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SHORE INTAKE
Shore intake is used in shallow, narrow & navigable rivers or waterways. They are constructed on the shore with the necessary parts for entrance of water and retaining walls. Shore intakes may be suitable for industrial plants where water quality is not of primary consideration or for public water supplies where water quality and other conditions permit

PRESSURE CONDUITS Are those in which the water flows under hydraulic pressure these

include pipelines of such materials as cast iron, steel, ductile, reinforced concrete, asbestos cement etc. The type of conduit to be selected depends on such factors as topography type of soil to, volume of water to be carried and comparative costs. A velocity of 0.8 to, 1.2 meter per second in the intake conduit will give satisfactory performance. The head loss due to friction in such conduit is calculated from Darry- Weisbach formula:
4 f 1 v2 hf = 2 gd

LOW LIFT PUMP It is preferably located as near as possible to the intake structure and the following conditions must be fulfilled:
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One the size of the building should be sufficient for the erection of the total number of pumps including the pumps, which will be needed for future use. Two- the building should be beautiful and from the engineering point of view in order to increase the credit of people about the water supply works in their city. Three the pipe lines and electric cables inside the building should be located in places, where easy maintenance and operation are available. The function of the low lift pumps is to raise water from its level in the adjoined raw water pump up to the manometric head of these pumps do not exceed 10ms and that is why it is called low lift pumps.

DESIGN DISCHARGE OF LOW LIFT PUMP The design flow of the low lift pumps depends mainly on:

One – the population served by the project. Two- average annual consumption. Three- the variation from this average. Four – the capacity of the filtered water reservoir Five- the number of working hours of the low lift pumps per day sometimes is less than 24 hours. In case of decreasing the storage capacity of the filtered water reservoirs, the design discharge should be increased to meet the variations of the rate of consumption. In case of canceling the reservoirs,
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the design discharge reaches its optimum value, which derh is determined by the peak demand load and this rarely happens. It is always preferable to consider the design discharge for the low lift pumps as the maximum monthly consumption, but additional reserve units should be taken into account as stand – by and under preparing units. In such a case the design of the filtered water reservoits should meet the daily change and on the current of one day (from hour to hour at the same day).

INGRUSTATION OF SCREENS Incrustation may be caused by the direct deposition of suspend

matter from the water on the screen, by the release of dissolved minerals from solution due either to change in pressure at the screen or to chemical reaches, and to biological activities resulting in the deposition of gelatinous material on the screen. The principal incrustant is calcium carbonate, which both forms a scale on the screen and cements depose particles. Wells are acidized or chlorinated for the purpose of dissolving or dislodging clogging material or incrustation on the screen or in the sand around the screen. Acids may be used only where the metal of the screen will not be attached by them Brass or bronze may be treated with muriatic acid, HCL, while iron requires nitric acid. Chlorine has been added to wells, remove sincrustants resulting from the activities of the So- called iron bacteria.
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PUMPING EQUIPMENT FOR WELLS Many type of well pumps are on the market to suit the wide variety

of capacity requirements depths to water and sources of power domestic systems commonly employ one of the following pumps: - for lifts under 10ms: a small reciprocating or piston pump - for lifts up to 50ms : A centrifugal pimp to which water is lifted by recalculating part of the discharge to a jet or ejector - for lifts that cannot be managed by jet pumps: Installed in the well and driven by pump rods through a jack mounted the well head large capacity system is normally equipped with centrifugal or turbine pumps driven by electric motor. A sufficient number of pump bowls are connected in series to provide the necessary to overcome static heads at lowest levels. Pump installation with submersible pumps above and below floor and pumps installation with borehole pumps-hollow shaft motor.

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Physical & chemical and bacteriological imparities in water their causes and effect: Some desirable and undesirable constituente of water for various purposes are listed the amounts stated are in parts per million p.p.m they are to be taken as suggestive only. Table Desirable and undesirable mineral matter in water 0-55 Hardness p.p.m. Degree of hardness Soft 56-100 101-200 Slightly Hard 201-500 Very hard

The effect of hardness in water is the prevention of lathering by soap and the formation of scales in boilers

ALKALINTY OF WATER Alkalinity of natural water represents its contents of carbonates bicarbonates and hydroxides caustic alkalinity caused by hydroxides is an undesirable characteristic seldom found in natural water.

CHLORIDES IN WATER chlorides are present in natural water mainly as salts of sodium may indicate pollution by certain industrial wastes.

IRON AND MANGANESE IN WATER they are objectionable in public water supply because they cause stains on plumbing fixtures and on clothes, they may cause tastes and
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odors and they offer difficulties to some manufacturing process. The presence of iron is common in ground water, resulting from contact of water coal and iron ores. Manganese behaves similarly to iron in its reactions in natural water in general, the maximum concentration of iron or of manganese or the combination of iron and manganese, which is permissible in a water supply is about 0.2 to 0.55 p.p.m.

LEAD AND COPPER IN WATER Lead is considered undesirable in water because of its tendency to accumulate in the human body, resulting in lead poisoning. The amount of leas and copper found in natural water are negligible. However, water flowing through or standing in conduits or reservoirs containing these materials may absorb traces of these metals. Maximum concentration of lead permitted is 0.1 p.p.m. Concentrations greater than 0.3 p.p.m. Of copper are undesirable.

CARBON DIOXIDS IN WATER The concentration of carbon dixide is of importance in a water supply because of (One) the desirable taste that it imparts to water (Two) its effect in increasing the solubility of many minerals water (Three) the corrosiveness of water from its presence
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ORGANIC LIFT IN WATER living organisms can be divided into three classes according to their size, as macroscopic, microscopic, and bacteria. Macroscopic organisms are so large that they can be distinguished by the eye, e.g. fish. Microscopic organisms are small so that the aid of microscope is necessary to see them. Bacteria are so small that even the aid of microscope is insufficient. They can only be identified by their reaction to certain media, natural waters, particularly surface waters, contain various kinds of organic life.

BACTERIA IN WATER Bacteria are on cell organisms of size varing from 60 to 0.3 u.(one u , called a micron , I.e. 1/10,00 cm ) these bacteria which cause diseases to man are know as pathogenic. Practically all-pathogenic bacteria which cause diseases to man are know as pathogenic. Practically all pathogenic bacteria that can be born by water are related to the intestinal tract of warm blooded animals, particularly man. Water- borne pathogenic bacteria will not multiply in natural water, also their isolation identification is difficult by laboratory means. There is, however, a harmless bacteria, know, as escherichis coil, that is relatively easily isolated and identified the presence of this organism in a sample of water is taken to Indic. The presence of fecal matter in the water and is a
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warning that pathogenic bacteria may also be present. Hence, upon the presence or absence of the E. coli is often based the option of the safety of the safety of water for drinking purposes. Main diseases caused by water- borne organisms are typhoid fever, cholera, dysentery and amaebic Dysentery.

MICROSCOPIC ORGANISMS Microscopic organisms are found principally in surface waters e.g. fungi. The principal objection to the presence of microscopic organisms in a public water supply are the tastes and odors they produce.

MACROSCOPIC ORGANISMS the macroscopic organisms most commonly causing difficulties in natural water include cattails eel grass and dea weeds. Non of these organisms is desirable in water supply sources. But they are difficult to remove. Tastes, odors, and color caused by them may be removed in the process of purification macroscopic animals include fish, worms and insects.

TOXIC

SUBSTANCES,

HEAVY METALS

RADIOACTIVE

SUBSTANCES AND ORGANIC MICRO POLLUTANTS
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most of these substances are toxic or of harmful effect as they are accumulated in the human body.

THE REQUIREMENTS OF WATER QUALITY In the option of those who are familiae with the developments of water supply standards, the following may be guide for the requirements of water quality:

HYGENIC PROPERTIES The water must be free from pathogenic or disease producing organisms. This condition of safety must prevail continually and the supply must not be subjected to what may be termed “ accidental” contamination.

