University of Podlasie & International Society of Arachnology

Book of Abstracts
Editor: Marek Żabka

Siedlce 2010

Congress Scientific Committee
Dr. Leon Baert, Brussels, Belgium; Dr. Jonathan Coddington, Washington DC, USA; Prof. Ansie Dippenaar-Schoeman, Pretoria, South Africa; Dr. Charles Griswold, San Francisco, USA; Dr. Jason Dunlop – ISA Secretary, Berlin, Germany; Dr. Mark Harvey, Welshpool, Australia; Prof. Daiqin Li, Singapore; Dr. Kirill G. Mikhailov, Moscow, Russia; Dr. Norman Platnick, New York, USA; Prof. Jerzy Prószyński, Warsaw, Poland; Dr. Ferenc Samu, Budapest, Hungary; Dr. Nikolaj Scharff – ISA President, Copenhagen, Denmark; Dr. Cor Vink, Lincoln, New Zealand; Dr. Richardo Pinto-da-Rocha, São Paulo, Brazil

Congress Honorary Committee
Prof. Barbara Kudrycka – Minister for Science and Higher Education Prof. Antoni Jówko – Rector of the University of Podlasie Mr. Wojciech Kudelski – Mayor of the City of Siedlce

Congress Organizing Committee
Prof. Marek Żabka – chairman, Dr. Barbara Patoleta – secretary, Dr. Izabela Hajdamowicz, Dr. Joanna Gardzińska, Dr. Piotr Jastrzębski, Dr. Marzena Stańska, Dr. Maciej Bartos Technical assistance: Mrs. Małgorzata Kozłowska, Mr. Łukasz Nicewicz Congress logo: Joanna Gardzińska

ISBN: 978-83-7051-575-1

The publication co-financed by the Polish Ministry for Science and Higher Education (grant for the University of Podlasie), the International Society of Arachnology and the City of Siedlce

Akademia Podlaska ul. Konarskiego 2, 08-110 Siedlce Format B-5 Druk: ELPIL, Siedlce

In Memoriam

To Colleagues and Friends – Arachnologists, who have passed away over the last 3 years

Joachim Adis 4 March 1950 - 29 August 2007

Ekaterina Mikhailovna Andreeva (Katarzyna Andrejewa Prószyńska) 16 November 1941 - 18 September 2008

Nina Sergeevna Azsheganova 8 March 1914 - 8 March 2008

James Carico 20 March 1937 .31 March 2009 .

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21 January 2008 .Song Daxiang 9 May 1935 .

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Lyndsay McLaren Forster 19 September 1925 .20 January 2009 .

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Jean Kekenbosch 17 March 1921 .13 January 2009 .

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April Kinchloe 16 March 2008 .

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Nancy Kreiter 30 December 2007 .

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27 February 2010 .Erich Kritscher 22 February 1927 .

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2009 (Photo G.Gershom Levy 1937 . Simon) .

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6 February 2009 .Jean-Pierre Maelfait 1 June 1951 .

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Robert Wetsel Mitchell 25 April 1933 .18 March 2010 (Photo: William R. Elliott) .

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2008 .Pavel Iustinovitch Marikovski 1912 .

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Sergei Vladimirovitch Ovtchinnikov 5 January 1958 .18 December 2007 .

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Robinson 1929 .20 March 2008 .Michael H.

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Michael Saaristo 1 September 1938 .27 April 2008 .

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Manuel Ángel González Sponga 30 April 1929 .1 March 2009 .

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4 October 2009 .Changmin Yin 4 October 1923 .

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Abstracts .

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Royal Museum for Central Africa. Tervuren. Harvard University. USA Prof. USA Dr. Universität Wien. Queensland Museum. Australia Prof. Samuel Zschokke. Canada Dr.. Rudy Jocqué. Gabriele Uhl. University of Kansas. Friedrich Barth. University of British Columbia. Costa Rica Prof. Belgium Prof. Universität Greifswald. Lawrence. Paul Selden.Congress Plenary Speakers Prof. University of Melbourne. Wayne Maddison. Switzerland . Cambridge Mass. Robert Raven. Brisbane. Vancouver. Mark Elgar. Austria Dr. Gonzalo Giribet. Australia Prof. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. Germany Dr. University of Basel. William Eberhard.

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18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Pełne teksty prac ukażą się w Journal of Arachnology i innych prestiżowych wydawnictwach. Rektora Akademii Podlaskiej i Prezydenta Miasta Siedlce nadał wydarzeniu wyjątkową rangę. Badania etologiczne i neurobiologiczne pozwalają zrozumieć uniwersalne mechanizmy zachowań rozrodczych. zasiedlających różne strefy klimatyczne i ekosystemy: od skrajnie nieprzyjaznych pustyń. Efektem badań nad wykorzystaniem jadu jest wyodrębnienie substancji biologicznie czynnych o znaczeniu medycznym. Siedlce. a jako bohaterowie filmów fabularnych. sawanny i stepy. zwłaszcza pająki i skorpiony. że niektóre pajęczaki. różnorodność zajmowanych środowisk i liczba gatunków. komiksów i stron internetowych. po tropikalne lasy. polowaniem. Wśród jej najważniejszych nurtów kilka rozwija się szczególnie dynamicznie. bazy danych i publikacje ogromnie ułatwiają obieg informacji naukowej. Nieodłączną cechą współczesnej arachnologii jest upowszechnienie się metod biologii molekularnej i technik mikroskopii elektronowej. ale także mnogość strategii życiowych. Patronat honorowy ze strony Pani Minister Nauki i Szkolnictwa Wyższego. życiem społecznym i dyspersją. Poland Wstęp Pajęczaki to fascynujące zwierzęta. statystyczne analizy wyników osiągają nieznany dotąd stopień zaawansowania zaś elektroniczne katalogi. ale i same mają wielu wrogów. zyskują wręcz rangę zwierzęcych celebrytów. 47 . do których odsyłamy czytelników. Wiele gatunków bytuje w miejscach wilgotnych i okresowo zalewanych a nieliczne żyją w wodzie na stałe. Organizacja Kongresu to efekt zbiorowego wysiłku i życzliwości wielu osób. Pierwsze kopalne ślady ich istnienia pochodzą sprzed blisko 400 milionów lat. Rysunki i ryty naskalne dowodzą. Dziś znamy kilkadziesiąt tysięcy gatunków (oprócz roztoczy). budzą naszą fascynację i strach od tysięcy lat. badanie pokrewieństw między taksonami i rekonstruowanie historii faun kontynentalnych (regionalnych). Prace z zakresu ekologii i bioróżnorodności dotyczą funkcjonowania zgrupowań pajęczaków w różnych ekosystemach i ich roli w ocenie stanu środowiska. zachowań związanych z rozrodem.Book of Abstracts. Zastosowanie modelowania komputerowego pozwala na prognozowanie procesów ekologicznych i zjawisk ewolucyjnych. Prezentowany tu zbiór abstraktów daje jedynie wyobrażenie o różnorodności tematyki poruszanej w trakcie Kongresu. Miarą ewolucyjnego sukcesu pajęczaków jest nie tylko ich długa historia. zaś prace nad własnościami przędzy i procesem jej produkcji zmierzają do uzyskania supermateriałów o niezwykłych własnościach mechanicznych. łowieckich i społecznych a także poznać wyrafinowane sposoby komunikowania się. wysokich gór i podbiegunowej tundry. in. Także współcześnie zwierzęta te obecne są w mitach i wierzeniach. Domeną systematyki i biogeografii jest m. Wszystkie te zagadnienia są przedmiotem zainteresowania współczesnej arachnologii. instytucji i międzynarodowej społeczności arachnologicznej. Pajęczaki są ważnym elementem sieci troficznych: jako drapieżcy regulują liczebność swych ofiar.

Wyrazy wdzięczności kierujemy pod adresem uczonych. Zapoczątkował on regularne spotkania arachnologów z całego świata. że program Kongresu zadowoli wszystkich. Dziekani Wydziałów Przyrodniczego i Nauk Ścisłych. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Witamy osoby towarzyszące. Poland Władze Akademii Podlaskiej. Prof. a atmosfera pobytu w Polsce pozostanie w pamięci na długo. udzieliło finansowego wsparcia a Prezydent ISA .Book of Abstracts. Mamy nadzieję.zarówno w imieniu grupy siedleckiej. którzy czują się uczniami i współpracownikami naszych Mistrzów. W imieniu Komitetu Organizacyjnego. rzeczowej i logistycznej. Marek Żabka 48 . Wielu gości Kongresu jest w Polsce po raz pierwszy. Wojciech Starga. którzy przez minione dekady kierowali pracami ISA i nadawali ton badaniom arachnologicznym. W bieżącym roku obchodzimy pięćdziesiątą rocznicę Pierwszego Międzynarodowego Kongresu w Bonn (1960). Wielu z nich uczestniczy w niniejszym Kongresie. Jerzy Prószyński zainicjował aktywność grupy badawczej. a większość nigdy przedtem nie odwiedziła Siedlec. biogeografii i ewolucji Salticidae. jubileusz półwiecza jest więc dobrą okazją. w której przed 40 laty Prof. rozumiejąc rolę nauki w cywilizacyjnym rozwoju. jak i tych wszystkich Koleżanek i Kolegów. Dziękujemy wszystkim uczestnikom za prezentację ich dorobku i dzielenie się wiedzą i doświadczeniem. Siedlce. specjalizującej się w systematyce.dr Jason Dunlop współpracowali z Komitetem Organizacyjnym na wszystkich etapach przygotowań. jeden z „ojców założycieli” naszej organizacji. którzy. Międzynarodowe Towarzystwo Arachnologiczne (ISA) . udzielili pomocy finansowej.pierwszy Prezydent. Otto Kraus. poszerzyło to zakres naszych zainteresowań o faunistykę i ekologię pająków oraz systematykę kosarzy. studenci oraz pracownicy administracji i obsługi pomagali na miarę swych możliwości i kompetencji.współorganizator Kongresu. Dziękujemy Sponsorom i Partnerom. Dyrekcja Biblioteki Głównej. Kilka lat później do zespołu dołączył Prof. którzy zgodzili się wygłosić wykłady plenarne. aby wyrazić szacunek i wdzięczność tym wszystkim. których obecność cenimy sobie na równi z głównymi uczestnikami. którzy przyjęli zaproszenie do Komitetu Naukowego i tych. Dziś pragniemy podziękować obu Profesorom .dr Nikolaj Scharff i Sekretarz . wśród nich . Koleżanki i Koledzy z Instytutu Biologii. Spotykamy się w Uczelni.

Sydney funnel web spider or many scorpion species attract the attention of general public. Siedlce. biodiversity and conservation. through tropical forests. At present. especially spiders and scorpions. The International Society of Arachnology. physiology. The long history of arachnids. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.Book of Abstracts. Jason Dunlop have been especially co-operative. and the ISA President . Today (excluding Acari) some 60. fascination and fear .well evidenced by the rock engravings. savannahs and steppes. their great species diversity. ecology. Deans of the Faculties of Science and Natural Sciences.Dr. living strategies. Chemical and mechanical properties of spider webs and silk are extensively studied in order to produce silk-like super materials. Director of the Library. administration and students of the University of Podlasie . In most cases the methods of molecular biology. movies. The Congress has been a joined venture of many people.000 species are known to exist in a variety of climatic zones and ecosystems: from hostile deserts. The members of the Honorary Committee supported us mentally and were “good spirits” of the Congress. All those aspects are presented and discussed during the Congress and are covered in the Book of Abstracts. The Rector and Chancellor.Dr. has provided the financial support.all are acknowledged for their commitment and help. Many species can survive periodically submerged and a few are permanent water dwellers. the Congress co-organiser. high mountains and tundra. various habitat preferences. biogeography. The most deadly spiders such as black widow. Poland Preface Arachnids are fascinating creatures. We wish to thank the members of the Scientific Committee and the Plenary Speakers for accepting our invitation. behaviour. sensational reports. genetics. stimulating (or limiting) nature tourism and becoming research subject for biotechnology and medicine. As top predators and other animals’ prey they are extremely important in the ecological webs. Arachnology today is a multidisciplinary science. recluse spider. electron microscopy and sophisticated statistics have become a necessity in the profound analyses. Full texts of the papers will be presented in the Proceedings published by the Journal of Arachnology and other prestigious periodicals. neurobiology. reproduction or social life. have generated lively interest. inhabiting the Earth for the last 400 million years. with a wide range of research areas such as palaeontology. Nikolaj Scharff and Secretary . institutions and the entire arachnological community. systematics. Colleagues and Friends from the Institute of Biology. cave paintings and today’s myths and beliefs. behaviours and dispersal abilities are the best evidence of their evolutionary success. 49 . comics and web pages have raised arachnids to the role of animal celebrities and pop-culture heroes. For thousands of years arachnids.

who are here with us today. We thank the sponsors for understanding the role of science in modern world. including Professor Otto Kraus . it gives us an excellent opportunity to pay our respect to all those.Book of Abstracts. Our special gratitude goes to the former ISA officials. Poland We are grateful to the Arachnologists from 6 continents and almost 50 countries for presenting their research results and sharing their knowledge and experience. The 18th International Congress takes place on the 50th anniversary of the first meeting in Bonn (1960).the first President and one of the “founding fathers” of our organization. Wojciech Staręga to expand the research to such areas as faunistics. Therefore. We hope that the programme will meet your expectations and your stay in Siedlce will leave you only with good memories of the people and the place itself. Marek Żabka 50 . On behalf of all those who have had a privilege to co-operate with both Professors. In the years to follow. we would like to express our gratefulness. biogeography and evolution. On behalf of the Organizing Committee. whose efforts and hard work have contributed to the development of arachnology over the last decades. and harvestmen systematics. The Congress is being held at the University of Podlasie. Many Congress participants and accompanying persons have not been in Poland before. the group was joined by Prof. where 40 years ago Professor Jerzy Prószyński started to organise the research team working on salticid taxonomy. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. We extend our warm welcome to all the accompanying persons. ecology. Siedlce.

lineages that have given rise to all the social species in the Americas have not colonized other parts of the world. Subsociality is ancestral for the genus as a whole. Solitary species form a clade of apparently good dispersers. evidenced by their colonization of multiple landmasses worldwide. and thus proposes variation in social behaviour as an important biogeographical force in this. PR. My findings suggest that the diversity and distribution of Anelosimus spiders worldwide may be influenced by the level of social behaviour displayed by species and lineages. they fail to diversify. I propose speculative hypotheses regarding the influence of social structure on geographical distribution and diversity patterns. seem to explain the absence of social species at high latitudes and altitudes. Solitary species are restricted to habitats where subsocial and social species are rare or absent: narrowly restricted to coastal habitats in the tropics. USA. and an interplay between allopatric and. San Juan. subsocial species are most diverse. and perhaps other lineages. and subsocial lineages have colonized most continents. Poland Phylogeny and sociogeography of Anelosimus spiders Ingi Agnarsson Department of Biology. but once social. ecological. In particular. such as prey size. while the absence of social species from lowland tropical forests in other parts of the world is best explained in a biogeographical context. what might be referred to as sociogeography. and (2) perhaps merely by chance. Social species are mostly restricted to low to mid elevation forest the Americas. presumably due to various consequences of their population structure and mating system.com The diversity and distribution of species across habitats and landmasses results from interplay between various factors. thus social species are unlikely to colonize new landmasses. sympatric speciation. Siedlce. as well as the ecology and behaviour of species.Book of Abstracts. I focus on the potential role of social behaviour in explaining global geographical distribution and diversity patterns in the genus. Their relatively high diversity apparently results from good dispersal abilities. including inbreeding. possibly. iagnarsson@gmail. but widely distributed at high latitudes. such as dispersal ability. phylogenetical and other historical constraints. Here I present new phylogenetic and ecological data and use these to speculate about biogeographical. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. (1) one of the consequences of Anelosimus becoming social is reduced dispersal. Ecological factors. Social species do not form a clade-sociality evolved repeatedly. In sum. Allopatric speciation following colonization of novel areas appears to have been the primary force of diversification in solitary species. University of Puerto Rico. and behavioural determinants of the geographical distribution and diversity of behaviourally diverse Anelosimus spiders across the globe. 51 .

such as tendon. Washington DC. Poland Behavioural and biomaterial coevolution in spider orb webs Ingi Agnarsson1. This implies that improvements in silk quality can relax selection on web architectural designs. Spider orb webs are a system in which fibrous biomaterials-silks are arranged in a complex design to produce effective energy absorbing traps for flying prey. In summary. Akron. spider silk material properties are fine-tuned to the architectures of webs. USA 4 Zoological Museum. We find a dominant pattern of material and behavioural coevolution. some effective at capturing tiny and flimsy insects. resulting in a coevolutionary pattern that may underlie many biological systems such as tendon. and spiders webs. a common result of fecundity selection in spiders. Andrew Sensenig3. or alternatively that spiders producing lower quality silk must compensate architecturally for the inferior performance their silk. Nikolaj Scharff4 & Jonathan Coddington5 1 Department of Biology. others that can stop even small birds in mid flight. Blackledge2. is determined by a complex interplay between material quality (intrinsic material properties. USA blackledge@uakron. University of Copenhagen. University of Puerto Rico. After controlling for spider size. byssal threads. and keratin. mollusk byssal threads. OH. Siedlce. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. PR. Prominently. Here. which results from both material and behavioural changes. Denmark 5 National Museum of Natural History. are repeatedly accompanied by improved overall web performance. spiders that evolve higher quality silk use it more sparsely in webs.com 2 University of Akron. muscles. evolutionary increases in body size. iagnarsson@gmail.edu 3 University of Akron. Copenhagen. we test whether material quality and the behaviours used to spin webs co-evolve to fine-tune web function. larger scale morphology) and proximate behaviour. Todd A. USA.Book of Abstracts. San Juan. 52 . OH. Orb webs show an impressive range of designs. by quantifying both the intrinsic material properties of silk and web architectures across diverse species of orb weaving spiders. USA Mechanical performance of biological structures. Akron.

For testing immunity responses. A single sterile 1 mm long and 0.08 mm diameter implant was inserted on each spider abdominal wall. digging activities per se and predation risk while constructing the burrow. We captured 10 adult males between January 2 of 2007 and March 7 of 2008. Cátedra de Diversidad Animal I.46'W). they locate their sexual partners and initiate courtship. but they could not dig a burrow. Twelve hours later. Argentina. brasiliensis between March 2 and May 12. aisenber@iibce. All the spiders were fed ad libitum. 64°39. group 2) adult males that had not constructed burrows (n=11). Allocosa brasiliensis is a nocturnal wolf spider that constructs burrows along South American sandy coasts of rivers. between the epigastric furrow and the spiracles. Siedlce. and 20 cm height.F. One week after their capture at the field. in Marindia (34º46'52. Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable. where they could bury themselves to avoid dehydration. Universidad Nacional de Córdoba. Males construct burrows in the sand of approximately 10 cm length. Males provide females with their own burrows after copulation that will serve as nests for the future progeny. Copulations occur exclusively inside male burrows and females prefer those males showing deeper burrows. According to this. Montevideo.Book of Abstracts. Ecología y Evolución.N.. F. Twenty four hours later.6"W). we captured 19 adult females and 21 adult males of A. while females dig short refuges. since we detected sand extraction (n=10). Peretti2 1 Laboratorio de Etología. each 53 .C.uy 2 CONICET . 55º49'29. The objectives of the study were to describe in detail burrow digging in A. Canelones. Uruguay. Córdoba. We video-recorded digging behaviours for one hour.edu. group 3) females that had not constructed burrows (n=18). brasiliensis and estimate the costs of male digging by quantifying immune response and fat reserves in males that had constructed and males and females that had been prevented to construct burrows. in the coastline of Arroyo Copina (31°34. we could expect high selective pressures acting on male digging performance. each male was individually introduced in a glass cage of 30 cm and 16 cm of base. 2009. with sand as substrate. The species shows a reversal in typical sex roles and sexual dimorphism expected for spiders: females are smaller than males. they were anesthetized with CO2 and taped laterally onto separate glass slides. We created three experimental groups: group 1) adult males that had constructed burrows (n=10). Uruguay. Argentina Burrow digging on the sand has been reported as an energetically expensive activity in spiders mainly due to three factors: silk production. lakes and the Atlantic Ocean.E. Córdoba.Laboratorio de Biología Reproductiva y Evolución. individuals from the other groups were maintained in Petri dishes with sand as substrate.91'S. Poland Costs of burrow-digging and sexual dimorphismin immune ability and fat reserves in the sex role reversed spider Allocosa brasiliensis (Lycosidae) Anita Aisenberg1 & Alfredo V. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Males of the first group were placed on plastic containers of 9 cm diameter and 14 cm height with sand as substrate.3"S.

N1=10. entering and exiting the burrow and a high number of occurrences of these behavioural units. Burrow digging by A. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. stage of the reproductive period or homogenization of the sample due to laboratory foraging conditions. brasiliensis males was very stereotyped. We did not find significant differences in immune response by encapsulation on the implant or fat reserves in males that had or had not constructed a burrow. p=0. N1=19. Silk production in spiders is considered costly and spiders require multiple deposition of silk layers to maintain stable burrows in the sand. Immune response was quantified by melanin percentage of encapsulation on each implant. so both encapsulation rates and fat reserves agree with a higher immune response in males compared to females.0. However. We detected high duration of silk deposition on the walls and around the burrow entrance. In invertebrates. Siedlce. This fact could be due to the low sample size. males showed higher encapsulation rates and fat reserves compared to females. We appreciated a high relation among sand extraction. For fat measurements. exiting from the burrow.0001). Divergences in life histories between the sexes would be determining contrasts in energetic requirements and their management by each sex in A.Book of Abstracts. brasiliensis. N1=10. N2=11. N2=11. period considered for construction. either in encapsulation rate (U=36. N2=21. turning. we removed legs and carapace and used the spider abdomen and for the extraction we used chloroform and weighed individuals before and after the extraction (the difference was considered as fat content). The high frequencies of some units as sand extraction and the high duration of silk deposition suggest that digging behaviour would be an energetically expensive activity. p=0. fat reserves: U=44. Poland implant was removed and photographed under a dissecting microscope. relation between immune response and sexual activity and the possible links between female and male choice in this species.0. We did not find significant differences between males that had or had not constructed a burrow. N2=21. N1=15. p=0. 54 . males showed higher encapsulation rates and fat reserves compared to females (encapsulation rate: U=72. Males of A.98). We distinguished eight behavioural units during digging: sand extraction.0. showing complex connections among the behavioural units. The high frequencies with low duration of entering and exiting the burrow could be related with avoiding predation risk during this activity. p=0. fat bodies are responsible for synthesizing anti-microbiotic peptides.19). Future studies will test variations in immune response between the sexes along the reproductive period. brasiliensis are the sedentary sex that constructs the breeding nest and stays for long periods buried without foraging.01.0. blocking the burrow entrance and rest. or fat reserves (U=60. However. hypotheses that require further studies. silk deposition around the burrow entrance. waiting for the mobile sex. silk deposition on the walls. entering.

alticeps and A. spiders. using a digital thermocouple. alticeps located at the first line of dunes in Lagomar. we performed five monthly samplings in the coastal sand dunes of Marindia (34º46'52. brasiliensis. considering the total number of spiders (χ2=0.edu. To evaluate the spatial distribution of the burrows. Ecología y Evolución. Poland Spatial distribution along the sand dunes and temperature buffering in two burrowing Allocosa species with sex role reversal (Araneae: Lycosidae) Anita Aisenberg1. Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable.3"S. To evaluate temperature buffering of the burrows.2 & Miguel Simó2 1 Laboratorio de Etología. brasiliensis could be associated with competition for access to territories where males can construct more stable and deeper burrows. Uruguay Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two sympatric and synchronic wolf spiders that construct burrows along the sandy Uruguayan coastline. Females prefer those males that show longer burrows. The samplings were performed during day-light by four collectors. aisenber@iibce. Canelones. Females initiate courtship and copulation takes place inside male burrows. and she will stay inside. Canelones.64). Uruguay (34º50'59"S. brasiliensis and A. Uruguay. Samplings were performed in square plots of 1 m2 drawn parallel to the line of the coast on the first line of dunes. Measurements were performed by two researchers during one hour. P=0. Álvaro Laborda2.22. The air temperature was registered approximately 5 cm away from the burrow entrance and 10 cm away from the surface. Spiders were collected by sifting the sand of each plot down to 20 cm depth and recording the location of all Allocosa spp. we found two females. using geological sieves with a mesh size of 4 mm. alticeps. The objectives of the study were to examine burrow density and its distribution along the sand-dune profile and determine whether burrow depth is related with temperature buffering in both Allocosa species. We did not find significant differences in the distribution 55 . 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. During the sifting. two males and 36 juveniles of A.Book of Abstracts.uy 2 Sección Entomología. and four females.33. Montevideo. two plots on the sea-side and two on the land-side. 55º58'35"W). Macarena González1. Rodrigo Postiglioni1. Montevideo. P=0.01).5"W). brasiliensis (landside vs. alticeps. 55º49'51. We measured burrow depth in all the cases. four males and 66 juveniles of A. Uruguay. The larger size in males compared to females in A. sea-side) we did not find significant differences. oviposit and exit for spiderling dispersal. Siedlce. after sunset. the male donates his burrow to the female. After final dismount. Facultad de Ciencias. Previous studies proposed a reversal in sex roles and sexual size dimorphism for both Allocosa species. juveniles were more frequent at the base of the dune compared to adults of the same species (χ2=6. In A. When we compared the distribution of A. we recorded ninety eight burrows of A. Temperatures inside the burrows were recorded at the bottom of each burrow.

alticeps burrows are distributed differently on the sand dune according to the developmental stage and species.5±2.6). F3. A. Preferential areas for digging in adults seem to be the base of the dune in A.94=43.001). The preference of A. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. P=0. Adults are expected to be more selective when choosing the burrowing sites compared to juveniles because females prefer to mate with males that have longer burrows. and most importantly the females that will egg-lay.76. alticeps adults in the slope observed in the present study could be interpreted as a mechanism to avoid predation by A. df=2. The results confirm that A. On the base of the dune. and inside the burrow 20. Siedlce.0001). 56 .92.4-15. both for constructing more stable burrows and for their own survival. The larger size and consequently higher predator capacity of A. brasiliensis and the slope in A. brasiliensis adults. in addition to the differences observed between the temperatures inside and outside the burrows of Allocosa individuals. P<0. high humidity levels are reached nearer to the surface.9±2. On the other hand. Temperature buffering (difference between temperature outside and inside the burrow) increased with burrow depth (R=0.83. face the drastic environmental thermo changes of coastal areas. P=0. brasiliensis adults seems to be driving the spatial exclusion of A. on each Allocosa species so present results could be in conformity with the hypothesis of territorial males defending female harems. suggest that these refuges provide thermal buffering against the highly variable environmental conditions.5).0). alticeps females and males from the former species’ burrowing areas. This fact promotes that males will be selected to construct long and stable burrows.7 mm (range: 9. and we found significant differences between them (t97=16. brasiliensis and A.38. Temperatures outside the burrow averaged 17. The positive correlation between temperature and burrow depth. alticeps. alticeps adults were more frequent on the slope and A.6°C (range: 13. P<0.04).Book of Abstracts. brasiliensis adults on the base (Fisher. diminishing the energetic costs of digging deeper burrows.8-20.6±3. the location of A.09). Larger burrows would provide higher temperature buffering to help individuals. Individuals of both Allocosa species are drastically constrained by humidity levels.4°C (range: 13. brasiliensis adults for the base of the sand dune could be associated with more protection from Southern winds that frequently blow in these areas and possibly higher prey abundance. Burrow depth averaged 58. Poland according to the stage in A. Female and male burrows were located on the same sites of the dune.2-27. brasiliensis (χ2=4. as has been cited for other arthropods.

Germany. Furthermore. 57 . Aachen. it could be expected that sperm morphology might present characters which could be informative for phylogenetic and systematic interpretations at the family-level. In the present study we summarize our results on sperm ultrastructure based on observations on more than 14 species of Cyphophthalmi totaling 5 of the 6 families. Germany The spermatozoa of mite harvestmen have received special attention in recent years with data currently available from representatives of three of the 6 families but only few species have been studied. Thus. the spermatozoa. Greifswald. Zoological Institute & Museum. In these studies it has been shown that dimorphic spermatogenesis. However. Greifswald. USA 3 Ernst Moritz Arndt University. Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics. Harvard University. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. such as sperm dimorphism.4 1 Ernst-Moritz Arndt University. Poland Fine structure of dimorphic sperm in mite harvestmen (Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi) Gerd Alberti1. the peculiar characteristics. Gonzalo Giribet2. Siedlce.Book of Abstracts. Department of Functional Genomics. not known from other Opiliones. alberti@uni-greifswald. Department of Developmental Biology and Morphology of Animals. formation of peculiar sperm balls together with the plesiotypic mode of sperm transfer via a spermatophore urgently required further studies on a broader taxon sampling to provide a profound basis for comparisons with other Opiliones or even other arachnids. differ considerably in structure even in representatives of the same family. in particular the eusperm. Germany 4 RWTH Aachen.de 2 Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology & Museum of Comparative Zoology. MA. Department of General Zoology and Zoological Systematics. Cambridge. Institute for Biology II. Melanie Gutjahr3 & Elisabeth Lipke1. resulting in aflagellate fertile eusperm and infertile parasperm. a transitory flagellum. seems to occur widely in the group.

In the two formers. both sex chromosomes placed together and aligned in parallel until the segregation in anaphase. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. and their -heterochromatin distribution as an effect of G-banding. The three species presented X1X20 as sex chromosome system. and from diakinesis these chromosomes were observed together in a parallel disposition. bucculenta. These factors play an important role in gene expression and are specially associated to tissue-specific genes existing in G-banding chromosomes. In spiders. mjalbo@iibce. Universidad de la República. the independence of both sex chromosomes in T. biocellata. 58 . Uruguay. six of Trechaleoides biocellata and three of Trechalea bucculenta. We observed a diploid number of 2n=22 in Paratrechalea ornata. indicating karyotypes are conserved. Ecología y Evolución.Book of Abstracts. and probably highly affected by environmental factors. biocellata added to the differences in G-banding suggests the existence of innovative modifications in this species. alicia. Uruguay. and 2n=26 in both Trechalea bucculenta and Trechaleoides biocellata. determinate their sex chromosome system. and both differed from those in T. In Uruguay.postiglioni@gmail. We dissected fourteen adult gonads of Paratrechalea ornata. nuptial gifts have been reported for Paratrechalea ornata and Trechalea bucculenta but not for Trechaleoides biocellata (Trechaleidae).com Nuptial gifts are heritable characters associated with reproduction. Poland Male meiosis: sex chromosomes and heterochromatin behaviour in three nuptial gift-giving spider species (Trechaleidae) Maria José Albo1 & Alicia Postiglioni2 1 Laboratorio de Etología. and compare and elucidate genetic differences that traduce into their phenotypes.edu. Siedlce. The aim of this study was to investigate male meiosis in these three species. ornata and T. Facultad de Veterinaria. Interstitial G-bands were similar in P. We found a relatively stable complement number among species of the same family. Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable. biocellata.uy 2 Departamento de Genética y Mejora Animal. As X1X20 formula had been suggested as ancestral in Araneae. Some slides of each species were stained with Giemsa while others were exposed to G-banding treatment. but stayed distant between each other in T. the families Pisauridae and Trechaleidae have species in which males offer a prey wrapped in silk to females during courtship and mating.

Book of Abstracts. Ecología y Evolución. The aim of this study was to investigate gift construction under different sexual stimuli and different male feeding conditions. increase male attractiveness during courtship and mating and gift characteristics could reflect male nutritional condition. Moreover. Denmark. Poland Nuptial gift implies a high cost for males of the nursery web spider Pisaura mirabilis (Araneae: Pisauridae) Maria José Albo1. The female silk elicits gift construction. Because the absence of statistical differences we grouped data from S and SF in each group to performed comparisons within groups. Males from well fed group and the control group showed similar frequencies of gift construction (91% and 90% respectively) and both constructed significant more gifts than males from the poorly fed group (54%). a control group of same age (N=10) using well fed males was also tested. Ecology and Genetics. This can happen through decreased courtship ability.uy 2 Department of Biological Sciences. Because poorly fed males were also older. Aarhus University. gift construction could involve high costs for males. Søren Toft2 & Trine Bilde2 1 Laboratorio de Etología. while 54% in S.edu. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Nuptial gifts. and 100% in S. 54% in SF and 11% in N wrapped the prey in the poorly fed group. Uruguay.dk. The poorly fed males also spent less time on gift construction (5. 2) female silk plus the female herself (SF). Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable. but we observed males in N constructed significant fewer gifts than males in S and SF.au. Under this hypothesis we predict that males in poor feeding condition are less likely to wrap the prey when they perceive sexual stimuli from female silk or in the presence of a female. for instance.au. No statistical differences were found in the occurrence of gift construction between the treatments S and SF in each group.dk In both vertebrates and invertebrates poor feeding or an unbalanced nutritional state can affect reproductive success negatively.toft@biology.4 min) 59 .bilde@biology.4±2. first under good feeding conditions (N=17) and then under poor feeding conditions (N=11). males can offer the prey gift without silk covering. and could determine decisions of males whether to wrap or not to wrap. We analyzed gift construction behaviour of males exposed sequentially to three treatments: 1) female silk (S). the 94% in SF and 13% in N of well fed males wrapped the prey in silk. and 3) no sexual stimuli (N). soeren. however. Because silk mainly consists of proteins. Our results show that 88% in S. according to the hypothesis of adaptive foraging we could expect that males in poor feeding conditions will consume the prey instead of wrapping it. Siedlce. trine. or selection against males in poor feeding condition by choosy females. mjalbo@iibce. Males from the spider Pisaura mirabilis (Pisauridae) offer a nuptial gift in the form of a prey wrapped in silk that functions as a mating effort increasing male reproductive success. 80% in SF and 13% in N wrapped the prey in the control male age group.

2 min) and the control group (11. remained eating it. and supports the idea that early gift construction may be an adaptive strategy which allows males immediate copulation once a female is located.3±6. Our findings show that the female silk is as strong a trigger as the presence of a female on male gift construction behaviour. hence the nuptial gift giving trait is seems to be under strong sexual selection. Response to female silk was also found in Paratrechalea ornata. 60 .Book of Abstracts. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. whereas poorly fed males that not wrapped the prey. Our data also show that gift construction is costly and hence provides information on male foraging state as an indicator of male quality.6 min). Poorly fed males that wrapped they prey in silk had difficulties in prey manipulation and silk deposition.2±8. Poland compared with males from the well fed group (13. Siedlce. Hungry males invest in nuptial gift construction rather than consuming the prey. another gift giving spider species.

Uruguay. as in some insects. Ecology and Genetics.edu. Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable. We staged experimental mating trials where males could present a fly gift (FG treatment). flower head or sucked out prey) to the female. For instance in some dance flies. no gift (NG). Our findings suggest that the gift giving trait is under strong sexual selection. recording male mating success and copulation duration. In the spider Pisaura mirabilis males offer an insect prey wrapped in silk as a mating effort. or a symbolic gift (SG. and that males may exploit female preference for the nuptial gift to gain reproductive advantages with symbolic worthless gifts when no prey is available. glandular fluids. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. without offering actually a direct benefit to female. Cristina Tuni2. Because this kind of donations allows males to increase the time transferring sperm and/or associated substances. Gudrun Winther2. Siedlce. and these are as successful as small genuine gifts. cotton ball.Book of Abstracts. Males offering symbolic items copulated in 86% of the trials and obtained copulations of intermediate duration (54. males could use inedible token gifts to obtain mates. Søren Toft2 & Trine Bilde2 1 Laboratorio de Etología.8±38. mjalbo@iibce. trine. regurgitations.au.3±31. Males with FG courted and copulated in 100% of the cases and gained the longest copulations (76.bilde@biology.uy 2 Department of Biological Sciences. 61 . Ecología y Evolución. part of or even males own body. Marie Rosenstand2.dk Nuptial gifts such as captured prey. Poland Worthless donations as a male reproductive tactic in the nuptial gift giving spider Pisaura mirabilis (Araneae: Pisauridae) Maria José Albo1. however it has been reported that males may offer non-nutritive gifts. Denmark. have been well documented in insects. In SG 70% of males wrapped an item and courted the female.5±13. while 30% courted without a gift. sexual conflict could be operating. Field observations show that males sometimes wrap an invaluable gift such as a flower head or an empty arthropod exoskeleton. In some species.5 min). In NG all males courted but only 45% of males copulated and obtained the shortest copulations (14. We investigated the possible use of worthless gifts by males and its effect on male reproductive success.6 min).5 min). Aarhus University.

Book of Abstracts. Pandava Lehtinen (2 spp. luteipes + G.) and Anuvinda Lehtinen (1 sp. Recent phylogenetic hypothesis have not reached a consensus concerning the relationships of Titanoecidae and the remaining families of the RTA clade or the relationships between the genera included in the family. Instituto Butantan.com. two retromarginal teeth on the chelicerae. Poland Cladistic analysis of the spider family Titanoecidae (Arachnida: Araneae) Lina M. mexicana (G. The family is divided in two large clades: Goeldinae subfam. retrolateral lobe of the dorsal tibial apophysis ear-shaped.. Titanoecidae arises as a clade supported by 12 synapomorphies: chilum entire and surpassing the external borders of the AME. median apophysis bifid. (G. + (G. chinipensis)))))). nov. sister to Pandava. sperm ducts forming loops in the tegulum. one Amaurobiidae Thorell. one Zoropsidae Bertkau and two Nicodamidae Simon. The genus 62 . tegular loop of the sperm duct Pandava-type. stridulatory apparatus of the ectal surface of the chelicerae bearing spines. Nurscia Simon (4 spp. guayaquilensis (G. zyngierae (G. Siedlce. Almeida-Silva1 & Antonio D. The family is diagnosed by the presence of a complex dorso-apical fold on the male palpal tibia. adbresc@terra.) (G. utcuyacu sp. (G.)))) and (T. nov. In this study. The out-group was composed of three species of Phyxelididae Lehtinen. Novodamus nodatus was used to root the trees. absence of a conductor. five Titanoeca and three Nurscia. mirim sp. including Goeldia+Anuvinda. Brazil. a triangular process at the base of the embolus and a tegular groove that acts like a conductor. The species of Goeldia are divided in two clades: ((G. patellaris + G. diva sp. Goeldia Keyserling (9 spp. with Nearctic and Neotropical distribution. CI=65. nov.). Brazil.br Family Titanoecidae was proposed by Lehtinen to include five genera: Titanoeca Thorell (31 spp. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.).com ² Laboratório de Artropodes. The analysis was carried out on the computer program TNT and resulted in a single most parsimonious tree (L=302. arnozoi (G. with Oriental distribution. Based on the results of the cladistic analysis Titanoeca guayaquilensis Schmidt. a cladistic analysis based on parsimony was carried out to test the monophyly of Titanoecidae and propose a relationship hypothesis for its genera and species. yamamotoi sp. Brescovit2 ¹ Universidade de São Paulo. nov. The matrix was composed of 32 terminal taxa and 92 morphological characters. tegular grove functioning as a conductor.). nov. The in-group included the type species of all Titanoecidae genera and additional 12 Goeldia species. nov.). from Ecuador. In addition to the cladistic analysis we present the taxonomic revisions of the genera Anuvinda. nov. median lobe of the tibial apophysis with distinct base and apices. santosi sp. and Goeldia. emphasizing the Neotropical genus Goeldia. + G. camachoi sp. and Titanoecinae Lehtinen including Nurscia + Titanoeca. is transferred to Goeldia: Goeldia guayaquilensis (Schmidt) comb. and presence of a rim at the copulatory openings of the female epigynum. one Tengellidae Dahl. nov. RI=82). linamas@gmail.

