Two screws 5. One cover 4. One spring 3. One piston stop 2. One piston 1. One main body

35

BDI DFMA: Pneumatic Pump • Part Reduction:
Part # 1 2 3 4 Part Name Main Block Piston Piston Stop Spring Qty 1 1 1 1 With Respect to Main Block Main Block Piston Main Block Piston Piston Stop Main Block Piston Piston Stop Spring Main Block Piston Piston Stop Spring
36

Relative Motion

Different Material

Service & Assembly

Critical Part

5

Cover

1

6

Screws

2

BDI DFMA: Pneumatic Pump • Part Reduction:
Part # 1 2 3 4 Part Name Main Block Piston Piston Stop Spring Qty 1 1 1 1 With Relative Respect to Motion -Main Block Main Block Piston Main Block Piston Piston Stop Main Block Piston Piston Stop Spring -Different Material Service & Assembly Critical Part Yes

5

Cover

1

6

Screws

2

No
37

BDI DFMA: Pneumatic Pump • Part Reduction:
Part # 1 2 3 4 Part Name Main Block Piston Piston Stop Spring Qty 1 1 1 1 With Respect to Main Block Main Block Piston Main Block Piston Piston Stop Main Block Piston Piston Stop Spring -Relative Motion Yes Different Material Service & Assembly Critical Part Yes Yes

5

Cover

1

6

Screws

2

No
38

BDI DFMA: Pneumatic Pump

• Part Reduction:
Part # 1 2 3 4 Part Name Main Block Piston Piston Stop Spring Qty 1 1 1 1 With Respect to Main Block Main Block Piston Main Block Piston Piston Stop Main Block Piston Piston Stop Spring -Relative Motion Yes No Yes Different Material Service & Assembly Critical Part Yes Yes Yes Yes

No

Yes

5

Cover

1

6

Screws

2

No
39

BDI DFMA: Pneumatic Pump • Part Reduction:
Part # 1 2 3 4 Part Name Main Block Piston Piston Stop Spring Qty 1 1 1 1 With Respect to Relative Motion Different Material Candidate Service & for Assembly Eliminatio n Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

5

Cover

1

6

Screws

2

Main Block Main Block Piston Main Block Piston Piston Stop Main Block Piston Piston Stop Spring --

Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes

No

•Yes No
40

BDI DFMA: Pneumatic Pump • Part Reduction:
Part # 1 2 3 4 Part Name Main Block Piston Piston Stop Spring Qty 1 1 1 1 With Respect to Relative Motion Different Material Candidate Service & for Assembly Eliminatio n Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes •Yes No
41

5

Cover

1

6

Screws

2

Main Block Main Block Piston Main Block Piston Piston Stop Main Block Piston Piston Stop Spring --

Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes

No

No No

DFA of Pneumatic Pump
• According to the piston stop, the cover is a candidate for elimination or combination: – Can the cover be eliminated? – Can the cover be combined? If so with what? • Fasteners are automatic candidates of elimination: – How can the fasteners be eliminated?

42

Part Reduction Is the Key for Design Improvement
• Eliminating one part reduces at least 3 seconds. • In addition a non-existing part is the best since it never:
– Requires purchasing and warehouse – Needs inspection – Causes a quality problem – Needs design changes and drawing – Be in shortage
43

DFA of Pneumatic Pump
• According to the piston stop, the cover is a candidate for elimination or combination: – Can the cover be eliminated? No! – Can the cover be combined? Yes! Combine with piston! • Fasteners are automatic candidates of elimination: – How can the fasteners be eliminated? Yes! Press-fit the cover!
44

New Design of Pneumatic Pump

45

BDI DFMA: Design Efficiency • The pneumatic pump: – Has 7 parts & needs 40.75 seconds to assemble – Has 4 critical parts & 3 non-critical parts • If the product is designed perfectly: – Pump would consists of only four parts – Each part would take 3 seconds to assemble – Total assembly time would be 12 seconds • Design efficiency from assembly view points is: – Design Efficiency = 12/40.75 = 29%
46