ESSETIC PROPERTIES One water should be sparkling clear and colourless (not turbid neither form inorganic nor organic materials) Two – water should be free from objectionable gases, iron and manganese. Three- water should be neither corrosive nor scale forming. Four – water should be plentiful and low in cost.

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CLASSIFICATION OF WATER:
CLEAN WATER This should be safe for human consumption as determined by lab tests, sanitary survey and continued use. It should be attractive and appealing to the human sense of odour and taste. POLLUTED WATER This is water that has suffered impairment of physical qualities through the addition of substances causing turbidity, color, odor, or taste.

CONTAINATED WATER This is water that carries potential infection by reason of the polluted and contaminated and therefor unsatisfactory for human consumption until properly treated.

SOURCES OF POLLUTION One - some municipalities discharge sewage into a water source that is used as a public water supply for some other cities this is perhaps the most dangerous source of contamination. Two – soil washing may carry leaves mud, decayed vegetation, human and animal refuse into the water supply, thus rendering it turbid and unclean in appearances. The turbidity of muddiness and mineral contents of water in a stream vary from day to day following heavy rain
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streams are often extremely muddy and low in mineral content, while during dry seasons, it may be relatively clear and more highly mineralized organic matter such as decayed leaves and vegetation and wastes furnish food for micro organisms such as algae and lower forms of animals life. These micro- organisms may impose to the water disagreeable taste and odour. Three – industrial wastes discharges into streams may be

objectionable because they are acid in nature, in which case they render the water unfit for use, or too corrosive for distribution through the ordinary cast iron pips, industrial wastes also may cotain excessive organic matter which after decomposition cause the water to be unpalatable. Four- subsoil filtration into streams of water from mannered land on banks. Five – washing of clothes and bathing of man and animal in canlas and streams. Six – throwing of dead bodies into rivers and streams. A dead animal is not so dangerous as a human body, because the formers dose not necessarily harber bacteria that are pathogenic to man. Seven - navigation, this can be divided into two parts: • Moving Boats Pollution is brought about through the sailers and passengers wastes the problem become more serious within the boundaries of the cities
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because of the forced stay of several hours waiting for bridges to open. This problem is clear in Alexandria where it may take days for a bout to pass through the numerous mahmoudia canal bridges.

• stationary boats As in Cairo this boats spread being inside the city may causes excessive pollution and spread into the river water seeds of typhoid dysentery and other disease. For all the above reason, river, canal, lakes water should go through comprehensive purification works before its use by the public. SELF – PURIFICATION OF STREAMS There is a popular motion that streams purify themselves since there are natural processes that to lessen the impurities in contaminated streams, lakes and reservoirs. The study of the various factors contributing to the self- purification of streams has been lead into dividing them in 3 main parts: PHYSICAL FACTORS

One – settling:
Unless the velocity of flow is too great mud and suspended matter naturally settle out of suspension sweeping with them vast numbers of bacteria.

Two – Dilution
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This means that the polluting substances get diluted by means of water in river and canal and their danger, thus becoming less in concentration and the chances of infection through the polluted water is diminished.

Three – sunlight:
Sunlight has come germicidal effect due to its ultraviolet rays but it penetrates only a little below the water surface and is not constant in action because at night and on some days the sun dose not shine at all. Also this action depend upon the strength of the rays, dust and humidity in the atmosphere reduce the amount of rays reaching the surface of the earth.

CHEMICAL FACTORS oxygenation is the main purifying chemical action, there are two sources of oxygen in rivers and canals, those are:

One – Atinospheric oxygen: (Absorbed by the water from atmosphere) this is accomplished more quickly and effectively if the stream passes over rough beds cascades. Two- the oxygen given off by aquatic plants: The plants ( like all others ) under the effect of sun rays break down co2 in the water by photosynthesis giving off oxygen which is
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used in the oxygenation process. It should be noted that this oxygenation process is accomplished through the activity of certain types of bacteria.

BIOLOGICAL FACTORS the bacteria in the water are mostly derived from the bodies of man and the removal from their natural habitat and food supply naturally turns them down and exposes them to unfavorable environment under which it is not possible for them to multiply, i.e, the exposure of bacteria to other organisms present in the water would materially hasten purification process.

POTABLE WATER STANDARDS Table gives details of the world health organization (W.H.O) Standard for drinking water. It is followed in Egypt without much variations

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Table: world health organization drinking water standard (Geneva) Characteristics Permissible Excessive

Physical Characteristics. • Turbidity units. • Color (Hazen). • Taste. • Odour. Chemical Characteristics. • PH rang units. • Arsenic (as As). • Calcium (Cas). • Chloride (CI). • Chromium (as Cr hexavalent) • Copper. • Cyanide (CN). • Fluorine. • Iron (Fe). • Lead (Pb). • Manganese (Mn). • Magnesium (Mg). • Magnesium + Sodium sulfate
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5 25 5 50 Unobjectionable Unobjectionable P.P.m. p.p.m. 7.0- 8.5. or 9.2. 0.5 0.2 75 200 200 600 6.5

0.05
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• Phenolic phenol). • Selenium.

substances

(as 0.1 1.5

• Sulfate (SO4). • Zinc (Zn). • Total solids. • Nitrates (No3).

0.01 1 1.5 0.3

Mixing. Rapid mixing to distributed the coagualant throughout the water being treated is frequently called “flahing mixing”. This rapid agitation may be provided in special basines with capacities equivalent to about 20-60 seconds of flow, in which small propellers are driven by electric motors. Sometimes the hydraulic jump, or sttanding wave, is used for flows down the channel at high velocity – velocity
>

1m/sec- to enter a level

portion of the channel, where the energy of rapid flow is suddenly transformed into static head of deeper water. In other instances, turbulence is provided by aerators, weirs, or spiral flow tanks, but flow in channels used to conduct the coagulant treated water to flocculation
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basins is not sufficiently tubulent for flash mixing unless obstruction are placed in the channels is applied. Efficient low lift centrifugal pumps do not provide turbulent flow and thus do not serve as flash mixers. If the mixing chambers are used, benefit can be obtained by having more than one and making the water pass through them all. Where this is done, inadequate mixing and short circuiting will be eliminated.

FLOCCULATION. Flocculation basins are of various types: 1- the first type is the baffled mixing basins, which also there in two types the first is the basins were fitted with a series of baffles around the end of which the flowing water was reversed in direction. Thus causing gentler tubulence in the channels formed between the baffles, and more violent agitation at each point of reversed flow. Such basins are cheap to buid, as the baffles may be of ordinary lumber placed in concrete basins. They are only mederately successful, however, because of the degree of agitation is determind by the space between baffles, the total length of the channels so produced, and volume of flow. While the spacing of the baffles may be altered, this a major operation and usually is restricted to the correction of initially faulty design. Furthermore, as the degree of agitation decreases with the volume of flow, the water is less effectively flowcculated during the
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period of low flow and serious loss of heas results from turbulence at each point of change direction together with friction due to the area of the baffles and of thebottom of each channel between the baffles in contact with the flowig water. A basin of this type with an average velocity of 0.3m /s would require a channel length of 18 m each minuet of flocculation periods of 5 min. provided by channels. 90 m long, would entail serious loss of head, especially at smaller plants where the friction losses are proportionately higher due to a larger surface the edges of the paddles and thus imparting. The Speedreducing units usually provide for variable speed, so that degree of agitation is thus controlled, independent of the rate of flow of water.

The basic of design of mixing tanks rotating paddles : - the retention period ranges from 20- 30 minutes and depth of basin is 2-4 meters. The diameter of paddle with horizontal axisis less than the depth by 0.3 meter and the height of the paddles with vertical axis is less than the depth of the basin by 0.30 meter. The number of rows which basin must contain do not less than three rows, where the net area of paddles in the first raw is about.