. guayaquilensis are described for the first time. nov. Siedlce. Goeldia santosi sp.. 63 . camachoi sp.Book of Abstracts. G. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Poland Anuvinda remains monotypic. is described from Minas Gerais.. nov. both in Colombia. nov. nov. The female of Anuvinda escheri Reimoser is redescribed based on specimens recently collected from Laos and Thailand and the male is newly described. nigra (Mello-Leitão) and the female of G. nov. diva sp. G. Peru. from Bahia and G.. and G. yamamotoi sp. all in Brazil. Six new species belonging to the genus Goeldia are described. Also. the male of G.. from Piauí and Mato Grosso.. mirim sp. from Utcuyacu. increasing the species composition from nine to fifteen species. from Huila. nov. from San Sebastian de Rabago. G. utcuyacu sp.

unam.org Cybertaxonomy has made possible simultaneous collaboration among researchers in species description and construction of phylogenetic data sets.mx 2 Arachnology Lab. Lab.Book of Abstracts. CA. USA. The character scoring for this data set represents a collaborative effort of the Oonopid PBI (Planetary Biodiversity Inventory) team of researchers. Dept. These taxonomic descriptive data bases. based on morphological data (Araneae: Oonopidae) Fernando Álvarez-Padilla1. 430 species of oonopids. Darrell Ubick2 & Charles Griswold3 1 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Finally. Poland Interfamilial phylogenetic relationships of goblin spiders. Our analyses recovered as monophyletic and well supported some new and old genera that have been recently revised or described. 450 morphological characters. Siedlce. dubick@calacademy. California Academy of Sciences. other sections of the cladogram rendered several genera polyphyletic. USA. can provide data matrices that are phylogenetically informative. California Academy of Sciences. Acarología. coded for ca. we will be discussing whether or not these polyphyletic genera. 64 . San Francisco. Biología Comparada. San Francisco. plus two species of orsolobids as outgroups. fap@ciencias. A phylogenetic analysis using equal weights parsimony was performed and Jackknife character support measures evaluated with these data. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. including postdoctoral fellows and graduate students. We present the first phylogenetic analysis of goblin spiders with a matrix of ca. Department of Entomology. Department of Entomology. in addition to producing species and generic descriptions. CA.org 3 Arachnology Lab. are indeed real or just artifacts of a taxonomic descriptive data base that is analyzed with phylogenetic algorithms. cgriswold@calacademy. Facultad de Ciencias. Mexico. however.

CA. Darrell Ubick2 & Charles Griswold3 1 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Facultad de Ciencias. Siedlce. San Francisco. we used a novel feature of this taxonomic descriptive data base to export a phylogenetic data matrix of ca.mx 2 Arachnology Lab. cgriswold@calacademy. Department of Entomology. 65 . We have focused on the oonopid fauna of Madagascar. dubick@calacademy. California Academy of Sciences. coded for ca. Mexico. postdoctoral fellows and graduate students. plus orsolobids as outgroups. 534 compound digital images and 970 scanning electron microscope pictures. The work presented here contributes to this effort to document and describe oonopid diversity world wide.org Currently goblin spiders. Lab. USA. fap@ciencias. were done automatically by coding character observations to the PBI website using only a regular Internet browser and based mainly the images mentioned before. These species are organized in three new genera. All species are new except Silhouettella assumptia.unam. In this presentation a total of 12 species from Madagascar and the Seychelles are described and documented with ca. are subject to considerable taxonomic research by a large group of colleagues in many countries as part of the Planetary Biodiversity Inventory (PBI). which was previously known from the Seychelles. probably totaling 100 species. the geographic distribution for all specimens (2158) will be added to the PBI Database for Entering Collection Data (DEC) and the respective species web pages created. the spider family Oonopidae. A phylogenetic analysis recovered the twelve Malagasy species mentioned above as three different clades. 450 morphological characters. California Academy of Sciences. but their interrelationships remain unstable. Dept. from which no species have previously been described.Book of Abstracts. We emphasize that the character scoring for this 400+species data set represents a collaborative effort of the PBI team of researchers. corresponding to our new genera and corroborating their diagnostic characters as synapomorphies. All this information will be available online for all people and free of charge. The core of the taxonomic descriptions for these twelve species and three genera. San Francisco. 430 species of oonopids. Department of Entomology.org 3 Arachnology Lab. Acarología. Finally. Biología Comparada. Poland Three new genera of goblin spiders from Madagascar (Araneae: Oonopidae) Fernando Álvarez-Padilla1. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. CA. USA. the largest with eight species and the other two with a pair species each. In addition.

Some salticid species (Portia labiata. with wavelengths reflected at low intensities and less pure colours (a low chromaticity is achieved). Heliophanus sp. black and grey. making them attractive to their mates or difficult to detect by their predators. Pancorius sp. structural colours have been documented in a wide range of animals. Although chemical colours are by far the most common. Poland Shooting stars in an Asian tropical forest: structural colours of jumping spiders Diego P.Book of Abstracts.) have pigment colours that are usually dull dark browns. violet.sg Animal colours are achieved by two processes: chemical (in case of pigments) and physical or structural (the structure by itself affects the properties of the light). Hasarius adansoni. National University of Singapore. We also examined the cuticular scales that produce structural colours in these species by using Scanning Electron microscopy. However. However. many of which are different from the previous described scales for jumping spiders.edu. Menemerus bivittatus. Araujo1..edu. dbspdad@nus.. three species of Phintella and Thiania bahomensis have structural colours including ultra-violet. In this study. blue or green result from the interaction of light with the nanostructure in the cuticular scales. Siedlce. including ultraviolet.. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. the structural colouration and the mechanisms of structural colouration production are poorly understood in salticids. Thorelliola ensifera and Telamonia sp. The SEM revealed a series of scales for each species.2 & Daiqin Li1. golden and white. Bathippus sp. Their spectral pattern is typical of pigment colours. Singapore. green.sg 3 dbslidq@nus.3 1 2 Department of Biological Sciences. Many jumping spiders (Araneae: Salticidae) have strikingly diverse iridescent and metallic colours. with some yellow and red markings. Ptocasius sp. 66 . Structural colouration and scales morphology are discussed in the context of salticidae evolution. blue. Iridescent and structural colour. we characterized and compared the structural colours of several species of jumping spiders from Southeast Asia using spectrophotometry.

In addition. Czech Republic.cz 2 Crop Research Institute. Phylogenetic analyses conducted on Canarian Dysdera endemics have demonstrated that coexisting species with divergent cheliceral morphology are frequently closest relatives. Milan Řezáč2 & Jiří Král3 1 Biodiversity Research Institute and Department of Animal Biology. Distinct chromosome numbers characterize some of the genetic lineages.cuni. Several factors may account for such a high level of species diversity. The Dysdera erythrina species complex provides an ideal model to investigate the role of different biological and environmental factors in the unusual diversification of the genus. prey segregation might have promoted diversification by preventing competition among sympatric species. circumscribed to well-known Mediterranean areas of endemism.cz With more than 250 described species. phenotypic differentiation and geological factors by inferring a thoroughly sampled phylogeny and conducting a multilocus phylogeographic analysis of the species complex. Prague. unparalleled among spiders. which opens the door to the involvement of geological and climatic factors in Dysdera diversification. Vera. The large variation observed in chelicerae size and shape of Dysdera species.Opatova@seznam. Arnedo1. which ranges from 9 to 40. Dysdera also exhibits an unusual interspecific diversity in diploid chromosome number. and hence chromosome rearrangements may have driven speciation in Dysdera. Dysdera species are specialised predators of terrestrial isopods.edu. This complex includes closely related species that differ not only in genitalia but also in cheliceral morphology. Siedlce. Dysdera erythrina has a large distribution range that spans from NE Iberian peninsula to central Europe. Faculty of Science. while 67 . with overlapping distribution. there is evidence that at least some of the species included in the complex have different chromosome numbers. Czech Republic. the woodlouse-hunter spider genus Dysdera is one of the most species-rich genus in the western Paleartic. We investigate the evolution and historical association between chromosome numbers. spider@natur. Finally. Věra Opatová1. reflects unique predatory tactics. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Prague. Some of the species in the complex. Our results reveal an unexpected diversity of distinct genetic lineages. Universitat de Barcelona.Book of Abstracts. Department of Genetics and Microbiology. Poland Does karyotype change drive speciation in the woodlouse hunter spider Dysdera? Multilocus phylogeographic analyses of the Dysdera erythrina species complex Miquel A. Therefore. the restricted distributions of most Dysdera species suggest low dispersal capabilities. rezac@vurv. marnedo@ub. however.cz 3 Laboratory of Arachnid Cytogenetics. have much narrower distributions. Charles University in Prague.

while differentiation in size evolved subsequently. Poland cheliceral differentiation evolved mostly at the base of the tree. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. All together. Siedlce. our data suggest that both climatic and chromosome changes may have contributed to the establishment of reproductive barriers between previously interbreeding populations. Relaxed clock dating reveals that genetic lineages originated mostly during the onset of the glacial cycles. 68 .Book of Abstracts. probably driven by interspecific competition.

which we show increase with proximity to the rainforest. University of British Columbia. and social evolution itself. We postulate that this pattern results from an interaction between the dense three-dimensional webs characteristic of social spiders with two separate environmental gradients. Poland Intrinsic and extrinsic factors in social evolution and the geographical distribution of spider sociality Leticia Avilés Department of Zoology. this latitudinal pattern is replicated altitudinally: social species are restricted to wet low to mid-elevation tropical areas. Absence of subsocial species in the lowland rainforest. That social species are restricted to the lower elevation wet tropics may reflect a gradient in insect size. Where large insects are abundant the spiders make up for this decline by cooperatively capturing larger insects in larger colonies. while subsocial species predominate at higher elevations and latitudes. In the genus Anelosimus. Large insects compensate for a decline with increasing colony size in the number of prey caught per capita that results from a declining surface area to volume ratio of the prey capture snares. may reflect gradients on the intensity of precipitation and abundance of potential ant predators. which contains the largest number of social species of any spider genera. 69 . Siedlce. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. The result is a biomass per capita that is maximal at intermediate colony sizes. Dense 3D webs may also provide better protection against predators. Through transplant and rain exclusion experiments we show that dense 3D webs may be unsustainable for solitary living spiders in environments where intense rains cause their frequent destruction. on the other hand. which we show decreases with elevation and latitude. these findings illustrate how broad scale patterns of sociality.Book of Abstracts. Social spiders are notable for having a distinctly tropical distribution. Overall. Canada. Vancouver. especially when large. laviles.com The geographical distribution of species with different social systems should provide clues as to the factors responsible for social evolution. are the result of an interaction between intrinsic features of organisms and the environments in which they live.ubczool@gmail.

V. 1999. 2002 to this subfamily. version 10.htm. Numerous new species. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Langona Simon. 1890). http://salticidae. Poland Aelurillinae (Araneae: Salticidae) of the world Galina Azarkina Siberian Zoological Museum. 26: 103-117. Langona. 1885 (Prószyński 2007). Study of the numerous material of Salticidae from Africa and Central Asia reveals at least five more new genera of Aelurillinae. Phlegra Simon. Entomologica Scandinavica. Salticidae (Araneae) of the world. 1994. A new genus. Beside these diagnostic characters I found two new synapomorphies: a socket on outer side on endite and presence of joint (common) teeth base on the promarginal side of cheliceral furrow. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society. The subfamily is known exclusively from the Old World. Taxonomically Aelurillinae is one of the most difficult subfamily of Salticidae in respect of species recognition because of very uniform shape of palp. 10: 171-177. Well known genera such as Aelurillus.org/salticid/main. Langelurillus Próchniewicz. Novosibirsk. 3. 1996. On the basis of abovementioned affinities I include the tenth’s genus Mashonarus Wesołowska et Cumming. 1901. 1996. Eurasia and Africa. urmakuz@gmail. in the subfamily Aelurillinae (Araneae.Book of Abstracts.com Aelurillinae is one of 20 subfamilies of Salticidae with ca 5000 described species (Platnick 2010) belonging to eight genera: Aelurillus Simon. except one species. References Logunov D. Microheros Wesołowska et Cumming. the characters unknown among members of other subfamilies (Logunov 1996). Phlegra and Stenaelurillus require revisions.. http://research. Salticidae of Middle Asia. 1999 and Stenaelurillus Simon. Proszynskiana gen.amnh. at www: history. 2007. 1876. Proszynskiana Logunov. 1996. Russia. Asianellus. a new genus of the subfamily Aelurillinae (Araneae: Salticidae).org/entomology/ spiders/catalog. Siedlce.V. AMNH. Logunov D. 2010. Platnick N. 1884. especially from Africa are awaiting descriptions.5. & Hęciak S. 1996. 70 . Prószyński J. n. embolus hidden by tegulum and cymbium. The world spider catalog. Salticidae). Phlegra hentzi (Marx. Asianellus Logunov et Hęciak. Rafalus Prószyński. The subfamily can be recognized by presence of cymbial pocket and epigynal wings. variability of epigyne.

tmiya@es. Poland Host-associated differentiation in the relative leg length of the kleptoparasitic spider Argyrodes kumadai (Araneae: Theridiidae) Yuki Baba1 & Tadashi Miyashita2 1 National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences. Because Agelena constructs more complex web with a higher thread density than Cyrtophora. To test this possibility. we compared relative leg-length of A. kumadai that mainly distributes in Japan utilizes phylogenetically unrelated host spiders that predominates in their respective regions. Siedlce. we compared the leg-length among 13 populations (3 Cyrtophora and 10 Agelena populations) with ANCOVA using body size as a covariate. This may impose strong natural selection on walking performance of A. A.ac. host web traits seem to play important roles for trait diversification of Argyrodes. this possibility has never been explored. Due to the differences in web structure and foraging behaviour of host spiders. kumadai to access prey quickly before host notice it. kumadai to acquire prey is significantly limited in Agelena web (Baba et al. kumadai could not steal prey once captured by host spiders on Agelena web. School of Agriculture and Life Sciences. i. Because Argyrodes exclusively depends on host webs in its food acquisition and physical habitat.jp 2 Laboratory of Biodiversity Science. 2007). the relatively short leg-length seems to have an advantage in walking in narrow space on Agelena web.e.Book of Abstracts.. we focused on the relative leg-length (corrected for the effects of body size) as a target of natural selection that seems to be associated with foraging including movement across the web. we conducted web transplant experiment to compare 71 . Cyrtophora moluccensis (Araneidae) is restricted to the South-west Islands of Japan and Agelena silvatica (Agelenidae) is found on Japanese mainland (Baba & Miyashita 2005).go. Firstly. Japan. Japan. kumadai.u-tokyo. To confirm the genetic background of the population difference. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. kumadai reared in the constant room condition between two populations where the host use differed (common garden experiment). University of Tokyo. Tsukuba. opportunities for A.jp Introduction The kleptoparasitic spiders Argyrodes exhibit remarkable inter-specific variations in foraging behaviour and morphology. However. ybaba@affrc.a. A species of the kleptoparasitic spider A. Material and methods We conducted inter-population comparisons to test whether host trait differences promoted differentiation in the relative leg-length of A. Finally.

. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. & Miyashita T. The web transplant experiment showed that walking speed did not differ between populations on the simple web. 2007.. Siedlce. 2005. 72 . References Baba Y. suggesting that different host use promoted genetic differentiation of relative leg-length. & Miyashita T.G. reflecting weak natural selection on walking speed in Cyrtophora web. Common garden experiment supported the genetic background of above pattern. longer leg-length of the population using Cyrtophora seemed to have no advantage in walking performance on Cyrtophora web.Book of Abstracts. Poland the walking speed of A. Ecological Entomology. but individuals with relatively shorter leg-length walked significantly faster than those with relatively longer leg-length on the complex web. kumadai between the population on experimental webs with different thread densities representing the webs of the two host spiders (simple and complex web). By contrast. Acta Arachnologica. These results supported the hypothesis that shorter leg-length was favoured in walking performance on the complex web of Agelena. 32: 38-44. Baba Y. Geographical host change in the kleptoparasitic spider Argyrodes kumadai associated with distribution of two host species.J.G. Results and discussion Relative leg-length was shorter in the population using Agelena than that using Cyrtophora. Host-dependent differences in prey acquisition between populations of a kleptoparasitic spider Argyrodes kumadai (Araneae: Theridiidae). 54: 75-76. Walters R.

and the subbasal connection with the femur.au. fosuma (Burger et al. fulva Caporiacco. as well as Malaysia.wa.gov. Western Australian Museum. India. Qld. It shares the swollen pedipalpal patella with Opopaea but the bulb and the cymbium are clearly separated whereas in the genus Opopaea cymbium and bulb are completely fused. and 26 new species from the Himalayan Mountains in Nepal. fosuma lack the paddle-like sclerite (PSc) and have no nail-like process (Na) fitting into posterior situated globular appendix (GAp) which are present in all Opopaea females. Australia. infernalis is only about twice as long. 1934 from Pakistan the separated cymbium and bulb and the swollen palpal patella. fosuma is connected to the femur subbasally but the connection in all other Opopaea species is more medially.au In 2002 Burger. infernalis. fulva have pairs of long spines on the first two pairs of legs which are lacking in C. BarbaraB@qm. Most species are recorded from single locations and only two species are more widely distributed. Poland Who are these Goblin Spiders? A new Australasian genus? (Araneae: Oonopidae) Barbara C.gov.Book of Abstracts.harvey@museum. South Brisbane. 73 . As both species did not fit well in their original genera but share the main characters we decided to establish a new Australasian genus for O. fosuma resemble Camptoscaphiella infernalis. mark. but both sexes of C. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. a blind species described by Harvey & Edward in 2007 from Western Australia. The swollen pedipalpal patella of O. Indonesia. Nentwig and Kropf described a quite unusual Opopaea species from Sumatra as O. The female genitalia of O. Siedlce. On the other hand males of O. Opopaea fosuma. has a straight copulatory duct.qld. C. Camptoscaphiella infernalis shares with the type species C. Welshpool DC. instead. in most pedipalpal features such as a swollen pedipalpal patella and a well separated cymbium and bulb. Australia. Papua New Guinea and Australia. infernalis. Camptoscaphiella fulva has a huge patella in males which is at least 7 times longer than the femur whereas the patella of C. Baehr1 & Mark Harvey2 1 2 Queensland Museum. 2002). WA. fosuma.

Department of Neurobiology. The examples chosen to demonstrate this are vibration detection in the context of courtship behaviour on the one hand and air flow sensing in the context of prey capture on the other. and (iii) behaviour under natural conditions. Siedlce. Austria. However.Book of Abstracts. Poland Spider senses: how it all fits together Friedrich G. (2) the detailed physics of stimulus uptake and transformation. University of Vienna.g. Some of these senses show outstanding performance when studied from an engineering point of view. Barth Life Sciences. 74 .ac. friedrich. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.at Spiders have magnificent sensory systems for the guidance of their complex behaviour. The application of computational mechanics and advanced technologies like atomic force microscopy and particle image velocimetry provide ample evidence of a perfect match between the biologically relevant stimulus patterns and the prominent selectivity and the structural and functional details of the sense organs responsible for it. a full appreciation of their perfection and adaptedness is only made possible by a multifaceted approach which brings together knowledge about (i) the ecologically relevant stimulus patterns.barth@univie.

size and hunting experience allows studying how such high spider densities can be maintained in a highly food-limited habitat.lodz.pl The previously carried out life history research of Yllenus arenarius suggested that in inland dunes in Poland there are two sympatric populations isolated by the year of maturation. non-web-building spiders. Siedlce. Łódź. there are three populations coexisting simultaneously in the same area. Current study presents data collected over the last thirteen years. in June. One of the populations produces young in odd years. High concentration of conspecifics in different age. For a short period of time.pl Intraspecific competition is a phenomenon thoroughly studied in animals. Little information is available. Limited food-niche overlapping among jumping spiders from three coexisting age groups Maciej Bartos University of Łódź. This stenotopic species dwells in dunes of Central and Eastern Europe.uni. three age groups cohabit (each group older by one year from the other).Book of Abstracts. Poland The phenology of sympatric populations of Yllenus arenarius (Araneae: Salticidae) isolated by the year of maturation Maciej Bartos University of Łódź. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. while the other population produces young in even years. bartos@biol.lodz. Research on spider communities is also well documented. Such an interest is a result of spider influence on prey populations and a potential application of spiders as agents of pest control. especially those studied in natural conditions.uni. Poland. on such competition among cursorial. bartos@biol. The results show that spiders from three age groups select different insects as prey. The spider’s phenology was analyzed to check to which extent such isolation is possible. The time gap separating sexually mature individuals from both groups makes gene flow between them highly limited. Department of Teacher Training and Biodiversity Studies. The spiders in the first month of 75 . however. The spider’s populations reach relatively high densities due to cohabitation of two spider populations hatched in successive years. A suitable model provides Yllenus arenarius – a dominant day-active spider predator in sandy habitats. Łódź. Poland. In June. The research also aimed at determining key periods in the life cycle of the spider and possible deviations from the cycle pattern. Department of Teacher Training and Biodiversity Studies.

however. Numerous predators (including jumping spiders) possess hunting tactics that are tailored to a prey. The predator also has to choose the area on its prey’s body which it will strike. Their tactics are characterized by e.pl For a cursorial predator.: prey-specific direction and speed of approach. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. If the object is identified as a prey. which allows immobilizing the prey relatively quickly. Poland.g. 76 . actively hunting its prey. Individuals from all age groups maintain a fairly constant prey size to predator size ratio.uni. The choice of suitable point of strike allows firm prey grasping and precise venom injection. It has to be decided whether the observed object is a potential prey. bartos@biol. where ganglia responsible for movement coordination are present. It may also decrease the risk of injury caused by the prey and considerably shorten the time. Łódź. Siedlce. Spiders older by one and two years have much more diverse diet. when the prey struggles to release. Therefore precise prey identification is crucial for the hunting success. Department of Teacher Training and Biodiversity Studies. large or motile prey. which may considerably increase chances of subduing dangerous. there are several questions it has to answer when it perceives any new object. In current research I analyze the characteristics used by jumping spiders in identification of their prey’s head. Some hunting patterns are inadequate for certain prey and may significantly decrease the chances of success.lodz. but in the oldest specimens the index of prey diversity is the highest.Book of Abstracts. Experiments with natural and computer-generated models are compared. an enemy or neither of those. a sexual partner. the question of “how it should be approached?” arises. The role of head identification in prey capture by jumping spiders (Salticidae) Maciej Bartos University of Łódź. For these and other reasons most animal predators (not only spiders) overpowering their prey try to grasp their victims by the head or thorax. distance of attack and other prey-specific behaviours. Predators possessing venom typically inject it in this area. Poland life have relatively narrow food niche and prey mainly upon insects rarely found in the diet of older individuals.

somewhat dome-shaped sheet web and hang upside down underneath. Since 2009 the author has focused on the Psechridae with their fascinating and highly interesting webs and prey capturing behaviour. Psechrus species build a horizontal. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. which is actually a synonym of P. They differ in the arrangement of the eyes. it is supposed that the real diversity of that group is much higher than known so far (Platnick 2010). Siedlce. 25 of which are belonging to the genus Psechrus. On the other hand juvenile Fecenia create a 3-dimensional cone-shaped web without an enrolled leave. whereas adult Fecenia produce vertical pseudo orb web with an enrolled leaf as retreat in the hub. and furthermore the relationship of the Psechridae and other members of the Lycosoidea are aim of the investigations. trees. It is striking that a lot of misunderstandings and misidentifications in 77 . By now. The explanation for such a distinct difference in species richness of these two genera can not be explained sufficiently at the moment. the colouration of the ventral opisthosoma and the clypeus height. Indonesia [Kalimantan] and the Philippines) are in progress. Also a lot of additional material from all SE Asian countries has been checked. In contrast.Book of Abstracts. singaporensis Thorell). almost all type material of Psechrus and Fecenia species has been examined. and each one from Malaysia. one was synonymised with the wrong species (Psechrus libeltii Kulczyński. dead wood etc. Germany. especially within Psechrus. Poland Different levels of diversity within the spider family Psechridae (Araneae) Steffen Bayer Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum. 1878 and Fecenia Simon.Bayer@senckenberg. But even more remarkable are the differences in the shapes of webs used for prey capture.de The cribellate spider family Psechridae comprises two genera: Psechrus Thorell. comprises only five species. whereas Psechrus specimens build their retreats in crevices in soil. Steffen. Fecenia webs can be found in vegetation. In this context some interesting findings could be made: First descriptions of three new species from Laos were provided (Bayer & Jäger 2010) and the ones of seven further species (two from Laos. the genus Fecenia. Considering the amount of new descriptions of Psechrus species in the last 10 years. 1887 distributed in Southeast Asia. two from Thailand. argentatus Doleschall and not of P.. the male of Fecenia travancoria Pocock could be discovered and will be described for the first time. rocks. The relationships of species within the genera. mostly shrubs. but with a narrow cone-shaped retreat consisting of prey remains and particles. similarly widespread as Psechrus. Up to now there are 30 valid species described. Frankfurt am Main. He started a detailed revision of this family which includes not only morphological taxonomy but also molecular aspects. the relative length of legs IV. one species was synonymised erroneously (Psechrus annulatus Kulczyński). mostly near the ground.

AMNH. 78 . This finding led to a new taxonomical evaluation of the female vulva in Psechrus.I. in Fecenia the shape of the vulvae rather varies. However. Platnick N. Revue suisse de Zoologie. In contrast. & Jäger P. accepted.Book of Abstracts. which constitutes the morphological species discrimination character with the highest priority. within all known species the vulvae look rather uniform. whereas the epigynes mostly are specific and well assignable to each species. The world spider catalog. since in Psechrus their shape often varies strongly within one species. at www: http://research.0.org/entomology/spiders/catalog/. 2010. Poland female Psechrus specimens were caused by the misinterpretation of the epigynes. Siedlce. 16 pp. In the future it is intended to focus on the molecular work to reconstruct phylogeny within the family Psechridae and within the Lycosoidea. version 11.amnh. References Bayer S. 2010. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Expected species richness in the genus Psechrus in Laos (Araneae: Psechridae).

edu. hormiga@gwu.gwu. 28S. a molecular approach Ligia Rosario Benavides & Gustavo Hormiga Department of Biological Sciences. Poland Advances on the phylogeny of pirate spiders (Araneae: Mimetidae). Our analyses include sequence data from five loci (18S. COI and H3). The family has a worldwide distribution and currently contains 156 species grouped in 13 genera. ligia@gwmail.Book of Abstracts. In this talk we present the first molecular phylogeny of Mimetidae. One of the fundamental problems concerning the higher level systematics of mimetid spiders is the placement of the family within Araneae. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.edu Pirate spiders of the family Mimetidae are well known for their araneophagic behaviour. We also address some of the intrafamiliar phylogenetic relationships at the genus level. USA. Washington DC. Siedlce. The George Washington University. We analyzed the data under direct optimization and investigated clade sensitivity to different combinations of analytical parameters (indel-to-change cost and the transversion-to-transition ratio). The placement of the family within the order has been studied previously using morphological data. 79 . 16S.

CA. Diagonal 645. However. Siedlce. Berkeley. The mitochondrial markers alone reveal deep population structure in the western species H. which indicates a preference for cool and humid environments. University of California. The genus includes thirteen species distributed throughout the mountain ranges of the Iberian Peninsula (10 species). USA The role of Pleistocene climatic oscillations in driving species diversification is a matter of debate. gredensis. globifer and H. The present study focuses on 3 closely related Harpactocrates species with non-overlapping distributions restricted mostly to the Sistema Central mountain range: H. Av.com 2 Department of Environmental Science Policy and Management. 08028 Barcelona. gurdus. Population and phylogeographic analyses were conducted on DNA sequences from 3 mitochondrial markers (16S. Arnedo1 1 Biodiversity Research Institute & Department of Animal Biology. They are most often found at high elevation (above 1000 m). The preliminary inference based on the mitochondrial phylogeography is in agreement with patterns found in other organisms with similar distributions and ecological requirements. which suggests that the existence of multiple skyislands in the Iberian Sistema Central that acted as refugia during interglacial periods. the Alps and the northernmost Apennines (3 species). historical inferences based on single or linked markers are hampered by natural selection. H.Book of Abstracts. The eastern species H. 80 . letigaray@yahoo. Spain. The spider genus Harpactocrates (Dysderidae) provides an excellent model to investigate the influence of climatic change on the diversification and distribution of montane species in the southern European refugia. insights from mitochondrial and nuclear markers Leticia Bidegaray-Batista1. dating to around the Plio-Pleistocene epoch. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 126 individuals from the three species were sampled from 28 localities distributed throughout their range. Poland Phylogeography of a montane spider genus in the Iberian Sistema Central mountain range. and shallower population divergence times than its two relatives. Previous phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies have shown that most speciation events in the genus trace back to the Tertiary period. and that Plio-Pleistocene climatic oscillations served to shape intraspecific variation. the effect of climatic shifts on the biodiversity of European mountain ranges has been studied mostly on species with alpine and arctic-alpine distributions. whereas at interglacial periods species retreated to high elevation refuges. in temperate and moist forests. gredensis and the central species H. migration and stochastic coalescent processes. To date. Rosemary G. L1 and nad1) and 1 nuclear intron (srp54). globifer. We hypothesize that these species have undergone population range expansion during cooler periods. Gillespie2 & Miquel A. To test this hypothesis. gurdus shows low levels of genetic diversity and population structure. which then led to population fragmentation.

Book of Abstracts. In particular. to recover a more accurate view of the evolutionary process underlying population history. Unfortunately. phylogeographic patterns based on mitochondrial data alone are notoriously biased in their ability to reflect the entire history of populations. spider phylogeography has been seriously limited by the shortage of nuclear markers available for population level analyses. Poland which may results in large difference between the gene tree and the population tree. globifer. We will present and discuss preliminary results of the insights gained on the phylogeographic patterns of the Iberian Sistema Central species by the analysis of these anonymous nuclear markers. Therefore it is desirable to use multilocus approaches based on unlinked nuclear markers. The isolation and design of new nuclear markers in non-model organism with limited genomic information is a not a trivial task. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Siedlce. We have circumvented this problem by isolation new anonymous markers from a genomic library of H. 81 .

Binford. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.Book of Abstracts. From L. This toxin is a member of a gene family (SicTox) and multiple different SicTox genes are expressed in venoms of a single species. Siedlce. The most recent common ancestor of these two species groups was likely in NW South America and diversification of the laeta group was southward into the region of the modern Andes and beyond. USA The complexity of venom chemistry within individual spiders makes understanding patterns of variation in venoms among species a challenge. The laeta species group is more closely related to the reclusa group than it is to the four other species groups in South America. The South American laeta species group is interesting in that their SMase D genes are more different from those of other New World species than would be expected based on species relationships. Poland The geography of venom diversity: biogeography and venom diversity in New World Loxosceles (Araneae: Sicariidae) Greta J. frequent duplications add complexity to patterns of similarity of expressed SicTox genes in venoms of close relatives. Zobel-Thropp Lewis & Clark College. Portland. OR. Merrell & Pamela A. 82 . we have found that the divergent laeta genes are present in a broad range of species in the laeta species group. While our sampling is not yet thorough enough to infer the timing of the evolutionary change that led to divergence of key proteins in these venoms. This is especially complicated by groups of gene families that have multiple members expressed in a single venom. are famous for bites that cause dermonecrotic lesions in mammals. We have used molecular evolution and molecular systematics techniques to present combined biogeographic and venom diversity patterns in North American Loxosceles and South American members of the laeta species group. While some SMase D genes of closely related species are more similar to one another than they are to distantly related species. The toxin sphingomyelinase D (SMase D) in venoms is a sufficient causative agent for lesion formation in animal models and is also highly toxic to insects. Two lineages (Eastern and Western) migrated northward leading to at least two lineages in the United States that are more closely related to species in Mexico than they are to other US species. Species relationships of Loxosceles indicate that this genus colonized southern North America from South America via the proto-Caribbean and has likely been present on North America for at least 33 million years. Sicariid spiders. Andrew V. The puzzle of venom diversity is particularly interesting in parallel with the puzzle of species-level biogeography. arizonica alone we have isolated genes that are from 5 independent SicTox lineages. including brown spiders (Loxosceles) and 6-eyed sand spiders (Sicarius).

Denmark 4 National Museum of Natural History. Blackledge1. USA 3 Zoological Museum. which in turn demands extremely high prey capture. USA Body size evolution is fundamental to the diversification of life. Copenhagen. Both mechanisms imply strong directional selection driving the evolution of body size. we demonstrate that the evolution of giant female body size decreases orb web function. Nikolaj Scharff3. and are well-supported. Thus. Female-biased SSD commonly involves fecundity selection while male-biased SSD is driven in large part by competition for mates. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. the mechanisms opposing continued change in body size are largely unknown. In some species. female spiders are up to nine times longer than males. Poland Darwin’s dilemma: natural selection on orb web performance opposes fecundity selection for extreme female gigantism in spiders Todd A. such that the increased need for food by these giant spiders is accompanied by decreased ability to gain that food. PR.edu University of Akron. USA. Siedlce.Book of Abstracts. Orb spiders present some of the most extreme examples of female-biased SSD in the animal kingdom. San Juan. This decline in web performance occurs despite overall improvements in silk performance and total investment of silk by spiders. University of Copenhagen. Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is pervasive throughout the animal kingdom and results from differences in how sexual and fecundity selection operate on males versus females. natural selection ultimately places an upper limit on female gigantism and the evolution of SSD in spiders. We use both empirical data and a model to show an allometric relationship in how spider body size scales with the stopping power of orb webs and the kinetic energy of preferred prey such that relative web performance declines as female size increases. even though they play an essential role in shaping SSD. OH. USA 5 Department of Biology. 83 . blackledge@uakron. Jonathan Coddington4 & Ingi Agnarsson5 1 2 University of Akron. OH. However. Akron. Akron. Washington DC. Female gigantism results largely from increases in fecundity. Here. Andrew Sensenig2. University of Puerto Rico.

and grass meadows near Churchill. Arctic ecosystems and especially transitional zones are sensitive areas where the impacts of climate change are expected to be manifested first.and interspecific genetic divergences of all described species as well as a potential new species in the spider genus Alopecosa (Araneae. Canada. In general. Adamowicz Biodiversity Institute of Ontario. tundra. based on morphological characters and DNA barcoding employing the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Manitoba were studied.ca. spiders from different habitats located within “islands” of the forest. University of Guelph. Canada Gergin A. Intra. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. sadamowi@uoguelph. Manitoba. but some of them show considerable variation. Guelph. with most species displaying negligible intraspecific morphological variation. Blagoev & Sarah J. gblagoev@uoguelph. A total of 160 species from 14 families was established and identified.Book of Abstracts. lying at the transitional zone between the northern boreal forest and arctic tundra. Siedlce. close correspondence was detected between species and genetic clusters. 84 . During 2006 and 2009. We also discuss species composition and overlap among the different biomes present in the Churchill region. Poland Structure and spider diversity in the Churchill Area.ca The Churchill area. represents an interesting model for studying the patterns of faunal transition between adjacent ecoregions. Lycosidae) are presented and related to the species designations. Ontario.

Phenotypic plasticity has been identified as a driver of evolution. spider@thu. impacting back on web plasticity. feeding frequency and vibratory stimuli. driver of predator-prey evolution. hence are highly plastic. Center for Tropical Ecology and Biodiversity. The ability for traits to be plastic is itself subject to selection. identifying the proximal cues used to respond to prey variations is complex because prey traits are auto-correlated. as well as prey size. sblamires@thu. alters web geometry in response to a combined influence of prey nutrients and web vibratory stimuli. Prey-induced phenotypic plasticity is an important.edu. food to determine the role of nutrient availability in prey on web design evolution. We propose using path models to statistically uncouple the multiply acting mechanisms and identify the prey-mediated causal factors over orb web plasticity and describe phenotype-environment feedback mechanisms. Tunghai University. the traits of long-lived organisms tend to be more canalized. Argiope spp.g.Book of Abstracts. We manipulated the nutrients in Nephila spp. As orb web spiders tend to be short-lived there is selection pressure toward plasticity of this phenotype with many studies suggesting web geometry. Taichung 407. thereby impacting spider physiology. We studied the plasticity responses of orb web spiders by constructing reaction norms for web geometry and silk mechanics in a range of Orbicularidae spiders exposed to multiple prey-induced parameters.tw. The spider orb web is an extended phenotype. Poland Orb spider webs as models of prey-induced phenotypic plasticity Sean J. Siedlce. While all orb web spiders have steep reaction norms. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Nephila pilipes. whereby web plasticity alters spider niches. yet poorly understood. and Cyrtophora spp. energy. The organism’s lifestyle influences its tendency for plasticity responses. Taiwan. for example. silk biochemistry and silk mechanics are plastic in response to prey variations.edu. protein). likewise responds to both specific nutrients (e. Nutrients only partially explain plasticity patterns in individual species. Blamires & I-Min Tso Department of Life Science. whereas those of short-lived organisms more plastic. Argiope keyserlingi..tw Phenotypic plasticity is the ability for phenotypic change by a given genotype. We also performed experiments to uncouple the relative influences of nutrients and vibratory stimuli in web and silk plasticity in Nephila pilipes and Argiope keyserlingi. 85 .

Here. a slightly smaller number than with trunk eclectors (in total > 300 species). About 2/3 of the spider species (>200) were trapped with the pitfalls. Araneae. Seven groups of animals (Lumbricidae. Macrolepidoptera. Germany Theo Blick Projekt Hessische Naturwaldreservate. Coleoptera. In Hesse (Germany) 31 such reserves have been established. 76% of the species and 94% of the individuals belong to the first two groups.e. the spiders show a high affiliation to forest habitats. representing 25% of all animal species which occur. The spider species are categorised according to their degree of affiliation to forests: strictly in forests.de Strict Forest Reserves are forests where no forest operations are carried out. Siedlce. The seven investigated animal groups comprise 1480±170 species. theo. Extrapolation yields a total of 5800 species for a beech forest with a size of about 70 ha (reserve & reference area). Aves) have so far been investigated in eight reserves using a wide range of methods over two whole years (incl. 22 of them with a reference area where forest management is continued. Frankfurt am Main. This is 3-4 times more than the 15002000 species hitherto assumed to occur in such an area. also in forests but mostly living in special habitats like swamps or warm slopes. winter). Germany. Central European beech forests are inhabited by a much larger number of species than previously estimated. In a single beech forest (4 of the 5 areas are beech forests) 26% of the spider species known from Hesse and 18% of the species known from Germany can be found. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Hymenoptera Aculeata. mainly in forest habitats. the ground-dwelling spiders of five Strict Forest Reserves in Hesse are determined and analysed. i. Heteroptera. 86 . eurytopic in open land habitats. On average 110 spider species were recorded on the ground in every area. Data on spiders from pitfall traps are the topic of this talk. Poland Ground-dwelling spider fauna in Natural Forest Reserves in Hesse.Book of Abstracts. Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum.blick@senckenberg.

Daryapur. Government of India has declared Lonar as Wild life Sanctuary on dt. Amravati. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Area details: total = 383. 2009). 3 crater. Patil Sanludkar Mahavidyalaya.Book of Abstracts.8th June 2000. Siedlce. Family Araneidae Clubionidae Corinnidae Eresidae Gnaphosidae Hersillidae Lycosidae Miturgidae Oonopidae Oxyopidae Philodromidae Pholcidae Pisauridae Salticidae Scytodidae Sparassidae Tetragnathidae Theridiidae Thomisidae Uloboridae Total: 20 families genera 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 5 1 1 1 2 6 1 35 genera species 15 7 1 1 4 5 4 2 3 10 6 2 2 19 1 2 1 3 11 2 100 species 87 . Poland Spider diversity in Lonar crater sanctuary and a new species of Ariamnes (Araneae: Theridiidae) from India Atul Bodkhe J. atulecologia@yahoo. Distt. reserved forest = 266.in Introduction Lonar is World No. India. It is the smallest sanctuary in India but the habitat is very typical and it is very close to human settlement.08 ha.39 ha.co.75 ha. I have reported 100 spider species from Lonar Sanctuary from 20 Families and 36 genera (June 8.22 ha. D. formed 50 million years ago due to meteorite impact. water body = 77. Maharashtra. cultivation = 39.

Nagpur. Abdomen longer than wide.Book of Abstracts. Total length 6. India. nearly hexagonal in shape. 1. Department of Forest. legs light yellow. located at 1/3rd distance from anterior tip of abdomen. In Ariamnes huinakolu and Ariamnes waikula abdomen is not ending in a tip. Siedlce. pearly white. Poland Ariamnes sp. Acknowledgements PCCF.3. Ventral side slightly longer than dorsal. In the present species posterior medians are located quite behind the posterior lateral eyes forming procurved arrangement while in Ariamnes huinakolu and Ariamnes waikula the posterior medians are in straight line with posterior laterals. Carapace 2 mm. Metatarsi and tarsi of all legs provided with small spines. Dist. provided with two longitudinal brownish bands. Legs relatively long and slender provided with hairs and some spine like hairs. Median ocular quad as long as wide. Eyes in two rows. anterior laterals white. wide. Spinnerets. narrowing behind. tapering. 88 .Buldhana. Type locality: Lonar. Cephalothorax narrowing anteriorly and broadest at coxa IV.00 mm. medians closer to laterals than to each other. long. oval or elliptical in shape. No spines nor hairs on the legs. laterally provided with very small blunt spines.4. Cephalothorax and legs light yellowish-brown. abdomen 4 mm. broadest in the middle. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. anterior row of eyes recurved (as seen from in front). first pair of leg is very long. Description. chelicerae longer than wide provided with small spines. posterior end with two triangular black patches. Labium broader than long. Posterior row of eyes procurved. without fovea. nov. In front of anterior median eyes two transverse brown patches up to end of carapace are present. paratype female in spirit. Leg formula is 1. anterior medians black. gave permission to carry out research on spiders from Lonar crater. Legs are too long with length of Femur longest. posteriorly provided with mid-dorsal longitudinal band starting from anterior to posterior end terminating in a pointed tip and mid-dorsally brownish patches.2. Type specimens: holotype female. Sternum elliptical in shape. Mid-ventrally provided with two longitudinal bands starting from spinnerets.5 mm. anterior end is provided with scopulae. Abdomen much bulky and tapers posterior forming a tubular structure ending in to a narrow tip. The species differs from Ariamnes huinakolu and Ariamnes waikula in eye arrangement. Maharashtra. long and 3 mm wide. Diagnosis. conical in shape. medians closer to laterals than to each other. medians larger than laterals.