• Assembly Time:
Part # Part Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 Main Block Piston Piston Stop Spring Cover Screws

BDI DFMA: Pneumatic Pump
Qty Handling Handling (n) Code Time 1 30 1.95 1 10 1.50 1 10 1.50 1 05 1.84 1 12 2.36 2 11 1.80 Insertion Insertion Assembly Code Time Time (n Parts) 00 1.50 3.45 10 4.00 5.50 00 1.50 3.00 00 1.50 3.34 08 6.50 8.86 39 8.00 16.60 Total Assembly Time 40.75 Seconds

– What should we do to reduce handling time of the cover and insertion times of the cover and screws?
47

• 1.13 ~10 seconds to handle a part depending on: – Symmetry; Primary(α-) & secondary(β-) – Size: Thickness, dimension, weight, … – Handling ease: Tool, flexible, tangling, … • To reduce part handling time: – More part symmetry: α- & β-symmetry – Right part size : Thickness, dimension, … – No flexible, tangling parts

BDI DFMA Assembly Time

48

To Reduce Handling Time

• Increase symmetry by introducing redundancy: α − symmetry from 360o to 180o

• Closed-end springs do not tangle

49

BDI DFMA Assembly Time
• 1.5 ~ 12 seconds to insert a part depending on: – Visual & hand access – Hold-down, alignment, insertion force, – Securing: Screw, snap, bending, soldering, .. • To reduce part insertion time: – Easy visual & hand access – No hold-down, easy alignment, low/no insertion force, .. – Easy/No securing requirement: Snaps instead of screw, bending, soldering, ….
50

To Reduce Insertion Time

• The washer seat eliminates needs of holding

• The long shaft makes piston alignment easy

51

• Piston & piston stop are combined • Cover is press-fitted

New Design of Pneumatic Pump

52

• BDI DFMA Assembly Time Analysis:
Part # 1 2 3 4 Part Name Main Block Piston Spring Cover Qty 1 1 1 1 Handling Code Handling Time Insertion Code Insertion Time Total Assy Time

New Design of Pneumatic Pump

53

• BDI DFMA Assembly Time Analysis:
Part # 1 2 3 4 Part Name Main Block Piston Spring Cover Qty 1 1 1 1 Handling Code 30 10 05 10 Handling Time 1.95 1.50 1.84 1.50 Insertion Insertion Total Assy Code Time Time 00 1.50 3.45 00 1.50 3.00 00 1.50 3.34 30 2.00 3.50 Total Assembly Time 13.29 Seconds

New Design of Pneumatic Pump

• Design comparison:
Number of Parts Assembly Time Old Design New Design % Change 7 Parts 4 Parts 43% Reduction 40.75 Seconds 13.29 Seconds 67% Reduction
54

Design Guidelines for Assembly
How to design a product for ease of assembly? • Reduce the number of part • Design each part for ease of handling • Design each part for ease of insertion • Examine trade-offs, other cost and other X’s

55

Design Guidelines for Assembly
• Reduce the number of part: – Eliminate unnecessary parts – Combine parts – Reduce the different kinds of parts – Reduce/eliminate fasteners

56

Design Guidelines for Assembly
• Design each part for ease of handling: – Increase part symmetry but avoid near symmetric parts – Avoid tangling, nesting and sticky parts – Reduce/eliminate fasteners – Avoid custom-designed parts & use standard parts – Reduce part variability. If not possible, make difference pronounced
57

Design Guidelines for Assembly
• Design each part for ease of insertion: – Design for top-down layered assembly – Enhance self-locating & alignment capability – Provide in-process verification process – Design the base part for transportation & orientation & the last part to lock the assembly – Avoid turnover & processing during assembly – Design for one-hand assembly – Design fixtures together with products
58

• Examine trade-offs, other cost and other X’s: • To hold a wash or provide a washer seat? • Several standard parts or a single custom part? • Different material? • Different joining method? • What about: – Service & repair – Packing and shipping – Recycle ... Assembly is only one of many cost factors!
59

Design Guidelines for Assembly