INTRODUCTION ]
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In the very earliest filter installation a mass of sand was used as the filtering material, and this was done by copying nature where infiltering water is purified by passing through the ground. It was soon found that sand was, indeed the most suitable medium for the filtration of water. Screening and sedimentation – with or without coagulant removes a large proportion of suspended solids and colloidal matter will fine floce particles, bacteria and other colloidal may stili be present in settled water. Filtration must be used to remove these nudesirable impurities from water. Basically , filtration involves passing of water through a porous such as sand, which in effect, strains out most of the suspended particles found in it.

THEORY OF FILTERATION. The substances suspended in water and which are there either naturally or as a result of previous flocculation treatment. Are most frequently of a gelatinous or sticky nature. If an attempt were made to eliminate these substances by filtration through a bed of a very slight porosity the filter would be found to clog very quickly and would no longer allow the water to pass because of the formation of an impermeable layer on the bed surface caused by accumulation of the impurities retained.

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On the other hand, when filtering is effected through a mass of sand, the impurities penetrate the bed to a greater or lesser extent. At the start, when the filter is clean, these impurities are naturally retained by the layer which first come into contact colg the bed, the resulting head loss causes these impurities to penetrate through the minute channels formed by the interstices between the grains of sand, and they lodge, in practice, in spaces formed between the grains of sand, and they lodge, in practice, in spaces formed between the surfaces of the grains.

It has been found by experience that by passing water through sand, suspended and colloidal matter are partially removed, the quantity of bacteria is materially reduced. These phenomena are explained on the basis of the following actions:

One – Mechanical Straining: Which removes the particles of suspended matter that are too large to pass through the pores of sand grains.

Two: Sedimentation Action: Account for the removal of colloids, small particles of suspended matter and bacteria. The interstices between the sand grains act as
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mint sedimentation basins in which the suspended particles settle upon the sides of sand grains.

Three: Adsorption Action: These particles form a gelatinous coating on the sand grains. This gelatinous mass attracts other particles and settles down more effectively. Four: Electrolytic Action: Acertain amount of suspended and dissolved matter in water is ionized. Some of the particles of sand are also ionized in the filter and posses electric charges of opposite polarity. When these are neutralized, the character of water is changed. This action shares in the removal of some dissolved solids in water like as iron and manganese. Five: Biological Action: As a result of the gelatinous or stiky nature of impurities and the aggumerelated flocs, grains are coated with zooglind film, which contains living organisms. These organisms feed on the organic impurities and dissolved salts in water and change them to state easy to be removed by washing. This action and taste are removed by this action.

DIRECT FILTRATION Conventional water treatment plants generally use unit operations such as rapid mixing, flocoulation, sedimentation, filtration, and disinfection. Depending on the quality of the water, one or more uint operations can
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be eliminated, thereby achieving a cost- effective water treatment. Direct filtration is one such method. Filters used in direct filtration thus differ little from those for conventional treatment in construction. The primary difference in the operation of the two systems is related to solids storage capacity and backwashing requirements. Different direct filtration flow schemes are presented in Figur 6.12. Direct filtration was first explored during the early 1900s, but these attempts were not successful, due to the rapid clogging of the sand beds. The development of coarse- send filters and dual – media filtershas made it possible to store grreater amounts of floc within the filterbed without excessive headloss, and has thus increased the feasibility of the direct filtration process. Futher advances in filter design and the availability of a wider selection of chemical coagulants and polyelectrolytes have resulted in a variety of filtration systems being designed in which coagulating chmicals are employed. The flocculation basin is either eliminated or reduced in size, and the sedimentation basin is not utilized. Such processes thus have only screening, rapid mixing, and a short time of flocculation prior to filtration. All suspended solids and flocs formedare deposited in the filter, which is usually a multi – media, granular bed containing coal, sand, and perhaps other media.

The American Water works Association (AWWA) Filtration Committee’s report (1980) on a worldwide survey of 70 operating and
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pilot plants has indicated that waters with less than 40 units of color, turbidity consistently below 5 NTU, iron and manganese concentrations less than 0.3 mg/L and 0.05mg/L, respectively, and algal counts of up to 2000 Per mL (measured in absorption units at 100 nm) appear to be perfect candidates for direct filtration. Turbidity and color removals are consistently attained in this process. By efficient postchlorination, bacteria and virus removal problems can be eliminated. Most of the literature favors the use of dual or mixed medial for direct filtration.

Direct filtration can successfully be used for low – turbid waters, because of its lower capital and operational cost. It does not require any sophisticated equipment, although skilled operators are needed in order to monitor the filers. Attention should be paid to the possibility of poor bacterioogical quality of the filters in case of highly polluted raw water.

Design Principles
Since optimum design parameters depend greatly on the nature of the water to be treated, pilot studies are required to determine the appropriate type of coagulant and coagulant – aid, and the media composition, size, and depth. Some guidelines are given below. Filter media: Can be single, dual, or mixed media, but usually dual and mixed media are preferred in direct filtration. Gadkari et al. (1980) recommend dual – media with bituminous coal or anthacite coal. Here
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dedper filters with greater filter medium depths are preferred (king and Amy, 1979). The finest media possible should be selected to minimize chemical dosages. Within reasonable limits, coarse filter beds can produce the same quality filtrate as finer beds, but more polymer is required. Fine filter media are supported on a gravel bed. This ispreferred to direct support on bottoms equipped with mechanical strainersor nozzles, which are not recommended (Culp, 1977). • Rapid mixing: The rapid mixing process for direct filtration usually does not differ much from that used for conventional plants. • Filtration rate: 10-15 m3/m2.h (constant- rate operation). A rate of 12 m3/m2. h is usually adopted. Recent studies have shown that higher filtration rates are possible (up to 20 m3/m2. H) with low turbid waters (Murray and Roddy, 1993a). • Flocculent: The type of flocculent is the most important parameter and should be experimentally evaluated initially. Alum has been utilized with direct filtration of waters of various turbidities (Adin et al., 1979). However, more recently it has become apparent that a carefully selected cationic polymer may have considerable

advantages in some situations. Polyelectrolyte doses for uncolored water may frequently vary from 0.05-1.0 mg/L when used in addition to alum for the treatment of organic contaminated water (Adin et al., 1979). The general range of cationic polymer dosage used as the primary coagulant is 0.1-5mg/L (culp, 1977). A detailed study
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conducted in sydney, australia (Murray and Roddy, 1993b) indicated that cationic polymer together with alum will not only increase flow rate, but also significantly increases the filter run time. A NONIONIC POLYMER FILTER AID WAS FOUND TO PLAY AN

IMPORTANT ROLE IN MAXIMIZING FILTER PERFORMANCE. Lag time between additions of alum ad cationic polymer and flocculation time ware found to be very important. This is discussed in detail in Section 6.5.4. backwash method: any conventional washing procedure can be used. The multi- media filters, the backwashing rate should be chosen in such a way as to minimize the intermixing of media. Details are given elsewhere (Bamann, 1978; Kawamura, 1975). The total backwash water volume can be reduced by a combined air – water backwash method. Direct filtration needs frequent backdating. When a plant contains more than four direct filtration units, interfilter backdating can used. Cleasby (1993)

recommends an inlet restriction as the method of flow control when interfilter backwashing is used tics, the coagulant dose, the mixing energy input for floc formation (extent of pretreatment), the media size, the filtration rate, etc. as a guideline for design, the design parameters should be chosen in such a way that the filter run is at least 12 hours. • Head requirement: since the filtration rate declines with time in a direct filtration plant, the total head requirement for a direct filtration
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plant is less than that for a constant- rate filtration plant with the same flow rate. The head previously consumed in underdrains and piping during the early high – rate part of the filter cycle decreases with the square of the filtration rate, and becomes available to overcome the clogging headloss late in the cycle. Also , the headloss due to dirt accumulation is reduced as the rate declines. The total head requirement is typically about two – thirds of that required for a constant – rate plant (Ceasby, 1993). • Use of a standby filter: United States regulations often require the use of a standby filter in a bank of declining rate filters. This one filter remains off – line after it is backwashed and is brought on – line as the next dirty filters to the clear well. This may even take more than an hour in some cases. By doing this , the pretreated water above the filter is not wasteed in the desire to finish the backwash operation in a hurry. Also, due to the reduction in spike, the filter box depth can be reduced. The clean filter will come online with a lower total head and therefore will start at a lower filtration rate. Shch use of a standby filter means that the extra filter is not truly redundant )standby) as intended by the regulations (Cleasby, 1993).