During the last 5 years much work has been done to improve the knowledge of these taxa in focus. accepted.Book of Abstracts. A further study provides a more detailed definition of the genus Malthonica. Basel. 4) Eratigena n. Gasparo 2007. Deltshev 2008. As a first step. the revision of the involved species resulted in 14 proposed synonyms. Croucher et al. Bolzern & Hervé 2010. and 3) remaining questions and notes on species outside Europe. Seyyar et al. Bolzern et al. 11 new species. a character which is on its own not sufficient for phylogenetic reconstructions. of specimens of many European Malthonica and Tegenaria species showed that numerous taxonomical changes are required in order to obtain monophyletic groups. Switzerland.). including morphological and molecular methods. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 2008) or include descriptions of new species (Bolzern et al. Siedlce. 3) Aterigena n. In Europe. gen.). 2005. respectively. 33 Malthonica species and 55 Tegenaria species and one subspecies are described. (19 spp. (5 spp. the problem to reconstruct monophyletic groups is very demanding. Král 2007. The resulting trees allow to formulate a new hypothesis. Eratigena n. which results in the exclusion of all but 2 species previously affiliated with this genus (Barrientos & Cardoso 2007).). Currently 43 species and one subspecies are described in Malthonica and 101 species in Tegenaria.com Malthonica Simon and Tegenaria Latreille represent two species-rich genera of the family Agelenidae. 89 . Poland Taxonomy and phylogeny of the European Tegenaria/Malthonica-complex Angelo Bolzern Naturhistorisches Museum Basel. They are predominantly Palaearctic in distribution. 1 taxon newly treated as nomen dubium and 4 species which can not be accurately placed.. arbitrary generic assignment of species. Kovblyuk & Ponomarev 2008). On the genus level.bolzern@arachnodet. The relationship between all these species was investigated performing different phylogenetic analyses based on morphological characters or 3 different gene sections. and Aterigena n. The following aspects are presented: 1) results from the morphological and molecular analyses 2) presentation of the three genera Tegenaria. Kovblyuk 2006. 2009. 4 European and 1 east Asiatic species). gen. Guseinov et al. 2007. A first attempt is the rearrangement of the species of both genera based on the embolus length (Guseinov et al. On species level. availability of information for only one sex in many species and unknown internal phylogenetic relationships. The group is notorious for its taxonomic problems: lack of diagnoses of the two genera. The here presented study is a further step toward a solution of these problems. 2005). angelo. gen. 2008. 2) Tegenaria (50 spp. The exhaustive examination. gen. many recent publications provide more information about Malthonica or Tegenaria species (Bolzern et al. regrouping the European species of Malthonica and Tegenaria into 4 genera: 1) Malthonica (2 spp.

Zootaxa. Jones R. 1: 120-127. New and interesting spiders (Aranei: Agelenidae. Caucasian Entomological Bulletin. & Ponomarev A. (accepted) Aterigena. & Cardoso P. Zootaxa. Turkish Journal of Arachnology. Agelenidae).. 2007. Malthonica podoprygorai sp. Thomisidae) from the West Caucasus. Malthonica bozhkovi sp. Spiders (Arachnida: Aranei) of Azerbaijan.M. & Burckhardt D. Revue Suisse de Zoologie. Agelenidae). Chromosome Research. Bolzern A. Tegenaria) from Mercantour National Park.S. A new funnel-web spider species (Araneae: Agelenidae. 15: 863-879.Book of Abstracts. 2007.. (Araneae: Agelenidae). 2005.. Zootaxa. Siedlce. 2006. Poland References Barrientos J. Funnel web spiders from Sardinia: taxonomical notes on some Tegenaria and Malthonica spp. 14: 153177. 2007. 15: 23-37. & Burckhardt D. 1460: 59-68. 2008.C. 61: 1622-1640. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Evolution. The genus Malthonica Simon. Evolution of multiple sex chromosomes in the spider genus Malthonica (Araneae: Agelenidae) indicates unique structure of the spider sex chromosome systems. Kovblyuk M. Marusik Y.V.M. France. Faunistic review of the funnel-web spiders (Agelenidae) with description of new genus and species. 2010. nov.B. Atti e Memorie della Commissione Grotte “E. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society. Bolzern A. A futher faunistic study on two species of the genus Malthonica Simon. Demir H.M.n. Král J. 90 . Nemesiidae. Arthropoda Selecta. 1898 (Araneae: Agelenidae) from Turkey. Hänggi A. 2008. Deltshev C. Bolzern A..A.F. Two new spider species. 2008. Arthropoda Selecta. Crespo L. Corinnidae. Hänggi A.P. 5. and Tegenaria paragamiani sp. shedding some light on the Tegenaria-Malthonica problem (Araneae. & Koponen S. 1872: 37-44. & Cardoso P. 4: 143-154. 41: 95-103. con descrizione del maschio (Araneae.M. Agelenidae).. Kovblyuk M. & Topçu A. Searle J. Journal of Arachnology. 1898 in the Iberian Peninsula (Araneae: Agelenidae). 2007. Croucher P. Guseinov E.J. Note su Tegenaria percuriosa Brignoli. 1972. Two new Tegenaria species (Araneae: Agelenidae) from Portugal. a new genus of funnel-web spider. Bolzern A. & Hervé C. Gasparo F. Contrasting patterns of hybridization in large house spiders (Tegenaria atrica group. nov. from the Crimea (Aranei: Agelenidae). Gnaphosidae. 2009. Seyyar O.. & Oxford G. 2068: 47-58. 115: 759-778. from Rhodopy Mountains (Bulgaria and Greece) (Araneae: Agelenidae). Boegan”. 15: 21-26. 2008.

we wanted to characterize the reproductive relationships of these species. Siedlce. sodalis and P. in press). moesta. while Pardosa uintana Gertsch was dominant in forested areas.Book of Abstracts. or space) best explain patterns in ground-dwelling spider species assemblages (Bowden & Buddle. We used linear mixed models with selection for the most likely models of female fecundity and RRO using log-likelihood ration tests and simple linear regressions to test the significance of egg size-number tradeoffs within species. We sought to determine whether body size or mass independent of size (body condition) was a better predictor of two different measures of reproductive fitness: fecundity and relative reproductive output (RRO). in review). Buddle McGill University-Macdonald College. the dominant tundra species were Pardosa lapponica Thorell.bowden@mail. Poland Life history of three sympatric wolf spiders from the Yukon Territory. lapponica. In the laboratory the width of the carapace was measured using an ocular micrometer in a stereomicroscope. We also used a regional scale approach during summer 2006 to sample and determine patterns of spiders across elevation and latitude (Bowden & Buddle. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) We wanted to know whether these parasitoids were selecting larger females and whether they demonstrated a preference for a particular host species. Bowden & Christopher M. During the summer 2005 we sampled along a latitudinal transect in the northern region of Yukon Territory. Canada Joseph J. The results of these studies pointed to the importance of vegetation in determining spider assemblages across spatial gradients in the north. Ogilvy and Richardson mountain ranges) located along the Dempster Highway in the Yukon.ca Arctic arthropod assemblages are predicted to undergo substantial changes in response to global climate change. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. All females and their respective egg sacs were weighed alive in the field and then preserved in 70% ethanol. Reynolds 2003). 1996). Using live pitfall trapping and hand collecting techniques we collected females of the following species: P. Pardosa sodalis Holm and Pardosa moesta Banks on the tundra. We used a 91 . Canada. P. We calculated body condition using the residual index (Jakobs et al. yet we know little about the ecology of many groups in the north. Canada. During the summer 2008 (late June to early August) we collected female wolf spiders from three tundra sites (Tombstone. While dissecting egg sacs to determine fecundity for these species we noticed several egg sacs had been parasitized by Gelis sp.mcgill. Because the reproductive traits of individuals form the basis for adaptation to changing and novel environments and are explicitly linked to local population and community dynamics (Tokeshi 1999. vegetation. We were also interested in whether a trade-off existed between the number of offspring produced (fecundity) and the investment (average offspring mass) in each propagule. joseph. to determine which factors (climate. The most dominant species collected over the two years of sampling were wolf spiders.

1998... Danks 2004). Atmospheric change and biodiversity in the Arctic. Oikos. sodalis and 118 P. Determining patterns of terrestrial arthropod diversity and life history patterns across the boreal-tundra is the first step to determining the effects that climate changes will have on the Arctic fauna. Arctic. 2001) and future climate predictions (e. Johansson M. & Buddle C. in review.Book of Abstracts. Blackburn & K.. Oxford. Hansell R. We found that vegetation composition and the structural characteristics it represents. Effects on the structure of arctic ecosystems in the short.R. 1999. resulting in a reproductive fitness of zero. Interestingly. Malcolm J. 2003. Huntley B. Christensen T. Integrative and Comparative Biology. Hansell et al. Poland linear model with a binary response to test whether Gelis sp.I... were not selecting larger individuals within a species.g..O.A. Écoscience. Jefferies R. Jolly D.W.C. Tokeshi M. 2004. Life histories and extinction risk. & Buddle C.R. Danks H. 44: 85-94. Oechel W.J. In: Macroecology. We also found that up to 50% of individuals in a given population can be parasitized by Gelis sp..V.J. Canada. Welch H. Bowden J. this site also yielded the most significant trade-off effects in these species. Reynolds J. Spider assemblages across elevational and latitudinal gradients in the Yukon Territory.. 92 . Gaston (eds). in press. best explained patterns of northern spider assemblages. Callaghan T. T. Blackwell Science. Oxford. & Scott P. The boreal forest-tundra transition zone should become an important focus for research on diversity and distribution of arthropod species given the susceptibility of arthropods to climate changes (Callaghan et al. Panikov N. & Henttonen H.. lapponica 257 P. 2004.A.M. sodalis. Siedlce. Ims R.M. Jonasson S. 33: 436-447. & Uetz G.M. References Bowden J.D. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Bjorn L. Blackwell Publishing. 77: 61-67. was selecting larger individuals within each species We collected a total of 574 P.. 1998. Canada.V. Ambio. Seasonal adaptations in arctic insects. Estimating fitness: A comparison of body condition indices. The Tombstone site yielded the lowest body size (condition) for P.. Determinants of ground-dwelling spider assemblages at a regional scale in the Yukon Territory. Our work represents the first to quantify determinants of spider assemblages and life history patterns of many northern spiders at a regional scale.J. lapponica and P... Species coexistence: Ecological and evolutionary perspectives. moesta females to analyze reproductive characteristics.. 49: 303-325 Jakob E.L.D. sodalis. Chapin T. We detected significant differences among sites for many of our explanatory and response variables so we divided our data by site and by species.and long-term perspectives.M... Chernov Y. Shaver G. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. they were selecting larger individuals across species and specifically P.. Marshall S. We also found that while Gelis sp. Matveyeva N.. 1996.

Promitobates ornatus (Mello-Leitão. the cladistic analysis was performed with 20 other Mitobatinae species. Instituto de Biociências. C.I=0. 1927 and Promitobates. Mitobatinae arose as a monophyletic group. Ruschia Mello-Leitão. a polymorphic and widespread species.I=0.br A cladistic analysis of the subfamily Mitobatinae is presented. and 5 species of other Gonyleptidae genera. In addition to these species. were also split into two sub-units. The other two polymorphic species. 1940. 1929.38. Longiperna Roewer. 1931 and Mitobates Sundevall. Metamitobates Roewer. Encheiridium Kury. divided into two major groups: [1] one that possesses the body roughly rectangular and males and females with coxa and trochanter IV without large apophysis. including the genera: Discocyrtoides Mello-Leitão. The character matrix comprised 75 characters: 19 from male genitalia. Brazil. 1945 and P. Neoancistrotus Mello-Leitão. All 10 of the currently valid species of the genus Promitobates Roewer. ricrocha@usp. 1923. 1913 were taken into account. with males with a large apophysis on coxa and tubercles on trochanter IV. R. 1991. 2003.br. 20 from male legs and 10 from colouration. Mitobatula Roewer. 93 . P.Book of Abstracts. Soares. Two equally parsimonious trees were obtained (L=257.72). including the genera: Ischnotherus Kury. viridigranulatus Soares & Soares. 1922). Poland Cladistic analysis of subfamily Mitobatinae with emphasis on the polymorphic character analysis (Opiliones: Gonyleptidae) Cibele Bragagnolo & Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha Departamento de Zoologia. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 1913. 1833 and [2] one that possesses the body roughly piriform and an evident sexual dimorphism of coxa and trochanter IV. Siedlce. cibrag@usp. 1946. representing the 11 genera of the subfamily. Universidade de São Paulo. 27 from the general external morphology. was initially split into four sub-units and its taxonomy addressed with the results of the cladistic analysis. hatschbachi H.

The known distribution of Solifugae species in Brazil is still fragmentary. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Piauí. extending the geographical distribution of Brazilian species. which typelocality is Ibiraba. Laboratório de Parasitologia. Methods Adult individuals (males) of Mummucia n. Bonaldo2. the low diversity currently recorded to the Neotropical Region could be merely reflecting the lack of taxonomists currently working on the group. and the type series of Mummucia mauryi Rocha 2001. Floriano. Araneae. Poland A new species of the sun-spider genus Mummucia (Arachnida: Solifugae: Mummucidae) from Piauí. Brazil 5 Universidade Federal do Piauí. with the description of a new species of the genus Mummucia (Mummucidae). Pará.edu. carvalho@ufpi. specially. Bahia State. It is possible that. Coordenação de Zoologia. Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas da Universidade de São Paulo. Candiani2. fulvipes (n=10) regarding the geometry of propeltidium. from the Serra das Confusões National Park. describing new species from Neotropical Biomes such as Caatinga and Cerrado. Centro de Ciências Agrárias. but a few recent contributions have been published.Book of Abstracts. Scorpiones and Pseudoscopiones. there are only two records in the Northeastern Brazil: a single juvenile Ammotrechidae collected at Balsas. São Paulo. which resulted in a small number of species described in the current decade. Laboratório de Aracnologia. Lincoln Suesdek3. sp. We also performed geometric morphometrical analyzes to compare the new Mummucia species with Metacleobis fulvipes Roewer 1934. Opiliones. northeastern Brazil Leonardo Sousa Carvalho1. this group is still poorly known in South America. Maury. Silva5 1 2 Universidade Federal do Piauí. owing to their cheliceral dentition similarities. with large areas without records. Digital images of propeltidium of both species (males) were captured by a Leica DFC320 digital camera coupled to a Leica S6 stereoscope equipped with plain lenses which 94 . Northeastern Brazil.4 & Paulo Roberto R. Herein. São Paulo. Alexandre B. Brazil Introduction Despite the fact that the order Solifugae is several times less diverse than Acari.br Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Brazil 3 Instituto Butantan. Campus da Socopo. Piauí. Departamento de Fitotecnia. David F. Brazil 4 Programa de Pós-Graduação “Biologia da Relação Patógeno-Hospedeiro”. The most important studies on South American species were done by Roewer and. São Paulo. Belém. Presently. we present the first records of Solifugae from the State of Piauí. in the Caatinga Biome. (n=14) were compared to M. Brazil. Siedlce. State of Maranhão. or redescribing species based on recent collected specimens. Teresina.

Mean values of ratio propeltidium length/width 95 . mauryi by the number of parallel narrow grooves on the cheliceral stridulatory apparatus. Consensus configurations of propeltidium were built from shape coordinates after translating. Geometric morphometrical analyses. Mahalanobis distances were used to estimate metric distance in this discriminant analysis. Such pattern is apparently specific. male cheliceral fixed finger with two anterior teeth and cheliceral movable finger with one anterior. sp. 2004 by the pleurite colouration. Scanning Electronic micrographs were obtained with a Zeiss LEO (1450 VP) scanning electron microscope from the Laboratório Institucional de Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura from MPEG. pleurital brown spots containing sockets of bifid bristles are arranged in a pattern which is nearly similar among the individuals. Results and discussion The new species. Mummucia n. Each group corresponded to one species. For each propeltidium. curator: A. while the remaining females have five ectal fondal teeth. as well as the chetotaxy terminology followed recent taxonomical publications of Neotropical Solifugae. coordinates of eight “type I” landmarks were digitized and assembled into matrices.B. resembles M. Poland avoid image distortion. data analyzes and graphs were done using software BAC and PAD and TPS software pack. and M. Shape analyses showed the individuals arranged in distinct plot groups at the graphical morphospace defined by principal components 1 and 2. Bravo). It differs from these two species by the combination of the following characters: stridulatory apparatus on chelicerae mesal face with seven parallel narrow grooves. Variation. In addition. with no overlapping between them. one intermediate. Landmark digitizing. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. curator: F. The formulae of cheliceral dentition and leg spination. Propeltidium shape was assessed after discarding isometric size variation and its relative warps (principal components) were plotted in graph describing the morphological space of the comparison between both species. Bonaldo) and Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS. pleurite colouration and number of anterior tooth on the fixed finger.Book of Abstracts. Superimposition of consensus configurations showed that landmarks 2-8 are distinct between the species. scaling and rotating each specimen and were compared between the species. To test the accuracy of the morphometric classification. Geometric morphometrical analyzes were performed as described in literature and are summarized as follows. The accuracy classification of females based on the Mahalanobis distances was 100% for Mummucia n. III and I. coaraciandu Pinto-daRocha & Rocha. The specimens are deposited in the Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (MPEG. each individual was reclassified according to its propeltidium similarity to the average shape of each species. sp. Siedlce. and one principal tooth. graded in size from distal to proximal II. since it is distinct from the others species of Mummuciidae. fulvipes. A female used for SEM pictures had only four ectal fondal teeth. and 92% for M.

Siedlce. sp. M. = 6. fulvipes = 5. The sampling at Serra das Confusões National Park occurred in October 2006 and July 2007. We collected fourteen specimens (eleven males and three females). sp. Remarks The new species Mummucia n. which was proposed to be species-specific in the family Mummuciidae.34. Ratio propeltidium length/distance LM1-LM7: Mummucia n. 24 h samples). A total of seven individuals were collected on arboreal Caatinga and six individuals on shrubland Caatinga. sp. with drift fences of 60 cm high. M. when the enclave area was not sampled. taiete Rocha & Carvalho. Guaribas and Caracol municipalities) in Piauí State. The family Mummuciidae still requires an entire taxonomic and phylogenetic revision to better understand the genera limits and define the most useful characters for species definition. The individuals were collected at Serra das Confusões National Park (9º27'-9º31'S. M. all in July 2007. solely because at the present time it is impossible to reliably distinguish the genera of Mummuciidae. M. fulvipes.000ha reserve. 43º05'-43º56'W. sp. Landmarks 2-8 comprise most the shape variety between the species. with pit-fall traps with drift fences (30 blocks of four 60L plastic buckets. shrubland Caatinga. one character appears to be constant in the family: the flagellum longitudinal ectal opening.89.31. Natural History. mauryi. and enclave forests) inserted on the arenilitic plateaus (chapadas) and depressions of the Parnaíba River Basin. the geometry of propeltidium showed that males of Mummucia n. The Serra das Confusões National Park is a 500. arranged like a “Y”. Besides.81. is assigned to the type genus Mummucia. The climate is hot tropical semi-arid. coaraciandu in the colour pattern of the pleurites. which was already reported only for Mummucia coaraciandu.. The same decision was taken by other authors.Book of Abstracts. The low number of individuals sampled and the punctual sampling events prevent us to infer about habitat selection. Mummucia n. may be diagnosed with >91% accuracy when compared to M. 96 . as already pointed out by Maur y. covered by Caatinga phytophysionomies (arboreal Caatinga. as they differ in the chelicerae dentition. Northeastern Brazil. Poland were: Mummucia n. a currently character to support species recognition. 2006 and Metacleobis fulvipes. with temperature ranging from 18ºC and 38ºC (average 25ºC). However. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. sp. fulvipes = 0. = 0. resembles M. This feature appears to be convergent on these two species.

49º12'-50º00'W). or exotic plantations. Brazil. affecting both terrestrial and aquatic wildlife. we expect that this species would be less likely to reside on the periphery of the forest. but most of them were conducted in landscapes for which the matrix was secondary forests. Lo-Man-Hung2 1 Universidade Federal do Piauí. Material and methods This study was carried out in the right margin of Tucuruí dam’s lake (3º43'-5º15'S. and larger trees have a higher mortality rate near forest fragments periphery. The land-bridge islands created by damming rivers. Belém. Dias & Machado investigated the microhabitat use by Heterophrynus longicornis (Butler 1973) in an area of continuous forest in Central Amazonia. Until recently. An increasing number of studies have assessed the effects of forest fragmentation on the tropical biota. state of Pará. As H. and flooded an area of upland forest of approximately 2400 km2. result in alterations of the forest structure. longicornis prefers large trees bearing buttresses. Floriano. This artificial lake was formed in 1984 and 1985. The aim of the present study was to test the differences between the abundance of H. Brazil 3 Instituto de Ciências Biológicas. Campus Amílcar Ferreira Sobral. Brazil. longicornis prefers large trees bearing buttresses for mating and hunting. in the municipality of Tucuruí. selective logging forest. Universidade Federal do Pará. Brazil Leonardo S. creating more than 1600 forest islands of different sizes and isolation levels. only three studies have investigated the association between whip spiders and microhabitat use and only one was carried out in Brazil. David F. the authors concluded that H.edu. Poland Abundance and microhabitat use by the whip spider Heterophrynus longicornis (Arachnida: Amblypygi) in forest fragments formed by Tucuruí dam’s lake. and species diversity: often resulting in the extinction of some species and changes in the dominance of others. physical conditions. Siedlce. Pará. Piauí. Carvalho1. and also provide some information on the abundance and microhabitat use by age-sex class of this whip spider. eastern Amazonia. carvalho@ufpi. Brazil Introduction Large-scale habitat fragmentation and ecosystem change are some of the consequences of dam constructions. These islands represent 97 . Figueiredo2 & Nancy F. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. longicornis in edge and interior island plots in the Tucuruí dam’s lake in Eastern Amazonia. and trees with burrows at their base where the individuals hide during daytime. Selvino Neckel-Oliveira3. Gomes2. Coordenação de Zoologia. In this study. Jerriane O. Besides. we tested the influence of the mean basal area on the whip spider abundances in the sampled plots. Belém. Pará. Pará.br 2 Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi.Book of Abstracts.

females or juveniles.074 to 2. which were not flooded by the lake. Abundance data are expressed as means ±1 SD. inside natural cavities on fallen logs. The annual mean rainfall in the area is 2500 mm. and then were released. longicornis. the substrate was recorded as: tree. degree of isolation. and conservation status of the island. The classification of plots into periphery and interior was based on previous studies of forest dynamics indicating that most edge effects penetrate up to 100m from the edge. The statistical analyses we performed using SYSTAT 12. shape. two plots of 5 x 100 m were laid out. is easily recognized by morphological characteristics and there are many records from Tucuruí dam’s area. we used a Kruskal-Wallis test.Book of Abstracts.424) and in the interior plots we found 47 (5. All individuals were captured and recorded as males. To compare the abundances of whip spiders between the microhabitats classes.875±4. on the ground and inside termite nests. with a dry season of three to five months long. one 30 m from the island edge. To test the null hypothesis of no significant differences between the abundance of whip spiders in edge and interiors plots.9 to 91. therefore they exhibit a highly accidental topography.5. on six consecutive nights during July 2006. This measurement was used to calculate the mean basal area (BA) of each plot. 38 females and 52 juveniles. normally from July to November. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.875±6. Siedlce. As the species H. on tree trunks. with a significance level of 5%. For each collected individual.2 m. using a satellite images (ETM/Landsat 7 of 2005). In the periphery plots we found 63 (7. theoretically presented areas that do not experience edge effect (core areas).5±6. The criteria for choosing the islands were size. The diameter at breast height (DBH) of all trees with whip spiders was measured. In the same we measured the diameter at breast height (DBH) of all trees and vines with a DBH≥5 cm. Eight land-bridge islands on the right periphery of the Tucuruí dam were chosen. Poland the higher portions of the mounds and hills. On each island. Each plot was searched only once. of which 20 males.3 ha. and the presence (or absence) of termite nests at the base of the trees was categorized. and the other in the interior of the island at 100-150 m from the island edge.0.09 The areas with shape index lower than 2. determined using GPS Garmin Map 76CS) and the shape index varied from 1. We actively searched for the whip spiders along the transects. There was no significant difference between 98 . and could thus be selected for our study. we considered unnecessary to collect and deposit voucher specimens on research collections. and also the effect of the mean basal area inside each plots we conducted a covariance analysis. between 19:00 and 24:00 h. The mean temperature is 24ºC. Results and discussion We found 110 H. ground or termite nest.581) individuals. using the formula BA=(π*DBH2)/4. the elevations of the islands from the periphery to the interior ranged from 8 to 31 meters (19. The mean basal area and the whip spider abundances were Ln transformed for this analysis. Body measurements were not collected and juveniles were not classified in sizes or age class. The sizes of the islands varied from 12. longicornis is widely distributed over the Brazilian Amazon.

Five mother-offspring groups were recorded on trees. Four females bearing egg sacs were recorded. the abundance of whip spiders directly increased with the mean basal area of the plots (F=8.431.385. more than one individual (from two to six specimens) was seen on the same tree. and with DBH larger than 18 cm.81%) in tress with 10 cm and 50 cm of DBH. or on termite nests far from trees (n=19). but no intraspecific interaction was observed in the field. This can be explained by the low degree of aggressiveness towards conspecifics. Most studies state that adult Amblypygi are generally solitary and intolerant predators of congeners. This tolerance appears to be higher than expected. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Future studies are necessary to understand the population dynamics and structure of Heterophrynus longicornis in natural and altered habitats. never in pairs or groups. were sharing the same tree with at least one conspecific. Only 10 individuals were seen wandering or hunting on the ground. at least during part of their lives. Siedlce. Thus. than on trees without termite nests (n=28). Poland the abundance of whip spiders on edge and interior plots (F=1. all on trees with termite nests at the base. Three mother-father-offspring groups and one male-female pair were recorded. acting like tree buttress.743. longicornis from the Brazilian Amazon are especially tolerant of one another and the male-female pairs can share the same hiding place. and no covariate effect between the mean basal area and the habitat type (periphery or interior plots) was observed (F=1. p=0. p=0. 99 .Book of Abstracts.014). the whip spiders were seen only alone. foraging surface and places that can be used as arena for courtship. although a few authors argued that H. and a male-male pair or an offspring group was seen only once. p=0. or this is an indication that Amblypygi are not affected by environmental conditions imposed by the edge effects.264). The presence of whip spiders on/near termite nests appears to be related to the availability of shelters. the presence of termite nests might be another variable to be evaluated in studies on whip spider’s microhabitat selection. The abundance of whip spiders was higher on trees with termite nests at the base (n=51). There was no significant difference between the abundance of whip spiders in the substrate classes (H=5. The whip spiders were found more frequently (84. On the other hand.043. as 49.4% of the individuals observed on trees. On eleven occasions.125). The absence of significant differences between the abundance of whip spiders in periphery and interior plots of the islands might be explained by two reasons: either this fact reflects the disturbed situation of the entire fragment. p=0. Insecta) was recorded. Many studies have shown that different invertebrate groups respond differently to forest fragmentation and edge effects and concluded that some species can increase their abundance toward the periphery and others can decrease it. which could not have core areas (places that do not suffer the edge effects) due to its topography. On termite nests. This substrate can suppress the absence of trees with buttress for the behavioural activities of whip spiders.329). A female preying on a Lepidoptera (Arthropoda.

Species were identified 100 .Book of Abstracts. June.com Introduction Coastal meadows are unique because of specific soil conditions. Humbert at al. Latvia Inese Cera University of Daugavpils. 1997). Sampling plots included xerophytic meadows (4 plots). Poland Ecology of grass dwelling spiders in the coastal Randa meadows in the eastern part of Gulf of Riga. mesohygrophytic meadows (10 plots) and xeromesophytic meadows (4 plots) (Melecis et al. 2009 – in inland meadows). Grass dwelling spiders were collected by use of entomological sweep net four times per season in May. about webspinning spider diversity and vegetation structural diversity versus pray availability – Greenstone (1984) and spider dependence on the whole habitat structure (also vegetation height) (Duffey 1966). 1997). Additionally. Siedlce. 1998). Historically the territory of meadows was maintained by cattle grazing and hay harvesting. about spider biodiversity potential in inland salt meadows (Zulka et al. Studies of grassland arthropods showed the decrease of spider total abundance from inland to seashore since 1996 (Melecis et al. flora and fauna communities and rare habitats with high conservation value.cera@gmail. July and August from 1997 to 2008. Killed arthropods were sorted in laboratory. The aim of the current research is to investigate a spider fauna in the Randa meadows and to identify species communities in the particular coastal meadow habitats and connection with the vegetation characteristics during longterm observations. The grass-dwelling arthropod communities have been researched since 1994 (Melecis et al. 1997. During the last decades the management intensity has sharply decreased and the majority of territory has overgrown by shrubs and reed. Results showed that spiders had higher abundance in the xerophytic meadows. Material and methods Eighteen sampling plots (2 x 25 m) were selected irregularly in the whole territory of Randa meadows in all types of meadows. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. The impact of changes in harvesting methods of meadows on spider distribution is discussed in several publications (Cattin at al. The need of extensive management of these habitats is important to minimize overgrowing by reed and shrubs (Melecis et al. 2003. Randa meadows are protected and included in the North Vidzeme Biosphere Reserve and are Natura 2000 site (Anonymous 2010). 1998). inese. 1997). Latvia. One sample per plot included 50 sweeps along the sampling plot. Brackish marine waters irregularly overflow these meadows by during heavy storms. As management of meadows has decreased more attention has been paid to study of influence of harvesting methods on flora and fauna. Spiders were put in the vials with alcohol (70%).

94%) and Salticidae (4. but species richness – at Baltic Sea (12.12%) were subdominants. gardens. Tibellus oblongus – at seashore and in wet meadows. Theridion impressum – in heatlands. Poland according to Locket & Millidge (1953). while Pisauridae. Nomenclature follows Platnick (2010).1%) and connected with the increase of mean high tide. Only data of adult spiders were used.59%). In comparison with literature data only Tibellus oblongus and Theridion impressum could be regarded characteristic for coastal meadows.Book of Abstracts. Engelmann’s (1987) domination classification was used to characterise the dominance structure.5%). Nentwig et al.19%) and Xysticus cristatus (5. Individuals of the genus Tetragnatha spp.67%). Spiders of the families Araneidae (20.04%) were subdominants. Microlinyphia pusilla – on low vegetation in moist and dry habitats (Benjamin et al. Because of different method and time scale used (transect. 644 adult spiders belonging to 13 families. 101 .81%).34% of all collected spiders) and Linyphiidae (28. (2007) studied spider and beetle zonation in the salt marshes at North Sea coast. Dictynidae. Lycosidae (5. 2006). (2007) investigated impact of cutting and sheep grazing on spiders and beetles in intertidal salt marshes with use of pitfall traps and associated it with some halophilic species. Abundance of spiders increased at North Sea. (2002) obtained similar results in the research in two salt marshes at North and Baltic Sea. two years) only 17. Bathyphantes spp. Positive connection of increase of mean high tide and total spider number was found. Microlinyphia pusilla (4.57%) dominated. 2002). Theridiidae (12. 21. 2006). Tetragnathidae (6. Results In total. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.92%).34%) and Pardosa spp. pitfall traps. but none of them was halophilic. Philodromidae (7. Araneus quadratus – wet meadows with high vegetation (Almquist 2005. Cluster analysis – for plot grouping. (4. Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and Indicator species analysis (significance level p>0. Miturgidae. Finch et al. Discussion Spiders in the coastal meadows in Latvia have been investigated for the first time and no comparative studies are available. Clubionidae and Gnaphosidae were recedents or subrecedents. Theridion impressum (7. on the bushes. to 75 species and 22 species identified to genus or family level. The seasonal data of every year and data of the 12-year study in the every meadow type were pooled thus giving 18 data sets used in the analysis. Araneus quadratus (5. Tibellus oblongus (4. (4. Among dominant and subdominant species Xysticus cristatus can be found on grass and mosses.28%).7% of species were as in our study.05) was used to find differences among sampling plots (habitats). Irmler et al. (4. No spider species dominated. Siedlce. Pétillon et al.19%) were subdominants. I2003) and Almquist (2005. Thomisidae (9.7% of species were the same as in our research.11%).61% of all collected spiders).

& Millidge A. 2010. Pétillon J.-D.F.H. 130: 1-8. part 2 – families Dictynidae to Salticidae.-Y.amnh. Irmler U. Version 8. http://leb..2003. Latvia. 2002.. 11: 1129-1147. & Spunģis V. Blandenier G.daba. Plaiser F. Acta Zoologica. 2003. London: 449 pp.. 2002. Hänggi A. Sweden. 18: 378-380.org/entomology/spiders/catalog. Swedish Araneae.gov... Locket G. & Ysnel F. 2. at www: http://research. 1997. Zonation of spiders (Araneae) and carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in island salt marshes at the North Sea coast. Anonymous 17.Book of Abstracts. & Blick T.ch. 2009.php?objid=502. Meadow harvesting techniques and their impacts on field fauna. Platnick N. Dominant klassifizierung von Bodenarthropoden.I..-F. Poland Year-to-year fluctuations of spider fauna can play significant role in distribution of species in the sampling plots. Kabucis I.. 63.. Check list of spiders (Arachnida. & Zschokke S. [Randa meadows. Version 10. Engelmann A. http://www. 1978. 2007. 113: 179-188. 47: 45-49. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation. Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. 2002. Insect Systematics & Evolution..htm.. Biological Conservation. Impact of cutting and sheep grazing on ground-active spiders and carabids in internal salt marshes (Western France). Pedobiologia. online: http://www. & Bersier L.daba.02.unibe. 2006. Section B. Finch O. The impact of mowing as a management strategy for wet meadows on spider (Araneae) communities. Georges A. with remarks on the presence of viscid silk. Wetlands Ecology and Management. 83: 49-59. Canard A. An Internet identification key. Heller K. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. & Walter T. Sweden.-F. Karpa A. Liepiņa L. part 1 – families Atypidae to Hahniidae. Banašek-Richter C. Ecosystems and Environment.P. Metchim & Son LTD. Biodiversity and Conservation. Duffey E. Araneae) of Latvia. Kropf C. References Almquist S.lv/Aranea. 2007.2010.araneae. 30(2): 201-209. Senckenbergiana biologica..lv/index.. Zonation of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and spiders (Araneidae) in salt marshes at the North and the Baltic Sea and the impact of the predicted sea level increase. 102 . 51(5/6): 222-233. Almquist S. Distribution of grassland arthropods along a coenocline of seashore meadow vegetation. & Savičs F.D. Swedish Araneae.. Ghazoul J.. Düggelin M. 285-603 pp. Spinnen Mitteleuropas/Central European Spiders.. Siedlce. 2005. restricted area of nature]. Relys V. Meyer H. Melecis V. AMNH. Fine structure of sheet-webs of Linyphia triangularis (Clerk) and Microlinyphia pusilla (Sundevall).. & Schultz W. Insect Systematics & Evolution. British Spiders. Cattin M. 1953. Humbert J. The World Spider Catalog. Krummer H.12.0. Agriculture. 1966. Benjamin S. 284 pp. Nentwig W. 62. 2003. 15(3): 207-228. & Reinke H. Spider ecology and habitat structure.-D..

Biodiversity and Conservation. Spider biodiversity potential of an ungrazed and grazed inland salt meadow in the national Park “Neusiedler See-Seekwinkel” (Austria): implication for management (Arachnida: Araneae). Latvijas Entomologs. 36: 55-65. Milasowszky N.. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. & Lethmayer Ch.Book of Abstracts. Siedlce. P. Karpa A. 1997. 103 .. 1998. & Spuņģis V. Zulka K. 6: 75-88. The grass-dwelling arthropod communities of the coastal reserve „Randu pļavas”. Poland Melecis V.

many spiders are nocturnal and the major roles in communication are played by vibrations. This aspect aroused the interest of arachnologists from taxonomical.chiarle@unito. The complex courtship behaviour of the brush legged spider S. Similarly. Spiders may use chemical cues for the detection of the prey or predator as well as for species recognition. Gibson & Uetz 2008). detected by trichobothria). An example is provided by P. 2000). associated with the presence of ornamentation on the first pair of legs. Huber 2005). 2005. the assessment of female quality by males seems to be based on pheromonal cues (Huber 2005). percussion. Species belonging to this genus can be sorted in several groups according to morphological features such as habitus or shape of genitalia. This kind of signals can propagate trough air over long distances and can even be audible by human ear (Kronestedt 1996). In most species of Lycosids all these cues are combined in specie-specific courtship behaviours. stridulation and body vibration are quite common in spiders. monticola group. In Metellina segmentata (Tetragnathidae) for example. Even though it is easy to assign species to the different groups. the wolf spider genus Pardosa shows the same potential interest. This genus is widespread all through the Holarctic region and has undergone a great deal of diversification (Tongiorgi 1966a. This communication system is generally s+pecie-specific and used frequently in mate recognition and females choice (Uetz & Roberts 2002. An example in this sense is provided by the wolf spider Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata (Lycosidae) in which the male generates percussive sounds tapping rapidly the abdomen against leaf litter. Pheromones are often deposited by females to attracts potential mates and trigger male courtship (Uetz and Roberts 2002). 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. ethological and evolutionary points of view. and generally implicates visual. Uetz & Roberts 2002. Poland Courtship behaviour in the genus Pardosa (Araneae: Lycosidae): what do we know about it? Alberto Chiarle* & Marco Isaia Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e dell’Uomo (DBAU). one of the most investigated genus is Schizocosa. Taylor et al.it Communication in spiders is multimodal. Siedlce. Within Lycosids. Università di Torino.Book of Abstracts. In this genus males produce courtship displays characterized by vibratory and visual signals. identification at species level within the 104 . vibratory/acoustical. ocreata has been studied extensively (Uetz 2000. pheromones and tactile signals (Huber 2005). the largest species-group within the genus with at least 20 species (Tongiorgi 1966b). Despite the good visual system of several spider families (like for example Salticids). Vibratory signals like web-plucking. tactile and chemical signals. detected by slit sensilla and lyriform organs) or by the substrate (vibratory signals. Topfer-Hofmann et al. Mechanical cues could be propagated by air (acoustic signals. Italy * Corresponding author: alberto. Chemical signals are also well developed in spiders (Foelix 1996).

saltans and P. The movies were acquired and edited with specific software. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. providing new methods for the description and the analysis of courtship displays aiming to outline the undescribed ones and to study their variability within species. more than half of them never observed before. vlijmi. P. sibling species ecologically separated. We collected spiders in NW Italy and Belgium. lugubris group: P. All the specimens were adult or sub-adult reared in tubes in standard condition and fed with Drosophila sp. highlighting differences and similarity of the two behaviours (Chiarle et al. All the behaviours were recorded for one hour with two high definition cameras at recording speed of 50i (50 frame per second interlaced). (2005) working on the courtship behaviour of some Salticids). The result is a speed profile plot of the local speed estimation of the pixel that compose the image. proxima on the basis of the courtship display. The plot is analyzed with a second program that is able to measure the duration of each behavioural act selected by the user. The first study dealt with Pardosa wagleri and P. Our research focus on the study of the courtship behaviour of different species of the genus Pardosa. The different behavioural acts compose a behavioural pattern that is specie specific.Book of Abstracts. The courtship behaviour of the males has been obtained by putting it in contact with the female into a glass arena. By means of these methods we studied the courtship display of about twenty species of Pardosa. Poland group often turns out to be very hard. In this work we present an overview of the results obtained in the first two years of the research. the first pair of legs and the general movement of the body. pertinax. distinguished from the sibling P. This is particularly true when considering sibling species occurring in syntopy. previously studied by Tongiorgi (1966a) and Barthel & von Helversen (1990). Our study deepened the work of Tongiorgi 105 . Siedlce. as demonstrated by Den Hollander and Dijkstra (1974). Despite the courtship displays of the many Pardosa species has never been observed. in press). the time interval between behavioural acts. (2000) with the description of two new ethospecies within the P. In this way. who described the first ethospecies. The second type of analysis is the Optical flow analysis. each act is composed by the movement of the different anatomical parts involved in the behaviour (Lehner 1998) namely the palps. We described the courtship displays of the two species for the first time. the number of peaks that compose the speed profile plot and their characteristics such as the mean period and coefficient of variation. The software is able to find linkages among different behavioural acts within a defined behavioural pattern. The first step of the analysis was to identify the behavioural acts that characterized the behaviour type. This mathematical method can measure the proprieties of the video (this analysis was presented by Elias et al. Another example within the same genus is provided by Topfer-Hofmann et al. it may represent a useful diagnostic tool to separate species. a list of acts that can be analyzed with a software can be obtained for each specimen. On the other hand. ad libitum. saturatior. the abdomen.