Economics
Cost data for direct filtration in the united states have been reported by culp (1977); logsdon et al. (1980); Mc Cormick and king (1980); and
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tate et al. (1977). Culp (1977) states that the capital cost saving in direct filtration could be as high as 30%, and that a saving of 10-30% in chemical cost could be achieved. The costs for polymer may be higher than in conventional plants, but these costs are more than offset by the lower costs for the coagulant. Monscvitz et al. (1977) also report capital cost savings of approximately 30% for the utah valley water treatment plant. When the 272, 500 m3/d Toronto water treatment plant was doubled in capacity by adopting direct filtration, the cost saving was 4.8 million (or 35%) as compared with conventional treatment (Tredgett, 1974). Similarly, studies in Virginia, indicate that the use of direct filtration for waters of turbidity less than 10 NTU should result in savings of 10-30% in total annual costs (Mccormick and king, 1980, 1982).

It should be noted that the capital savings from omission of settlig basins can be slightly offset by the reduction in the length of the filter runs (Logsdon, 1978). Cost comparisons of conventional and direct filtration plants should be made on the basis of designs that permit optimum economy for each mode, rather than assuming fixed filter – run lengths for both modes. Figures 6.13 and 6.14 show the estimated curves for total capital costs and operation an maintenance costs, respectively. A cost comparison made by Mueller and Conley (1981) indicated that the smaller the plant, the more the direct filteration process should be
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given prefetence over the conventional system. For instance, at a capacity of 200 m3/d, it is twice as cheap. In each instance, the capital cost includes an allowance for the equipment, its installation, and its foundations and housing. Intake structures, filtered water storage, high – service pumps, and distribution systems wereexcluded in this analysis.

Clark and morand (1981) reached a similar conclusion when they compared the three treatment options available for small water supply systems, namely (1) conventional treatment (Flocculation,

sedimentation, filtration), (2) direct filtration, and (3) package treatment plants. Costs for annual operation and maintenance and capital costs over a range of specific flow levels were calculated, and cost equations developed. Total production costs for the three treatment alternatives are plotted versusplant capacity flow. All of the costs have been standardized with 1979 as a base year. It can be seen that in the production range below 2 mgd (7600 m3/d), package treatment representsa lower cost alternative than do conventional or direct filtration. With plant capacities over 7600 m3/d, direct filtration is significantly cheaper than the other two methods.

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Advantages and limitations. Advantages. • Direct filtration processes are normally found to be efficient and cost effective for raw waters of relatively high quality (with turbidity less than 25 NTU). • Direct filtration requires only that the colloids in raw water be destabilized into a small filterable floc. it is unnecessary to produce a settleable floc, which is more difficult to filter and far more expensive both in terms of chemicals and plant operation. Thus, a shorter flocculation time is required to form small flocs, and this reduces the power cost. • Consequently, there is a substantial reduction in chemical dosages, of about 20- 30%. This also results in decreased sludge prodction and thus less maintenance. • The key benefit of direct filtration is cost savings. The omission of large sedimentation basins results in lower plant construction costs, and possile savings onland cost. • Likewise, a reduction in operational andcosts is obtained because less equipment is involved. • The operation and maintenance of a direct filtration plant is simpler and easier, as compared with operating andmaintaining a conventional plant.
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Limitations • Due to the elimination of the sedimentation process, the backwashing of the filter becomes more frequent.also, since all the impurities are removed in the filter, more suspended solids are retained in the pores or the filter media, which requires a large amount of backwash water. Some of the experiences indicate that the backwash water used in direct filtration is as high as 6% of the water volume produced (culp, 1977). Therefore, this shortcoming has to be taken into cost calculations before selecting an appropriate filtration method. • Due to the shorter retention time between the application of coagulants and filtration and the greater loading a pplied to the filter, a significant amount of contaminated water enters the distribution system before the problem is discovered. • For the same reson, more operator’s vigilance is required. The chance of operational error is also greater than with the conventional treatment method. In order to mitigate this effect, continuous monitoring of effluent turbidity at each filter is a must (Logsdon, 1978). • In the treatment of raw water containing a high concentration of coliform organisms, the bacteriological quality of the product water may not satisfy the public health requirements.

Application status.
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Canada As early as 1964, direct filtration was used in toronto, when an existing plant with the maximum capacity of 72 mgd (272, 520m3/d) on Lake Ontario was converted to direct filtration (Hutchishon and Foley, 1974; tredgett, 1974). The use of alum plus polyelectrolyte when needed, followed by filtration through a dual – media filter with 18 (46 cm) of coal and 12 (30 cm) of sand produced high – quality effluent (less than 0.3 NTU). There was little change in the effluent turbidity for the filtration rates of 2.4- 7.2 gpm/sq ft (5.9-17.6 m3/m2.h). diatoms in the raw water had amarked influence on the length of the filter runs, but this problem could be overccome by using a coarse medium (sch as coal) in the dual- media filters. As of 1976, seven direct-filtation plants existed in ontario, and plans were underway for the construction of up to six additional plants to serve localities on Lake ontario, lake huron, and lake superior (Hutchison, 1976). United States Diatomaceous earth and granular media direct filtration has been used at a number of full – scale plants with capacities from less than 1 mgd (3780 m3/d) to above 100 mgd (378, 000 m3/d). generally, diatomaceous earth plants are smaller, on the oredr of to 10 mgd (378037, 800 m3/d Logsdon, 1978). Biggest plants include a 200-mgd (757, 000 m3/d) plant at Las Vegas, Nevada, Nevada, constructed in 1971, a 60 – mgd (227, 100 m3/d) plant for springfield, Massachusetts, and a
Civil Enginerring Department (5th Year).

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30-mgd (113, 550 m3/d) plant at Duluth, Minnesota, completed in 1976. After several years of operation, the plant at Duluth demonstrated that the process can be an effective and efficientmeans of providing high – quality treated water when proper design and operation parameters are adhered to (Hagar and Elder, 1981).

At the springfield plant, raw water is conducted to the headwoks of the conditioning basins. A channel running down the center of the conditioning structure feeds 14 sets of basins, 7 sets on each side. Each set of basins consists of two rapidmix chambers in series, followed by two slow – mix chambers. A detention time of 30 minutes, believed conservative, is provided in the conditioning basins. Alum or iron saltsmay be used as the prime coagulants. The filter media consist of 24 (61 cm of 1.0-1.1 mm effective size anthracite coal and 12” (30 cm) of 0.45 mm effective size silica sand. It also operates at a filtration rate of 12.5 m3/m2.h (sweeney and prendiville, 1974). The plant at las vegas operates at a filteration rate of 12.2 m3/m2.h and the filter media consist of 20 “(51cm) effective size silicasand (spink and Monscvitz, 1974; Monsvitz et al., 1978). Odor problems occur in tow distinct periods – the spring and the fall due to algal blooms. Activated carbon is added in the mixing chamber immediately ahead of the filters to remedy this problem (Spink and Monscviz, 1974).
Civil Enginerring Department (5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

West Africa. Direct filtration can offer an economic advantage in west africa, owing to the economy of a low alum dosage. The most striking examples are in Bamako, Mali, and kano, Nigeria, (Wagner and Hudson, 1982). Both pay a high price for acquiring alum and hauling it to the treatment plant. The price of alum in kano is over US 400/ ton and in Bamako it is over U.S. 700 /ton.

The alum dose at the time of testing at kano was 20 mg/L to treat water of turbidities in the range of 20-24 NTU. The water at kano has turbidities of 30-40 NTU at its peak, and is clear during most part of the year. The average alum dose during the wet seasonis 26 mg/L, whereas in the fry season it is 15 mg/l. both of these water sources have been shown to be good candidates for direct filtration, and both cities are proceeding toward pilot filter testing. the effluent produced by the bench- scale work was well below the world health organization turbidity limit of 5 NTU. • WATER SOFTINING:. Hard water is softened by treatment methods which change calcium and magnesium compounds from a soluble to an insoluble form, and then by removing the insoluble compounds by sedimentation and filtration, or by an ion exchange process which replace the calcium and magnesium with
Civil Enginerring Department (5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

sodium. The first process is known as the lime- sode process, and the second the zeolife (ion exchange) process.

ADVANTAGES OF WATER SHOHTENING. During recent years, the softenting process has been used in many new municipal water treatment plants, especially where the hardness of the water exceeded 150 mg/1. This process has been adopted primarily to obtain the comforts and benefits from soft water, but in some instances, the process has increased the efficiency of the filtration plant. Also better coagulation is effected because the bulk of the precipitate formed in lime softening can be from ten or twenty times greater than what the ordinary coagulation process could obtain still other advantages include: One – A25 percent saving is realized on fuel for heating soft water by the elimination of deposits of scale that retard heat flow. Two- An 18 percent saving is obtained on cleaning, and replacing plumbing that is caked. Three – Fabrics show 25 percent less wear and tear in soft water. Four – Soft water saves 16 percent wear and temtemsils. Five- Food cooked in soft water retains is natural color and appearance, and its digestive properties. In making tea and coffee, 50 percent less leaves and grounds are used in soft than in hard water.

Civil Enginerring Department

(5th Year).

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Six – soft water provides for better skin care, and eliminates the need for expensive bubble bath preparations. There is no bathtub ring . Shaving blades last 20 percent longer.

Hared water should be softened because: One – it consumes soaps and detergents. Two – it has an adverse effect on clothing and being cleaned. Three- It shortens the life of pipes and fixtures, heating system, and boiler shells and tubes. Four – It is unsuitable for industrial uses.

LIME – SODAASHPROCESS In the lime soda ash process the steps of treatment in most elementary water softening plants are: 1- Addition of softening and coagulating chemicals. 2- Mixing. 3- Settling. 4- Carbonation (when lime softening). 5- Filtration. When chemically treated water is mixed and settled in separate tanks, the plant usually is referred to as a conventional type plant. However, when the softing occur in the presence of a large quantity of soda reactions are shown below:
Civil Enginerring Department (5th Year).

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Ca (OH)2 + Ca (HCO3)2

2CaCO2 + 2H2O

2Ca (OH)2 + Mg (HCO3)2

Mg (OH)2 + 2 CaCO2

Ca (OH)2 + MgSO4

Mg (OH)2 + CaSO4.

Ca (OH)2 + MgCL2 WATER DISTINFECTION

Mg(OH)2 + CaCL2.

THE PURPOSE OF WATERDISINFECTION. Water Disinfecated to bacteria and thus prevent water-bourn diseases. Chlorination, ozonization, ultra – violet ray method, excess line process and spplication of silver or iodine sand bromine method are the principal methods used for disinfection of water. Sterilization by heating is suitable only for household use.

CHLORINATION. The use of chlorine has become universal in the disinfection of water supplies. Although chlorine is used principally for the killing of bacteria, it may be applied to water also to aide the removal of iron and manganese, for the cleaning of sand filter, for the sterilization of water mains, and for other purposes. Chlorine may be applied to water in the form of a gas or in one of its compounds, the dry gas under pressure is liquified and sorted in steel cylinders. Care must be taken to prevent the
Civil Enginerring Department (5th Year).

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escape of chlorine, because of its highly toxic nature, except in high dilution.

Chlorine gas may be fed directly to the water supply, or preferably the gas may be first dissolved in a small flow of water and the solution fed to the point of application.

The amount of chlorine used depends on several factors : One – Turbidity of the water which protects the bacteria from the action of Chlorine. b- The temperature of the water. c- Amount of dissolved oxidisable organic matter in water.

GROUND RESERVOIRS The ground surface reservoirs always located after the treatment works the main function of ground storage are as follows. One – To equilize the difference between the maximum demand through a day (max. daily consumption) and the maximum production of the water plant (max. mounthly flow). Two – to carry the emergency reserve storagisgany damage may happen to the treatment plant. Three – to equilize the required time for disinfection to take place. They may also be used as distributer reservoirs if they are
Civil Enginerring Department (5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

Calculation for future population for Benha
Logistic Method
YEAR 1978 1986 1994 1998 SOLUTION: POPn (S) = POPULATION 87000 115571 144143 152000 2P0 P1 P2 – P12 (P0+P2) P0 P2 – P12 P1=11571 P2=144143

P0 =8700 (S) = 231158 Capita. M= S - PO P0 B= 1 N Ln P0 (S – P1) P1 (S-P0) =1.657

n = 8 Years

= - 0.063

P=

S 1+mebt

t = cal. Year – 1978

P2000 = 163435 capita P2025 = 212896 capita P2050 = 227125 capita

Civil Enginerring Department

(5th Year).

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Arithmetic Method
YEAR 1978 1986 1994 1998 POP. 87000 115571 144143 152000 dp 28571 28572 7857 dt 8 8 4 K 3571.375 3571.5 1964.25

K a = 9107 / 3 = 3035.7

P2000 = P1998 + K a ( 2000 – 1998 ) = 158072 capita P2025 = P1998 + K a ( 2025 – 1998 ) = 233964 capita P2050 = P1998 + K a ( 2050 – 1998 ) = 309857 capita

Civil Enginerring Department

(5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

Decreasing of Increase Method

YEAR 1978 1986 1994 1998

POP. 87000 115571 144143 152000

(S – P) 163000 134429 105857 98000

dt 8 8 4

dp 28571 28572 7857

K 0.024 0.0297 0.0193

Assume saturation population is 250000 capita dp/dt = kd * ( S – P ) Kd = 0.02433

P2000 = 250000 – (250000 – 152000) e – 0.02433 * (2) = 156655 capita P2025 = 250000 – ( 250000 – 152000 ) e – 0.02433 * (27) = 199192 capita P2050 = 250000 – ( 250000 – 152000 ) e – 0.02433 * (52) = 222345capita

Civil Enginerring Department

(5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

Geometric Method
YEAR 1978 1986 1994 1998 POP. 87000 115571 144143 152000 Ln pop. 11.374 11.658 11.879 11.932 dp 0.284 0.221 0.053 dt 8 8 4 K 0.0355 0.0276 0.0133 Kg =0.0255

Ln P2000 = Ln P1998 + Kg (2000 – 1998 ) = 11.932 + ( 0.02547 * 2 ) = 11.983 P2000 = 160002 capita

Ln P2025 = Ln P1998 + Kg (2025 – 1998) = 11.932 + (0.02547 * 27) = 12.63 P2025 = 302456 capita

Ln P2050= Ln P1998 + Kg (2050 – 1998) = 11.932 + (0.02547 * 52) = 13.256 P2050 = 571741 capita

Civil Enginerring Department

(5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

FUTURE WATER CONSUMPTION
P0 (1998) = 152000 capita , W.C. (1998) =190 L/C/d 0.125 % Increase = [ ( Pn / P0 ) – 1 ] * 100 “ Geometric Method “ W.C. (2000) = 191.3 L/C/d W.C. (2025) = 200.5 L/C/d W.C. (2050) = 207.7 L/C/d “ Arithmetic Method “ W.C. (2000) = 190.9 L/C/d W.C. (2025) = 200.5 L/C/d W.C. (2050) = 207.7 L/C/d “ Logistic Method “ W.C. (2000) = 191.8 L/C/d W.C. (2025) = 198.2 L/C/d W.C. (2050) = 199.8 L/C/d “ Graphical Comparison Method “ W.C. (2000) = 191.1 L/C/d W.C. (2025) = 201.7 L/C/d
W.C. (2050) = 210.1 L/C/d