L . proxima vs. 192: 785-797. We also studied syntopic occurrence and mixed populations of P. This approach has been successfully used in the study of phylogenetic divergence in sibling species complexes (De Busschere et al.A. & Hoy R. Land B. Hors Série. 1996. Foelix R. 2005. that may be useful for a correct species identification (Chiarle & Isaia in prep. vlijmi that we recorded in Italy for the first time. Journal of Comparative Physiology.. Gibson J. 106 . Chiarle A. Measuring and quantifying dynamic signals in jumping spiders. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Siedlce. To deepen the work we also investigated the degree of reproductive isolation of these species. we analyzed the courtship displays of P. P. Pardosa wagleri (Hahn 1822) and Pardosa saturatior Simon 1937. P. Berlin. adding some remarks about the morphology of male palps. Pardosa vlijmi sp . Poland (1966a) and Barthel & von Helversen (1990). saturatior Simon. using molecular markers. proxima and P. 1948). Animal Behaviour. Huber B.W. with description of courtship display (Araneae. highlighting some interesting aspects in terms of allopatric speciation (P. saturatior). In our case we compared the ethological results to the genetic ones. in prep). from France. 22: 57-65. vlijmi). A.O. Biology of spiders. monticola group) and genetic diversity (P. Koch. 1822) and P. (in press). a pair of sibling species (Araneae. 1990. a new ethospecies sibling Pardosa proxima (C. Additionally we compared the two behaviours and the variability within species. In the perspective of using courtship displays to identify species. torrentum (showing clear difference in their courtship despite morphological similarity). syntopic closerelated species (P.. a species that stands out for its unclear taxonomical position (several authors placed it in the genus Acantholycosa) but also for the peculiarity of its courtship display. blanda. mixta and P. Bullettin de la Société européenne de Arachnologie. New findings on the courtship behaviour of Pardosa wagleri (Hanh.. References Barthel J. den & Dijkstra H. P. We also described the courtship displays of P. 2005. & von Helversen O.C.R. providing new insights (description and confront of the two displays) on the biology of the two species.R. Manson A. 80: 363-385. nov.Book of Abstracts. 1: 17-23. & Uetz G. Sexual selection research on spiders: progress and biases. Seismcommunication and mate choice in wolf spiders: components of male seismic signals and mating success. Biological Review. Lycosidae). A possible new ethospecies from an Alpine meadow in south western Alps has also been observed. Beaufortia. Isaia M. & Castellano S. A detailed description of the courtship display in comparison with the one observed by den Hollander and Dijkstra (1974) was provided. Contribution to Natural History (Bern). 2008. 1974. Elias D. nigra.. wagleri vs.). Oxford University Press. den Hollander J. Lycosidae). 1937 (Araneae. 75: 1253-1262. a pair of sibling species.S. Lycosidae).F.

Signals and multi-modal signaling in spider communication. 387-405. New York. 1966b. Tongiorgi P. Vibratory communication in the wolf spider Hygrolycosa rubrofasciata (Araneae: Lycosidae). (eds). Animal Signals: Signalling and Signal Design in Animal Communication.A. Roberts J. Cordes D. & Rosenqvist G. Bullettin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Cryptic species and behavioural isolation in the Pardosa lugubris group (Araneae. 11(7): 257-274. with description of two new species. 134: 335-359.A. 1998.N. 672 pp. Siedlce. vol. Journal of Ethology. Tongiorgi P. Revue Suisse Zoologie. 107 . Uetz G.W.W. hors serie: 341-354. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society. Brain Behaviour and Evolution. 23: 71-75. 2000. Poland Kronestedt T. Norway: Tapir Academic Press. Lycosidae). 2002. & Roberts J. Lehner P. Multisensory cues and multimodal communication in spiders: insights from video/audio playback studies..W.Book of Abstracts.. & von Helversen O. 59: 222-230. Handbook of ethological methods.W. 2005. Uetz G. Italian wolf spiders of the genus Pardosa (Araneae: Lycosidae). 1966a. In: Espmark Y. 134: 275-334. Wolf spiders of the Pardosa monticola group (Araneae: Lycosidae). 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press. 1996. pp. & Uetz G. Schizocosa ocreata. Taylor P. 2000. Trondheim. Amundsen T. Töpfer-Hofmann G. Flexibility in the multimodal courtship of a wolf spider.. Bullettin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology.

christophoryova@gmail.Book of Abstracts. D. Bratislava. D – open nests on trees and shrubs. Nests were removed after fledging of chicks and immediately sealed in polyethylene bags in field. Two species belonged to the family of Cheliferidae (98 specimens) – Chelifer cancroides. Almost 72% of individuals were present in hollow nests and nest boxes. Bratislava. 2) to monitor the occurrence of developmental phases during the nesting season and 3) to characterize and categorize pseudoscorpion species according to their relationship to the hosts. Slovakia. Allochernes wideri. cyrneus. Comenius University. museorum. B – open nests on the ground. L. In particular. The similarity of the pseudoscorpion species representation in the bird-nests was evaluated according to the hierarchical cluster analysis (single linkage) based on the Jaccard similarity. Dactylochelifer latreillii and one species represented each family of Neobisiidae (4 specimens) – Neobisium carcinoides. The differences between the opinions about the relationship of pseudoscorpions to bird-nest as a type of environment have inspired us to carry out this research. A. Based on analysis of 480 specimens from 171 nests of 28 bird species the pseudoscorpion community was characterized by the frequent presence of species Ch. C – open nests in reeds. Siedlce. Larcidae (4 specimens) – Larca lata and Cheiridiidae (56 specimens) – Cheiridium museorum.krumpalova@savba. zuzana. Dendrochernes cyrneus. Pseudoscorpions as typical nest predators represent a less examined group. the 108 .sk Introduction The fauna of bird nests has been mainly studied from the parasitological point of view. Slovak Academy of Sciences. The nests were divided into 6 categories: A – nests in hollows and boxes. only 18 of them were picked up 20 days after fledging. Lamprochernes chyzeri. nodosus and Pselaphochernes scorpioides. 3 species in the Czech Republic and 11 species were recorded in Slovak Republic. F – nests in burrows. wideri and P. Material and methods A total of 171 positive nests of 28 bird species were collected in Slovak Republic. 5 species were recorded in Austria. latreillii. Pseudoscorpions were also analyzed by using the principal component analysis (PCA) utilizing Past exe. Slovakia. Poland Pseudoscorpions in the nests of birds Jana Christophoryová1 & Zuzana Krumpálová2 1 Department of Zoology. Austria and Czech Republic. D. scorpioides. Faculty of Natural Sciences.com 2 Institute of Zoology. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. the specific objectives were: 1) to evaluate pseudoscorpion presence in different types of nests. Results The highest number of species belonged to the family of Chernetidae (318 specimens) – Chernes hahnii. E – nests on or in buildings.

ilous or nidicolous species – pseudoscorpions occurred regularly in bird-nests.Book of Abstracts. D. Seven of them were nidiphilous or nidicolous. their maximum was in August. scorpioides in the Hoopoe nests.nests with decomposed material: P. hahnii. Ch. This study was financially supported by VEGA grants No. M. We confirmed the occurrence of 11 pseudoscorpion species in bird nests. L. B. . Poland lowest number of individuals were present in open nests in reeds and burrows (0. cyrneus. 3/6235/08.synanthropic nests: Ch. lata. A. L. the developmental stages are represented sporadically – N. Microclimatic conditions. D. chyzeri. epigeic species for nests on the ground and synanthropic species for nests in or on the buildings. they reached a peak in June and then they gradually declined in number until August. scorpioides. nodosus and probably L. The deutonymphs occurred in a higher number in July. latreillii. Martin Fris and Doc. Pseudoscorpions living under tree bark or in tree hollows searched for hollow nests respectively open nests on trees. cyrneus in the Eurasian Tree Sparrow nests and A. 1/0176/09. museorum the nests of White Wagtails. latreillii influenced the nest fauna of Blackbirds and Song Thrushes and Ch. These species prefer nests in certain habitats with specific building and microclimate conditions: . Based on the analysis of the pseudoscorpions. museorum.2%). they were grouped into two basic categories: A. . Siedlce. conditions for individual development and trophic offers affect the pseudoscorpion fauna in nests in extenso. Acknowledgements We would like to express our gratitude to all our colleagues for collecting the bird-nests and Ing. The first females with eggs appeared in May. The protonymphs reached the maximum in July afterwards their frequency continued to decrease until September. wideri. In contrast. European Scops Owl and European Roller. The development stages of nine pseudoscorpion species were confirmed in some types of nests. carcinoides. ixenous species – pseudoscorpions occurred accidentally in bird-nests. . cancroides. the developmental stages are represented numerously. 02/0067/08 and KEGA grant No. wideri in the nests of Tawny Owl.open and hollow nests on trees and shrubs: D. PCA confirmed the high proportion and influence of P. The adults achieved the maximum in August. The abundance of tritonymphs gradually increased from April and reached a peak in August. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 109 . Ch.hollow nests: D. Holecová for their technical assistance.

Predation and over-wintering mortality rates do not seem to account for this bias alone which is observed even at the embryo stage. Studies by Gunnarsson et al have shown that females tend to produce a 1:3 primary sex ratio. Experiments manipulating the post copulatory position of females.uk Pityohyphantes phrygianus (Linyphiidae) is a solitary sheet web spider commonly found in coniferous forests. However. By altering its host’s behaviour. At least one other endosymbiont is present (Rickettsia). 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. phrygianus also harbours Wolbachia a maternally inherited bacterial endosymbiont known to distort host offspring sex ratios in numerous solitary arthropods. A more recent study provided evidence that P. phrygianus populations are frequently observed to have a female biased sex ratio averaging around 1:3. Fisher’s theory predicts that natural populations should maintain a stable sex ratio of 1:1. Plxmac2@nottingham. Interestingly P. United Kingdom. Siedlce. Pityohyphantes phrygianus (Linyphiidae) Melanie A. phrygianus females have the potential to influence the sex ratio of their offspring by altering their post copulatory position. could the presence of Wolbachia be the driving force in the maintenance of an otherwise paradoxical sex ratio bias? 110 . Poland A tangled web: bias sex ratios. bacteria and mating behaviours of a solitary sheet web spider. Cotterill University of Nottingham.ac. P.Book of Abstracts. have shown that brood sex ratios near 1:1.

Goniosomatinae (37 spp. Pachylinae Eusarcus (23 spp. São Paulo. i. in colder an drier periods during Quaternary fluctuations. It was used NDM/VNDM 2. Modelling of six species showed that present ecological conditions would allow much wider distributions of them.). all of them with at least two geographical records. Thus I classified all species in three levels: endemic. I chose two species of each type to run a distribution modelling analysis to aim possible causes of present range restriction of harvestmen species.). This is a good group for a historic biogeographical research due to its high levels of endemism. and marine transgressions in major rivers in warmer periods and separation of forest refuges.). the only one living in Atlantic Forest). areas which do not overlap any other.). Brazil.). geographical variation in present climate do not explain those distributions. Heteropachylinae (10spp. historical causes can explain those patterns since there is high congruence in endemism of species and the niche modelling did not show ecological restriction. endemic but with partial congruence with other endemic. Mitobatinae Promitobates (10 spp. DaSilva Departamento de Zoologia. 1940@uol. and Gaibulus (1 sp. Caelopyginae (23 spp. I used species of Stygnidae Pickeliana (3 spp. I found 12 exclusive areas of endemism for coastal Atlantic Forest. Gonyleptidae Bourguyiinae (7 spp.. with 30’x30’ and 1ºx1º cell-sized grid. a Semidecidous forest area. 111 .). Universidade de São Paulo.).. and widespread. there are not areas of endemism for harvestmen in the drier Atlantic Forest.). Protimesius (4 spp.). Siedlce. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. related to mountain range slopes and coastal plain.. Gonyleptinae Mischonyx (9 spp. which probably were located in mountain slopes facing the sea. except in slopes of Serra do Espinhaço mountain range.Book of Abstracts. Possible causes are related to uplifting of mountain ranges in Tertiary.). i. and Sodreaninae (5 spp.). Therefore.e. Hernandariinae (18 spp. Cosmetidae Metavononoides (15 spp.e. I used annual mean and seasonality (four values in year) of temperature and precipitation with BIOCLIM algorithm in DIVA-GIS program.) and Roeweria (2 spp. In this work I used 180 species ranges of harvestmen living in Atlantic Rain Forest to address main patterns of endemic distribution congruence and delimit areas of endemism.com.). Poland Areas of endemism analysis and distribution modelling of harvestmen (Laniatores) to discover biogeographical history of Neotropical Atlantic Forest Marcio B. Species living in interior forest did not agree spatially.br Neotropical harvestmen have recently and successfully been used to biogeography studies. I chose those that consider areas of endemism as mutually exclusive spatial entities.).. Stygnus (1 sp. From all possible results of the program.).e. i.5 (Programs for identification of areas of endemism) to search for spatial concordance among species ranges. Progonyleptoidellinae (12 spp.

Widely distributed species are dominants (61 species). grouped into 4 complexes: widely distributed. the Albanian species can be classified in 17 zoogeographical categories. Balkan endemics and Mediterranean. This number of species is not final. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Canada.com. st. Siedlce. Faculty of Natural Sciences.ca The spider fauna of Albania is represented by 168 species from 34 families. because the territory of Albania is poorly explored. European.lazarov68@gmail. University of Guelph. This number was established after a critical review of the existing literature data and original collection made in last 15 years during the field survey covering mostly the coastal parts. In this number. Poland A faunistic and zoogeographical review of spiders in Albania (Arachnida: Araneae) Christo Deltshev1. caves and some mountain areas. blerinavrenozi@yahoo. cdeltshev@institutezoology. Gergin Blagoev3 & Stoyan Lazarov1 1 Institute of Zoology.com 3 Biodiversity Institute of Ontario. The number of endemics is really high and reflects the local character of the fauna.com 2 Museum of Natural Sciences. 112 . 54 species are new announced for the country. but the most characteristic are Balkan endemics (30 species). gblagoev@uoguelph. Tirana University. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Albania. Blerina Vrenosi2.Book of Abstracts. According to their current distribution.

Four new species of spiders from family Eresidae are recorded from outskirt of Amravati city (Maharashtra) during 2009. with several species generally co-occurring at any one locality. India. 113 . Government Vidarbha Institute of Science & Humanities. India.Book of Abstracts. Keywords: new species. taxonomy. Amravati. Deshmukh Department of Zoology. This study examines species in a relatively diverse lineage of Stegodyphus spiders in the Satpuda highlands. Poland Four new species of spiders of the genus Stegodyphus Simon. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Maharashtra.com The spiders of the family Eresidae are represented poorly in Indian fauna. 1873 from Satpuda. India. ujjwaladeshmukh@rediffmail. Stegodyphus. (Arachnida: Araneae: Eresidae) Ujjwala S. Siedlce. where they appear to have undergone adaptive radiation.

dimitard. These data have been analyzed using parsimony (both under direct optimization and static homology) and model based phylogenetic methods. Lara Lopardo2. The George Washington University.edu 4 Biodiversity Research Institute UB. Mexico.6*. Denmark. Facultad de Ciencias.F. Copenhagen. fap@ciencias. Mexico D.Book of Abstracts. 114 .com 3 Museum of Comparative Zoology. USA.com 2 Zoologisches Institut und Museum. Miquel Arnedo4. Germany. Poland Rounding up the usual suspects: molecular phylogeny of orb weaving spiders (Araneoidea) Dimitar Dimitrov1. Siedlce.mx 6 Department of Biological Sciences.edu 5 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. hormiga@gwu. Spain. Departamento de Biología Comparada. laralopardo@gmail.harvard.edu * Presenting author We present a revised hypothesis for the relationships of the families in the superfamily Araneoidea. Universitat de Barcelona. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Barcelona. Fernando Álvarez-Padilla5 & Gustavo Hormiga6 1 Zoological Museum. The present study is based on a combination of newly collected sequence data and information already available in GenBank for six loci for over two hundred taxa. Departament Biologia Animal. The addition of new taxa and the availability of data for some poorly studied groups provide new insights on araneoid phylogeny and evolution. marnedo@ub. MA. University of Copenhagen. We also explore the contribution of various data partitions to the phylogenetic pattern. Gonzalo Giribet3.6. Cambridge. Harvard University. Greifswald. ggiribet@oeb. Allgemeine und Systematische Zoologie. Washington DC.gwu@gmail.unam. USA.

lugubris. The spiders were fixed in modified (Smrž 1989) Bouin-Dubosque-Brasil fluid. compared with adult males. The spinning apparatus of the first instar (T. Bílek (1992) compared piriform spigots of four wolf spiders with those of other araneomorph spiders. a. not silk lined burrows (Dolejš et al. and finally Townley & Tillinghast (2003) investigated the role of lycosid ampullate gland silks. The external morphology of spinnerets was examined using a scanning electron microscope (JEOL JSM-6380 LV). National Museum. combining histology of spinning glands and morphology of spinnerets in all instars of wolf spiders is still lacking. Poland Spinning apparatus of two rare wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae) – preliminary results 1 Petr Dolejš1. mostly the spinning apparatus of araneid spiders has been studied. a silk thread. lutetiana/A. 1908 is a vagrant species.2. plays an important role in all spiders. a. However. to investigate its changes during the spiders’ ontogeny and to compare a spinning apparatus of a burrowing spider with that of a vagrant one.Book of Abstracts. Prague. lamperti) consists of 5/6 piriform and 7/15 aciniform glands only. Sections were stained in triple stains (Masson’s. In both species. Richter (1970b) focused on histological and morphological changes of spinning glands related to maturation of Pardosa amentata whereas Wąsowska (1977) described spinnerets development in P. 1876) is a burrowing wolf spider inhabiting entirely enclosed. Czech Republic. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Jaroslav Smrž1 & Jan Buchar1 1 Department of Zoology. Number of half of the spinning apparatus is given.cuni. On the contrary. their number increase (more rapidly in A. results of the first three and last two instars are presented. Here. The preparations were inspected under a light microscope (Olympus Provis AX 70). During the second and third instar. Selected plates were photographed using a 3CCD colour video camera (Sony DXC-950P). The aim of the present study is to describe the spinning apparatus of two rare European wolf spiders (Lycosidae). Jaworowski (1896). Faculty of Science. Its product. Tricca lutetiana (Simon. Charles University in Prague. Czech Republic The spinning apparatus (spinning glands and spinnerets) is one of the most outstanding features in spiders. possess similar number of 1 The research founded by the Grant Agency of the Charles University: GA UK140907 115 . a complex study. subadult males. Richter (1970a) and Traciuc (1971) were among the firsts who studied the spinning apparatus of wolf spiders. Siedlce. embedded in Paraplast plus (Fluka) and sectioned by rotary microtome (Leica RM 2155) at 6 – 8 μm. Gomori’s. lamperti). dolejs@natur. at least in several stages of their life.cz 2 Department of Zoology. there are only a few papers dealing with the lycosid spinning apparatus. 2008) whereas Arctosa alpigena lamperti Dahl. and a pair of ampullate glands appears. Pollak’s and Domagk’s trichrome). Till now.

developmental changes of spinning apparatus in two more species – Pardosa amentata (Clerck. Jaworowski A. Lycosidae). 35(4): 353-370. 2008. a. T. Internal Anatomy of Hypochthonius rufulus (Acari: Oribatida).J. Dolejš P. For comparison. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. References Bílek P. 26(3-4): 55-407. 1757) and Xerolycosa nemoralis (Westring. Richter C. Journal of Arachnology. Postembryonic morphogeny of the spinning apparatus. mit Berücksichtung der Abdominalhänge und der Flügel bei den Insekten.A. Zoologica Poloniae. 1970b. Studies on the spinning apparatus in spiders.Book of Abstracts. the spinning apparatus of the remaining instars of both species will be investigated. Zeitschrift fűr Morphologie der Tiere. Relation between Habitat Structure and Development of the Glandulae ampullaceae in Eight Wolf Species (Pardosa. Araneae. 1896. 30(23): 39-74. L’appareil séricigèna chez Pardosa lugubris (Lycosidae.J. whereas number of spinning glands of T. Lycosidae). 2003. 1992. Oecologia. Journal of Morphology. Siedlce. lamperti resembles those of vagrant Pardosa lugubris (Wąsowska 1977). 116 . Journal of Arachnology. věd. 1989. Zoologie. piriform and aciniform glands differ in number and size. However. a. lutetiana is lower as the species does not spin very often given its lifestyle (Dolejš et al. Wąsowska S. & Buchar J.J. In females of both species. 1971. probably reflecting different life strategies of both species. Cuticular spinning structures reveal evolutionary relationships in araneomorph spiders. 200: 215-230. Araneae). 31(2): 209-245. Smrž J. Number of spinning glands of A. Revue Roumaine de Biologie. lamperti have four types of spinning glands as other lycosid species studied so far. Lycosidae) for attaching the egg sac to the spinnerets and a proposal for defining nubbins and tartipores. Lycosidae). Kubcová L. Die Entwicklung des Spinnenapparates bei Trochosa singoriensis Laxm. 2008). 1970a. only a few tubuliform glands appear after the final moult. Townley M. Prací LF UK Hradec Králové. Sbor. Zeitschrift fűr Naturwissenschaften. Subterrestrial life of Arctosa lutetiana (Araneae. 16(3): 171-174. 1861) – will be studied. 36(1): 202-203.) (Araneae. & Tillinghast E. On the use of ampullate gland silks by wolf spiders (Araneae. 5: 185-199..K. lutetiana and A. 1977. In further study.J. 68: 37-68. Richter C. Traciuc E. Morphology and Function of the Spinning Apparatus of the Wolf Spider Pardosa amentata (Cl. Poland spinning glands.

Leibniz Institute for Research on Evolution and Biodiversity at the Humboldt University Berlin.de 2 Department of Earth Sciences. We propose that these mite names also lie outside the bounds of zoological nomenclature. a nomenclatural grey zone between body and trace fossils. Theridium columbianum (Scudder 1878) from the Eocene of the USA is based on fossilized (theridiid?) egg sacs. Siedlce. Similar problems underlie fossilized galls attributed (probably correctly) to mites. It is thus an ichnospecies name and not a body fossil. Dunlop1 & Simon J. Its interpretation as the activity of a spider is questionable and its original assignment to a worm burrow seems intuitively more likely. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Poland “Cteniza” bavincourti and arachnid trace fossil nomenclature Jason A.uk Sabella bavincourti Vaillant 1909 from the Eocene of northern France is a little-known trace fossil subsequently attributed – as Cteniza bavincourti – to the burrowing activities of a trapdoor spider. Irrespective of the affinities of the producer. As such. Queen’s Road. Wills Memorial Building. University of Bristol. Within the broader context of arachnid-related trace fossils. UK. Germany. S.J. Bristol. 117 . but assigned to living eriophyid mite genera. the ICZN also covers ichnotaxa such that classifying these structures under a modern spider (or worm) genus name creates a homonym. Fossil galls are the preserved pathological reactions of plant tissue and are also not ichnotaxa sensu stricto.Braddy@bristol. this species should be regarded as an ovotaxon. we briefly review fossil spider webs and arachnid trackways.Book of Abstracts. Braddy2 1 Museum für Naturkunde. Berlin.ac.dunlop@mfn-berlin. jason.

say. biogeography or cultural-historical aspects. Siedlce.dunlop@mfn-berlin. Leibniz Institute for Research on Evolution and Biodiversity at the Humboldt University Berlin. The raw data has also been cross-referenced by author. We encourage users to access our primary data – and those of other collections – via these portals too. anja.biologie. developed under the auspices of the German branch of GBIF (Global Biodiversity Information Facility) <http://www.de. and will be regularly updated and emended in the future. Many of our types have already been databased in further detail using the SysTax platform <http://www. A preliminary Excel file listing our known. This allows collection strengths to be identified and should also facilitate wider studies of.uni-ulm. boasts over 5. Dunlop & Anja Friederichs Museum für Naturkunde.000 type species of arachnids. 118 .Book of Abstracts.de/>. suspected (and missing) types is now freely available from the authors as an aid to systematic research. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. jason.de The Museum für Naturkunde Berlin. Germany.friederichs@mfn-berlin. locality and collector. Poland Arachnid and myriapod types in the Museum für Naturkunde. Berlin Jason A.de/systax/>. myriapods and stem-group arthropods.gbif.

Ricardo Ott2. Rio Grande do Sul. Siedlce. Waldock2 1 2 Department of Environment and Conservation. The survey covered 24 areas chosen to represent the geographical extent and diversity of terrestrial environments in the Pilbara region. Locked Bag. Western Australia. Western Australia.3 & Julianne M. Western Australia. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. climatic and geological attributes are explored.waldock@museum. A total of 375 species comprising 14 families were recorded. Welshpool DC. Australia Some of the patterns of species composition of the ground-dwelling spider fauna of the Pilbara bioregion. Poland Patterns in the composition of ground-dwelling spider communities in the Pilbara bioregion. Western Australia Bradley J. an area of approximately 179000km2.gov.Book of Abstracts. Wanneroo.4. Mark S.4. Porto Alegre. Rua Dr. Australia. Salvador França. Brazil 4 School of Animal Biology. Australia Department of Terrestrial Zoology. Volker W. University of Western Australia. Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul. julianne. Harvey2. Western Australian Museum.wa. 119 . Crawley. Durrant1. Western Australia. particularly in terms of cartographic.au 3 Museu de Ciências Naturais. Framenau2.

Eberhard Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and Escuela de Biologia Universidad de Costa Rica. and in one of these they appear to depend on the concentration of the psychotropic substance within the spider´s body. Different wasp species show exquisite adjustments of their effects on the host spider that exploit details of the spider`s natural history. while the need to maintain behavioural capacities could select against the reduced neuron numbers option. In this talk I will emphasize two different kinds of challenges to spiders as they make these decisions – the reduction in mental capacities likely to be associated with tiny body size. Costa Rica. and sustained concentration. Because there is a minimum size below which neurons cannot transmit action potentials reliably. and the effects of parasitic larvae of ichneumonid wasps. Poland Recent studies of tropical orb webs: effects of miniaturization and manipulation by parasitoid wasps William G. In two spider species the behavioural effects are reversible if the larva is removed.Book of Abstracts. animals of very tiny size must either possess a proportionally larger CNS to maintain similar numbers of neurons. or reduce the numbers of neurons. and adopt the oversized CNS option. The behavioural manipulations produced by wasp larvae apparently result from injection of a psychotropic substance or substances into the spider. memory. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.com Orb construction involves many behavioural decisions that require rapid.eberhard@gmail. precise coordination and orientation. The disproportionately high costs of building and maintaining nervous tissue may select against the oversized CNS option. and larger species with tiny nymphs show unreduced behavioural capacities. william. it is not yet certain whether these adjustments are the result of differences between the psychotropic substances that they use. What do tiny spiders do in such a situation? I will present several types of morphological and behavioural data which suggest that species with tiny adults. Siedlce. which induce their host spiders to build special structures that promote the survival of the wasp´s cocoon and pupa. 120 .

with slight local variations from place to place that are misinterpreted as new species.” Previously undescribed species and new records help to restore this balance. and only 1 species is adequately described from both sexes. and two other species described from Java and reported from the Philippines. 3 from females.state. Of the 23 species described from the Philippines. Gainesville. One species is only known from “the Philippine Islands. 121 . the Philippines had 23 species of Myrmarachne described from within its political boundaries. Panay and Palawan have 2 other species each. M. as 5 new species are described from Mindanao. The geographic makeup of these 21 species is about as unbalanced as the previous sex ratio of described species. Edwards Florida State Collection of Arthropods. Other synonymies are suspected.fl. Females are described for 9 of the species previously known only from males. Siedlce. Two of the females appear to be synonymous with 2 of the males.B. USA. 20 are described from males (3 have essentially undescribed females in the type series). This is consistent with recent evidence that Myrmarachne speciation is driven by adaptive radiation. and 2 different males are synonymous with 2 other males. One of these males. edwardg@doacs. but some types are difficult to obtain to make comparisons. Present thought is that island Myrmarachne faunas seem to mostly consist of species unique to that island or island group.Book of Abstracts. and 1 additional species apiece uniquely occurs on Mindanao and Negros. Poland Myrmarachne (Araneae: Salticidae) of the Philippines G.us Historically. other evidence suggests that perhaps many species of Myrmarachne are widespread. and an additional 5 species (one new) are reported from Palawan (including the first record of M. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. and which ultimately will result in numerous synonyms. reducing the overall number to 21 species. Luzon Island has 14 species (1 each of which also occur on Mindanao and Panay). gisti from the Philippines). Division of Plant Industry. Conversely. FL. maxillosa. M. is resurrected from synonymy with the apparently widespread Javan species. bellicosa.

University of Melbourne. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. it is increasingly clear that these spiders. Evidence for these strategies are reviewed. These strategies include strategic placement of the web. However. Australia. One might infer from this description that orb-weaving spiders take a relatively passive role in acquiring food. Vic. employ all manner of strategies to improve their foraging success.Book of Abstracts.au Web-building spiders are frequently described in biology textbooks as ‘classic’ examples of ‘sit-and-wait’ predators.elgar@unimelb. highlighting controversies and where there are avenues for addressing interesting questions. Siedlce. attracting prey to the vicinity of the web. and orb-weavers in particular. Elgar Department of Zoology. m. 122 .. a term used to describe those species that do not actively pursue their prey.edu. and reducing the risk of losing prey to natural enemies. but rather remain in the same place waiting for prey to come within striking distance. modifying the structure of the web. Poland Sit-and-wait predators: a misnomer for orb-weaving spiders Mark A.

Book of Abstracts, 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010, Siedlce, Poland

The systematics of the New World scorpion genus Centruroides Marx, 1890 (Buthidae)
Lauren A. Esposito1 & Lorenzo Prendini2
1 2

American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, USA, esposito@amnh.org American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, USA, lorenzo@amnh.org

The New World buthid scorpion genus Centruroides Marx, 1890 is a morphologically diverse and highly venomous clade, which includes the only scorpions of medical importance in North America and the Caribbean. In some states in central and western Mexico, nearly 5 out of every 100,000 inhabitants die annually from Centruroides envenomation. Despite their notoriety, little progress has been made in the systematics of Centruroides in over a century, for several reasons. The morphological characters traditionally used (morphometrics and colour) for Centruroides taxonomy often overlap between closely related species and are vaguely defined. Many commonly used characters vary within populations, hindering species delimitation and identification. Several species have extremely large distributions, suggesting they may be complexes of cryptic species. These include “species” with very discontinuous distributions, but for which traditional characters have proven unreliable. Various researchers have revised small groups of species as part of regional treatments, but no modern taxonomic revision of the entire genus exists. The only attempt at phylogenetic analysis used molecular data from a single gene (16S rDNA) to infer a phylogeny of only thirteen of the seventy-two currently recognized species, and concluded that the genus was not monophyletic. We present the first comprehensive phylogeny of Centruroides, based on five nuclear and mitochondrial loci, sequenced from 60 species and 10 outgroup taxa. Results of this analysis confirm the monophyly of Centruroides and reveal novel insights into the systematics of New World buthid scorpions.

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Cytogenetics of four corinnid species (Araneae: Dionycha) with the fourth record of a X1X2X3X4 sex chromosome system in spiders
Viviane Fagundes de Mattos1, Marcos José Wolf1, Leonardo Sousa Carvalho2, Antonio Domingos Brescovit3 & Douglas Araujo1
1

Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Unidade de Mundo Novo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, vivianefagundesmn@hotmail.com, marcos.jwolf@hotmail.com 2 Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Amílcar Ferreira Sobral, Piauí, Brazil, carvalho@ufpi.edu.br 3 Laboratório de Artrópodes, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, Brazil, adbresc@terra.com.br, daraujo@uems.br

The family Corinnidae consist of 956 species and 81 taxonomically described genera, including, for example, Castianeira, with 131 species worldwide; Corinna, containing 69 species predominantly distributed in South and Central Americas; Falconina that includes only four species; and Xeropigo, with only nine described species, both occurring mainly in South America. Cytogenetical studies in Corinnidae are scarce, involving only six species of four genera, Castianeira, Falconina, Oedignatha e Trachelas, showing diploid number between 2n♂=22 and 2n♂=28, acrocentric chromosomes and sex chromosome system of the type X1X2. The genera Corinna and Xeropigo were not karyotyped until now. Considering the scarcity of chromosomal data to the family, the aim of the present work is to characterize Castianeira sp., Corinna gr. nitens, Falconina sp., and Xeropigo n. sp. in relation to the diploid number, chromosomal morphology and type of sex chromosome system, comparing the data with cytogenetic information on other dionychans available in the literature. Two males of Castianeira sp., and one male and one female of Corinna gr. nitens were collected in São Francisco Island (24°00'32.40"S, 54°09'52.18"W), Parque Nacional de Ilha Grande, border between the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraná, Brazil. The male specimen of Falconina sp. was obtained in the Research Campus of Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (01º27'03.03''S48º26'40.2''W), city of Belém, state of Pará, Brazil. Four males of Xeropigo n. sp. were collected in the district of Morada do Sol (05º03'56.16"S, 42º46'01.02"W), city of Teresina, state of Piauí, Brazil. After the gonads extraction, the specimens were preserved in 70% alcohol and those collected at the Parque Nacional de Ilha Grande were deposited in the collection of Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, state of São Paulo, Brazil, and those collected in Belém and Teresina were deposited in the collection of Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, state of Pará, Brazil. The gonads were dissected in physiologic solution (7.5 g of NaCl, 2.38 g of Na2HPO4, 2.72 g of KH2PO4, diluted in 1 litre of distilled water) and submitted to
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a 0.16% colchicine solution (prepared with physiologic solution) during 2 hours. The hypotonic treatment consisted in immersion of the gonads in tap water during 20 minutes, and the fixation was performed with Metanol: Acetic Acid solution (3:1). The microscopy slides containing the preparations were stained with 3% Giemsa solution. The mitotic and meiotic cells were photographed using a digital capture system coupled to a light microscope. Analyses of male diplotene cells of Castianeira sp. showed 12 autosomal bivalents, with one terminal or interstitial chiasma, and two sex univalents, which correspond to the X1 and X2 chromosomes that appears always positive heteropycnotic and close one to another. In some cases is even difficult to establish the limits between the two sex chromosomes. Two daughter metaphase II cells presented n=12 and n=14=12+X1X2. In the nucleus with n=14 it is possible to identify the sex chromosomes due to their positive heteropycnosis. Thus, the meiotic formulae of Castianeira sp. is 12II+X1X2, indicating a diploid number of 2n♂=26. Based on some incomplete mitotic cells and in the metaphase II it is possible to define the chromosomal morphology as telocentric. Spermatocytes I of Corinna gr. nitens revealed 13 autosomal bivalents, with one terminal or interstitial chiasma, and two sex univalents (13II+X1X2). Earlier segregation in two autosomal bivalents was recorded in one metaphase I cell. The observation of one nucleus in transition from metaphase II to anaphase II showed n=15=13+X1X2. In this cell it is possible to visualize the segregation of the sister chromatids and recognize the positive heteropycnotic and relatively small sex chromosomes. A spermatogonial metaphase of C. gr. nitens revealed 2n♂=28, confirming the meiotic findings above. Oogonial metaphases of C. gr. nitens showed 2n♀=30, composed by chromosomes that, at least in majority, seems to be telocentric. The female diploid number confirms the sex chromosome system of the type X1X2 for the males and X1X1X2X2 for females. Pachytene and diplotene nuclei of Falconina sp. presented 13 autosomal bivalents and two positive heteropycnotic sex univalents that always appears sideby-side and corresponds to the X1 and X2 chromosomes (13II+X1X2). The X chromosomes are clearly of different sizes. In the case of the autosomal bivalents in diplotene, only one terminal or interstitial chiasma was registered. Spermatogonial metaphases showed 2n♂=28 telocentric chromosomes, confirming the meiotic findings. Xeropigo n. sp. presented male diplotene cells with 13 autosomal bivalents and four sex univalents that always appeared close to each other and corresponds to the X1, X2, X3, and X4 chromosomes. The autosomal bivalents showed only one terminal or interstitial chiasma and the sex univalents appeared positive heteropycnotic. The X chromosomes clearly presented different sizes in some diplotene cells. Thus, the meiotic formulae for Xeropigo n. sp. is 13II+X1X2X3X4. Male mitotic metaphases of this species showed a diploid complement composed by 30 telocentric chromosomes, that is, 2n♂=30=26+X1X2X3X4. Initially, it is important to emphasize that these are the first cytogenetical findings to the genera Corinna and Xeropigo. The other chromosomal records on corinnids are on three Castianeira species, including that analyzed here, all with
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2n♂=26; two Falconina species, including that studied in the present research, all with 2n♂=28, as well as Corinna; one species of Oedignatha, with 2n♂=26; and three species of Trachelas, with 2n♂=22 or 2n♂=24. Looking at these data, one can notice that at least until now, the chromosomal data on corinnids are useful from the cytotaxonomical point of view. Besides, Xeropigo has the highest diploid number found to the family, 2n♂=30. The genera Corinna and Falconina showed 2n♂=28, while the genera Castianeira and Oedignatha presented 2n♂=26, and the genus Trachelas is characterized by smaller numbers (2n♂=22 and 2n♂=24). In relation to the chromosome morphology, the family seems to be extremely conserved, showing elements exclusively acro/telocentric, which is in accordance with the observed to other dionychans. The same constancy can be observed regarding the sex chromosome system that, excepting by the X1X2X3X4 described here for Xeropigo, it is constituted only by the X1 and X2 chromosomes in all other corinnids, the most common type among all spiders. It is interesting to notice that the species Xeropigo (2n=30), that at first look seems to presents a great difference in relation to Corinna and Falconina (2n=28), actually diverges only in relation to the sex chromosomes, possessing the same 26 autosomes. The sex chromosome system of the type X1X2X3X4 is extremely rare among spiders, occurring only in three species belonging to the families Tetragnathidae (Araneoidea), and Sparassidae, a Dionycha as well as the corinnids. According with the literature, in Tetragnathidae, the karyotype 2n♂=24=20+X1X2X3X4 could have been arisen from a karyotype with 2n=25♂=22+X1X2X3 that originates from a karyotype with 2n♂=24=22+X1X2. In the case of Corinnidae, it is possible to suggest that a complement composed by 2n♂=28=26+X1X2, as that found in Corinna and Falconina, could give rise to a complement constituted by 2n♂=29=26+X1X2X3. This type of karyotype was not found in Corinnidae up to now; however, its existence is extremely plausible, considering that this configuration it was actually found in Selenopidae and Saticidae, two other families of Dionycha. Afterwards, the karyotype composed by three X chromosomes could give rise to a complement that consists of 2n♂=30=26+X1X2X3X4, as described for Xeropigo. In this way, there is no change in the number of autosomes, which remains 26 during the karyotype evolution, and only the number of sex chromosomes increases. According to the literature, both the differentiation of a X1X2 system into a X1X2X3 system, and the transformation of a X1X2X3 system into a X1X2X3X4, imply the nondisjunction or duplication of a X chromosome, with the subsequent homology lost.