Qavg. =POP. * W.C. Qdes. =1.5 Qavg Qmax.daily=1.8 Qavg. Qmax.hourly=2.5 Qavg

Civil Enginerring Department

(5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

Calculations of the water flow for year 2000.
Population =160000 capita Water Consumption =190 l/c/d Qavg. L/SEC. M3/SEC M3/DAY M3/HOUR M3/MIN 351.852 0.351852 30400 1266.667 21.111 Qdes. 527.778 0.52777 45600 1900 31.667 Qmax.daily 633.334 0.633334 54720 2280 38 Qmax.hourl y 879.63 0.87963 76000 3166.66 52.778

Calculations of the water flow for year2025.
Population =280000 capita Water Consumption =200 l/c/d

Qavg. L/SEC. M3/SEC M3/DAY M3/HOUR M3/MIN 648.148 0.064815 56000 2333.333 38.8889

Qdes. 972.222 0.97222 84000 3500 58.333

Qmax.daily 1166.66 1.16666 100800 4200 70

Qmax.hourl y 1620.37 1.62037 140000 5833.333 97.2222

Civil Enginerring Department

(5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

Calculations of the water flow for year 2050.
Population =400000 capita Water Consumption =205 l/c/d Qavg. L/SEC. M3/SEC M3/DAY M3/HOUR M3/MIN 949.074 0.949074 82000 3416.667 56.9444 Qdes. 1423.61 1.42361 123000 5125 85.4167 Qmax.daily 1708.333 1.708333 147600 6150 102.5 Qmax.hourl y 2372.685 2.372685 205000 8541.667 142.361

Design of water treatment plant
Design of intake
Qd (2050) = 1.42361 m3 / s Choose V=1 m/s
Q = 1.4236 m 2 V

Total area of pipes =

Use 3 pipes A pipe = 0.475 m2 φ pipe = 0.777 m ≅ 0.762 m (30 inch)
(5th Year).

Civil Enginerring Department

SANITARY PROJECT.

 0.762  2 ATotal actial = 3 ∗π ∗   = 1.368 m  2  V actual = 1.04 m / s < 1.5 m / s o. k .
Qd (2025) = 0.97222 m3 / s Use 2 pipes only in current and additional pipe in future A 2 pipes = 0.912 m/s

2

V=

Qd = 1.066 m / s A

< (1.5 m / s )

o.k .

( V = 0.8 – 1.5 m / s ) Q min (2025) = 0.8 Q av = 0.8 * 0.64815 = 0.51852 m3 / s Use 1 pipe from 2 . pipes at Q min (2025).

Vact =

Q 0.51852 = = 1.0916 m / s A 0.475
(V = 0.8 – 1.5 m / s) o.k.

• Design of low lift pump:- Q max = 1.42361 m3 / s = 1423.61 l / s ≅ 1500 l / s - Q min = 0.7593 m3 / s = 759.3 l / s ≅ 800 l / s

• Pump system:Main 300 300 300 300 300
Civil Enginerring Department (5th Year).

reserved 300 300 300

SANITARY PROJECT.

No of pumps = 8 8 * 300 = 2400 L / s

- Total static head for pump:• HT = HS + h f 1 + h f 2 • (G.L – L.W.L) + (5 + 6 m) = (12.5 – 9) + 5.5 = 9 m - Length of conduit pipe = 360 m - Length of pump pipe = (12 – 7.8) + 9 = 13.2 m

h f1 =

f LV 2

2g d 2 ∗9.81∗ 0.762 h f 2 =10 % ( HS + h f1 ) = 0.1 ( 9 + 0.8 ) = 0.986 m H T = 10.85 m

=

0.032 ∗373.2 ∗(1.04)

2

= 0.86 m

• Slope of pipes
1 V = 1.04 = R 3 S 2 n  0.726  1.04 =    4 
2 3 2 1

(S ) =

1 2

S = 0.0016

1 600

Civil Enginerring Department

(5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

• Calculation of HP

HP =

W Q HT 75ζ 1 ζ 2

ζ1 ζ 2

= 0.7

(Q = 300 l / s ) HP =

1 ∗ 300 ∗10.85 = 61.98 75 ∗ 0.7 ≅ 65 HP

• Design of sump:Retention period t 1 = 2 minutes for max flow t2 = 5 minutes for mini flow Take S = 2 m W=3m L = 8 * 2 = 16 m W=3m (1.5 – 3 m) (1 – 3 m)

* Volume of sump
C 1 = 1.4236 * 2 * 60 C 2 = 0.5793 * 5 * 60

C=Q*t = 170.832 m3 = 227.79 m3

d1 = d2 =

C1 = 3.6 m w ∗l C2 = 4.75 m w ∗l

> (9 − 5.5 = 3.5 m) > (9 − 5.5 = 3.5 m )

Take d = 4.5 m The level of sump bed = 9 – 4.5 = 4.5 m d ≥ (low water level – bed level) + h f 1 ≥ (9 – 5.5 + 0.82) ≥ 4.32 m o.k.

Civil Enginerring Department

(5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

• Design of screen
D = 12 – 6.5 = 5.5 m Where the screen over 1 m of channel bed. Assume spacing between bars = 1.5 cm , diameter of bar = 2.5 cm ∴ A = spacing * (1 à 2) = 0.015 * 1.75 = 0.02625 m2

area

= n .A =

Qmax 1.42361 = = 1.7795 m 2 V 0.8

Θ n=

1.7795 = 67.79 0.02625

Take n = 68 space

Width of one pipe =

(0.015 ∗ 68) + 0.025 (68 + 1)
3 Q 1.42361 = A 1.75 ∗ 0.015 ∗ 68

= 0.915 m Velocity through the bars (V1 ) =

= 0.7975 m / s > 0.6 o.k. 1.42361 Velocity down stream the bars (V2 ) = 3 ∗1.75 ∗ 0.762 = 0.356 m / sec
Where 0.45 à the inner pipe diameter of conduit pipe

V12 − V 22 (0.7975) 2 − (0.356) 2 Head loss = 1.44 = 1.4 2g 2 ∗ 9.81 = 0.0363 m < 0.15

o.k

Civil Enginerring Department

(5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

Design of distribution Chamber Assume detention time = 30 sec. Volume = Q * T. = 1.424 * 25 = 35.6 Assume depth = 3m.
∴φ ≈ 4.00 m.

m3.

• Design of weir Qd=C*B*H3/2 C=1.8 B=4.18m H=0.32m Design of rapid mixing tank Qd 2050 = 123000 m3 /d Qd2025 = 84000 m3/d For year 2050
V = Q .d *T = 123000 * 40 = 56.94 24 * 60 * 60 m3

Assuming detention time = 40 sec. Choose diameter for tank = 3m. Choose 3 tanks

(20- 60 sec).

Civil Enginerring Department

(5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

depth of one tan k =

V

π r2
= 56 .94 3 3*π *   2
2

= 2.68 ≈ 2 .7 m.

in rang (1 − 3) m O .K

Take free board = 0.3 m. Over all depth = 3m. Take width of power. Power (p) =
π VG 2

Take (G = 790 S-1) From table For t = 40 sec. P = 1.14 * 10 *
-3

π   = 2.68 ≈ 2.7 m
in rang (1 − 3)m O.K .

3 2

2

Take free board = 0.3 m. Over all depth = 3m. Take width of baffle = 0.1
φ = 0.1* 3 = 0. 3 m

Requirement of power Power (p) = π VG 2 Take (G = 790 S-1) from table for t = 40 sec.
2

3 ∴ ρ = 1.14 *10 −3 *π   * 2.68 * (790) 2 = 13478 2

Assume effeciervy of motor = 90%.
Civil Enginerring Department (5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

Power of motor =

13478 =14.976 0.9 *1000

kw.

Use standerd motor of p = 14.976 kw, off = 90% , rpm = 1000. Power requirment (p) =
K WN 3 D g

 p* g  ∴N =   k * w* D 5    

1/ 3

use bladed disk turbine with 6 curved blades from table K = 4.8. , Diameter of impeller (D) = 0.25* 3 = 0.75 M.