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Comparison of development of book gills in the horseshoe crab and book lungs in scorpions
Roger D. Farley
Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA, roger.farley@ucr.edu

In 1872 the first papers were published suggesting that development in horseshoe crabs resembles arachnids rather than crustaceans, and the book gills of horseshoe crabs may be homologous with book lungs in arachnids. At the end of the nineteenth century and in the early twentieth, there was substantial interest in comparing the development of book gills and book lungs. These authors agreed that spider and scorpion book lungs originate from an invagination of epithelium posterior to limb buds in the anterior opisthosoma, and a spiracle opening is retained at the invagination site. There was, however, substantial disagreement about how the book lung lamellae are formed from the epithelium. These early papers consist of interpretive diagrams from histological sections; the investigations vary in thoroughness and were done on animals from different taxa. Folds in the invaginated tissue were commonly interpreted as the beginnings of book lung lamellae (e.g., Purcell 1909). These folds posterior to the limb buds were thought to resemble the outgrowth folds that Kingsley (1893) described for book gill development from the posterior surface of branchial appendages in the opisthosoma of horseshoe crabs. From their investigation of book lung development in spiders, Montgomery (1909) and Janeck (1909), concluded that the initial folds behind the limb buds are transitory and disappear, and the lamellae are formed by alignment of cells from a cluster derived from the invaginated epithelium. As described below, lamellar formation by cell alignment was also observed in my recent study (SEM) of book lung development in scorpion embryos (Farley 2008). The embryology is still unclear, but differences in lamellar development do not preclude the possibility of book gill/book lung homology. In a review of embryology and larval development, Wilmer (1990, p. 128) concluded that modifications commonly occur for the benefit of the embryo or larva, and such changes often obscure ancestral conditions. Some similar cell actions occur in book gill/book lung development (Farley 2008, 2010), and there is evidence that some of the same genes are expressed at the sites where book gills and book lungs form (e.g., Damen et al. 2002). My own investigation (SEM) of book gill development in horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus L.) are in agreement with Kingsley’s (1893) histological observation that the lamellae arise as an outgrowth from the posterior surface of the preceding branchial appendage (Farley 2010). Trabeculae are formed from cell processes that extend into the appendage and lamellar lumen from the hypodermis. For the development of gill lamellae, I have not seen the type of
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cell alignment described for lamellae in the book lungs of spider and scorpion embryos (Montgomery 1909, Janeck 1909, Farley 2008) . In scorpion embryos, the mesosomal limb buds disappear (except for the pectinal ones) well before spiracles and tissue invagination become evident near the posterior margin of opisthosomal segments 4-7 (Farley 2008). Since there is no pre-existing structure that can serve as a guide, the lamellae are initially formed by alignment of cells (single file) in a series of parallel rows. It is difficult to discern from the diagrams provided by Montgomery (1909) and Janeck (1909), but there may be differences in the details of cellular formation of lamellae in spider and scorpion embryos (Farley 2008), although cell alignment from undifferentiated precursors appears to be a common feature. I have examined book lung development in representatives from several scorpion families. Some steps appear to be bypassed in the more derived families (e.g., Scorpionidae, Liochelidae) as compared with the basal ones (e.g., Buthidae, Vaejovidae), but the cellular mode of lamellar formation is similar in all those studied so far. Cells derived from the invaginated spiracle site align in a vertical plane and secrete cuticle around themselves (Farley 2008). The secretion often appears to be holocrine, releasing granules that aggregate spontaneously to form the lamellar walls. The cells undergo cytolysis while sandwiched within the cuticular walls they secreted. This leaves the channel open for air except for bridging trabeculae (cross bridges) that help hold the walls in place. The source of these initial trabeculae in the second instar is still unknown, either the degenerating cells in the air channel or the epithelial (tissue) layer that forms on the cuticle walls in the first and second instar. The epithelial layer produces the replacement cuticle in the moults of juveniles. In the book lungs of adult scorpions, the anterior (proximal) edges of the lamellae (air sacs) have bridging trabeculae that attach to both walls of the air channel (Kamenz & Prendini 2008, Farley 2008). The posterior (distal) regions of the lamellae have other types of (non-bridging) trabeculae that are firmly attached to only one wall of the air channel. This pattern of trabecular distribution is apparently a result of the growth and moulting process of the lamellae. In juvenile scorpions, the bridging trabeculae are formed as part of the new growth for enlarging the lamellae prior to and during the moult, as bridging trabeculae are also formed in the air channels when book lungs are initially formed in embryos and first and second instars (Farley 2008). The non-bridging trabeculae are produced as part of the replacement cuticle for older, more posterior regions of the lamellae that are shed in the moult. References Damen W.G.M., Saridaki T. & Averof M. 2002. Diverse adaptations of an ancestral gill: a common evolutionary origin for wings, breathing organs and spinnerets. Current Biology, 12: 1711-1716. Farley R.D. 2008. Development of respiratory structures in embryos and first and second instars of the bark scorpion, Centruroides gracilis (Scorpiones: Buthidae). Journal of Morphology, 269: 1134-1156.
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Farley R.D. 2010. Book gill development in embryos and first and second instars of the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus L. (Chelicerta, Xiphosura). Arthropod Structure and Development (in press). Janeck R. 1909. Die entwicklung der blättertracheen und der tracheen bei den Spinnen. Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft, 44: 587-646. Kamenz C., Prendini L. 2008. An atlas of book lung fine structure in the order Scorpiones (Arachnida). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 316, pp. 4-45. Kingsley J.S. 1893. The embryology of Limulus. Part II. Journal of Morphology, 8: 195-270. Montgomery T.H. Jr. 1909. On the spinnerets, cribellum, colulus, tracheae and lung books of Araneids. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 61: 299-320. Purcell W.F. 1909. Development and origin of the respiratory organs in Araneae. Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, 54: 1-110. Willmer P. 1990. Invertebrate Relationships, Patterns in Animal Evolution. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 400 pp.

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Spiders in apartment buildings of Ukraine cities
Mariia M. Fedoriak1 & Evgeni M. Zhukovets2
1

Department of Ecology and Biomonitoring, Chernivtsi National University, Chernivtsi, Ukraine, m.m.fedoriak@gmail.com 2 "Stanlyuks" Ltd., Minsk, Belarus, emzhukovets@mail.ru

There is no comprehensive survey of species composition and ecological peculiarities of many groups of synanthropic organisms, including spiders. Yet they flourish in parks and squares of all Ukraine cities and also occur in different types of buildings. Information on the spiders inhabiting buildings was summarized earlier by Fedoriak & Rudenko (2009). We inventoried the fauna of synanthropic spiders occurring in various buildings of Ukraine cities during 2006-2009. The material was collected from different types of buildings, including industrial enterprises, viz., from attics, basements, stairways, etc. In the present work, we discuss the samples collected only from stairways of multi-storey apartment buildings: viz., from walls, ceilings and window frames. Taking into account that in warm seasons the areas of the main entrance and ground floor are characterized by higher spider diversity and density compared to those of top floors (Fedoriak & Brushnivska 2009), the material was mainly collected from the mentioned areas. The territory of Ukraine is subdivided in 25 administrative units, each with own centre where we carried out our investigation. The inventoried administrative centres differ in their populations (from 116.5 thousand people in Uzhhorod to 2718.1 thousand in Kyiv) and in peculiarities of their industrial development. Each of the investigated administrative centres represents an urboecosystem conditioned by an intensity of the passenger/freight transportation, population density and accessibility of information. According to the physiographic subdivision given in the National Atlas of Ukraine (2007), Ukraine’s administrative centers belong to the following zones: the mountain region – the Ukrainian Carpathians (Uzhhorod, Chernivtsi, Ivano-Frankivsk); the mixed forest zone (Zhytomyr, Kyiv, Chernihiv); the deciduous forest zone (Lutsk, Rivne, Lviv, Ternopil, Khmelnytskyi); the forest-steppe zone (Sumy, Cherkasy, Poltava, Kharkiv, Vinnytsya); the steppe zone (Odessa, Kherson, Mykolayiv, Zaporizhzhya, Kirovohrad, Luhansk, Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk); and the Crimean mountain region (Simferopol). Almost the entire territory of Ukraine lies in the temperate zone, except for the southern macro-Crimean mountains, which contain sub-tropical landscapes of the sub-Mediterranean type. On the basis of extensive material (15 978 specimens in total) it has been established that over a hundred of spider species of 26 families inhabit apartment buildings of Ukraine administrative centers. Of them, 107 were identified to species level: viz., Agelenidae (11), Amaurobiidae (2), Anyphaenidae (1), Araneidae (11), Dictynidae (4), Coriniidae (1), Dysderidae (1), Gnaphosidae (2), Linyphiidae (21), Liocranidae (1), Lycosidae (4), Mimetidae (2), Miturgidae (1),
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Nestisidae (1), Oecobiidae (4), Philodromidae (2), Pholcidae (6), Pisauridae (1), Salticidae (4), Segestriidae (2), Scytodidae (1), Tetragnathidae (4), Theridiidae (18), Thomisidae (2); also only immatures of Clubionidae and Oxyopidae were collected. The majority of these spiders are likely to be ‘incidental’ synanthropic species. We have calculated a relative number of each species’ samples within the assemblages of all the studied administrative centers according to dominance structure after Stöcker & Bergman, with the dominance classes as follows: 31.7100% – eudominant; 10.1-31.6% – dominant; 3.2-10.0% – subdominant; 1.13.1% – recedent; less than 1% – subrecedent (Stöcker & Bergmann, 1977). Representatives of only 14 species of 8 genera and 5 families are numerous enough to belong to higher dominance classes (eudominant, dominant and subdominant) at least in one of the inventoried cities. Such species form dominant nuclei of the spiders’ assemblages of Ukraine apartment buildings. In average, the percentage of Pholcidae and Theridiidae was higher than that of other families, 57% and 32% correspondingly. Ph. phalangioides (37.7%) is the most abundant species of Ukraine apartment buildings. It is an obligatory component of synanthropic spider complexes of every administrative center, but its proportion varies greatly from about 1% in Rivne to 67% in Simferopol’. In 16 of the 19 explored cities (64%), Ph. phalangioides was the most abundant species. It is worth mentioning that Ph. alticeps replaced the former eudominant species in Lutsk, Rivne, Ternopil (the deciduous forest zone) and Poltava (the forest-steppe zone). Before our investigations, the latter species had been recorded in Ukraine only from Kherson region and from the Crimea, but without exact localities (Dunin 1998). Ph. alticeps was described by Spassky (1932) on the basis of the material taken from the city of Novocherkassk. Later, this species was recorded from the European part of Russia, the Caucasus and Tadjikistan, as well as from several localities of Iran and Afghanistan (Mikhailov 1997; Senglet 1974, 2008). To date, Ph. alticeps has been reported from all the physiographic zones of Ukraine except for the Crimea (Fedoriak 2007, Fedoriak & Rudenko 2009), as well as from Poland and Belarus (Fedoriak 2008). We assume that the lack of earlier information about Ph. alticeps was due to misidentifications. Except for the aforementioned species, a cumulative percentage of Ph. ponticus, S. castanea, S. triangulosa and P. tepidariorum was higher than that of other species, but their distribution was uneven and these species were very numerous only in spider complexes of a few of cities. Species contributing about 50% of the totally collected spiders are shown in the Fig. 1. Some poorly known species have been found. For example, ‘Crustulina’ albovittata (Theridiidae) was found in Simferopol. Earlier, the species was only known from two specimens collected in buildings in 1860 (Thorell, 1875). So, our finding is the first one after almost 150 years. This species does not belong to Crustulina, but its correct belonging remains unclear (Marusik pers. comm.). Another interesting species is the North American Agelenopsis potteri, which has been recorded in recent years from the Far East, Kyrgyzstan and the east of Ukraine. Thus, Uzhgorod is currently the westernmost locality of the species distribution in the Palearctic Region.
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Table. A relative number of species (%) forming dominant nuclei of the spiders’ assemblages of Ukraine apartment buildings, in accordance with the physiographic subdivision given in National Atlas of Ukraine (2007). UK – the mountain region – the Ukrainian Carpathians; MFZ – the mixed forest zone; DFZ – the deciduous forest zone; FSZ – the forest-steppe zone; SZ – the steppe zone; CMR – the Crimean Mountain region. Taxon Agelenidae Malthonica ferruginea Tegenaria domestica Tegenaria s .l. spp. Linyphiidae Megalepthyphantes nebulosus Oecobiidae Oecobius sp. Pholcidae Pholcus alticeps Ph. phalangioides Ph. ponticus Scytodidae Scytodes thoracica Theridiidae Parasteatoda tabulata P. tepidariorum Parasteatoda spp. Steatoda bipunctata St. castanea St. grossa St. triangulosa Theridion melanurum Other species UK 0.06 1.00 2.36 0.40 MFZ 5.35 3.12 3.42 1.11 DFZ 1.08 2.61 3.41 1.37 FSZ SZ CMR Total 0.64 1.37 2.58 0.62 0.19 11.29 37.69 7.31 0.41 0.64 2.92 2.79 0.31 17.02 2.65 4.36 0.11 7.1

1.35 2.12 0.83 0.06

0.51 1.52 0.06 0.86 1.40 36.24 16.33 0.86 0.77 2.02 1.43 23.59 2.14 7.14 0.51 4.62

8.68

6.22 52.03 0.46 0.44 0.81 3.09 3.59 1.02 12.92 2.53 1.69 11.38

8.62 29.64 7.36 0.22 1.04 2.75 2.60 14.04 4.38 8.62 7.73

26.79 28.31 6.47 0.08 0.44 5.58 3.05 11.53 3.29 0.48 5.51

19.40 24.94 9.67 0.23 0.34 2.04 3.16 23.08 2.27 5.31 5.20

66.86

0.59

0.79 0.79 5.33 2.17 12.43 2.36

132

2007. Fedoriak M. 1997.M. Species richness and density of spiders communities (Araneae) of different floors of buildings. forming a half of the collected samples in each administrative centre. Poland Fig. "Fundamental aspects of biology in solving environmental problems". & Brushnіvska L. 1851 (Arachnida. ecology and chemistry". – Moscow: Zoological Museum of the Moscow State University. Astrahan.G. Samara. Senglet A. 1. On the state of study of spiders (Aranei) in dwelling and business premises of Ukrainian settlements. 440 pp. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Kyiv. 2009. Siedlce. Conf. Pholcus nouveaux d’Iran (Araneae: Pholcidae). Catalogue of the spiders of the territories of the former Soviet Union (Arachnida. Mikhailov K.M. of the European part of Russia and adjoining territories". [in Ukrainian]. 243-246 [in Russian]. Preliminary data about the distribution of Pholcus alticeps (Aranei: Pholcidae) in Ukraine and adjoining territories. 2008. 81: 803-812. 383-388 [in Russian]. 133 . In: The Proceedings of the I Intern. pp. Revue suisse de Zoologie.L. In: The Proceedings of the Intern. & Rudenko S.S. Koch.M. Haplogynae) of Eastern Europe. Kherson. 1974. Scientific Papers. pp. 1998. National Atlas of Ukraine. "Recent developments in biology. The most abundant species. Fedoriak M. 2009.V. Conf. Fedoriak M.M. In: The Proceedings of the II Intern. References Dunin P. Aranei. Aranei). pp. Review of the spiders family Pholcidae C. "Problems of Entomol. 416 pp. 82-83 [in Ukrainian]. Conf. Zaporіzhzhya. 139-144 [in Russian]. pp.Book of Abstracts.

Aranearum species novae II. Siedlce. 17(1): 1-26. 1977. New species of Pholcus and Spermophora (Pholcidae. Araneae) from Iran and Afghanistan. Bull. Paris. Stöcker G. Museum National d’Histoire naturelle. Poland Senglet A. Ein Modell der Dominanzstruktur und seine Anwendung.Book of Abstracts. 134 . 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 115: 355-376. 2008. Revue suisse de Zoologie. 4(2): 972-979. Spassky S. & Bergmann A. with notes on mating mechanisms. 1932. Archiv für Naturschutz und Landschaftforschung.

61º47'30"W).com. nelsonferretti@hotmail. The most unambiguous receptive response usually is leg waving. Quirici & Costa 2005. They were fed ad libitum with Zophobas sp. 2007). Uruguay. Argentina during October . schulzei is the unique species of the genus where females showed sexual response to courting males. Sección Entomología. Siedlce. females of known reproductive history were used. They were housed in glass jars of 13 cm diameter and 15 cm height. Quirici & Costa 2005. For all experiments. Sofia Copperi2. Universidad Nacional Del Sur. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Prentice 1992. myga@fcien. Seismic signals generated by male spiders can reach 1 m in ctenids (Barth et al.La Plata) (UNLP). In captivity. Poland Can’t you find me? Female sexual response in Grammostola schulzei (Schmidt 1994). 2008).com 2 Departamento de Biología.Book of Abstracts.January 2008-2009. Grammostola schulzei (Schmidt 1994) is a tarantula from Argentina that lives in burrows under stones in rocky hills (Ferretti & Ferrero 2008). Argentina. The usual indicator of effective male signals is the behavioural change of the receptive female. Buenos Aires. Bahía Blanca.edu. leg tapping or body vibrations (Ferretti & Ferrero 2008. Montevideo. Vibratory sexual signals (acoustic and seismic) are frequently used in spider courtship. Prentice 1992.uy Introduction Despite wide distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Argentina.CONICET. with 5 cm of soil as substrate and water provision. female sexual response could be observed allowing females to build and occupy a retreat as in natural conditions but not in open arena (Bertani et al. sofia_copp@hotmail. Gabriel Pompozzi2 & Fernando Pérez-Miles3 1 Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectores CEPAVE (CCT.com 3 Facultad de Ciencias. gabrielpompozzi@hotmail. larvae. the biology of Theraphosidae is poorly known. especially in tarantulas (Uetz & Stratton 1982. 1988) and 1. 2007). We carried out three series of 20 experiments each with 135 . an Argentinean tarantula Nelson Ferretti1. Studies of mating behaviour are limited to few species. Material and methods Eight males and eleven females were collected in Sierra de la Ventana (38º07'63"S. The main objective of this work is to elucidate under what context females responded to male’s courtships and to determine the possible function of these behaviours. La Plata. Bioquímica y Farmacia.30 m in theraphosids (Quirici & Costa 2007). but the context and possible function of this response was not elucidated (Ferretti & Ferrero 2008). G.

Moreover. containing a 10 cm thick layer of soil as substrate. we observed a contraction of the third pair of legs during movements.6  24. ranging from 2 to 61 (mean=16. Each terrarium was placed in different tables in order to minimize ground vibrations and to prevent seismic signals from passing between terraria. females that responded with leg tapping scraped vigorously the stone with first pair of legs. The mean duration of leg tapping was 1. where males were confined.415. three different females made their sexual display tapping vigorously with palps and first pair of legs or only with palps.96 SD). The courtship of males was elicited by abundant silk of females inside the glass cup. Siedlce. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. The mean number of leg movements during leg tapping was 16. One female made body movements with two different males in series A and C.26 SD and the mean number of bouts was 20. Females were placed in terraria and trials were carried out for >5 days.63s0. allowing each female to adapt to the burrow. In each terrarium.512 SD. Two more females performed this behaviour in series C and even one of them made body movements with two different males. In video analysis. males were placed far off from the female burrow (30 cm) and confined into a glass cup. After female tapping. In series “A”. The entrance of each burrow was closed with a heavy stone (collected from their natural habitat) so females couldn’t leave the burrow and had no access to males. The encounters were videotaped with a Handycam Panasonic SDR-S7 and video records were analyzed with a PC program. These responses were observed after male palpal drumming and the number of the movements was highly variable. Poland different situations for the encounters male-female. We considered active each male which showed intense courtship of >30 min. All responses were after the palpal drumming of males and long courtships (approximately 1 hour). In video analyses.90 SD and the mean duration between bouts of female leg tapping was 48. In series A. males frequently oriented to the female burrow and stayed courting nears her. In series “C”. females made leg flexing. These displays consisted in high frequency downward and upward movement of the entire body. In series “B”.Book of Abstracts. One male obtained responses from two different females.49 SD. For the encounters we used glass terraria measuring 30 x 35 and 30 cm high. males were placed over the heavy stone that closed the burrow of female and confined into a glass cup. lifting and lowering against the substrate. During series C one female that performed body movements made three attempts of abrupt emergence inside the burrow and the male quickly retreated. Females responded with body movement in series A and C. a burrow was constructed against the glass wall. males were placed free in terrarium but with no access to female due to the heavy stone covering the burrow. Results We observed two types of responses of females to male courtships: leg tapping and body movements.20s37. 136 . allowing visual observations of female behaviour inside burrow.

This was not the case in series B and C with males confined. Ischnocolinae). they did not receive female tapping response. Oecologia. Although these males confined courted. We observed body movements of females predominated in series C. schulzei in agreement with findings of Quirici & Costa (2005) in other theraphosids. Siedlce. 36: 480-483. Ferretti N. Bleckmann H. 137 . Ctenidae). Journal of Arachnology. 77:194-201. & Ferrero A.G. However. female leg tapping response was only observed in series A in which males freely walked in the terrarium and after extremely long courtships. and are probably originated by third pair of legs. For the female this rejection of male contributes avoiding her distraction from other biological activities (Pérez-Miles et al. schulzei this behaviour consisted in downward and upward body movements. & Silva Júnior P. The female body movements are interpreted here as a rejection considering male retreated after this female behaviour in series C. Female body movements are a signal that could help the male to save time and energy spent in courtship and also to reduce the risk of attracting predators. we interpret that such response could act in extreme cases where males could not find her burrow or if is difficult for the female to exit from the burrow.A. Theraphosidae. & Seyfarth E. 2007). We suggested that additionally female response could orient male towards her location.Book of Abstracts. Bertani R. Female leg tapping as response to some male courtship seems to indicate her receptive condition and his attractiveness. 2007). Body movements seems to be different from the piston behaviour observed for E.I. where males were confined in the nearest possible location to female burrow.S. because in G. weijenberghi (Pérez-Miles et al. Journal of Arachnology. as was found for Acanthoscurria suina and Eupalaestrus weijenberghi (PérezMiles et al. Summarizing females respond with leg tapping only to males which court and walk. Also insistence of males could be a positive honest signal of males with good condition to mate. On the vibratory environment of a wandering spider. Fukushima C. Bohnenberger J. II. Poland Discussion Our results suggest the presence of seismic communication by substrate during courtship in G. a spider that lacks spermathecae. females did not respond (series C). Quirici & Costa 2005).. and consequently selected by females. References Barth F. This orientation could serve at long distance because when males were very near the burrow. 2008. 2007). 2008.. Considering that female response is obtained after an insistent long male courtship. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Spiders of the genus Cupiennius Simon 1891 (Araneae. These females responded with leg tapping to males which present long courtships together with active searching (walking) for female’s location (series A). have higher frequency. Short Communication: Courtship and mating behavior of Grammostola schulzei (Schmidt 1994) a burrowing tarantula from Argentina. Piston behaviour was proposed as a ritualized rejection response. 36: 331-335. 1988. considering that after that male immediately escaped (Pérez-Miles et al.. 2007.. Mating behaviour of Sickius longibulbi (Araneae.

& Stratton G. Montes de Oca L.N. 110: 253-260.W. & Rovner J. Seismic sexual signal design of two sympatric burrowing tarantula spiders from meadows of Uruguay: Eupalaestrus weijenberghi and Acanthoscurria suina (Araneae.G. 123-159. Quirici V. 1894): Evidences of monandry and polygyny. (eds).E. New Jersey. Quirici V. Acoustic communication and reproductive isolation in spiders. Mating system in the tarantula spider Eupalaestrus weijenberghi (Thorell. Theraphosidae)..S. 1982. Journal of Arachnology. Postiglioni R.. Spider Communication: Mechanisms and Ecological Significance. pp. 138 . & Costa F. Journal of Arachnology.R. Journal of Arachnology. Baruffaldi L. 2005..G. 2007. 2007.G. Princeton University Press. Seismic communication during courtship in two burrowing tarantula spiders: an experimental study on Eupalaestrus weijenberghi and Acnathoscurria suina. A new species of North American tarantula. 20: 189-199. Theraphosidae). Siedlce. Aphonopelma paloma (Araneae. & Costa F. 1992.Book of Abstracts. Zoology. Poland Pérez-Miles F. In: Witt P. Uetz G. & Costa F. Prentice T. 35: 38-45. Mygalomorphae. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Princeton. 33: 159-166.

edu. The individuals were maintained in plastic Petri dishes (9 cm diameter).com. sofia_copp@hotmail. in conjunction with extremely shortened posterior lateral spinnerets (Goloboff 1995). Poland First notes on reproductive biology. myga@fcien. The encounters were videotaped and analyzed with a PC program (Sony Vegas 9. Universidad Nacional Del Sur. Coyle & O´Shields 1990. Sofia Copperi2. Microstigmatidae are ground-dwelling and freeliving spiders that appear to make minimal use of silk and could readily attack and fed upon small insects (Griswold 1985).7°±1. Fernando Pérez-Miles3 & Alda González1 1 Centro de Estudios Parasitológicos y de Vectores CEPAVE (CCT. Argentina.ar 2 Departamento de Biología. Gabriel Pompozzi2. Montevideo. La Plata. gabrielpompozzi@hotmail. Yañez et al. Bioquímica y Farmacia.52°C. Some studies were done on reproductive biology of Mygalomorphae (Coyle 1985. with soil as substratum and a wet cotton wool. Uruguay. nelsonferretti@hotmail. platensis based on three successful matings under laboratory conditions and give some notes on their burrows and egg sacs. Costa & Pérez-Miles 2002. asgonzalez@cepave.CONICET. We carried on five sexual encounters. 1999) but sexual behaviour of Microstigmatidae is up to now unknown.com 3 Facultad de Ciencias. The room temperature during the experiments was 26.com.uy Introduction The Microstigmatidae are characterized by the rounded book-lungs openings. This family comprises 15 species. Few records of natural history and ecology were reported for the Old World microstigmatids (Griswold 1985) and for a Brazilian species (Indicatti et al. Xenonemesia platensis is the only microstigmatid species present in Argentina and only some comments on their habitat have been provided (Goloboff 1988). 2008). 58º15'38"W).0). Material and methods Two males and six females were collected during August 2009 on the Martín García Island (34º11'25"S. Siedlce. Ferretti & Ferrero 2008. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. In the present study we describe the mating behaviour of X.La Plata) (UNLP).edu. the male was gently placed far off from the female position. Then. burrows and egg sacs of the tiny mygalomorph spider Xenonemesia platensis (Araneae: Microstigmatidae) Nelson Ferretti1. Bahía Blanca. All individuals were fed weekly with cockroaches (Blattela germanica). Sección Entomología. 139 . nine of them distributed in the New World (Platnick 2010). The female dish was placed in the centre of a larger glass cylindrical container (19 cm diameter and 10 cm high) with a layer of soil of approximately 6 cm.Book of Abstracts. Argentina.

males vigorously hit the first and second pair of legs of females with his second pair of legs extended. After tapping. The mean number of insertions was 8±6.7 mm width x 8. During the palpal insertion attempts the second pair of legs was pushing the first pair of legs of female and the female’s pedicel was flexed upwards so that the cephalothorax-abdomen angle was 30-50°. Siedlce. After that male escaped. Two egg-clutches were observed in the laboratory. Male tibia. Poland Results Males initiated courtship when contacted with the female body. The temperature inside the burrows was 15°C and the environment temperature was 14°C. In one case. All individuals were found in a shore forest occupying short burrows with little silk covering the walls and the entrance closed with silk and debris. In laboratory they constructed the same shelters as in nature but with more silk covering the walls.66±4. Discussion As far as we know. Some uncommon behaviours are remarkable.73 SD bouts/min with a mean duration of 0. male tarsi contacted with the metatarsi of female. The distal portion of each male tibia without tibial apophyses or megaspines was against the prolateral surface of each female pedipalp base and then begins palpal insertion attempts.38 SD (n=7). The mean duration of copulation was 4. They measured 5 mm width x 8. After copulation females retreated into the burrows.13 SD.06 SD (n=25).85 SD and the velocity was 14 beats per second.4 mm length. males continued courting the female by tapping with legs II and body vibrations. This behaviour consisted in tapping at high frequency in an alternating or synchronous phase. the silk tube entrance ranged from 0.04 SD bouts/min with a mean duration of 1. Differing from 140 . The frequency was 33. metatarsi and tarsi remain extended and the tarsi beat and scrape the second and third coxae of female.5±3. In nature. Both females abandoned their egg sacs between 7 January 2010 and 25 January 2010. the short burrow measured approximately 12 mm. During insertions.8 SD bouts/min and the mean duration was 0.04 min ±1.62s±5. This behaviour had a mean duration of 8. Males then added a new courtship behaviour. Males performed 6±1. The eggs were agglomerated in a sphere without a well developed silk cover.88). The courtship started with body vibrations originated by contractions of the first and second pair of legs followed by fast upward and downward movements of palps in a simultaneous phase.Book of Abstracts. Females remain passive. One female made the egg sac on 23 November 2009 and the other on 16 December 2009. Also males made palpal boxing that consisted in alternating movements of the pedipalp touching the genital zone of the female.6 mm length containing 17 eggs and 6.15 mm ±7.7 SD.92s±0. the males clasped with first pair of legs between palps and chelicerae of the female. After contact.2 SD and their mean duration was 17. and quickly moved legs upward and downward.11 SD (range =3-37.5 mm diameter and its length 16. We observed one female rejection that consisted in vigorous lateral abdominal oscillations with body elevated. the male followed courting her in contact making body vibrations.54s±0. these are the first reports on sexual behaviour of a Microstigmatidae.96s±0. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.8 to 9.61s±18.95 SD (n=6). The males performed 6. they raised the second pair of legs with an angle of 90° between femur and patella.

18: 281-296. however. Behavior. & Pérez-Miles F. Costa & Pérez-Miles 2002. Journal of Arachnology. This male behaviour could additionally inform the female about his good quality and consequently could be interpretable as other mechanism for seduction. Ferretti & Ferrero 2008. Early studies proposed that mygalomorph spiders lacked chemical cues in sexual communication (Baerg 1958. 1985. Ferretti & Ferrero 2008). Kansas. Journal of Arachnology.G. It is possible that the female may be testing male’s copulatory ability. 26: 317-329. 1990. Sexual selection and animal genitalia. 141 . 1985. Journal of Arachnology. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society. Observations on the mating behaviour of the tiny mygalomorph spider. The body vibrations observed in the courtship of X. & Ferrero A. Dipluridae). Courtship and mating behavior of Telochoris karschi (Araneae. Jackson & Pollard 1990).C. platensis could be similar to those observed in some theraphosids (Costa & Pérez-Miles 2002.Book of Abstracts. platensis the vibration is generated by first and second pair of legs instead of pair III involved in theraphosids. as suggested by Eberhard (1985). Short Communication: Courtship and mating behavior of Grammostola schulzei (Schmidt 1994) a burrowing tarantula from Argentina. platensis was not reported in mygalomorphs (Costa & Pérez-Miles 1998. Coyle F. Harvard. Mygalomorphae. Journal of Arachnology. Ferretti & Ferrero 2008) but in X.A. Reproductive biology of Uruguayan theraphosids (Araneae. Platnick 1971). Harvard Univ. 88 pp. platensis were the brusque movements of the palp and the scraping with legs II during courtship that were not reported in any other mygalomorph spider. Our findings in X.J. 36: 480-483. The Tarantula. 6(8): 328-330. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. life cycle and webs of Mecicobothrium thorelli (Araneae. Massachusetts. Theraphosidae). Costa F. 1958. Lawerence. & O’Shields T. Coyle F. Press. The male courtship in copula observed in X. more recent studies reported the presence of pheromone associated with silk threads of females (Costa & Pérez-Miles 2002.G. Ferretti N. Microhexura montivaga Crosby & Bishop (Araneae. 1998. University of Kansas Press.E . Dipluridae). 30: 571-587.A. Poland most known mygalomorphs the male did not started courtship when contact female silk but only after contact with female. The brusque movements of palps could be similar to the “twitching” observed in a diplurid (Coyle & O´Shields 1990) which consisted in separate sudden flexions or extensions of one or more legs or palps. & Pérez-Miles F. monitoring his performance not only in genital stimulation. an African funnel web spider. 2008. Siedlce. Others remarkable behaviours in X. References Baerg W. platensis could reveal the absence of pheromone associated to silk. Eberhard W. Mecicobothriidae). Costa F. 2002.

Litter dwelling mygalomorph spiders (Araneae: Microstigmatidae. Mygalomorphae). Indicatti R.amnh. 1971. Mygalomorphae). Locht A.D.5. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society. The world spider catalog. 16: 357-363. 224: 1-189. 1999. & Macías-Ordóñez R. Siedlce.html. Lucas S. 2010. 27: 165-170. Annals of the Natal Museum.E. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. un nuevo genero de Nemesiidae (Araneae.P. with the description of five new species. Xenonemesia. Griswold C. A revision of the African spiders of the family Microstigmatidae (Araneae: Mygalomorphae). Poland Goloboff P. Goloboff P. Platnick N.A. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 142 . Nemesiidae) from Araucaria Forests in Southern Brazil. Argentina. The evolution of courtship behavior in spiders. Courtship and mating behavior of Brachypelma klassi (Araneae.org/entomology/spiders/catalog81-87/index. Platnick N.. AMNH. 1995. version 10. Theraphosidae). Journal of Arachnology. Ott R.. Chile. A revision of the South American spiders of the family Nemesiidae (Araneae. 1988.I. and Uruguay. & Brescovit A.M..Book of Abstracts. Yañez M. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia. Journal of Arachnology. 27(1): 1-37.A. 2008. 2: 40-70. at www: http://research. Part I: species from Peru. 25(3): 529-546. 1985.

The Western Balkans have relict and diverse populations of subgenus Alpiscorpius (= “mingrelicus” complex). The collaborative international work is under way to obtain a detailed molecular and morphological phylogeny of these species and their populations.edu Biodiversity Institute of Ontario. gblagoev@uoguelph. 2003) emerges as a fast and universal DNA marker technique at species level. Guelph. Blagoev2. 1876 (Euscorpiidae) has been problematic for decades (Hadži 1930.Book of Abstracts. Canada. University of Guelph. italicus and E. DNA markers show that E. “DNA barcoding” (using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I gene. Slovenia. A picture that emerges of scorpions in the Balkans is that of a diverse and rich group. hadzii (Fet & Soleglad. and Romania. tergestinus. other. Poland DNA barcoding of the Balkan scorpions: preliminary results Victor Fet1. Caporiacco 1950) but DNA markers show that this genus indeed contained a not-so-hidden diversity. We estimate that at least 15-20 species of Euscorpius inhabit the Balkan Peninsula. 2002) likely include several species. Ontario. Faculty of Natural Sciences & Mathematics. and study of old museum material. absent from most of mainland Greece and Aegean islands. Gergin A.com Our understanding of traditional scorpion taxa at all levels is changing rapidly and considerably due to introduction of modern methods of analysis (both morphological and molecular). USA. Croatia. intensive new collection. Skopje. University of Guelph. WV. Siedlce. 50 populations of Euscorpius sequenced. discovery of new important characters.ca 3 Biodiversity Institute of Ontario. Ontario. At least three Euscorpius species live in Bulgaria. Montenegro.ca 4 Macedonian Ecological Society. Republic of Macedonia. less understood groups such as E. fet@marshall. Institute of Biology. Our pilot survey with optimized PCR and sequencing primers and automated barcoding protocol included ca. The preliminary show the correct species-level recovery of several well-defined species such as E. with various trends of speciation and endemism. Guelph. Marshall University. Canada. tergestinus in Austria was introduced from Slovenia. Further studies are being conducted on Greek fauna. nivanova@uoguelph. Natalia Ivanova3 & Marjan Komnenov4 1 2 Department of Biological Sciences. 2006). Introduction by humans likely plays role for many Euscorpius (Fet et al. Hebert et al. mkomnenov@yahoo. often sympatrically. 143 . and also from Serbia. The genus Euscorpius Thorell. mainly from Bulgaria and Macedonia. this method is now gaining momentum in applied systematics and species identification of Arachnida. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.

This confirms a previous field study estimating selection in this species and means that the period of mate search likely selects for large size in this species with relatively small males. In A. Ontario. Further. Adelphi University. Universidad de Oviedo. 90°). 45°. and has recently been revised. New York. Oviedo. Departamento de Biología de Organismos y Sistemas. NY. the size effect was largely due to bigger males having longer legs and thus being capable of wider strides. 67. The gravity hypothesis for the evolution of extreme SSD has been particularly controversial. The revised gravity hypothesis (rGH) predicts a curvilinear pattern for the relationship between body size and achievable climbing speed with an optimal climbing speed for spiders with a body mass of about 43 mg. aurantia. Foellmer1. 144 . larger males were faster climbers. Poland Testing the revised gravity hypothesis for body size evolution in a highly dimorphic orb-web spider: larger dwarfs climb faster Matthias W. Siedlce.5°. above 43 mg this relationship is predicted to become negative. Asturias. Spain The adaptive significance of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in spiders is of great interest for evolutionary biologists. 22. males fall well below the 43 mg threshold. Canada 3 Cantabrian Institute of Biodiversity. Michael Marson2 & Jordi Moya-Laraño3 1 2 Department of Biology. These results are not in agreement with recent studies on other orb-weavers. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.edu Department of Biology. Foellmer@adelphi. and ran faster at all other angles as well. Here we test the rGH using the highly dimorphic orb-weaver Argiope aurantia by inducing males to run on dowels suspended at five different angles (0°. Peterborough.5°.Book of Abstracts. because spiders are the terrestrial animal taxon that exhibits the greatest range and the most extreme cases of SSD. Trent University. due to the superior locomotory performance of larger males. Below 43 mg spiders are predicted to show a positive relationship between body size and climbing speed. USA. As predicted. We discuss possible reasons for the discrepancies as well as the broader evolutionary implications.

Poland Towards a standardized and optimized protocol for rapid biodiversity assessments: spider species richness and assemblage composition in two savanna vegetation types Stefan H. Dippenaar-Schoeman2 & Edward M. Muelelwa1. Queenswood and Department of Entomology and Zoology. Foord1. University of Pretoria. South Africa 3 National Zoological Gardens of South Africa. Seasonality only affected abundance and richness. respectively. The fit to a lognormal distribution suggests that there are 370 species (750 000 individuals) and 445 (850 000 individuals) species in the universes (16 ha) sampled within the two vegetation types. Inventory completeness was more than 70%. Stam3 1 2 Department of Zoology. We collected 1328 adult spiders representing 186 species of which 31% were singletons in the BNR vegetation type and 909 spiders in 222 species of which 41% were singletons in the WSC vegetation type. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. comprised of five methods (vegetation beating. Sampling methods used had the biggest effect on our results. Siedlce.Book of Abstracts. Mulalo I. These results are used to design an optimized sampling protocol for standardized inventories in the Savanna Biome. aerial hand collecting. 25 pitfall traps were left open for a total of 20 days in each of the eight plant communities. South Africa ARC-Plant Protection Research Institute. Two hundred and ninety six samples of one person-hour work each. whereas time of day had a very small yet significant effect. ground hand collecting and leaf litter sifting) were divided between four relatively homogenous sites (plant communities) within a vegetation type of the BNR and WSC. Thohoyandou. but not assemblage composition. Pretoria and the Mammal Research Institute. 145 . The number of species present was estimated using six estimators. The estimates varied between 233 – 307 for the BNR and 302 – 386 for the WSC. sweep netting. South Africa. 200 in total. In addition. University of Pretoria. Ansie S. University of Venda. an average of 37 per site. Collector experience had no effect on the results of the inventory. South Africa A semi-quantitative inventory of spider diversity was done in the Blouberg Nature Reserve (BNR) and Western Soutpansberg Conservancy (WSC) situated in the Savanna Biome of the Limpopo Province.

2007). pacificus (Sharma and Singh 1957). Jiří Král1 & Charles R. Siedlce. X1X20) from Punjab. Faculty of Science. 2007) and S. Hybridisation of such different forms will not produce the fertile offspring. cytogenetic data suggest that the social species S. the genus Stegodyphus is remarkable by three independent origins of permanent sociality from subsocial ancestors (Kraus and Kraus 1988. Department of Genetics and Microbiology. We found an analogical situation in African S. Populations of S. The evolution of social behaviour in Stegodyphus is accompanied by an acceleration of chromosome changes. mimosarum. we compare our results with published data on Stegodyphus karyotypes. Johanessen et al. Amongst these. Sharma & Parida 1987. S. males from Tanzania (Dar es Salaam) have only 24 chromosomes. Prague. 146 . Bloemfontein. including sex chromosomes X1 and X2. the chromosomes show acrocentric morphology. A common trend in the evolution in entelegynes is the reduction of diploid numbers. The presence of speciation events in social eresids contradicts the traditional view that considers sociality in spiders to be an 2 The research was supported by Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences (project no. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. In contrast to this. in our study or published studies. two very different karyotypes have been found in two species of social eresids. Consistent with most entelegyne spiders studied so far. current study). The ancestral male karyotype of Stegodyphus consists of 30 chromosomes. Haddad2 1 Laboratory of Arachnid Cytogenetics. IAA601110808). sarasinorum from central and south India possess a 2n♂=30. which is reflected in the unusually high range of diploid counts. sarasinorum represent complexes of at least two species. X1X20 (Bole-Gowda 1958. Mittal (1970) reported specimens with a reduced chromosome number (2n♂=24. Therefore. While the population from South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal) exhibits the typical ancestral Stegodyphus karyotype of 2n♂=30. Downsizing of 2n is most likely achieved through tandem fusions. namely S. mimosarum and S. Czech Republic 2 Department of Zoology and Entomology. Charles University. africanus. X1X20.cz Sociality in spiders is a rare phenomenon reported in about 20 species from seven families. Interestingly. In general.Book of Abstracts. University of the Free State. This chromosome constitution was found in most subsocial Stegodyphus species. South Africa. karyotypes of most entelegyne lineages are conservative. dufouri (Forman et al. Hence. showing similar diploid counts and acrocentric morphology of all chromosome pairs. formivelkejpan@seznam. Stegodyphus displays an X1X20 sex chromosome system (resulting in X1X2 in males and X1X1X2X2 in females). Poland The cytogenetic approach reveals speciation events in social spiders Stegodyphus (Araneae: Eresidae) 2 Martin Forman1. In all eight species so far analyzed.