 13478* 9.81 N =  4.8 * 9810* 0.75)) 5 

   

1/ 3

= 2.279 Re v / sec . =136.72 rpm in Rang (10 − 150) rpm. O.K .

use gear box to convert 1000 rpm to 136. 72 rpm. Dimention Of impeller. D = 0.75 m.
B= D 0.75 = = 0.15 m 5 5

H=

D 0.75 = = 0.15 5 5

m.

Design of weir: Qd= C.B.H3/2 for breadth of weir (B) = 1m
Civil Enginerring Department

weir const (C) = 1.8
(5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

 Qd  ∴H =   C *B    

2/3

  123000 =  3 *1.8 *1*1 * 24 * 60 * 60     check for year 2025

2/3

= 0.41 m.

was 2 tan ks only V 2 * 2.68 *π * (1.5) 2 * 24 * 60 60 = 38.97 sec π 40 O.K = 84000 Q

t=

Design of flocculation chamber take detention time = 15 min less than normal detention time in order to produce small filterable floc not settleable floc. Velocity of flow between baffles (V) = 0.4 m/s. (0.25-0.85) distance between baffles = 0.5 m. Velocity of flow between baffles and the wall = 1.5* 0.5 = 0.75m. Thickness of Baffle = 7 cm. Use three flocculators. Qd (2050) = 123000 m3/d Flocculator volume =
Qd 123000 *15 *t = 3* 24 * 60 3

= 427.1 Length of flow = V*T

m3.

= 0.4 * 15 * 60 = 360 m.

Volume 427.1 = water depth = L * 0.5 360 * 0.5 = 2.37m π 3m O.K
Take width of flocculator = 6m. Effective length of each baffle = 6- 0.75 = 5.25 m.
Civil Enginerring Department (5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

No. Of channels required =

360 ≈ 70 channel 5.25

overall length of the flocculator = clear length + total wall width. = (35 * 0.5) + (344 * 0.07)= 19.88 m. Check velocrty Velocity of flow through channels.
V= Q 123000 = Across 3 * 24 * 60 * 60 * 2.37 * 0.5

= 0.4 m/sec.

(0.25- 0.85) in Rang O.k

• check for year 2025 Use 2 flocculators only
V 84000 0.41 m / s 2 * 24 * 60 * 60 * 2.37 * 0.5

With in the range (0.25-

0.85). Length of flow = V * T. = 0.41 * 15 * 60 = 369 m.

water depth =

84000 *15 volume = l * 0.5 24 * 60 * 2 * 369 * 0.5
<

= 2.37 m

3m O.K.

Overall length of the flocculator = clear length + total width = (35 * 0.5) + (34 * 0.07)=19.88. m.

Civil Enginerring Department

(5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

Design of under ground Tank Design procedures consider maximum discharge for year 2050. - Qav (2050) = 0.949 m3 / sec - Q max (daily) = 1.8 Q ave = 1.71 m3 / sec - Q max (monthly) = 1.5 Q ave = 1.43 m3 /sec

C fire =

Pop ( 2050) ∗120 ∗ 0.8 400000 ∗ 120 0.8 = 10000 10000 = 3840 m 3 / fire

V1 = Qd ∗ 0.5 hr =1.33 ∗ 0.5 ∗ 60 ∗ 60 = 2394 m 3 V2 = (Qdaily − Qmax monthly ) ∗1 ∗ 24 ∗ 60 ∗ 60 = (1.71 −1.43) ∗1 ∗ 24 ∗ 60 ∗ 60 = 24192 m 3 V3 = Qd * 5.5 hr =1.43 ∗ 5.5 ∗ 60 ∗ 60 = 28314 m 3 ⇒ The volume of water in the ground tan k V = V3 + C fire = 28314 + 3840 = 32154 m 3 * Contact time = Volume 32154 = Qd 1.43 ∗ 60 > 40 min ute contact time

= 374.75524 min ute o.k . safe
• Use 3 Tank of depth = 6.5 m • Length = 50 m • width of the tank = 33 m

Civil Enginerring Department

(5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

Design of direct filter

Q

d

(2050) = 123000 m3 /d

R.O.F = 10-15 m3/m2/h Take R.O.F = 12 m3/m2/h

Total area required for the filters =
Take length of filter = 7 m (5-8) m. Take width of filter = 5 m (5-8) m.

Q 123000 = = 427.08 m 2 ROF 12 * 24
O.k O.k

No. of filters

=

AT A filter

=

427 . 08 ≈ 12 filters 7*5
= 18 filter

Total no. of filters = 12+6 ( for mashing )

Use 18 filter as three units each Unit contains (6 filters) 123000 = 292.857 m 3 / m 2 / d • actual R.O.F= 12 * 7 * 5 = 12.2 m3/m2/hr • Rate of wshing = 50 m3/m2/hr Time of washing = 15 min (8-15) min ( 10- 15) with range o.k ( 37.5-60) m3/m2/hr

• wash water gutter Spacing = (1- 2) m, width = (25-50) cm Assume spacing = 2 m

15 * 50 * 5 * 7 = 437 . 5 m 3 / filter Amount of wash water /filter = 60

No. Of gutters =
Take 3 gutters

5 = 2 .5 2

Civil Enginerring Department

(5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

Q gutter =

rate of washing * area 50 * 5 * 7 *1000 = 9722.22 lit / min *1000 = no. gutter 3 * 60

Assume width of gutter = 50 cm Q gutter (lit/min) = 0.76 B (cm) *H 3 2 (cm) 9722.22= 0.76 *50 *H 3 2
∴ H=

40.3 cm

Take H=40.5 cm *Under drainage system . Lateral spacing = (15-30 )cm Length = 60* diameter Assume spacing = 15 cm Length = 5 − 0.5 − (2 * 0.1) = 2.15 m
2

Length =

length 215 = ≈ 3.6 cm 60 60
lengyh of filter 700 = * 2 = 94 spacing of lateral 15

No. of lateral =2 *

Mainfold Total area of main fold =( 1.75 = 1.75* 94* π * (3.6) 2 = 1674,41 cm2
4

2) total cross section area of toteral

Take mainfold = 50 cm , hight =

1674.41 = 33.49cm 50

≈ 40cm
(5th Year).

Civil Enginerring Department

SANITARY PROJECT.

Q wash =

50 * 5 * 7 = 0 . 486 m 3 / sec . 60 * 60

V=

Q 0.486 = = 2.43 A 0. 5 * 0. 4

m / sec

≤ 2 .5

O.K

- perforation Spacing = (7.5 -20) cm, diameter = (6-13) mm. Take spaclrg = 20 cm, diameter – 7 mm. No. of pefforazon in on lateral =
lateral length 215 = =11 20 spacirg

Total no. of perforation = 94-11 = 1034. Check
total orea of perforation = 0.25 ⇒ 0.5 total area of loteral
1034 * (0.7) 2 4 = 0.416 π 2 94 * (3.6) 4

π

whthe the vavge (0.25 − 0.5)

Design of pipes. One) Inlet pipe. Assume V= 0.8 m/sec
Q / ore filter =
π
4

(0.8-1.2 m/sec)
m3 / sec .

123000 = 0.11863 60 * 60 * 24 *12
2 φ1 =

= Takeφ
1

0.11863 0.8

⇒ φ 1 = 0.435

m

= 45 mm.
(5th Year).

Civil Enginerring Department

SANITARY PROJECT.

V

act

=

0.11863

π
4

= 0.75 m / sec O.K

(0.45)

2

Two)Outlet pipe V = (0.9-1.8) m/sec Assume V= 1.5 m/sec.
π
4 (φ 2 ) 2 = 0.11863 ⇒ φ 2 = 0.317 m. 1.5

Take φ

2

= 0.35 m

Vact = 1.233 m/s o.k.

Three) Wash pipe. V= (1.5-3) m/s, take v= 2 m/s
Q= 50 * 5 * 7 = 0 . 4861 60 * 60 0 . 7861 ⇒
2

m 3 / s.