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evolutionary dead end. On the other hand, these findings are in agreement with recent findings about the evolutionary stability of sociality and the high genetic divergence in social Stegodyphus species (Johanessen et al. 2007, Johannessen et al. 2009). In contrast to other social species of the genus, no karyotype differences have been found in populations of S. dumicola from Namibia and South Africa. Males of all populations display 26 chromosomes including an X1X20 system (Avilés et al. 1999; current study). Interestingly, we found the same diploid count in a related subsocial species, S. tentoriicola. Finally, subsocial S. lineatus differs remarkably in its karyotype (2n♂=43, X1X2X30) from other Stegodyphus species particularly the additional male sex chromosome and diploid number. The chromosome constitution of S. lineatus is similar to that which we found in three burrowing South African eresids (Gandanameno sp. 2n♂=38, X1X20, Paradonea sp. 2n♀=46, and Dresserus kannemeyeri 2n♂=40, X1X20). Thus, its placement in Stegodyphus should be revised. Based on our data, we speculate about the basal position of S. lineatus in the family Eresidae. References Avilés L., Varas C., Dyreson E. 1999. Does the African social spider Stegodyphus dumicola control the sex of individual offspring? Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology, 46: 237-243. Bole-Gowda B.N. 1958. A study of the chromosomes during meiosis in twentytwo species of Indian spiders. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of Bengal, 11: 69-108. Forman M., Král J., Musilová J., Lubin Y. 2007. Karyotype study of social species of the spider genus Stegodyphus Simon, 1873 (Araneae: Eresidae). In: Rocha R.P., (ed), 17th International Congress of Arachnology; São Pedro, São Paulo, Brasil, p. 244. Johannesen J., Lubin Y., Smith D.R., Bilde T., Schneider J.M. 2007. The age and evolution of sociality in Stegodyphus spiders: a molecular phylogenetic perspective. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences, 274: 231-237. Johannesen J., Wickler W., Seibt U., Moritz R. 2009. Population history in social spiders repeated: colony structure and lineage evolution in Stegodyphus mimosarum (Eresidae) Molecular Ecology, 18: 2812-2818. Kraus O., Kraus M. 1988. The genus Stegodyphus (Arachnida: Araneae). Sibling species, species groups and parallel origin of social living. Verhandlungen des naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins Hamburg, 30: 151-254. Mittal O.P. 1970. Karyological studies on the Indian spiders. IX. Chromosome constitution in two cribellate species. Genetica, 41: 575-580. Sharma G. P., Singh S. 1957. Cytological studies on the Indian spiders I. Chromosome complement and male meiosis in Stegodyphus specificus. Research Bulletin of Punjab University, 8: 389-393. Sharma N., Parida B.B. 1987. Study of chromosomes in spiders from Orissa. Pranikee, 8: 71-76.

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Antimicrobial activity of scent gland exudates in Cyphophthalmus duricorius (Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi: Sironidae)
Petra Föttinger1,2, Günter Fauler3, Helmut Bergler4, Günther Koraimann4, Hans-Jörg Leis2 & Günther Raspotnig1,2
1

Institute of Zoology, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Austria, petra.foettinger@unigraz.at 2 Research Unit of Osteology and Analytical Mass Spectrometry, Medical University Graz, Austria, hans.leis@meduni-graz.at, guenther.raspotnig@uni-graz.at 3 Clinical Institute of Medical and Chemical Laboratory Diagnostics, Medical University Graz, Austria, guenter.fauler@meduni-graz.at 4 Institute of Molecular Biosciences, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Austria, helmut.bergler@uni-graz.at, guenther.koraimann@uni-graz.at,

Introduction Like all other harvestmen, Cyphophthalmus duricorius possesses a prosomal exocrine gland system, the so-called defence or scent glands which emit repellent exudates against predators. In case of being mechanically irritated, the harvestman discharges large, brownish droplets of secretion from the gland openings. Subsequently, the opilionid dips its legs II into the secretion and transfers it to the offender, a behaviour referred to as ‘leg dabbing’ (Juberthie 1961). Chemical analysis of scent gland secretion of C. duricorius exhibited a bouquet of at least 24 components belonging to the two chemical classes of methylketones and naphthoquinones (Raspotnig et al. 2005). Some of the constituents, especially chloronaphthoquinones, proved to be unique among exocrine exudates of arthropods. Naphthoquinones and their numerous derivatives have already been known as biologically active agents since the late 1940ies (Hoffmann-Ostenhof et al. 1947, Silver & Holmes 1967, Ambrogi et al. 1970). The first opilionid scent gland secretion experimentally applied to different strains of bacteria and to protozoa in order to elucidate its antimicrobial potential was that of the South American laniatorean Acanthopachylus aculeatus. Estable et al. (1955) found that the secretion’s alkylated benzoquinones were highly effective against gram+and gram- bacteria as well as against different murine intestinal parasites. In the study at hand, we investigated 1) the antimicrobial potency of the Cyphophthalmus-secretion against various microorganisms, and 2) the capability of C. duricorius to spontaneously release secretion as preventive measure against microorganisms. Material and methods The antimicrobial activity of both whole secretion and single synthetic secretion constituents was studied qualitatively by Kirby-Bauer tests (zone of
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inhibition tests) and quantitatively by the fold broth dilution method determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). We tested the main compounds 1,4-naphthoquinone, 2-undecanone, and 2tridecanone which were purchasable at Sigma Aldrich. 4-chloro-1,2naphthoquinone was synthesised according to the protocol of Perumal & Bhatt 1980 and purified to a degree of 95%. Absolute ethanol served as a blank in the antibiotic assays. The test strains Escherichia coli J5 (Prof. Leisinger, Zurich), Staphylococcus aureus ATTC 29067, Klebsiella pneumoniae DSM 681 Salmonella typhimurium TR 5655, and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY 4741 EUROCAT were provided by the Institute of Molecular Biosciences Graz, Austria. Furthermore, five bacterial strains were isolated from a soil sample, taken from one of the habitats of C. duricorius. These strains were identified by 16S rRNA-sequencing as Acinetobacter sp., Bacillus cereus, Enterobacter/Citrobacter sp., Microbacterium arborescens, and Staphylococcus carnosus. In order to study a possible stimulation of secretion release triggered by the respective microorganisms, individuals of C. duricorius were placed on inoculated agar plates (and pure agar plates as a reference) and were then monitored hourly. Results Kirby-Bauer tests using substance concentrations far above the physiological level showed that all of the gram-negative bacterial strains were unsusceptible to the whole secretion and the two methylketones tested. In contrast, both 1,4-naphthoquinone and 4-chloro-1,2-naphthoquinone lead to distinct zones of inhibition. Quantitative tests were performed with grampositive bacteria and yeast: MIC of whole secretion constantly amounted for 2 mg/ml for bacteria, and 1 mg/ml for yeast. These concentrations correspond to the total secretion volume of ten individuals of C. duricorius. MIC of undecanone was 16 mg/ml for all bacteria and 8 mg/ml for yeast. MICs of the two naphthoquinones ranged from 0,3 (yeast) to 1,2 mg/ml (St. aureus/St. carnosus). However, none of the gram-positive bacterial strains or yeast reacted to tridecanone. Ethanol blanks did not lead to growth inhibition. Preliminary studies revealed that - following mechanical irritation - ‘leg dabbing’ and distribution of secretion over the body surface of C. duricorius were simultaneous events. Also exposure to bacteria and yeast resulted in permanent coverage with a liquid film, indicating constant emission of secretion. Discussion Naphthoquinones are well known for their antimicrobial activity, especially if nucleus and/or side chains are halogenated (Ambrogi et al. 1970). They act as bacterial growth inhibitors by functioning competitively in electron transport with endogenous ubiquinone (Silver & Holmes 1968). Thus, it was not surprising that naphthoquinones play a major role in the antibiotic activity of the gland secretion of C. duricorius. Contrary to our expectations, also
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methylketones inhibit growth of gram-positive bacteria and yeast which has never been reported so far. It would be of high interest, whether also other ketone constituents, particularly unsaturated ones, exhibit biological activity. Usually, development of a secretion film over the harvestman’s body corresponds to irritation by an offender, probably in order to maintain the deterrent effect of the volatile exudates. First results of the bioassays suggest that the opilionid also constantly releases secretion, if confronted with microorganisms. Since C. duricorius typically occurs in the litter and soil of mixed forests and therefore inhibits a microorgansim-rich environment, a secretion film might serve a primary protective barrier against bacteria and fungi. References Ambrogi V., Artini D., de Carneri I., Castellino S., Dradi E., Logemann W., Meinardi G., Di Somma M. & Tosolini G. 1970. Studies on the antibacterial and antifungal properties of 1,4-naphthoquinones. British Journal of Pharmacology, 40: 871-880. Estable C., Ardao M.I., Brasil N.P. & Fieser L.F. 1955. Gonyleptidine. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 77: 4942. Hoffmann-Ostenhof O., Wertheimer P. & Gratzl K. 1947. Die Wirkung von Chinonen auf das Hefewachstum. Experientia, 3: 327-328. Juberthie C. 1961. Structure des glandes odorantes et modalités d’utilisation de leur sécrétion chez deux opilions cyphophthalmes. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France, 86: 106-116. Perumal P.T. & Bhatt M.V. 1980. Oxidation of halophenols and highly substituted phenols with lead (IV) acetate. Synthesis, 11: 943-945. Raspotnig G., Fauler G., Leis M. & Leis H.-J. 2005. Chemical profiles of scent gland secretion in the cyphophthalmid opilionid harvestmen, Siro duricorius and S. exilis. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 31: 1353-1368. Silver R.F. & Holmes H.L. 1968. Synthesis of some 1,4-naphthoquinones and reactions relating to their use in the study of bacterial growth inhibition. Canadian Journal of Chemistry, 46: 1859.

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Salt lake cities underground – systematics and ecology of the Australian wolf spider genus Tetralycosa (Araneae: Lycosidae)
Volker W. Framenau1 & Peter Hudson2
1 2

Western Australian Museum, volker.framenau@museum.wa.gov.au South Australian Museum, Peter.Hudson@samuseum.sa.gov.au

Australia is arguably the driest continent on earth and its arid interior is characterised by ephemeral salt lakes with a very specialized fauna, including wolf spiders of the genus Tetralycosa (subfamily Artoriinae). The genus contains a total of 13 species and a phylogenetic analysis identified a monophyletic clade of eight species that live permanently on the surface of salt lakes suggesting that this habitat of extreme environmental conditions was invaded only once during the evolutionary history of the genus. Of the five basal, non-salt lake inhabiting representatives, T. oraria exclusively inhabits coastal beaches and sand dunes, whereas the other four species are found at inland water bodies with generally high salt content, including mound springs of the Great Artesian Basin in South Australia and samphire flats. The salt lake inhabiting species survive their extreme environment possible by constructing characteristic off-set burrows in the muddy bed of dry lakes that usually extend down to the saline water table. A plug of mud often seals the burrows. In summer, the spiders usually backfill the entire upper burrow with mud acquired during the process of excavating a new upper entrance in the opposite direction to that of the old. Humidity is maintained by the presence of water at the bottom of the burrow. During particularly hot weather burrow entrances are plugged which also offers some protection from predators and presumably flooding.

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Effects of experimental fire regimes on the diversity of cursorial spiders in Brazilian savannah (cerrado vegetation)
Geraldo B. Freire Jr. & Paulo C. Motta
Universidade de Brasília, Brazil, geraldo_freire@yahoo.com.br, mottapc@unb.br

Introduction The Brazilian savannah, called “cerrado”, covers some 2 million km2 of Central Brazil and includes various types of vegetation, a mix of woody and herbaceous plants. After the Amazon Forest, it is the second biggest Brazilian biome and has well-defined climate with strong dry winter (approximately May to September). Fire is the most prevalent form of disturbance in the cerrado and it is extremely important for this environment that has a long and varied history of burning. This kind of abiotic disturbance would affect patterns of diversity. The basic idea of the “intermediate disturbance hypothesis” of Connell is that the highest diversity is maintained at intermediate levels of disturbance by preventing competitively dominant species from excluding others. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of frequency and season of the prescribed burns on cursorial spiders. We used abundance, richness, equitability, community composition and diversity as parameters to measure these effects. Material and methods We used pitfall traps in five experimental areas (200 m x 500 m) of Cerrado sensu stricto (Reserva Ecológica do Roncador, Brasília/DF, Brazil) submitted to different burning regimes (season and frequency): control area (CT) preserved from fire for at least 36 years; early biennial (EB): burning every two years in early dry season, late June; modal biennial (MB): burning in the middle of the dry season, early August; late biennial (LB): burning at the end of September; modal quadrennial (MQ): burning every four years in the middle of the dry season (early August). The last burning of quadrennial plot occurred in August 2007 and in the biennial plots in July, August and September 2008. In each plot were installed ten sets of traps, each of four containers (35 litres) buried in the ground with its rim at surface level. The traps were placed in a "Y" with drift fences (6m long) and were open for five days every month. Each month is considered a sample (n=19, April 2007 to October 2008). Statistical analysis Sampling effort: rarefactions with the values of Mao Tau and the Jacknife 1, with 1000 randomizations without replacement (Estimates). Abundance: ANOVA (p<0.05) and the Tukey test to indicate which pairs are different. The abundance values were transformed in logarithmic (log (x+1)).
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Richness: Kruskal-Wallis for testing hypotheses for Mao Tau and Jacknife 1, and Behrens Fisher as pos hoc. Equitability: Pielou index with ANOVA (R-2.10.0, R Development Core Team). Diversity: Profile of Rényi (Ha), MANOVA and discriminant analysis. Similarity: Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (Bray-Curtis distance). Results The total sampling effort, considering the 95 samples, was adequate to capture most species of the community since the asymptote was obtained by the 50th sample as indicated by the rarefaction curve of Mao Tau. We collected 4.315 individuals (2.413 males, 637 females and 1.265 juveniles) were Lycosidae (2.048 specimens) represents 47.5% of total abundance. We collected 50 species of 26 families and the most abundant species were Alopecosa sp. 2 (431 individuals), Leprolochus cf. birabeni (236), Trochosa sp. (183), Ctenidae sp. 1 (147), Lycosidae sp. 11 (103), Actinopus sp. 1 (85) and Hogma gumia (67). The control area, with 1457 individuals, was the most abundant, followed by EB (879), MB (812), MQ (634) and LB (573). The treatments were significantly different in relation to abundance (F4,90: 2.6; p < 0.05) and the control plot has higher abundance compared to LB. The plots have similar richness (EB, 44; MQ, 43; MB, 39; LB, 36; CT, 36; F4,90: 0.19, p=0.94). The treatments were significantly different based on the Jacknife 1 (Kruskal Wallis - H: 18.73; fd: 4; p<0.01) indicating that the plots EB and MQ have more estimated species number than CT and LB (p<0.05). The control plot presents the smallest equitability differing from all biennial fire regimes (EB, MB e LB) (Pielou, F4,90: 5.4; p<0.001). The Rényi’s equitability indicated LB and MB with more homogeneous distribution, followed by EB and MQ with identical values and, like Pielou index, CT has more dominance, that is, smaller equitability. The diversity index (Rényi) among the treatments are significantly different (α=2; F4,82: 2.94 ; p=0.02). The treatments LB, MB e MQ show more diversity than the control area (p<0.05). There is a tendency to more diversity in EB in comparison to control (p=0.06). There are differences among the treatments in relation to species composition (MANOVA – Pillai’s trace 2.55; p<0.01) and the first two principal axes explain 80% of total variation. The control area is characterized by more abundance of the three most representative species in first canonical axis (Alopecosa sp. 2, Actinopus sp. 1 and Lycosa sp. 3). The LB area, on the other hand, has the Hogna sp. 1, Cybaeodamus sp. 1 and Xeropigo sp. as the most important species in explaining the second axis. The hierarchical cluster analysis indicated the composition of the soil spiders in two distinct groups (Mantel r=0.97, p<0.01), one containing the area preserved from fire, and the other areas subjected to different regimes of burning. Regarding the second group, there was the separation of LB area and high similarity between EB with MB and MQ, the last two being very similar in species composition.

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Conclusions There was no significant difference between the abundances of different burning regimes (EB, MB, LB and MQ). However, there was significant reduction of this parameter in the LB compared to CT. This suggests that the time of burning may be more influential than the frequency on the reduction of abundance. Burning supports increasing the richness and evenness, with the largest number of species of cursorial spiders in areas with burning at the beginning and the middle of the dry season (EB and MQ) and without a clear differentiation between the regimes of fire for evenness, although there is a trend to more homogeneous distributions in areas with burning in the middle or the end of the dry season. There is no support to the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis for firing frequency, since the intermediate area of burning (every four years), despite showing a higher value of diversity in relation to the control area, does not differ from the modal biennial area (MB). Similarly, the frequency does not corroborate the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis based on season of burning, since the area with burning in the middle of the dry season (MB) did not have more diversity compared to other treatments (EB and LB). We found a greater similarity between the areas with different burning regimes than between them and the control area. The high similarity between the MB and MQ areas is indicative that compared to the frequency, timing of burning has more influence on the cursorial spiders. Knowing that moisture loss from the fuel available for combustion occurs throughout the dry season, it is expected that burns in the same season promote similar effects on the vegetation which indirectly influences the spiders similarity, as observed in this study.

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On dwarfs and trees - the Savignia genus group (Araneae: Linyphiidae: Erigoninae)
Holger Frick1, Wolfgang Nentwig2 & Christian Kropf1
1

Natural History Museum Bern, Department of Invertebrates, Bern, Switzerland, holger.frick@students.unibe.ch, Christian.kroph@iee.unibe.ch 2 University of Bern, Institute of Ecology and Evolution, Bern, Switzerland, wolfganf.nentwig@zos.unibe.ch

We show that morphology-based phylogenies can resolve long lasting systematic problems of highly diverse and morphologically complex taxa. The Savignia-group sensu stricto is a morphologically homogenous group of seven genera (136 species in total) with obscure systematics and unknown phylogenetic relations on species-level. Former analyses on the genus level phylogeny of erigonine spiders showed that the genera are closely related. Expansion of these analyses by refining the taxon sampling within genera resulted in hundreds of most parsimonious trees with ambiguous relations among the newly added taxa. The limit of adding new taxa without adding new characters to these matrices has been exceeded. However, the copulatory organs of erigonine spiders and of members of the Savignia-group especially, are very complex. We restrict the taxon sample to the Savignia-group genera plus outgroup taxa and scored 216 new characters to account for similarities among these species. Based on the principle of total evidence, we included also 80 informative characters from former analyses. This resulted in 36 most parsimonious trees resolving the phylogeny of 72 taxa with ambiguous relations in only four polytomous nodes. We considered 60 ingroup taxa out of 158 species belonging to these genera. The average Bremer-support was 4.5 (median 3). Based on the synapomorphies of highly supported nodes we redescribe the genera Savignia, Diplocephalus, Araeoncus, Erigonella, Dicymbium and Glyphesis. While the genera are well supported, their interrelationships are not. Genera with simpler genital morphology emerged at the base of the cladogram. Simplified, the ingroup generic relationships of the Savignia-group sensu stricto are Glyphesis (Dicymbium (Araeoncus (Diastanillus (Diplocephalus (Erigonella (Hemistajus, Savignia)))))).

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Harvestmen (Opiliones) as hosts of terrestrial Parasitengona (Acari: Actinotrichida) larvae
Grzegorz Gabryś1, Magdalena Felska2 & Joanna Mąkol2,3
1

Department of Zoology, University of Zielona Góra, Zielona Góra, Poland, g.gabrys@wnb.uz.zgora.pl 2 Institute of Biology, Department of Invertebrate Systematics and Ecology, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland, joanna.makol@up.wroc.pl 3 Institute of Natural Sciences, Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland

Parasitengona constitute one of the most numerous and the most diverse group of mites. At a rough estimate there are at least 9000 described (nominal) species that represent more than 800 genera, 60 families, and 15 superfamilies. More than half of them, i.e. circa 5000 species, belong to Parasitengona aquatica (= Hydracarina, Hydrachnellae, or Hydrachnidia), the "water mites". The remaining taxa belong to Parasitengona terrestria (= Trombidia), the "velvet mites". Unquestionably, the chigger mites - Trombiculidae (comprising Trombiculinae and Leeuwenhoekiinae) are the most abundant within Parasitengona terrestria. Trombiculinae consist of more than 3000 species of 221 genera, whereas Leeuwenhoekiinae comprise 212 species of 35 genera. The remaining several hundred species are the so called "non-chiggers terrestrial Parasitengona". The life cycle of Trombidia consists of seven stages, including three active ones: adult, deutonymph, and larva. The egg, prelarva, protonymph, and tritonymph are inactive calyptostadia. The active postlarval instars of Parasitengona terrestria are predatory and they feed on insect eggs, larvae, and pupae as well as on other small arthropods. The majority of heteromorphic larvae (excl. Calyptostomatidae) are parasites on invertebrates. The identified host species belong to Coleoptera, Diptera, Orthoptera, Lepidoptera, Trichoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera, Hymenoptera, Thysanoptera, Dermaptera, Isoptera, Psocoptera, Mecoptera, Odonata, Blattodea, Collembola, Microcoryphia, Thysanura, Chilopoda, Diplopoda, Solifugae, Pseudoscorpiones, Araneae, Acari, and Opiliones. In the present work, an attempt to collect and systematize all data on Parasitengona terrestria parasitizing Opiliones has been made. The literature data was supplemented with new records of parasitic relationships, parasitic taxa, and host species from various zoogeographical regions.

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Ero tuberculata. 2008-0309 “Development scenarios of representative landscape ecosystems in the Slovak Republic considering global changes“. etc. Meioneta saxatilis. These structures create very good living conditions for high biodiversity of the arachnofauna and occurrence of many rare and threatened spider species. more than 20 species are listed in the Red List of Spiders of Slovakia in different categories of threat (e. utilization.). Walckenaeria alticeps. Nitra Branch. During one year research more than 10 000 spider specimens belonging to more than 200 species were captured. Slovakia Authors summarise the research results on epigeic spider fauna in 3 model areas representing 3 types of the traditionally used agricultural landscapes: vineyards in Svätý Jur.sk 2 Faculty of Natural Sciences. Echemus angustifrons. Nitra. Nitra. shape. nrukgajd@savba. Gonatium rubens. Constantine the Philosopher University. Dysdera crocata. Megalepthyphantes collinus. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. From a structural perspective they represent a mosaic of small-scale arable fields. 157 . agricultural forms of relief (balks). Theonina cornix. High richness of the spider fauna and occurrence of the rare and threatened species for Slovakia allocate on high biotic value of the model areas of agricultural landscape. pastures and permanent agricultural cultivations and their size. orientation. margins of cross field tracks and other characteristics as well as regional or local differentiations which are the results of interactions between natural conditions. Dipoena erythropus. Walckenaeria acuminata. Acartauchenius scurrilis. project No.g. Zelotes gracilis. distribution. geographical position. Erigonella hiemalis. Gnaphosa modestior. Meioneta simplicitarsis.Book of Abstracts. Peponocranium orbiculatum. Poland Influence of the historical structures of agricultural landscape on diversity of the epigeic spider communities 3 Peter Gajdoš1 & Lenka Dankaninová2 1 Institute of Landscape Ecology. Altella lucida. mountain agricultural landscape with dispersed settlement in Hriňová and the mountain meadows and pastures in Liptovská Teplička. Selected investigated plots are typical historical structures which were chosen as characteristic for 3 researched types of the Slovakian landscape. Of the identified species. Slovakia. Haplodrassus dalmatensis. The spider communities have been investigated on 55 study plots by pitfall traps in 2009. Slovak Academy of Sciences. culturalhistorical and economical development. Ecological relationships of spider species to individual historical structures were evaluated. vineyards. Pocadicnemis juncea. Xysticus kempeleni. Siedlce. meadows. Presented results together with the results of further research concerning the historical structures of agricultural landscape will serve as a background for preparation of documentation or legislation aiming in protection of these 3 The research was supported by the financial mechanism of EEA.

due to abandonment of these structures. following succession of forest and urban pressure. Siedlce.Book of Abstracts. 158 . decline or even irreversible loss of biodiversity linked to such specific biotopes will be the result. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. The reason for it is the real risk that in near future. Poland biotopes.

rather than ducts. Using a comparative approach. The results will help to formulate new homology hypotheses for epigynal structural elements across taxa and to provide new morphologic data for phylogenic reconstruction. In present study. Poland Epigynal morphology of Entelegynae and its evolutionary implications Jie Gao & Lihong Tu gaojiexyyt@163. are formed by a pair of grooves. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Our observations confirmed the widespread occurrence of epigynal grooves in Entelegynae. The entelegyne epigyna. at least in some groups. tulh@ioz.com.Book of Abstracts. 159 . we sampled more than 30 representative species from over 20 spider families including both duct-model and groovemodel epigyna. Recently published morphological data on “micronetine” female genitalia indicate that our knowledge of spider epigynal morphology based on transmitted light microscopy data is largely incomplete and somewhat misleading.ac. It is widely accepted that the haplogyne condition is plesiomorphic for all Araneae. we inferred the basic formation of the entelegyne epigynum and variation patterns in different groups.cn Two types of spider epigynum have been recognized: haplogyne and entelegyne. Several haplogyne groups nested with entelegyne clade made the monophyly of entelegynae more ambiguous. Siedlce.

where ants even several times bigger than spiders are consumed (Pekár 2004.2. 2005.2 & Carmen Viera1. Pekár & Lubin 2009. (2007). The prey was identified and classified into walking and flying following Longhorn and Triplehorn (2004). templi Cambridge 1876 (Debski 1923). navus living in urban area of Montevideo. The principal prey items were ants (70%) and were followed by lygaeids and aphids (6% each). The high consumption of ants agrees with previous observations of Glatz (1967) and Voss et al. Only one prey per web and resident adult female spiders were collected. 1859 is a cosmopolitan species frequently associated to urban areas (Voss et al.com The spider Oecobius navus Blackwall. Until now there are no studies related to the prey composition on species of this family. Aspects related 160 . Poland Prey records of Oecobius navus Blackwall. navus was collected from 141 webs in four different localities of the Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable. Universidad de la República. the biology of most of species remains poorly understood. and although it could not be identified due to poor preservation. 2007). The spiders were consuming the prey on the moment they were observed or the prey carcasses of recently consumed items were attached to the web. but it was not an oecobiid spider.3. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. We recorded 141 preys. 1859 (Araneae: Oecobiidae) associated to urban area in Montevideo. Mariángeles Lacava1. 2008). This could result from the fact that spiders build web at the substrate level as walkers. Here. no cases of cannibalism were reported. Only one specimen of the order Araneae was consumed. For the genus Oecobius only few studies on general aspects of the biology of O.3 1 Departamento de Entomología. we describe the diet for the population of O. Uruguay 3 anelosimus@gmail. Pekár et al. Montevideo. Montevideo. The high percentage of this kind of prey could suggest behavioural and other adaptations similar to those observed in myrmecophagic zodariid spiders. annulipes (Glatz 1967) and O. the latter being the most abundant at the time of study. Prey of O. Uruguay 2 Laboratorio Ecología del Comportamiento IIBCE. Uruguay Luis Fernando García1.Book of Abstracts. Uruguay. Although in our observations the spiders were closely distributed (up to 6 spiders observed on a distance of 4 cm).2. Facultad de Ciencias. life cycle (Miyashita 1992) and habitat preferences on urban areas of O. The lack of cannibalism in spite of the spatial proximity could suggest conspecific tolerance or anti-predatory mechanisms to avoid this behaviour. Although the taxonomy of the family in South America is relatively well known (Santos & OliveraGonzaga 2003). Siedlce. 2007). majority being represented by walking organisms. navus are known (Voss et al.

Oecobiidae). 2007. Pekár S. 33: 50-62. Natural history and karyotype of some anteating zodariid spiders (Araneae.. Voss S. Zodariidae) from Israel. Johnson N.. Australian Journal of Entomology. 64: 185-214. On the spider genus Oecobius Lucas. Borror and DeLong's Introduction to the Study of Insects. 2009. Acta Arachnologica. Dietary and prey-capture adaptations by which Zodarion germanicum. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. & Gonzaga M. 41: 5-10. Král J & Lubin Y. 1922: 121-126. 1967. 2003.O. Miyashita K.. Journal of Arachnology. Stano Pekár for his valuable comments on the manuscript and help with literature.C. 2004.Book of Abstracts. 37: 118-121.R. & Lubin Y. 2004. retrouvé á Helouan (Arachnida). Zodariidae). Zoomorphology. an anteating spider (Araneae: Zodariidae). Quelques observations sur les moeurs de l’Oecobius templi Cambridge 1876. 95: 233239. Journal of Arachnology. 2005. Journal of Arachnology. Journal of Natural History.D. Life cycle of Oecobius annulipes (Araneae: Oecobiidae) under indoor conditions and the effect of photoperiod on nymphal development.. 37: 239-252. Habitat preferences of the urban wall spider Oecobius navus. Predatory behavior of two European ant-eating spiders (Araneae. Siedlce. 1923. 1846 in South America (Araneae. 161 . Bulletin de la Société Entomologique D'égypte. 46: 261-268. specialises on the Formicinae. Pekár S. 2008.D. 1992. Glatz L.F. 864 pp. Prey and predatory behavior of two zodariid species (Araneae. & Triplehorn C. & Mayntz D. Zur biologie und morphologie von Oecobius annulipes (Araneae: Oecobiidae). Naturwissenschaften. & Dadour I. Pekár S. Poland to the possible myrmecophagy and tolerance among individuals on this species should be the object of further research. Main B.. Pekár S. Toft S. Acknowledgments The authors wish to thank Dr.Y. Zodariidae). References Debski B. Brooks Cole Ed. 32: 31-41. Santos A.A. Hrusková M..

Poland Description of a new extravagant species of the genus Thorelliola (Araneae: Salticidae). Poland. 162 . The males are distinctive by the possession of clypeal fringe of lanceolate pallid hairs below AMEs and extravagant anterolateral rows of cheliceral spines. structure of genitalia and male clypeal mechanoreceptive setae modified in different ways. New Guinea and some Pacific Islands. In a new species from New Guinea the clypeal configuration doesn’t correspond with recent definition of Thorelliola. Akademia Podlaska. gard@ap. described and illustrated. Siedlce. including position of copulatory openings and course of insemination ducts. It was hitherto considered remarkably homogenous and distinctive due to the body shape. unknown in the genus so far. with remarks on generic limits Joanna Gardzińska Katedra Zoologii.pl The genus Thorelliola is known from Malaysia. New criteria for the genus are proposed and the new species is diagnosed. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.Book of Abstracts.siedlce. Siedlce. The females may be recognized by clypeal hairs and details of epigyne.

but not in the year when spiders were low UV. the results suggest that high UV reflectance has a benefit for spiders. through an UV-transmitting epidermis and cuticle. Almería.gawry@gmail. Our results showed strong variation in the UV component. Here we investigated the variation of colouration in the spider Thomisus spectabilis (Thomisidae) during two seasons and analysed the correlation between spider colouration and spider body condition. 163 . 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Also. Poland Mechanism and function of colour variation in the crab spider Thomisus spectabilis (Thomisidae) Felipe M. present in storage cells bellow the epithelium. White non-UV and yellow colouration are achieved by the presence of ommochrome pigments in different stages within the epithelial cells. North Ryde. f. NSW. Siedlce. Spain Sit-and-wait predators do not actively hunt for their prey.com 2 Department of Functional and Evolutionary Ecology. creating a colour contrast against the flowers that is attractive for pollinators. In the year that spiders were on average highly UV reflective there was a positive correlation between spider UV and body condition. several crab spiders (Thomisidae) that ambush prey on flowers are UVreflective. Such strategies include the building of traps. Herberstein1 1 Department of Biological Sciences. using a series of histological and spectrophotometric analyses. It is not clear why spiders do not always invest in a strategy of high UV reflectance. including the UV component. many sit-and-wait predators employ tactics that actively attract their prey. over a few days. but we suggest that spiders are adjusting their colouration in response to the presence of predators and/or quantity of different types of prey. but not in other wavelengths. we examined the mechanism of colour variation in this species. Estación Experimental de Zonas Áridas (CSIC). Macquarie University. Secondly. For instance. covering the UV-reflective guanine crystals. Llandres2.Book of Abstracts. with emphasis in the UV component. selection of profitable patches and displaying cryptic colouration to avoid detection. The histological analyses suggest that high UV colouration is achieved by exposing UVreflective guanine crystals. Australia. Therefore in this system spiders that invest in a strategy of high UV reflectance are expected to capture more prey and consequently increase their weight. These spiders are also known by their ability of changing colour. Debra Birch1 & Marie E. In addition. For that reason strategies that increase their probability of encountering prey are expected to evolve. Gawryszewski1. Ana L.

gavish@gmail. Zoological Museum. We study the genitalic and somatic morphology of Stemonyphantes and discuss character homologies in relation to its basal phylogenetic placement. In a recent phylogenetic analysis of combined morphological and molecular data. 164 . includes 15 described species found in temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. Stemonyphantes has been hypothesized to be the sister lineage of the remaining Linyphiidae. Arnedo et al. and treated as a monotypic subfamily (Stemonyphantinae). The George Washington University.com 2 Department of Biological Sciences. Copenhagen. or as the sister group to all other linyphiids. (2009) found three alternative phylogenetic placement of Stemonyphantes within ”linyphioids”: as the sister group of Pimoidae. Gustavo Hormiga2 & Nikolaj Scharff1 1 Department of Entomology. Siedlce. Natural History Museum of Denmark. efrat. 1866. Washington DC.Book of Abstracts. in at least two distinct speciesgroups ("lineatus" group and "abantensis" group). USA Stemonyphantes Menge. University of Copenhagen. in an unresolved trichotomy with Pimoidae and the remaining Linyphiidae. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Denmark. Poland Systematics of the spider genus Stemonyphantes (Araneae: Linyphiidae) Efrat Gavish-Regev1.

On the contrary. colonizing. or wrong geological reconstructions. dispersal. In other cases. a large number of islands in the South Pacific and Southeast Asia.com Due to the growing knowledge in the faunistic knowledge of several regions of the World. Poland Opiliones as models for evolutionary biogeographic studies . other groups of Opiliones have shown immense dispersal capabilities. Research being conducted in my laboratory focuses on different groups of Opiliones with a variety of dispersal capabilities. Siedlce. Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology. Cyphophthalmi have been used due to their old age and low vagility for elucidating ancient vicariant patterns. and may only be justified through long-range dispersal events (translocations). phylogenetic and biogeographic explanations are at odds. USA. These and other examples will be presented and discussed.vicariance. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. MA. from the Neotropics. translocations Gonzalo Giribet Museum of Comparative Zoology. Harvard University.giribet@gmail. 165 . gonzalo. Cambridge.Book of Abstracts. Opiliones have been recently used for contrasting biogeographic and evolutionary patterns that can be generalized to other organisms and for other landmasses. but a few instances of possible dispersals have been reported.

They are of the same size and prefer the same habitat conditions. Thus. Moreover the “steppe” Mecynargus is a winter mature species whereas M. The female differs by the epigyne (length/width ratio) and the shape of the receptacles. Ukraine. foveatus by the form of the carapace. 166 . Gnelitsa@mail. These spiders were caught sometimes in relatively great amount during October . and the details of the palp such as the embolic division configuration. tibia spination. I consider the second Ukrainian Mecynargus an undescribed species. Poland A new species of Mecynargus Kulczyński. 1912) is the only one of 14 spider species of the Hypoarctic genus Mecynargus Kulczyński. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. foveatus and found more distinctive features besides the colouration.April in the open spaces with meadow vegetation. It has been found in the meadow in the NW Ukrainian forest zone. We compared the new Mecynargus with M. 1894 (Platnick 2009) recorded from Ukraine. closely related to M. 1894 (Araneae: Linyphiidae) from the steppe zone of Ukraine Valery A. foveatus . Siedlce. Gnelitsa Sumy State Teacher’s Training University. Recently in the steppe places of both the Kherson district (South Ukraine) and the Crimea tiny pale Mecynargus spiders have been collected by Barber traps and by hand-held suction sampler. the absence of the distal tooth on the tegulum and the shape of the palpal tibia as well. The pale colour. metatarsus trichobothria position. foveatus is a summer mature one.like epigyne impede the correct determination. These spiders can be mistaken with M.Book of Abstracts. Male differs from M. foveatus despite the dark colouration of the latter.ru Mecynargus foveatus (Dahl. foveatus. small general length and extremely tiny male palps together with M.

& Fet V. 350 morphological characters were scored across the same 78 species for which DNA sequences were obtained. New York. lorenzo@amnh. Tissue samples for DNA isolation were obtained and sequenced for two nuclear and three mitochondrial markers: Cytochrome Oxidase I. document distributions. References Soleglad M.com).E. Combined and partitioned analysis of static alignments and morphology were analyzed with parsimony and posterior probability as optimality criteria. 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA. New material was collected across the distributional range of the SRBC and additional material studied in several museum collections. Siedlce. Subfamilies Smeringurinae and Syntropinae (Scorpions: Vaejovidae). 167 . New York. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.org.vaejovidae. III. 12S rDNA. questioned the monophyly of these genera. egs@amnh. Contributions to Scorpion Systematics. and gather fresh material for morphological and genetic studies. NY. All analyses retrieved a monophyletic SRBC and eight clades that contradict traditional and recently proposed classifications of Vaejovidae. 2008. Poland Untangling the spiny clade of vaejovid scorpions: Evolution of the largest radiation of North American desert scorpions Edmundo Gonzalez1. City University of New York. USA. Division of Invertebrate Zoology. The evolutionary relationships of the SRBC within the family Vaejovidae recently became clearer in the course of an NSF-funded RevSys grant: Revisionary Systematics of the North American Scorpion Family Vaejovidae (http://www. Although Soleglad and Fet (2008) erected three new genera to accommodate species formerly included in three groups of the genus Vaejovis (which comprises part of the SRBC). NY. 71: 1-115. Euscorpius. USA The Spiny Retro-Barbate Clade (SRBC) is the largest monophyletic group in the endemic North American scorpion family Vaejovidae Thorell.Book of Abstracts. American Museum of Natural History. and (2) revise the classification of the SRBC on the basis of monophyly. SRBC vaejovids are widely distributed in North America and range from the southwestern USA to southern Mexico.2 & Lorenzo Prendini1 1 Scorpion Systematics Research Group. Direct optimization of the combined and partitioned data was also conducted. 16S rDNA. 1876. The work presented here aimed to (1) survey the regions of greatest SRBC vaejovid diversity to discover new species.org 2 Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. phylogenetic analyses conducted as part of the RevSys grant.

pallidus. This is the first record from Iran and it seems most likely that the shipment of goods to the southern costal regions could be the source of the introduction. four species of the genus Latrodectus: L. 1870) (Araneae: Theridiidae) from south-western Iran Hamid R. all collected beside the man-made debris. The redback spider is native to Australia. dahli. but in recent decades there have been some reports from other parts of the world. 40 km from Ahvaz to Haftgel road. geometricus have been reported by the author and other investigators from Iran. Iran Acarolology laboratory. L. Goudarzi1 & Mohammad Abdigoudarzi2 1 Arthropods Lab. Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute (RVSRI). L. we have found a female of Latrodectus hasselti and her three egg sacs. During ecological and faunistic investigations of medically important spiders of Khoozestan Province (SW Iran) held from 1st to 4th March 2010. Siedlce. Parasitology Department. tredecimguttatus. Venomous Animals and Antivenom Department. Poland A new record of redback spider. 168 . and L. Latrodectus hasselti (Thorell.Book of Abstracts. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Razi vaccine and serum research institute Karaj Iran 2 So far.

including several genera currently in Araneidae (Zygiella s. Another enigmatic “araneid” is the bark spider. Some web features including double radii characterize zygiellids and distinguish them from araneids. Here. Caerostris are large orbweavers that are widespread in the old world tropics. Our phylogenetic results also support Caerostris as a clade outside of Araneidae but do not place it conclusively. and is not closely related to Araneidae.. Ljubljana. PR. USA * Presenting author: matjaz. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. University of Akron. USA 3 Department of Biology.Book of Abstracts. San Juan. 169 . Our preliminary work revealed high evolutionary diversity for Caerostris in Madagascar. Zygiellidae. is taxonomically controversial. University of Puerto Rico. Ingi Agnarsson2. grouping it sister to Araneidae. and how they avoid destruction of webs by large flying animals. what prey they catch.com The classical Araneidae contains a large diversity of orbweavers that do not necessarily have much in common except primitively building orb webs. or Zygiellidae. genus Caerostris. l. but extremely understudied. Siedlce. l. OH. For example. was transferred between araneids and tetragnathids in the past. Zygiellidae. Todd Blackledge3 & Matjaž Kuntner1 1 Institute of Biology. Poland Phylogeny and behaviour of enigmatic orbicularians: Zygiellidae and the giant orbweaver Caerostris Matjaž Gregorič1*. where some species even utilize a novel ecological niche by bridging rivers and lakes producing webs suspended upon 25m long bridgelines. Phonognatha and Deliochus) receives strong support. Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Slovenia 2 Department of Biology. and was recently even split into four genera proposed to belong to their own family. and their phylogenetic affinities are controversial. Akron. Nephilidae. We broaden the knowledge of Caerostris behaviour by explaining how the heavy bodied Caerostris darwini build webs across rivers. the Holarctic free sector spider genus Zygiella s. we reconstruct the phylogeny of major orbweaving lineages based on nuclear and mitochondrial data and show that the classical Araneidae is polyphyletic. Scientific Research Centre.gregoric@gmail.

170 . H3 and COI) utilizing Bayesian. Molecular phylogenetic analyses for 32 Malagasy phyxelidid exemplars. Berkeley. Implications of these findings for biogeography within Madagascar and of biotic relations of Madagascar to other landmasses are discussed. 18S.3. San Francisco. and 7 other more distant outgroups are performed on for 4 genes (28S. Environmental Science. Policy and Management. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. California Academy of Sciences. that these may be divided into three genera. San Francisco State University. Berkeley. 9 confamilial outgroup taxa.4. CA. and that the Malagasy phyxelidids form a monophyletic group. Griswold1. 4 Corresponding author: cgriswold@calacademy. CA.Book of Abstracts. San Francisco.2 & Anthea Carmichael1 1 Arachnology Lab. probably resulting from a single invasion of the island by an ancestor from Africa.2. Entomology Department. Phyxelididae) of Madagascar are revised.org. These analyses suggest that there are 15 species of Phyxelididae that may be recognized from Madagascar. Hannah Marie Wood1. biogeography and taxonomy Charles E. The lace web spiders (Araneae. CA. maximum likelihood and parsimony analyses. USA 2 University of California. Poland The lace web spiders (Araneae: Phyxelididae) of Madagascar: phylogeny. USA 3 Department of Biology. Siedlce. USA. Observations on the courtship and mating behaviour of phyxelidids are presented.

O. auratum from southern part of Goiás state. rufoniger. diamantinensis and O. O. caatinga. diamantinensis (O. joseguadanucci@gmail. dominguense. Brazil. 1) mainly at the meridional portion. which originated O. 171 . An area cladogram was obtained replacing the terminal taxa by its geographical area distribution. rufoniger) (O. O. rufoniger: partly sympatric with O. Diamantina.1 (O. sp. Poland Cladistic analysis and biogeography of the genus Oligoxystre Vellard. O. 1: E side of Serra do Espinhaço. caatinga (O. O. rufoniger. Cerrado and Atlantic forest) and the sympatry among three species (O. which originated O. O. Central Brazil. sp.partly sympatric with O. sp. O. sp. O. tucuruiense + O. caatinga. O. which does not represent a vicariant event due to its pre-Cambrian origin.Book of Abstracts. O. bolivianum. is probably the result of the contact of the typical fauna of each biome. O. the two latter species have been removed from Oligoxystre and six species in the genus have been recognized: O. tucuruiense: single record from Eastern Amazonia. argentinense. O. rufoniger and O. diamantinensis: Serra do Espinhaço. More recently. caatinga: NE Brazil (Caatinga biome) . tucuruiense and O. rufoniger. bolivianum: from Brazilian Central Cerrado to S Bolivia. extending to Meridional Serra do Espinhaço. According to the area cladogram. the occurrence of two sympatric species in Caatinga is due to different events. was described from Serra do Espinhaço. dominguense: Cerrado at northern state of Goias. According to recent taxonomic revision. 1924 (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae) José Paulo Leite Guadanucci Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri. city of Diamantina. another new species. including O. Oligoxystre was considered senior synonymy of the genus Cenobiopelma and subsequently comprised three species. tucuruiense. In 1985. 2 O. is the limit among three major Brazilian biomes (Caatinga. a basal differentiation of Caatinga from the rest of the genus. it is possible to draw the following conclusions: the origin of Cerrado fauna is monophyletic.com The genus Oligoxystre was originally established in 1924 as monotypic for O. bolivianum + O. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. caatinga. Siedlce. auratum (the type species). diamantinesis. A cladistic analysis has been performed and the following topology obtained: (O. sp. The examination of collection material and field trips to different localities of Serra do Espinhaço revealed two more new species from the Atlantic forest domain. 2: southern state of Bahia. O. and the separation between Eastern Amazonia and Caatinga. dominguense))))). Minas Gerais. Serra do Espinhaço. mimeticum and O. The geographic distribution of the species are as follows: O.

when all juveniles have already hatched and started to disperse and establish shelters in the habitat.com The cave Monte Cristo. Representatives of the genus Diplura are easily recognized by its mid-sized body. where temperatures are lower and more constant and humidity is higher. what shows the importance for the preservation of such environments. nine in the second and 16 in the third. Several spiderlings were found in the third excursion. it remains there for the rest of the life. having no relation to spider distribution. pseudoscorpions. 43o33. spatial distribution within the cave. Only one spider changed its web location during the observations and built a new shelter less than 1 meter away. what makes it the largest mygalomorph population recorded inside a cave. Pilar L. and all spiders found were marked with coloured ink on the carapace. this finding led us to conduct a survey on the population dynamics of such species. This work aims at studying this population and present data on the abundance of individuals. Brazil. A total of 38 individuals were marked. Minas Gerais. long posterior lateral spinnerets and presence of a maxillary lyra composed of few clavate setae. Monthly observations will be done during a year to evaluate aspects on the phenology and circadian rhythms of this population. what makes them easily found. Minas Gerais. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. We found no significant difference in the abundance of potential preys in the different regions of the cave.g. They build silky webs with tunnels with sheet web at the entrance. the number of old exuviae deep within the webs of many spiders found indicates that once the spider has established its web. During an inventory survey on cavernicolous arachnids in caves in Diamantina. Poland A troglophyle population of Diplura sp. showing the clear preference for the cave environment. and the rest were at the aphotic region. Several other animals are known to inhabit caves as troglophyles (e. located at18o17. territoriality. phenology and circadian rhythm. We have done three excursions from January to March of 2010. 13 in the first trip. Maia Braga. Diamantina. several representatives of Diplura sp were found. troglophyle and troglobite. Brazil José Paulo Leite Guadanucci. harvestman. Careful searches have been done in the surroundings of the cave and no representatives or webs of Diplura sp were found. Hypogean environments house animals classified in three ecological-evolutionary categories according to their dependency on the cave: trogloxene.511'W. (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Dipluridae) in a quartzitic cave in Diamantina. joseguadanucci@gmail. Considering the rarity of dense populations of Mygalomorphae spiders in caves. bats. 172 . several insects). Fernanda de Souza Sá & Rafael da Fonseca Ferreira Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri.822'S. is an approximately 200 meters long quartizic formation. state of Minas Gerais. Moreover. Siedlce.Book of Abstracts. when all webs with spiders were marked and numbered. indicating the end of the reproductive season. Twenty four individuals were found close to the entrance.

for species living in groups. suggesting limited overlap between contiguous species as would be expected if the species had been assembled to avoid extensive dietary overlap. This pattern of resource use was more over-dispersed than expected by chance. João Vasconcellos-Neto3 & Leticia Avilés1 1 University of British Columbia. Even though closely related species are expected to share many niche dimensions. a possibility that has hardly been considered. Instituto de Biologia. 173 . Yet. they may differ in ways that allow them to utilize different resources and thus alleviate competitive interactions. This difference in prey size was apparently due to differences in the extent to which nest mates cooperated in the capture of prey. Marcelo O. Brazil Behavioural differences among closely related species.Book of Abstracts. guevara@zoology. MG. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.ubczool@gmail.com 2 Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. Uberlandia. We suggest that social evolution can potentially create large differences in resource use. Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas. Gonzaga2. We tested this idea in a subtropical forest site in Brazil where five spider species (Anelosimus) with levels of sociality ranging from almost solitary to highly social coexist. Body size differences. Brazil 3 Sao Paulo. laviles.ubc. Poland Sociality and resource use: insights from a community of social spiders in Brazil Jennifer Guevara1. We found that the range of insect sizes captured by the species reflected their nest and colony size so that species with larger colonies and webs captured larger insects than less social species. for instance. Analogous to body size. among those species whose webs did not differ significantly in size—the two with the largest and the two with the smallest webs—one captured significantly larger insects than the other. thus contributing to the coexistence of a greater number of similar species in ecological communities. group size differences and level of sociality may also contribute to resource partitioning. The four species were thus packed along the spectrum of available insect sizes from least to most social. in addition to morphological ones. can play a significant role in species coexistence and thus the assemblage of natural communities. often allow exploitation of food of different sizes. as in only one of the species in each pair did the size of the insects captured increased with colony size. Siedlce. Canada.ca.

Medmassa Simon. martini Simon. South Africa. suggesting that they must have been adaptive in enforcing sexual isolation. C. semiaurantiaca Simon. a genus previously known only from South-East Asia (Deeleman-Reinhold 2001. The revision of Copa Simon. not mimicking ants as in most other genera in the subfamily. 1910. suggesting that the genus should also occur in the Indian subcontinent. somatic morphology has remained very consistent with the continental type species. 1910. 2) the evolution of single. 2001.e. Haddad Department of Zoology & Entomology. i. A revision of Messapus Simon. as resolution of the genus in the region resulted in retention of only one of the eight species previously described. All of the species appear to be primarily arboreal. Poland Revisions of the cryptic Castianeirinae (Araneae: Corinnidae) of the Afrotropical Region: exceptional species diversity. while the genus has speciated extensively on Madagascar. The genus has also been recorded from Sri Lanka. 1887 served as a dumping ground for unspecialised corinnids. University of the Free State. one tentatively placed in Corinninae (holotype female) and the other belonging to Castianeirinae 4 Research supported by the National Research Foundation of South Africa through its Thuthuka programme (grant number TTK2008050500003). unusual biogeographical patterns and evolutionary novelties 4 Charles R. Despite these genitalic modifications to effect sexual isolation. with more than forty new species in addition to two described species. Three new species have been discovered in tropical and subtropical Africa.za Revisions of the Afrotropical Castianeirinae are underway. focusing initially on four genera of cryptic castianeirines. M. Bloemfontein. and on occasion. tibial apophyses. haddadcr@ufs. i. 1898 indicates that the type species. 174 . M. Marusik et al. longespina Simon.ac. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. a primarily arboreal species widespread in the Afrotropical Region (Haddad & Bosselaers 2010). is misplaced and should be transferred to Echinax Deeleman-Reinhold.e.Book of Abstracts. represents two distinctly different species. Copa sensu stricto is itself represented in the region by only two continental species. 1885 indicates that one species. 1898. The radiation on Madagascar is coupled with several genitalic modifications: 1) considerable variation in male embolus structure. and 3) reduction in many species in the length of the copulatory ducts and spermathecae. 2009). The cymbial and/or tibial apophyses are evolutionary novelties found in most (if not all) Madagascan castianeirines and not occurring in any continental species. double or triple cymbial apophyses. This presents a very peculiar distribution. Siedlce.

its matching female is described. martini is described.R. 2008. Arthropoda Selecta. The diagnostic characteristics of cryptic Afrotropical castianeirines are discussed. Tropical Zoology. In contrast to Copa. Leiden.Book of Abstracts. 2010. References Bosselaers J. 1887 (Araneae: Corinnidae) in the Afrotropical Region.M. Studies in Corinnidae: transfer of four genera and description of the female of Lessertina mutica Lawrence 1942. 2001. Forest spiders of South East Asia: with a revision of the sac and ground spiders (Araneae: Clubionidae. & Li S. and the correct matching male of M.L. Corinnidae. the new genus has apparently not colonised Madagascar (but does occur in the Comoros Islands.. possibly introduced) and radiation seems to be related to two main geological events: the formation of the Great Rift Valley in east Africa (particularly leading to speciation in the Eastern Arc Mountains of Tanzania). as well as future directions for taxonomic research on the group. Zootaxa. Haddad C. Poland (syntype male) (contra Bosselaers & Jocqué 2000). 13: 305-325. Deeleman-Reinhold C. & Bosselaers J. Brill. 1921 are transferred to the new genus. 175 . First description of the female of Echinax panache Deeleman-Reinhold. 2361: 1-12. Prodidomidae and Trochanterriidae [sic]). and more than ten new species are described from southern. central and eastern Africa. 1916 and Castianeira kibonotensis Lessert. 591 pp. Gnaphosidae. Marusik Y. 2001 (Aranei: Corinnidae: Castianeirinae). A revision of the genus Medmassa Simon. Siedlce. 2000. 17: 65-68. & Jocqué R. A new genus is created to accommodate the misplaced male. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. and the formation of the Maputaland coastal plain in eastern South Africa and Mozambique. Liocranidae. Copa lacustris Strand. Zheng G.

narrow belts of riparian natural forest and rushes at river oxbows occurred.pl 2 Research Centre for Agricultural and Forest Environment in Poznan. the low-disturbed habitats. Our studies have been conducted in the Bug River Valley. the species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were applied. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Between March and November in 2007. Furthermore. on flooded terraces. Moreover. Polish Academy of Sciences. Approximately 50 000 individuals of spiders belonging to 244 species were collected. The spider species diversity was decreasing from south-east to north-west down the river. like grasslands were characterized by higher spider species diversity in contrast to natural and stronger disturbed habitats. In the strongly changed European landscape. stanska@ap. Siedlce. Along the river. in the environmental gradient of humidity.pl. Siedlce. To describe a model of species diversity distribution in a river valley. in dry habitats the species diversity was higher than in wet habitats. Marzena Stańska1 & Maria Oleszczuk2 1 Department of Zoology. naturalness . representing different habitats of the valley. grasslands and thickets on the edge of the valley. mown meadows and sand grasslands. creating diversity of habitats. oleszczukm@vp. In spite of the human impact.siedlce. spiders were collected by 10 pitfall traps in each study plot and the traps were emptied twice a month. were situated. different hypotheses like geographical. Poznań. shortly accessible flooded habitats like riparian forests. located in the Eastern Europe.Book of Abstracts.siedlce.pl The gradients of species diversity and hypotheses explaining the phenomenon are still important topic in the conservation biology. Twenty six study plots were located in four sites. 176 . The geographical species diversity gradient was revealed.humidity and sun exposure were tested. In the biggest part of the valley. accessibility. Poland Does any gradient of spider species diversity exist in a river valley of the Eastern Europe? Izabela Hajdamowicz1. Poland. the bed of the river has got a natural meandering character. To measure the species diversity. The edges of the valley are covered with semi-natural xerothermic and mesoxerothermic grasslands and thickets. In general. both in the water and on the land. both used as pastures. Poland. University of Podlasie. environmental . the Bug River Valley belongs to the one of the most important ecological corridors in Europe. hajdamo@ap.disturbance. rushes and wet meadows were characterized by lower spider species diversity than fresh meadows.

This classification made little sense. both biogeographically and phylogenetically. We have therefore performed the first phylogenetic analysis of Australasian pirate spiders.au Pirate spiders (Arachnida: Araneae: Mimetidae) are vagrant predators of other spiders and do not build webs on their own.gov. Our analysis. danilo.wa. to entice and then attack the host within its own web.gov. Harvey2 1 School of Animal Biology M092. 177 . supports an expanded concept of Australomimetus which remains as the only native pirate spider genus in Australia and is found to contain the entire Australian and New Zealand fauna. using 29 species and some 90 morphological characters. China and Indonesia. Crawley. all Tasmanian and New Zealand species were dumped into the large. Pirate spiders are diverse in Australia and New Zealand and occur there with some 30 species in three genera. Western Australia. which are arranged to form a basket around the victim during prey capture. and has never been subject to critical testing. cosmopolitan genera Ero and Mimetus.2 & Mark S. Australomimetus traditionally included most Australian mainland species and was apparently confined to the Australian east-coast. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. but instead invade alien webs in order to prey upon the host.wa. Welshpool. Poland Pirates of the dark: systematics and first phylogeny of Australasian pirate spiders (Araneae: Mimetidae) Danilo Harms1. Western Australia.Book of Abstracts. Instead.harms@museum. They perform behavioural patterns of aggressive mimicry and pull on strands of silk like a potential prey item.au 2 Department of Terrestrial Zoology. In accordance with their highly specialized ecology. with additional species occurring in Japan. the genus crosses Wallace’s Line in the north. The University of Western Australia. mimetids show remarkable adaptations in somatic morphology. Siedlce. Western Australian Museum. Our analysis also provides evidence that Australomimetus is not an Australasian endemic.Harvey@museum. such as conspicuous rows of raptorial spines on the forelegs. Mark. In contrast.

under the testable assumption that the current distribution of the Pseudotyrannochthoniinae is the result of continental drift. Siedlce. the Pseudotyrannochthoniinae. WA. Ten species are currently described from Australia but the estimated number is much higher and up to 50 new species will be described and named. These are small. We will conduct a phylogeographic analysis of the molecular data and analyse spatial distributions and ages of these pseudoscorpions across continents. WA. harmsd01@student. using morphological techniques and the molecular data. Harvey2 1 School of Animal Biology M092.edu. Welshpool DC. University of Western Australia. 3) To undertake a systematic and taxonomic revision of Pseudotyrannochthoniinae in Australia. Poland Vicariance and the evolution of ancient pseudoscorpions: subfamily Pseudotyrannochthoniinae (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones: Chthoniidae) Danilo Harms1 & Mark S.wa. Pseudotyrannochthoniines are found in relictual habitats on five continents and have low vagility and naturally small distributions. Department of Terrestrial Zoology. Australia. Australia. Our study will be the first to document the full diversity and distribution of these pseudoscorpions in Australia. 2) To test a vicariant model of Pangaean biogeography.gov. predatory arthropods that belong to one of the oldest terrestrial animal groups.au We are investigating the phylogeny and phylogeography of an ancient and globally distributed lineage of pseudoscorpions.uwa. By using Pseudotyrannochthoniinae. The specific aims of our study are: 1) To undertake a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of the Pseudotyrannochthoniinae. and their evolution over space and time.harvey@museum. Morphological characters and DNA sequences will be analysed using cladistic methods. Western Australian Museum. This will lead to novel insights into their geographic distribution.au 2 Department of Terrestrial Zoology. Welshpool DC.Book of Abstracts. mark. resulting in a systematic revision of all currently recognised genera. both past and present. using representatives of all currently recognised genera from at least five continents plus a variety of other pseudoscorpions of the family Chthoniidae as outgroup taxa. 178 . we will be able to test biogeographic hypotheses on a spatial and temporal scale rarely attempted before. WA 6009. Crawley. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Western Australian Museum.

in all analyses. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.harvey@museum. Pseudotyrannochthoniidae were sister to the remaining chthonioids.au The pseudoscorpion superfamily Chthonioidea is well defined and seemingly monophyletic based on previously published morphological and molecular datasets using multiple markers. Parsimony analyses under equal weights provided little phylogenetic resolution. Tyrannochthoniini and the “apochthoniines” (Apochthonius+Kleptochthonius).wa. In both equal and implied weights analyses. WA. but divided Chthoniini into multiple clades. Poland Chthonioid pseudoscorpions: phylogeny based on morphology Mark S.gov. Siedlce. the higher classification is not settled with several alterations over the past two decades.Book of Abstracts. Western Australian Museum. Chthoniini. Proposed changes to the classification of the Chthonioidea are discussed. Implied weights analyses drastically improved the resolution of the trees and. Welshpool DC. the taxa currently included in the families Tridenchthoniidae and Lechytiidae grouped strongly with the chthoniid genera Sathrochthonius and Sathrochthoniella. mark. Higher concavity functions retained Tyrannochthoniini and the “apochthoniines”. To assist resolve these issues. low concavity functions distinguished three other clades. Of the remaining taxa. However. 179 . a phylogenetic analysis was performed using 121 chthonioid species placed in 35 of the 48 recognised genera. Australia. Harvey Department of Terrestrial Zoology.

12247 Berlin. but did not dig a burrow. At that time the cuticle is still white – protonymphs and deutonymphs will do the same way. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. then the pedipalps. Even before the moulting is finished. it will walk away. 1894)) was kept in darkness while transporting from Thailand to Germany. Siedlce. In the discussion a comparison will be made with mesothelae and mygalomorphae. It withdraws the chelicerae first. 180 . Poland Moulting in a whip scorpion Joachim Haupt former address: Institute of Biology. the whip scorpion starts to move one or the other limb. Germany A thelyphonid (Ginosigma schimkewitschi (Tarnani. that's why the film is speeding. Thereby I could observe the moulting process. The whip scorpion sits on his three legs (the fourth is used as tactile leg). because it was prevented from doing so. After the whip scorpion has withdrawn from the exuvia. next the tactile leg and the walking legs. Although the starting of the moulting could not be observed. The whole process needs about two hours.Book of Abstracts. It had prepared for moulting. TUB. last the whip. it can be imagined that ecdysis starts with the rupture of the peltidium which diverges in horizontal direction. Successively. Gluckweg 6. the white next instar appears.

despite its overall conservative design.ac. United Kingdom.uk The highly structured two-dimensional orb web is one of the most recognisable traps in nature. & Adams M. We therefore compared the deflection and failure force of intact parts of the web with parts where the non-sticky spiral was removed by dropping plastic balls from variable heights into the horizontally-held web and recording the impact with a high-speed camera.ox. University of Oxford. 1990. In the present study we investigate this idea further by comparing the behaviour of intact and cut webs of Nephila edulis during wind-loading and simulated prey impact. thomas. The authors speculate that the negative contribution of the non-sticky spiral to signal transmission efficiency might be offset by a positive contribution to the mechanical support of the web (Landolfa & Barth 1996). The systematics and biology of the spider genus Nephila (Araneae: Nephilidae) in the Australasian region. which suggests that the presence of the non-sticky spiral is very important for the ability of the large fine-meshed Nephila webs to withstand wind-loading and to intercept and retain large prey. whose presence thus degrades the signal (Landolfa & Barth 1996). Department of Zoology. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. Invertebrate Systematics. 181 . Austin A. 21: 407-451. Lin et al.D.hesselberg@zoo. 2007.4 m/s in 11 steps) generated by a windtunnel and subsequently removing the non-sticky spiral from two south-running radii and re-testing the web in order to compare radii deflection and separation. 21: 341-372. 1995). the main function of the orb is to catch prey and its geometry and structure thus needs to be optimised for this function (Eberhard 1990. However. variations are found at all taxonomic levels. Poland The mechanical importance of retaining the non-sticky spiral in Nephila webs (Araneae: Nephilidae) Thomas Hesselberg & Fritz Vollrath Oxford Silk Group.G. The members of the genus Nephila in particular deviates from the norm by building large fine-meshed aerial webs that retain the non-sticky spiral (Harvey et al.Book of Abstracts. Our preliminary results indicate that the orb webs undergo higher deformations when the non-sticky spiral connections are cut.S. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 2007). Function and phylogeny of spider webs. Harvey M. We therefore decided to subject first the intact web to increasing windspeeds (from 0 m/s to 8. A previous study on the transmission of prey vibrations along radii in intact Nephila webs and in webs with the non-sticky spiral connections cut revealed that vibrations leak from the radii into the non-sticky spiral.. References Eberhard W. Wind is one of the most damaging environmental forces affecting the web. However. Siedlce.

Vibrations in the orb web of the spider Nephila clavipes: cues for discrimination and orientation. 2009. 373: 146-148.A. 20: 1194-1203. Lin L.-P.G. 1995.Book of Abstracts. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. & Barth F.T. 1996.-J. Liao C. Poland Landolfa M.H. Nature.. 179: 493-508. Behavioural Ecology. Journal of Comparative Physiology. The effects of wind on trap structural and material properties of a sit-and-wait predator.. Chi K. & Vollrath F. & Tso I.-M. Structural engineering of an orbspider's web. Edmonds D. 182 . Siedlce.

but discard small prey. feeding on prey items. Siedlce. and large to see the relation between prey acceptance and colony size. and size of potential prey was determined from window and sticky trap samples. Nevertheless spiders discriminate between prey items. which is most abundant in the habitat of the colonies. Observations of prey capture were done directly in the field. as it is not advantageous to consume all prey items captured in the web. This shows that the spiders are selective in prey acceptance. with regards to prey size and prey species. marija. Poland Foraging in social spiders Christina Holm & Marija Majer Department of Biological Sciences. The colonies have a tendency to accept prey in a medium to large size range. Spiders actively select prey that is most beneficial for their fitness. Nest and web size. medium. Nest sizes were arbitrarily divided into small.au. and brood care. The size of foraging groups was also noted to ascertain the optimal prey size per spider. it might be possible to make a model on the distribution of this spider species with regards to non-permanently social congeners. dumicola. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Christina. They do not defend specific territories within the web but cooperate on prey capture. By determining the optimal prey size range for S.dk Web building spiders are to a certain degree polyphagous. and captured prey size were measured in the field as well.majer@biology.dk.holm@biology. based upon prey availability in their habitats. Denmark. These spiders live their entire lives in a communal web and nest consisting of up to a thousand individuals.Book of Abstracts. Stegodyphus dumicola is a social spider species found throughout southern Africa. Aarhus University. Aarhus. 183 .au. Moreover we noted the behaviour of individuals while capturing and feeding.

1970). taylor. Poland Molecular approach to elucidate the hormonal regulation of spider ecdysis Yoshiko Honda. Siedlce. Japan. During the intermoulting phase. The timing of injection is another important factor.nifty.de. Bonaric and De Reggi (1977) measured the ecdysteroid titers in 8th instar nymphs of P.com.ac. However. University of Tsukuba. Moulting consists of three phases: intermoulting. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. mirabilis. the 20E titers rapidly peaked just 184 . the high doses of 20E injection induced abnormal ecdysis with no apolysis and high mortality. A. Active ecdysteroid is 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and changes in 20E hormone titers of the hemolymph induce moulting. Ecdysteroids are secreted into the hemolymph from a synthesizing organ and interact with target organs to prepare them for ecdysis. The 8th nymphal stage lasted for 22 days and the 20E titers remained at low levels during the intermoulting phase. yoshiko-honda@mbi. mirabilis during the early stages of the 7-9th instar nymphs showed low concentrations of ecdysteroids induce a prolonged instar.Book of Abstracts. ecdysis was abnormal and mortality increased with injection of ecdysteroids. Subsequently. 20E induces spider moulting and also affects behavioural changes and these effects are dose and time dependent.jp Introduction Moulting is a common phenomenon necessary for arthropod development and progresses with complicated sequential regulation.mar. Increases in ecdysteroid titers induce various events necessary for moulting such as construction of new cuticle. The mechanisms of moulting are well-understood in insects and steroid hormone ecdysteroids are one of the main hormones that regulate moulting in arthropods. Ecdysteroid titers peak at moulting and immediately decrease after ecdysis. Injection of 20E induced moulting of Araneus cornutus and Dugesiella hentzi (Krishnakumaran & Schneiderman 1968. Studies on ecdysteroids in spiders are limited to a few studies during the 1970s.tsukuba.ge@u. In addition. spiders ceased feeding and spun a moulting pad instead of a normal orb web. Injection of 20E into P. whereas injection into spiders during the middle stages induced premature moulting (Bomaric 1976). but changes in ecdysteroid titers are commonly important for insect moulting. ecdysis and post ecdysis. However. Based on these early studies. The patterns of ecdysteroid changes differ depending on the insect species. cornutus spiders treated with 20E moulted 29 days after treatment and the number of moulted spiders was fivefold higher in 20E treated spiders than ringer injected controls (Krishnakumaran & Schneiderman 1970). In a later study by Bonaric (1976) injection of high concentrations of 20E induced a high incidence of moulting (81%) whereas low concentrations induced a lower incidence of moulting (60%) in Pisaura mirabilis. ecdysis (Chapman 1998). Mari Horigane & DeMar Taylor Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences. However. ecdysteroid titers are relatively low and gradually increase until the next phase.

EcR. RXR and early genes are reported from numerous other arthropods (Nakagawa & Henrich 2009). Expression patterns of EcR and RXR were determined during moulting by daily extraction of total RNA from the whole bodies of A. Therefore. this will contribute to understanding the hormonal regulation of other physiological processes and behaviours such as pheromone secretion. EcR and RXR have been identified from ticks (Guo et al. RXR and early genes. of the target gene to trigger gene transcription. Material and methods A. In addition. 1997. specific target genes called ecdysone early genes are induced following transactivation to further regulate responses to the E/EcR/RXR complex. EcR and RXR are essential. Homology analyses were performed with pairwise alignment by water program in EMBOSS. Trabalon et al. A rapid large peak of 20E titers just before ecdysis is similar to that seen in numerous other arthropods. Therefore. RXR and E75 cDNA sequences as well as an actin sequence. a common web-weaving spider in Japan. silvatica 3rd instar nymphs. These EcRs and RXRs from the chelicerates show similar affinities to ecdysteroid and transcriptional activity in insects (Guo et al. 2007. In addition. Horigane et al. However. 5’ and 3’ rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) were performed to determine the full length of the EcR. RXR and early genes have not been done in any spider. 1992. identification and functional analysis of ecdysteroids. ecdysteroid dependent regulation of moulting requires ecdysone. EcR. In addition. 1998.Book of Abstracts. atrica. 2007). ecdysone response element (EcRE). sexual behaviour and cannibalism in T. RXR and E75 from the spider Agelena silvatica. Understanding of the mechanisms regulating moulting in insects has progressed in recent years through studies on ecdysteroid function at the molecular level. Ecdysteroid dependent ecdysis is common in arthropods and identification of EcR. and feeding. E/EcR/RXR binds to the gene regulatory region. 1998. In Chelicerata. clarification of the regulation of ecdysis by ecdysteroids. the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR a homologue of insect ultraspiracle) to function (Yao et al. in this study we identified and analyzed EcR. Nakagawa et. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. These studies have established that ecdysteroids require two nuclear receptors. To understand spider moulting. The degenerate primers were designed from other arthropods and the sequences were determined by standard subcloning and sequencing techniques. al. 2007). used in this study was collected from Tsukuba. 2008) and scorpions (Nakagawa et al. synthesis of cDNA by reverse transcription and polymerase 185 . These results indicate ecdysis of chelicerates is also regulated by E/EcR/RXR and early genes. EcR and RXR form a heterodimer and the heterodimer binds ecdysteroids (E) to form a functional complex (E/EcR/RXR) for the induction of transcription in target genes. Japan and reared in our laboratory. (1998. Thomae et al. 1993). silvatica. 1993. The E75 gene is one ecdysone early gene that is important in the regulation of cuticle formation (Hiruma & Riddiford 2009). 2005) have shown that hormonal regulation is also related to secretion of pheromones. Siedlce. Poland before ecdysis. web spinning and sexual behaviours of spiders.

1998. LBD is necessary to bind the hormone and is also conserved among arthropods. the regulation of gene transcription by ecdysteroids appears to be conserved in spiders. Nuclear receptor family genes have a common structure with a DNA binding domain (DBD) and a ligand binding domain (LBD). the expression of AsEcR and AsRXR were determined for 3rd instar A. 1976. As observed in AsEcR. feeding behaviour. web spinning behaviour. The homology analysis indicates that spider EcR and RXR can form a heterodimer and bind to EcRE. 4th ed.Book of Abstracts. crustaceans and other chelicerate species.C. silvatica nymphs. AsE75 has a high homology with the DBD and LBD of other arthropods.C. Bonaric J. crustaceans and insects. full length sequences of EcR and RXR were identified from A. RXR and E75 transcriptional factors of A. We also identified E75 from A. This is the first identification of these genes from spiders and indicates the moulting mechanism is widely conserved in chelicerates. silvatica. DBD is required to bind with the specific sequence (EcRE) of target genes for gene transcription and is conserved among arthropod species. 1977. Pisauridae). further elucidation of the mechanisms by which ecdysteroids affect the physiology. Therefore.F. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. The Insects: Structure and Function. Therefore. 363-412. Both AsEcR and AsRXR mRNA expression were observed throughout the 3rd instar nymphs indicating AsEcR and AsRXR are present to regulate ecdysis of spiders when 20E titers increase. In this study. Experientia. while the LBD of AsEcR showed high homology to tick and scorpion but low with insects. pp. silvatica also determined in this study was used as an internal control. Poland chain reactions (PCR). Siedlce. we characterized EcR. Actin from A. & De Reggi M. AsRXR also showed high DBD identities with other arthropods and LBD homology was high with other chelicerates but low with insects. 186 . DBD of AsEcR showed high homology with insects. Chapman R. Subsequently. 30: 267-272. 33: 1664-1665. and the LBD of AsEcR has a similar affinity to bind 20E for transactivation of target genes. while the other isoform lacks the DBD. One isoform has all E75 domains conserved. Effects of Ecdysterone on the Moulting Mechanisms and Duration of the Intermolt Period in Pisaura mirabilis Cl. Ecdysteroids are also indicated to be important in other physiological processes and behaviour of spiders such as pheromone secretion. Results and discussion In this study. silvatica (AsEcR and AsRXR). Changes in ecdysone levels in the spider Pisaura mirabilis nymphs (Araneae. ecology and behaviour of spiders will greatly contribute not only to understanding spiders themselves but also understanding the evolution of hormonal regulatory mechanisms in arthropods. General and Comparative Endocrinology. Melbourne. sexual behaviour and cannibalism. References Bonaric J. silvatica (AsE75) and there are at least two isoforms with different sequences. Cambridge University Press.

Ogura T. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. The FEBS Journal. Isolation of two functional retinoid X receptor subtypes from the Ixodid tick. Poland Guo X. ovarian development and ecdysteroid levels in Tegenaria atrica (Araneae.J.M...Book of Abstracts. 274: 6191-6203... Sakai A. & Taylor D.C. 144: 60-66.. Heterodimerization of the Drosophila ecdysone receptor with retinoid X receptor and ultraspiracle. The molecular mechanisms of cuticular melanization: the ecdysone cascade leading to dopa decarboxylase expression in Manduca sexta... Miyashita M. 2007.. Nakagawa Y.1970.E.. 139: 45-60. Henrich V. Pourié G. 39: 245-253. & Palmer M. 139: 520-538. Trabalon M.A. Cloning and expression of the ecdysteroid receptor during ecdysis and reproduction in females of the soft tick. 1998.J. Thomas H. Control of molting in mandibulate and chelicerate arthropods by ecdysones. Stunnenberg H. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Insect Molecular Biology.. Nature. Mangelsdorf D. 156: 298-311. 187 . 362: 471-475. Jin X. Harmon M. 2008. Ogihara K. Isolation of a functional ecdysteroid receptor homologue from the ixodid tick Amblyomma americanum (L. 220: 601-603.. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.. Hiruma K. Agelenidae). General and Comparative Endocrinology. & Taylor D. Laudet V.J. 276: 6128-6157.. Tegenaria atrica. & Mangelsdorf D. 1993.A. Harmon M. Chemical Control of Moulting in Arthropods.A. 16: 601-612. & Stewart A. Relationships among cannibalism. 1968. Magata F. The FEBS Journal. General and Comparative Endocrinology. Nakagawa Y. 2009.. & Legrand-Frossi C. Xu Q. Horigane M. Effect of 20hydroxyecdysone on cannibalism. Trabalon M. Laudet V. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Amblyomma americanum (L.A. Ornithodoros moubata (Acari: Argasidae). 1997.). 2007. Molecular cloning of the ecdysone receptor and the retinoid X receptor from the scorpion Liocheles australasiae. Isolation and expression of the retinoid X receptor from last instar nymphs and adult females of the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata (Acari: Argasidae). Krishnakumaran A. 2009.). & Riddiford L. 1998. Krishnakumaran A. Ogihara K. Shinoda T.G. and contact sex pheromone in the solitary female spider. Nakajima Y..F. Miyagawa H. contact signals.. Arthropod nuclear receptors and their role in molting. 28: 751-758. Niogret J. & Schneiderman H. & Schneiderman H.. Nature.. Nakajima Y. The Biological Bulletin.. Horigane M. Siedlce.. 11: 945-962. sexual behavior.. 2005. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. Guo X. & Hartmann N.

Poland Yao T. Drosophila ultraspiracle modulates ecdysone receptor function via heterodimer formation.. Forman B. Cherbas P.Book of Abstracts.D. Cherbas L. Segraves W..A..M. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. McKeown M. Functional ecdysone receptor is the product of EcR and Ultraspiracle genes. Oro A..M. Yao T.. McKeown M. 476-479.P. 71: 63-72.. & Evans R. 1992. Cell.O. Nature: 366. Jiang Z..1993. 188 . Siedlce.P.M.. & Evans R. Chen J..

Denmark. dimitard.2 1 Department of Biological Sciences. Copenhagen. Washington DC.edu 2 Zoological Museum. Six fossil species of pimoids have been described from Baltic amber. Poland Phylogeny of the spider family Pimoidae (Araneoidea) Gustavo Hormiga1* & Dimitar Dimitrov1. Members of this relictual lineage are known from Western North America. Southern Europe and Asia (the Himalayas.com * Presenting author The spider family Pimoidae comprises four genera and thirty seven extant species. hormiga@gwu. We will present recent progress towards a phylogeny of Pimoidae based on morphological and nucleotide sequence data. Siedlce. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. The George Washington University.Book of Abstracts.gwu@gmail. Japan and the Sakhalin islands). USA. University of Copenhagen. China. 189 .

driving extreme sexual size dimorphism. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. emma200057@hotmail. which made it difficult for small males to locate them. Poland Possible evolutionary causes of sexual size dimorphism in giant wood spider Nephila pilipes (Nephilidae) Chueh Hou Department of Life Science. I investigated pre. Female N. However. Taiwan. has extreme sexual size dimorphism. widely distribute in E and SE Asia. In this study.com Extreme female-biased sexual size dimorphism is generally assumed to result from female gigantism as a result of selection for fecundity. 190 . but relevant empirical evidence from the field is still rare. making it a suitable organism for studying this topic.Book of Abstracts. Tunghai University. enhancing the probability of a male being the first to mate with a receptive female.and post-copulatory male-male competition to realize potential selection pressures on N. Siedlce. Each hypothesis is supported by different studies. The giant wood spider Nephila pilipes. Scramble and sperm competition are considered two potential evolutionary causes of male dwarfism. Results of an intensive field census revealed a low intensity of male-male competition. All these results suggest that scramble competition and sperm competition exert selection pressure to shorten the juvenile stage. preliminary results from laboratory mating trials showed a tendency of first male sperm priority in N. pilipes males. the mechanisms that maintain male’s smaller size should still be considered. pilipes. Low recapture of marked males also indicated high mortality of males during mate searching. Moreover. pilipes changed their web locations frequently and moved long distances.

altering microhabitats. Following burning in this Terai grassland. Spiders were sampled by pitfall trapping and sweep netting methods and for each fire regime spider abundance. While it is primarily used to reduce fuel levels and to facilitate regeneration of desire species for wild ungulate communities. sites currently under management practices. Further. and recovery of these grassland spiders following fire disturbance. Spider assemblages are mostly affected by fire because of fire-induced habitat modification. Each plot consisted of a transect containing six sampling points at approximately 10 m intervals. within burnt areas we assessed two fire regimes for their impact on grassland spider assemblage: (i) single fire. little is known about the effects of its repeated use on natural ecosystems over long periods of time. richness. At each site. During sampling seasons a total of 8 sampling sites were established in each of the lowland and upland grassland habitats. 4 on burnt areas and 4 on unburnt areas. resource availability and even interspecific relationships. Combining habitat variables of two grassland types to contrast similarity between patterns explained by best variables for all spiders found highly correlated with grass cover (rho=0. diversity and evenness were calculated. Grassland characteristics were also delineated to measures impacts of the prescribed fires and to assess variability and heterogeneity of the grassland environment. India Upamanyu Hore & Virendra Prasad Uniyal Wildlife Institute of India Annual low-intensity fire is a conspicuous management strategy in virtually all floodplain grassland of protected areas in India. The increased use of prescribed fire generates questions regarding the effects of burning events on spider assemblage. In this study we describe the ecological consequences of burning tall grass of Terai on spider assemblages at different seasons and with different frequencies. Poland Effect of grassland burning on spider assemblages in Terai. sites burnt multiple times (as commonly occurs as uncontrolled) wildfires before the end of the dry season (January . These six points along transect were used for both spider sampling and grassland microhabitat assessment. (ii) repeated fire. The study was conducted at Dudhwa National Park which represents one of extensive tall grassland in Terai Region. we found the effects of fire on spider assemblages varied with habitat type. A total of 10.78). burnt annually early in the dry season (January .Book of Abstracts. represents 98 species belonging to 58 genera and 22 families. Sixteen grassland sites from burnt and unburnt areas in both grassland types were sampled from October 2006 to August 2007. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. representing 4 seasons of sampling.February).May). ten plots were randomly established. The differential response is likely to be related to differing levels of habitat change in the two grassland types following fire. frequency of burn and marginally with seasons of burn. soil moisture 191 . Siedlce.172 individuals were collected during the entire sampling period.