2=

π
4

(φ 3 )

φ 3 = 0 . 556

m.

Take

φ 3

= 600 mm

Vact = 1.72 v = 1.5
= 0.64 m

m/s o.k

Four) Wash drain V=(0.9-2.4) m/s, take
1.5 = 0.4861

m/s.
take it φ 4 = 600 mm

π
4

(φ 4 )

⇒φ

4

2

∴V

act

= 1.72.

Civil Enginerring Department

(5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

*dosage of Alum & polymer - dosage of alum = 5-10 mg/l
-

Q2050 = 123000

m3/d

Quantity of alum =

7 *1000 * 123000 = 861 ky / day. 1000 *1000

Dosage of polymer = 0.03- 0.05 Quantity of polymer = *Quantity of Chlorine. Chlorire dose = 0.3- 0.5 ppm Quantity of chlorire required =

mgll.

0.04 * 123000 = 4.92 kg / day 1000

(gm/m3).
0 .4 * 123000 1000

= 49.2

kg / day

• Quantity of Chlorine
- Chlorine dose = 0.3 – 0.5 p p m (gm / m3)

∴ Quantity of chlorinerequired = = 49.2 kg / day

0.4 ∗123000 1000

Civil Enginerring Department

(5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

Design of Elevated tank
Water consumption (2050) = 205 l / c / d

From hour
12 2 4 6 8 10 12 2 4 6 8 10

To hour
2 4 6 8 10 12 2 4 6 8 10 12

Consumption (lit) Commutative
4 8 12 21 25 33 41 29 16 8 4 4 4 12 24 45 70 103 144 173 189 197 201 205

V1 =

P oP 6 ∗ 400 000 = = 2400 m 3 1000 1000

V2 = (max hourly consump. – max daily consump.) * one hour

 400000 ∗205 1 = (2.5 −1.8)  .  ∗ = 478333 1000  12  V
design=V2 + 1 fire 5  1 400000∗120 3 = 478333+  ∗ . .  = 574333 m 10000  5

Max capacity of elevated tank = 1000 à 2000 m3
Civil Enginerring Department (5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

Use 4 tanks

Vtan k =

Vt 5743.33 = =1435.833 m 3 4 4

Assume int ernal diameter Volume =

φ1 =1.5 m

d=

2 φο 3

π
4


π
4

2 ο

− φ12 d
2 ο

)

1435.833 =

− 1. 5

φ ο =14 m
∴d =

)2 φ 3

ο

2 φ ο = 9.4 m 3 φ1 =1.5 m
=1m/s

• Assume velocity in pipes
Q= A= Volume t Q = = 5743.33 12 ∗ 60 ∗ 60 ∗ 4 = 0.332 m 2

= 0.0332 m 3 / s

0.033

V 1 φ = 20.32 cm (8 inch) Take φ = 20.32 cm (8 inch )
Vact = 1.025 m /s (0.8 – 1.5) o.k.

Civil Enginerring Department

(5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

Design of pipe between L.L.P and distribution chamber.
Assume V=1.5 m/s. Q = 1.4236
A= Q = 0. 95 A m2

m3/S.

φ pipe =1.1
take

m m (45 inch) (0.8 − 1.5) O.K

φ pipe =1.143

V act = 1.387

m/ S

• check velocity at 2025 Q = 0.97222 m3/s.

V=

Q 0.97222 = = 1.023 1.143 A )2 π( 2

mls

(0.8 − 1.5) O..K .

Design of pipes between distribution chamber and filter and ground tank.
No. of pipes = 3. Q pipe = 0.475 m3/sec.

Civil Enginerring Department

(5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

Assnme V=1.5 m/s.
A= Q = 0.316 V m2

φ pipe = 0.634

m. ( 25 inch) (0.8 − 1.5) O.K

take φ pipe = 0.635 m. Vact = Q = 1.498 m / sec . A

Check velocity at 2025 Q= 0.97222 m3 / sec.

Losses through flocculator

Assume flocculator is an open chaminel with length = 360m.
V = 1 R2 / 3 n S1 / 2

0 .4 =

1 0 . 5 * 2 . 37 ( )2 / 3 0 . 013 0 . 5 + ( 2 * 2 . 37 )

S1 / 2

S = 0 . 0001962 losses = 360 * 0 . 0001962 = 0 . 07 m ≈ 10 cm

Assume. Losses due to the weirs = 10 cm. Total losses through flocculator = 20 cm.

Civil Enginerring Department

(5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

Losses through ground tank. Assume G.T. is am open dchannel with. Length =
50 * (33 − 5) 5

= 280 m Detention time = 5.5 hr.
∴velocity = 280 = 0.014 5.5 * 60 60 m / s.

∴V

1 n

R1 / 2 S 1 / 2

1 0.014 = 0.013

 5 * 6 .5    13 + 5    

2/3

S 1/ 2

S = 1.5335 * 10-8 Losses = 280 * 1.537 * 10-8 0.00043 cm Take total losses through G.T = 20 cm. Losses throgh filter. Take losses through the filter equal its total depth. Losses = 3m. Losses through rapid mixing tank and distribution chamber. Assume the losses due to weir in each are = 10 cm.

Civil Enginerring Department

(5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

Losses all over pipes:1- pipe between L.L.P and Distribution chamber:
φ

= 1.143 m (45 inch). L = 338 m.

V=1.04 m/s Losses due to friction: HF =(FLV2) /(2gd) =(0.032*338*(1.04)2) / (2*9.81*0.762) =0.88m Losses due to exit from pipe=1.4(V20-V21) / 2g =1.4((1.04)2-(0.11)2) /(2*9.81) =0.07m Total losses =0.95m 2-pipe between distribution chamber and rapid mixing tank.

φ = 0 . 634
L = 22 . 73 V = I n =

m M .

( 25

inch
1 / 2

)

R

2 / 3

S

1 . 498

1 0 . 013

(

0 . 634 4

)

2 / 3

S

1 / 2

S = 0 . 0044211 ∴ losses = S * L . = o .1 M
(5th Year).

Civil Enginerring Department

SANITARY PROJECT.

3-Pipe between Rapid mixing tank and flocculator φ = 0 . 634 m ( 25 inch )
L = 18 . 95 1 V = R n m.
2 /3 1/ 2

S

1 1 . 498 = 0 . 013

 0 . 634    4  

2 /3

S

1/2

S = 0 . 0044211 ∴ Losses = S * l = 0 . 084 Velocity Losses in weir =

≈ 0 .1

m

1 . 424 Q = = 0 . 63 m / s 3 * 0 . 75 * 1 A = 1 .4 v
2

due to enterence

− 2g

v

2

= 1 . 4 1 . 04 = 4 cm Total losses = 15 cm

2

0 . 63

2

2 * 9 . 81

4-pipe between Flocculator and filters :

φ = 0.634
L = 33.82 m S = 0.0044211 ∴losses = S * L = 0.149 ≈ 0.15 m

Civil Enginerring Department

(5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

5- pipe between filter and ground tank:

φ =0.634m
L=68.12m S=0.0044211 Losses=S*L =0.3m Take enterence losses=5cm Total losses=0.35m
∴V = 0.97222  0.635  3*   *π 2  
2

= 1.023 m / sec

(0.8 − 1.5) O.K

Civil Enginerring Department

(5th Year).

SANITARY PROJECT.

Summarization
Stage No. of units Dimensions of one unit Rapid mixing Flocculation 3– Flocculators 3 – Mixers φ=3m d = 2.7 m L = 19.88 m B = 12 m 2.37 m Filtration 3 direct Filters Use 3 filter house Each house contain : ROF = 6 filters. Filter = 5 × 7 m House = 21 × 15 m Ground storage 3 – G.T. L = 50 m B = 33 m D = 6.5 m Elevated tank 4 E.T φo = 14 m φ1= 1 m d = 9.33 m 5.5 hr. 15 min. 40 sec. Detention time

12 m3 /m2/ hr.

Civil Enginerring Department

(5th Year).

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