18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. spider assemblages in upland grassland habitats being less resilient to fire than those in lowland grassland habitats and this has implications for the scale at which current fire management is implemented.Book of Abstracts. Siedlce. This study highlights the importance of considering habitat types and sensitivity to fire when burning for biodiversity conservation. 192 .64). and cautions against applying prescribed fire in a ‘blanket-fashion’ across the conservation area. Poland (rho=0. Adaptive management of appropriate fire prescription should be taken account to provide wide range of microhabitats that support a large proportion of species and to meet conservation efforts for these grassland spider assemblages. represented high diversity compared to unburnt sites. Results from this study indicate there can be great variation in response to fire. In the study we also found species strongly associated with particular fire regime and rarefied species richness was higher at single fire sites.65) and grass height (rho=0.

hu University of West Hungary. Tibor Magura3 & Béla Tóthmérész1 1 2 University of Debrecen. The ratio of forest species was significantly higher in the rural sites compared to the suburban and urban ones. This result suggests that species living in the surrounding matrix (grasslands and arable lands) penetrated the disturbed urban sites. Poland Effects of urbanisation on ground-dwelling spiders along a rural-suburban-urban lowland forest gradient in Hungary Roland Horváth1. We collected spider species with pitfall traps every two weeks from the end of March to the end of November. Hungary 3 Hortobágy National Park Directorate. habitat alteration hypothesis). The higher diversity was due to the significantly more open-habitat species in the urban sites. Department of Ecology. Hungary We studied the effects of urbanisation on ground-dwelling spider assemblages (Araneae) along a rural-suburban-urban forest gradient in Debrecen (Hungary). Canonical correspondence analysis showed that the species composition changed greatly along the urbanisation gradient. horvathr@tigris. During the statistical analyses we grouped the collected spider species according to their habitat affinity (forest. 2001. decaying wood material. generalist and open-habitat species). 193 . shrubs and canopy cover) along the urbanisation gradient. Our findings suggest that the overall diversity was not the most adequate indicator of disturbance. air temperature on the soil surface. We also investigated the relationships between the abundance of spiders and certain environmental variables (ground temperature at 2 cm depth. Forest spiders were characteristic of the rural sites with higher amount of decaying woods. We found that overall spider species richness was significantly higher in the urban sites than in the suburban and rural ones. suggesting that forest species are sensitive to the disturbance. We tested several hypotheses which explain the effects of urbanisation (increasing disturbance hypothesis. Department of Zoology. Openhabitat species were associated with the urban sites where there was higher ground and air temperature.unideb. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Csaba Szinetár2. relative humidity on the soil surface and percentage cover of leaf litter.Book of Abstracts. herbs. Siedlce. Hungary. species with different habitat affinity should be analyzed separately to get an ecologically relevant picture of the effects of urbanisation.

These mountains attract attention due to flower-rich mat-grass vegetation on their steep flanks up to the summits. The area is known for its extraordinary botanical diversity originating from the specific edaphic conditions: deep humid non-calcareous soils on laminated Jurassic marl. Bavaria. Here we present only data estimated by Chao 2.hoefer@smnk. hubert. Pooled over 6 years between 22 and 54 species were captured at single plot. Resulting values should be close to 100%. MichaelisMenten) were used to compare observed and estimated species richness for all and several subsets of samples.480 adults) spiders and identified 158 species. Theo Blick. in ungrazed (and thermally favoured) plots. We were interested to know how often and how long sampling with pitfall traps should be done to get a good estimate for the diversity of the spider assemblages. vegetation in the study area had suffered considerable alteration by long lasting intense sheep grazing. Several species estimators (ICE. We observed an extreme dominance (85%) of four lycosid species originating from an extremely high activity density of the males of these species during the first two weeks after snow melt.) in the Allgäu Alps. This value is closest to the species richness 194 . Germany. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. For assessing completeness of sampling in the main habitat type we divided the estimated species number of subsets by the observed species number of all samples for this habitat. Species richness at single plots varied between 11 and 36 with a mean of 19 species per year. This type of land-use ended in 2000 and instead a controlled grazing by cattle was realized with the objective to regenerate the species-rich alpine mat-grass (Nardus stricta) vegetation. We captured 81. Poland Sampling and estimating spider diversity in an alpine environment Hubert Höfer.de We sampled spiders at an alpine meadow (1430-2000 m a. Siedlce.Book of Abstracts. For the characteristic vegetation type mat-grass sward 116 spider species were observed during the whole investigation and 138 estimated. Jackknife 2. However. With the total data set. The area along the ridge was used by sheep to lair and therefore became strongly eutrophic and dominated by the grass Deschampsia cespitosa. but also in the strongly altered (eutrophic and botanically degraded) ridge area. Germany during a 6-year-project (2003-2009) with pitfall traps operating during the vegetation period from early June to late September. For our study six pitfall traps were installed every year in each of 16 permanent plots in the grazed Nardetalia grassland and in 22 plots.s. Chao 2. Christoph Muster & Detlev Paulsch Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Karlsruhe.l.700 (69. whereas Jackknife 2 seemed to overestimate and Michaelis-Menten underestimate species richness. presenting other vegetation types. The most species-rich plots were in the lower calcareous grassland with dwarf pine. the Chao 2 and ICE estimators resulted in values very close to the observed ones.

Considering only the captures of the two-week spring periods (over 6 years) 92 species (79% of all observed) were observed and 118 estimated (102%). Poland observed in the whole open grassland (136). Siedlce. Considering only two spring periods 57% of the overall observed species were captured and 72% estimated.Book of Abstracts. Considering samples of three two-week-periods from 2 consecutive years resulted in an estimate of 91% of the observed species. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Sampling one year during the whole vegetation period from early June to end of September resulted in 96 species (83%) and an estimate of 147 species (108% of all species observed in open land and 127% of all species observed in all permanent plots). 195 .

18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. University of Würzburg. however.de The neutral theory and niche theory are still controversial and offer useful perspectives regarding fundamental questions of ecology. we lack even a basic understanding and universal model of how the community organizations change within temporal and spatial resolution. However. while controlling for temperature (seasons) and micro-environmental (canopy strata) variables. These arboreal spider communities are assembled deterministically in the cold season and stochastically in the warm season. Siedlce. we show that both equilibrium and non-equilibrium patterns control the biodiversity in the temperate forest and shape the arboreal spider communities which support the predictions of the continuum hypothesis. 196 . The vertical stratification of species composition between high canopies and low canopies occur only in the warm season. which combine both neutral theory and niche theory. Using this data. Germany. We have also listed the co-occurrence species which have high niche overlaps. even though this information is vital for suggesting that equilibrium or non-equilibrium process control biodiversity.Book of Abstracts. Here we use null model to test whether arboreal spider species in the European beech canopy have competitive interactions. they are competitive and do not demonstrate niche segregation within these canopies. hsieh@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg. Poland Does equilibrium or non-equilibrium process shape arboreal spider assemblage in the deciduous forest canopy? Samuel Yu-Lung Hsieh & Karl Eduard Linsenmair Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology.

Hence an understanding of the role of the forest canopy for diversity and community compositions of insectivorous arthropods is urgently needed. the model failed to show some crucial details: a declining trend in Fisher’s Alpha index in the mature canopies was evident. In particular. in our study. the European system of environmental forestry monitoring showed that the percentage of visible crown defoliation of beeches in Germany has abruptly increased from 13% to 55% in the past 20 years. regardless of age of the canopies. have been fogged on a monthly basis. Recently. demonstrated significant differences. The Accumulated Generating Operation complied with the Verhulst Grey Model even produced a high level of accuracy for forecasting. always sampling new trees (overall 162 trees were fogged). Poland The arboreal spider diversity and community composition change with growth of European beech: what does it mean to forestry management and conservation? Samuel Yu-Lung Hsieh & Karl Eduard Linsenmair Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology. some significant information appeared only when the spider diversity under analysis was considered in light of different periods of age classes. to serve as an important reference for further improving the forest management toward an even more naturefriendly direction. hsieh@biozentrum. We found that. with previously fogged trees excluded. the species composition in each summer showed a unique pattern. height and trunk diameter at breast height respectively. Germany. but also to rising infestation by herbivorous insects. One reason for this may be that in the summer. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Six beeches in each of three classes categorized according to age. Arboreal spiders were collected by insecticidal knockdown fogging from all strata of European beeches for three consecutive summers. and it caused that German forest enterprises had a low profitability due to low prices for bad-quality timbers. This reveals that the community structures and diversities change dynamically from year to year. which is also the dominant deciduous tree species distributed in the temperate region between southern Europe and the British Isles. the foresters carried out selective logging in mature tree areas. The reasons are not only directly due to global warming.uni-wuerzburg. Analyses of species and guild composition among various years. University of Würzburg. In some cases there are some dominant beeches in the mature forest area. The Grey System helped us find the relationship between changes of several diversity indices in consecutive years and did even forecast the index values of the following two years. Twenty-one percent of the forest area here is covered by European beech. Würzburg University Forest (2664 ha) represents the type of a nearprimary mixed temperate forest in central Europe.de European beech (Fagus sylvatica) is a deciduous tree species with high economic value. Siedlce. and their 197 . therefore we made predictions based on spider composition and diversity during different years.Book of Abstracts.

which have a huge amount of herbivorous insects based on the large volume of canopy particularly. However. only 1% of Würzburg University Forest is covered by oldgrowth beeches. the prediction model shows that the spider diversity will decrease in the mature forest. Currently. Our results show that a true picture at canopy level in the forests can only be drawn when also assessing temporal dynamics from different years. Furthermore. if defoliation is considered being an effect of global warming and increasing herbivorous insects. the arboreal spiders inhibit the population of herbivorous insects in the forest. The composition varies based on the different physical properties of the European beeches and microclimate of the beech forests. old-growth canopy has a distinctive species and guild composition of arboreal spiders. for maintaining the unique spider composition and abundance in higher strata of beech canopy. Poland presence oppresses the other neighbour beeches and results in bad-quality timber. Siedlce. but also the forest ecosystem.Book of Abstracts. which is the essential way to protect not only beech canopies. comparisons of spider densities per cube metre between three tree crown categories indicate that old-growth canopy has in a significant reduction of spider abundance. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 198 . Thus. Nevertheless. If this policy continues. We suggest that mature beeches not be logged in the summer for the purposes of natural habitat protection. It could explain why old-growth canopy has the most serious problem of defoliation compared to the other two age classes. so that the arboreal spiders can inhibit the increasing herbivorous insects and reducing the beech defoliation. the oldgrowth forest should not be disturbed or over-logged. forest management policy is to cut the dominant beeches selectively in order to let the other oppressed beeches grow straight up to ensure better quality timber. Thus.

and 24 of which were found at only one locality each. Germany. Almost half of them (five) are located in the Serra do Mar region of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Huber Alexander Koenig Research Museum of Zoology. Poland Reconstructing the pholcid tree: a progress report Bernhard A.de A worldwide comparison of published and unpublished species counts per locality reveals that only 11 localities so far are known to contain more than 10 pholcid species each.de Despite considerable progress during the last decade. Mesabolivar. with the last genus being endemic to the Atlantic Forest.zfmk@uni-bonn. The two extreme (northern and southern) localities did not share any species. but several large polytomies and doubtful nodes remain. Bonn. as a working hypothesis directing attention both to some major clades considered likely to remain stable and to some of the most relevant and urging open questions. Some major groups are fairly well supported both by morphological and molecular data. b.huber. 22 of which were new. suggesting a high level of endemism and immense unknown species diversity. Huber Alexander Koenig Research Museum of Zoology. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. A broad and extensive DNA sequencing effort will probably be necessary for the next major step forward. The effort to place all nominal genera into a cladogram must be seen before this background. Germany. Beating the world record: diversity and endemism of pholcid spiders in Brazil’s Atlantic Forest Bernhard A. including the current record of 15 species at the Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçú in the state of Rio de Janeiro. and Tupigea. b.Book of Abstracts. Recent efforts to collect all species at six Atlantic Forest sites resulted in a total of 39 species.huber.zfmk@uni-bonn. but the lack of suitable material from many taxa is a major obstacle to this proposition. 199 . the relationships among the currently 86 pholcid genera are still far from settled. Bonn. Siedlce. Carapoia. The dominant genera are Metagonia.

Hemolymph enters it via ostia. Like all other Arthropoda. Here we present the first three-dimensional data relating to the circulatory system in Cupiennius salei. However. Wirkner Allgemeine & Spezielle Zoologie. The arteria cephalica supplies. spiders possess an open circulatory system. In the course of a comparative study of the hemolymph vascular system in Araneae we investigated the circulatory system of Cupiennius salei. behaviour and physiology.de) In terms of the central nervous system.the arteria cephalica and the arteria crassa. Germany. the chelicerae and the mouthparts via several vessels. amongst other organs. Anteriorly. kati. Data are compared with existing literature on the circulatory system in Araneae. the eyes. A tubular heart lies dorsally in the opisthosoma. Cupiennius salei is one of the best investigated spider species. the heart is extended by an anterior aorta which runs through the petiolus and splits off into two arteries (trunci peristomacales) within the prosoma. from which vessels emanate which supply the pedipalps.wirkner@web. parts of its anatomy have only been described superficially to date. Institut für Biowissenschaften. Poland 3D data on the circulatory system in Cupiennius salei Keyserling (Araneae: Ctenidae) Katarina Huckstorf & Christian S.de.Book of Abstracts. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Siedlce. the supraesophageal ganglion. Each truncus branches off into two arteries . christian. Universität Rostock. 200 . the four legs pairs and the central nervous system. and laterally paired cardiac arteries emanate from it.huckstorf@gmx. Prior to microCT scanning specimens were injected with a casting resin to enhance contrast on the hollow arteries. obtained by combining semi-thin sections and micro computer tomography (microCT). The arteria crassa opens out into two sinus thoracales.

quarries and on vineyards terraces at southern Moravia (Czech Republic).g. Poland Investigation of spiders overwintering in land-snail shells in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic). Cheiracanthium pennyi. Helix pomatia and Cepea vindoboniensis). T. Xysticus spp.). 201 . Brno. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Steatoda albomaculata. Mendel University. Several other spider species also show similar relations. 5 The study supported by grants IGA-AF-MZLU-SP2100101/224 and VaV-MZP-CRSP/2D4/59/07. Pellenes nigrociliatus and Sitticus pennicillatus are found in Helicella obvia.cz Spider overwintering in land snail shells is poorly known. In Europe only several studies from Germany. The juveniles were kept in laboratory till maturity (mainly Heliophanus spp. Cheiracanthium spp. Specimens of this genus can overwinter outside the shell. We have found there mostly subrecedent common species such as Pardosa lugubris and Diplostyla concolor. Micaria formicaria etc. being the most frequent in Helicella. hula@mendelu.. Euryopis quinquegutatta. Jana Niedobová. Greece we presented preliminary results of our investigation and now we would like show more accurate data. aequipes.l. In Cepea and Helicella shells we have found several rare species (e. On the conference in Alexandroupolis. T. We collected more than 8000 land-snail shells in more than 50 different xeric habitats – nature reserves. Czech Republic. and Gnaphosidae s. Collected shells we stored in controlled laboratory conditions (25°C. Pellenes tripunctatus and Myrmarachne formicaria in Cepea vindoboniensis.. petrensis) do not prefer particular species. Hungary and recently from the Czech Republic focused on this theme. Preliminary results show that different snale species host different species of spiders. The most common jumping spiders of genus Talavera (T. aperta. We collected all emerging spiders. T. 50% humidity) in plastic bags. Siedlce. Václav Psota & Ondřej Košulič Department of Zoology.). Helix pomatia shells are not prefered by particular spider species. roadsides.Book of Abstracts. with special regard to importance of snail species 5 Vladimír Hula. aequipes occupies all three snail species. Particular species of land-snail shells were investigated separately (Helicella obvia.

2 palpigrades. Concerning mites.Book of Abstracts. A special mention to Axel L. Most remarkable are the troglobiont species of the genus Troglohyphantes (T. lanai) that also show.it The presentation shows the results of five years of work dedicated to the Subterranean Arachnids of the Western Italian Alps. marco. respectively. bornensis. and 2 pseudoscorpions). konradi. The exclusion of scorpions is justified by the trogloxenic life of the few species recorded in the studied area. in situ photographs. large-scale distribution and considerations from the ecological and faunistic points of view. Novara (21). is confined. and 6 pseudoscorpions) are considered as troglobiont on the basis of obvious troglomorphy. Verbania (15). Opiliones. and Alessandria (5). Vercelli (30). Siedlce. including several illustrations of diagnostic features (original drawings). Meta bourneti. For each species identification aids are provided. to one cave in the province of Cuneo and a few caves in Susa Valley (province of Torino). Spiders represent the major order of arachnids recorded in the study area. 6 harvestmen. Palpigradi. T. that has just been published by the Natural Museum of Torino (NW-Italy). 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. the most restricted distributions. records of an extremely specialized species of Troglocheles (Prostigmata: Rhagidiidae) will be published separately. maps of the hypogean localities in the Western Italian Alps. 14 harvestmen. is based on unpublished material collected by Enrico Lana and Marco Isaia throughout an intense field work from 2005 to 2010. Twelve (4 spiders. pluto. who identified different arachnid groups. on literature records and on the complete revision of the material cited in the previous regional catalogue of the cave-dwelling spiders of Piemonte. The work. 28 as troglophilic (20 spiders. in NW Italy. The work is the outcome of a fruitful collaboration of several European arachnologists. T. followed by Nesticus eremita. only known from the type locality in the Maritime Alps. 2 palpigrades. The latter two are endemic to the southern and northern sectors of the Western Alps respectively. most of them located in province of Cuneo (166). a troglophilic and markedly thermophilous species of Turanic-European-Mediterranean corotype. T. Schönhofer (Germany) and Erhard Christian (Austria) for their contributions on harvestmen and palpigrades. nigraerosae and T. Biella (38). Poland Subterranean arachnids of the Western Italian Alps (Arachnida: Araneae. We present 104 species (74 spiders. 202 . Scorpions and mites have not been considered. Malthonica silvestris. followed by Torino (69). Aosta (22). together with the troglophilic T. Pimoa rupicola and Troglohyphantes lucifuga. The work covers 366 subterranean cavities. pedemontanus. Università di Torino. Italy.isaia@unito. Pseudoscorpiones) Marco Isaia Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e dell’Uomo. Another interesting species is the troglobiont Nesticus morisii. with Meta menardi and Metellina merianae being the most abundant. and 14 pseudoscorpions).

Both species belong to the spelaea/austriaca complex and show highly developed troglomorphic features. C. and many caves in the Southern and Western Alpine districts.Book of Abstracts. The vulnerability of several populations of species deserving protection measures. the pseudoscorpion section is mainly based on literature data. P. strinatii. three species of Ischyropsalis. 203 . Nearly one third (122) of the recorded caves are situated in Protected Areas. Siedlce. such as Ischyropsalis carli. Poland Among opilionids. but only in five cases the cave habitat (“8310. which likewise harbour numerous specialized endemics. a number of caves are still unprotected. The current state of conservation policy in the Western Italian Alps is also discussed. Palpigrades represent the flagship of this work and of the entire arachnological fauna of the Western Italian Alps. is highlighted. Several species such as Pseudoblothrus peyerimhoffi. The data presented in the book are of outstanding significance. like Troglohyphantes konradi and Nesticus morisii (for which the bunker is the locus typicus). that houses 9 species of subterranean arachnids. With respect to overall arachnid species richness. Despite the lack of details and the difficulty in finding updated information on the Western Alpine species. troglophilus. and Neobisium zoiai deserve special attention for their pronounced troglomorphy and the restricted distribution. Records are from three caves in the province of Cuneo. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Chthonius italicus. Curiously. ellingseni. show restricted or punctual distribution. the south-western part of the Alpine chain houses Eukoenenia bonadonai and E. Despite the presence of extraordinary biocoenoses and the proximity to protected areas. According to current knowledge. All of these species show restricted distribution and a strong relation with subterranean habitats. Among these. Troglohyphantes pluto. the most interesting taxa are Holoscotolemon oreophilum. the abandoned military bunker of Vernante (province of Cuneo). the most interesting assemblage is found in an artificial cave. Meta bourneti. which is also known for the presence of endemic cave-dwelling insects. at least 6 taxa are extremely specialized and some of them. Caves not open to public” according to 92/43 Habitat Directive) is mentioned in the official document. the most important caves are located in the Alpine districts of Alpi Marittime and Alpi Liguri (province of Cuneo) which may thus be considered as a hot-spot of biodiversity. Neobisium zoiai and Pseudoblothrus peyerimhoffi. Nesticus morisii. Examples are the above-mentioned military bunker of Vernante. and Leiobunum religiosum.

siedlce. (or Bianor). Siedlce. tantulus have been recognized so far.pl From Middle Europe only two species of Sibianor. Poland.Book of Abstracts. Further research has revealed the presence of five species. Poland How many species of Sibianor/Bianor are there in Middle Europe? Piotr Jastrzębski1. 2 of them new for science. Siedlce. aurocinctus and S. Institute of Biology and Earth Sciences of Maria CurieSkłodowska University. University of Podlasie. S. 204 . Lublin. During the field study in different parts of Poland we have found a number of populations showing some variety in genitalia. hairiness and habitat preferences. Here. we diagnose. pjast@ap. Poland.pl Department of Zoology. describe and illustrate the new species and present preliminary remarks on genus’ distribution in Middle Europe. Barbara Patoleta1 & Robert Rozwałka2 1 2 Department of Zoology. the timing of which. biogeographical aspects and relationships between particular species should be subjected to further (molecular) analyses. arachnologia@wp. body coloration. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. The results suggest that the genus is still poorly studied and some species are not recognized and classifies as aurocinctus. It seems likely that Middle European Sibianor (Bianor) is a good example of local speciation.

Although the inventory of arachnids is far from complete and in certain areas hardly begun. it is now possible to predict distributions on the base of a restricted number of locality data. Poland Distribution patterns of Afrotropical arachnids: staying ahead of shifting baselines Rudy Jocqué Royal Museum for Central Africa. Tervuren. For some rare taxa it is possible to demonstrate the importance of refuge areas in periods of drought.be Astride across the equator. and the eastern African elements often with congenerics in South East Asia. On the base of reasonably well collected taxa several distribution patterns can be recognized although the continental dynamics on a geological time scale highly complicate the historical reconstruction of present day distributions. Africa is the dreamt continent to study distribution patterns. Typical distributions are those from the West Equatorial lowlands. The combination of Afrotropical and Afrotemperate faunas has lead to the idea of the pear-shaped distribution of biodiversity on the African continent. Thanks to recently developed GIS technology. Yet. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. canopy living spiders and cryptic soil spiders are examples of such animal groups. Litter dwelling Cyphophthalmi. often with relatives in the Neotropics. Similar information can serve to elucidate the origin of forest faunas in East and West Africa.Book of Abstracts. 205 . for those groups that so far have only been collected occasionally. Surprisingly. the rapid decline of natural habitats and the global climatic changes are bound to alter the baseline and the meaning of a concept like endemicity. which has come about as a result of mixture of both elements in Afromontane areas. on the southern tips of other continents. Siedlce. Belgium. Some ancestral taxa from southern Africa. for certain taxa the amount of information is sufficient to infer a reasonably good picture of the distribution and its origin. considered as typical Gondwanan distributions are known to have close. only few examples of transverse distributions along parallel vegetation zones across the northern part of the continent are known and may be symptomatic of the climatic changes in recent geological times. often congeneric relatives.jocque@africamuseum. with almost perfectly parallel vegetation zones in the north and a mosaic in its southern part. These taxa should be qualified as Afro-temperate elements. rudy.

Poland. Poland Pseudoscorpions (Chelonethi: Neobisiidae: Neobisium) parasitized by mites (Acari: Trombidiidae: Trombidium) Mark L. was found to be parasitized by two larvae of Trombidium brevimanum (Berlese. mediterraneum) on Neobisium fuscimanum (C. from Morud. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. The stylostomes (feeding canals) formed by the mites are similar to those produced in other hosts and the engorged state of some of the larvae suggests that Pseudoscorpions represent viable alternative hosts for Trombidium larvae. 1804).Book of Abstracts. Judson1 & Joanna Mąkol2 1 2 UMR 7205. mediterraneum (new host and country record for T. 1937. The low frequency of parasitism of pseudoscorpions by mites is discussed. Another factor that might reduce the vulnerability of pseudoscorpions to mite parasitism is their strategy of moulting within silk nests.fr Institute of Biology and Institute of Natural Sciences. Norway was found carrying ten larvae of T.makol@up. Paris. 1910) (new host and country record for T. 1843) is given from Lower Silesia. 206 . although the successful completion of development has yet to be demonstrated.pl The few previous records of mites parasitizing pseudoscorpions have only identified the host or the parasite. brevimanum) An adult male of N. France. These are the first cases in which both the mite and the pseudoscorpion have been identified. Here we report new host-parasite associations from Europe. mediterraneum). Scars in the pleurum of the pseudoscorpions are interpreted as the result of attempts at fixation by the mite larvae. from Ariège. Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle. Siedlce.I. joanna. It is suggested that this might be due to the fact that larval Parasitengona fall well within the size range of pseudoscorpion prey and would have difficulty approaching without being attacked. carcinoides (Hermann. (probably T. An adult male of Neobisium bernardi bernardi Vachon. France.wroc. An additional record of a larva of Trombidium sp. Poland. Koch. Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences.L. judson@mnhn.

The 26 km2 Lake Velencei is Hungary’s third largest natural stagnant water. Szombathely. Trachyzelotes pedestris (C. Trebacosa europaea Szinetár & Kancsal. Argyroneta aquatica (Clerck. Zoological Department.com University of West Hungary. 2007 and Philodromus pulchellus Lucas. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. The cups which contained killing-fluid were sunk into a polystyrene plate. Upthrust of water was taken out by lead-ballasts which were fixed with plaster at the bottom of the cups. Pardosa prativaga (L.hu 3 Pécs. The number of common species was 34. NMDS and cluster analysis represent that floating traps were separated well from standard traps. Koch. especially in reeds is often difficult. 1837) (7%) and Arctosa leopardus (Sundevall. 207 . 1833) (7%). szcsaba@bdf. Some interesting species were also collected e.dorottya@gmail. Hungary. We conclude that collecting arthropods living on soil surface in reeds with floating traps proved to be more successful than with the traditional traps.Book of Abstracts. Hungary. 1841) (33%). We tried to eliminate this problem by developing a new type of trap which floats at the top of water. representing 20 families and 67 species. 1846. while with the standard traps 1079 specimens of 15 families and 44 species were collected in this comparison. kabakpityoka@gmail. 422 specimen was juvenile. 1757). With the help of floating traps 816 specimens of 17 families and 49 species. Savaria University Center.com Collection of spiders in wetland habitats. angyal. Siedlce. Besides floating traps traditional pitfall traps were also used as references to make catching results comparable. Poland Experiences with floating traps Béla Kancsal1. Keszthely. 1870) (13%). Researches were carried out from April to November of 2009 on the southern coast of Lake Velencei in the offshore reed of Chernel István Madárvárta (47°11'24"N. species richness and diversity were significantly higher when floating traps were used. Csaba Szinetár2 & Dorottya Angyal3 1 2 Pannon Univesity.g. Although more spiders were collected by control traps. The most abundant species were Pirata latitans (Blackwall. Hungary. 18°35'4"E) which belongs to Agárd town. L. A total 3008 specimens were collected. During pitfall trap monitoring high water level often causes some troubles. Koch.

80-120 km wide and 860 km long (7°6'35"N-0°42'24"S. Australia and Madagascar.November 2008) and on literature data (Pocock 1904. The specimens are deposited in the Arachnological Collections of Deva Matha College. listing 19 species. topography. form and shape (from small sandbanks with sparse vegetation to elongated strip islands). India. sunil32@gmail. The maximum height is around 3 meters. the fauna shows unique features. Seychelles. 72°33'19"E-73°46'13"E). Out of the 1192 islands. 1904).Book of Abstracts. with only one paper (Pocock 1904). Tikader (1970. The aim of the present paper is to provide a preliminary spider check-list and to form a basis for further investigations. Because of its proximity to several lands masses such as India. Daily temperatures vary little 208 . Kerala. Poland The spider fauna (Araneae) of Maldives Islands in Indian Ocean Sunil Jose Kanniparambil Deva Matha College. Although many reports were made on the terrestrial and aquatic animals. Material and methods Check-list is based on an examination of specimens collected by the author (January 2007 . 1982). 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. located on the 1600 km long Laccadives-Chagos submarine ridge extending from the south-west coast of the Indian sub-continent to the central Indian Ocean. 199 are inhabited and 87 have been developed as tourist resorts. distribution and affinities are given. The identification of spiders was done following Pocock (1900. The specimens were preserved in 75% ethanol. It is believed that the Maldives were formed about 65-225 million years ago in the Mesozoic Era (Maniku 1990). The classification of Araneae follows Platnick (2009). The relative humidity ranges from 73% to 85%. while some 80% of the land area is less than 1 meter above mean high tide level (MHAHE 1999).0 km2) varying in location. Kerala. with an area 5. Study area The Maldives make a chain of 26 coral atolls. The atolls comprise 1192 islands (from 0. Koh (1996). The largest island is Gan (1°55'N.5 km2 to around 5. India.November 2008. Siedlce. 1977. Kuravilangad. For each species. 1980.16 km2 and most of the present study was conducted in this island during the period January 2007 . information on guild structure. 73°32'5''E) in Laamu Atoll. The exact geographical locations were determined with the Global Positioning System hand unit (GPS). the spider fauna of the archipelago is poorly investigated. Platnick 2006).com Introduction Maldives is a small archipelago supporting a rich biodiversity of invertebrates. Murphy & Murphy (2000) and Dippenaar (2002).

Desidae. Bavia. Because of bright colouration and 209 . Tetragnatha (5). a few of these are found only in the IndoSrilankan region. Desis gardineri. Most genera discovered show affinities with oriental region and are widely present in the Indian mainland. Average annual rainfall varies from 1. scattered line weavers (4 species). Maximum generic diversity is found in families like Araneidae (7). Similarly 10 genera recorded during the study are also new to Maldives. Plexippus (Salticidae. Zoogeographic analysis: About 29 species recorded in Maldives are widely distributed in South Asia. Thomisidae and Uloboridae are represented by one species only. Generic diversity: 34 genera are found in 16 families. Genera like Cyclosa. Spiders of the category Stalkers formed the next dominant guild comprising of 13 species of spiders. Among the collection Heteropoda atollicola is endemic to Maldives. Pholcidae (2) and Sparassidae (2). Families like Barychelidae. Spiders of the families Araneidae. Theridiidae (2 species).407 mm to 2. Cyrtophora (Araneidae). Palaearctic (4 spp. New records: The most striking feature of the spider fauna of Maldives islands is the high number of new records. ambushers (3 species) and Foliage runners (1 species) are the other functional groups. Tetragnathidae (2). Results Family diversity: 16 families are recorded from Maldives during the study. Endemism: A total of 50 species are discovered from Maldives so far. 1999). Olios (3) shows highest diversity of species in the collection. Salticidae (5). Functional groups: The collected spiders can be divided into six functional groups (guilds) based on their foraging behaviour in the field (Uetz et al. Scytodidae. Artema. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Heteropoda (3). Myrmarachne. Australian (3 spp. Tetragnathidae (7 species) and Sparassidae (7 species) exhibit highest species diversity.). Pholicidae (2 species) are also widely present in the islands. Species diversity: 54 species are collected from Maldives during the study. Ground runners (10 species). Families like Araneidae (12 species). Araneidae and Salticidae exhibit highest number of new records. Salticidae (10 species). Hersilia (Hersiliidae). Siedlce.Book of Abstracts. Crossopriza (Pholcidae). Most of the widely distributed species in south Asia belong to Araneidae (11 species) and Salticidae (6).707 mm between different atolls.) regions. Oxyopes (3). About 30 species recorded during the study are new records to Maldives. and Tetragnatha foveata are also restricted to Laccadive and Srilankan region. Hersilidae.) and Nearctic (1 sp. Poland throughout the year with a mean annual temperature of 28°C. The dominant guild was of the orb web builders and it comprised of 20 species of spiders. Tetragnathidae and Uloboridae fall under this category. Pardosa (Lycosidae). High number of Indian species suggests the arrival of majority of spiders here from the neighbouring Indian mainland. Genera like Neoscona (6). Affinities: The present studies conducted in Maldives revealed that the spider fauna of this ecosystem bears affinities with Oriental (21 spp). Tylorida (Tetragnathidae) are first records from Maldives.

Heteropoda venatoria (Linnaeus. The web building and foliage running spiders rely on vegetation for some part of their lives. Seven families are represented by only single species. Another notable feature in the spider fauna is the high number of Tetragnathid spiders of the genus Tetragnatha observed during the study. spiders of the above mentioned families were easily observed. These are common in most areas. Zosis geniculata (Olivier. Poland large orb webs. building retreats or for web building. Discussion The spider fauna of Maldives is not rich compared with many other tropical islands. The limited floral diversity is also a contributing factor in reducing the number of invertebrates. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 210 . 1837. Except the common families like Araneidae and Salticidae most families are represented by a few species. which shows the primary route of spider migration. Sason robustum. Rare families like Desidae which are not found in neighbouring mainland are also recorded from these coral islands. either for finding food. Legendre (1979) suggested that in the case of Sason. Around 1447 species are reported from the neighbouring Indian mainland and around 354 species are reported from Sri Lanka (Siliwal 2007). A notable feature in the diversity of spiders is the higher family and generic diversity. However. 1826) are cosmopolitan in distribution. Most species found here are also found in Indian mainland and Sri Lanka. The lack of high diversity of spiders in Maldives has to be viewed in this context. Species like Crossopriza lyoni (Blackwall. Plexippus paykulli (Audouin. when spiders were divided according to their functional group there was a significant effect of habitat on the diversity of these groups.Book of Abstracts. 1789). The scarcity of mygalmorphs can be attributed to the vast separation of these coral islands from the neighbouring land. The structure of the vegetation is therefore expected to influence the diversity of spiders found in the habitat. 1767) are pantropical in distribution. Studies have demonstrated that a correlation exists between the structural complexity of habitats and species diversity (Hawksworth. The sub order Mygalamorphae is represented by only a Barychelid species. Siedlce. whereas species like Artema atlanta Walckenaer. The lack of high species diversity can be attributed to the limited diversity of habitats in these coral islands. The spider fauna here is a chance assemblage of species arrived from neighbouring lands. Diversity generally increases when a greater variety of habitat types are present (Ried & Miller 1989). the frequent equatorial rain also favours the abundance of moisture loving genera. Kalin-Arroyo 1995). its arboreal nest allowed for its transport as flotsam in ocean currents. 1867). There are many environmental factors that affect species diversity (Rosenzweig 1995). Uetz (1991) suggests that structurally more complex shrubs can support a more diverse spider community.

net. Poland Comparative morphology of the circulatory system in scorpions: an evolutionary character analysis Bastian J. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. is preliminary to say the least.de Although scorpions are one of the better-known arachnid groups. investigation of their anatomy has been superficial. and scanning electron microscopy. heart and associated structures) and a lacunar system (lacunae and sinuses). christian. Existing comparative work on the circulatory system.g. The ventral vessel originates from the anterior aorta and runs through the entire opisthosoma. There is also a dense meshwork of small hemolymph channels which supply the central nervous system. Universität Rostock.Book of Abstracts.wirkner@uni-rostock. Klußmann & Christian S.g. The hemolymph vascular system in scorpions comprises a dorsal tubular heart which extends the entire length of the mesosoma and is surrounded by a pericardium. one of the major organ systems. the pedipalps and the walking legs). In the prosoma. To fill this knowledge gap the aim of this study is to describe and visualize the circulatory systems of different scorpion taxa in detail. The open circulatory system of scorpions is made up of a hemolymph vascular system (i. Wirkner Allgemeine & Spezielle Zoologie. cardiac arteries and arrangement of the ostia). Bklussmann@gmx. These are mapped onto existing hypotheses of scorpion phylogeny in order to trace their evolutionary transformations. Germany.e. the chelicerae. Siedlce.. 211 . The heart is extended posteriorly by the posterior aorta which pervades the metasoma to the aculeus. MicroCT in combination with computer-aided 3D reconstruction. To this end we compared the circulatory organ structures of nearly all the major scorpion taxa (42 species) using corrosion casting. there is an anterior aorta which supplies the appendages (e. Our results enable us to conceptualize a number of phylogenetic characters. Our study investigates in detail the branching pattern of the anterior aorta and the characters of the heart and associated structures (e.

Poland The classical taxonomic approach towards a phylogenetic system of the Cyphophthalmi (Opiliones) Ivo M.rs There are a few as good land organisms suitable for studying historical biogeography as Cyphophthalmi. and this suggests a possible connection of Cyphophthalmi from New Caledonia with Ogoveidae 212 .Troglosironid clade. This species shows affinity to Troglosironidae from New Caledonia. 1996 from Madagascar clearly belongs to Ogoveid . 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. I have concluded that certain characters may clearly define families and phyletic relations within them.uns. Florida and West Africa). Their ancient origin (Dunlop 2007).karaman@dbe. Boyer et al. 2010. Ogoveidae (West Africa) and Troglosironidae (New Caledonia). the Giribet’s group used also a morphometric approach in an attempt to solve phyletic relationships among certain groups of Cyphophthalmi (Clouse et al. In 1980 he proposed a reclassification of Cyphophthalmi and provided a novel opinion of their relationships. Clouse & Giribet in press). based on cladistic analysis of morphological characters. Juberthie (and co-authors) was the first to study the biogeography of Cyphophthalmi. 2010). Karaman University of Novi Sad. Neogoveidae (Tropical South America. Novi Sad. including the plate tectincs aspect (Juberthie & Massoud 1976). Murienne et al. describing it as a new taxo (Shear 1993). criptical way of life and low dispersal rates recommend them for study. Department of Biology and Ecology. Pettalidae (temperate Gondwanan distribution). Particularly important was the work on the reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical studies (Giribet & Boyer 2002. Juberthie (1988) also illustrated the slow evolution of the group on the example of the genus Parasiro. De Bivort & Giribet 2004. distribution. The classical taxonomic approach (recognition and assessment of characters) has recently been wrongly neglected. Japan). Stylocelidae (great part of Indomalaya). 2009. From among 60 scientists that have been studying this group so far. he was the first to use the classical taxonomic approach to set the foundation of modern taxonomy of Cyphophthalmi. 2007. North America. Siedlce. Equaly significant for our understanding of the diversity and distribution of the group are the papers by Shear. Based on the analysis of a number of representatives of various genera and families of Cyphophthalmi. De Bivort et al. Today the Cyphophthalmi are classified within 6 families: Sironidae (Europe. Recently. He also raised the group to the family rank. Following Hansen and Sørensen (1904). Serbia. Ankaratra franzi Shear & Gruber.ac. conservative morphoanatomic characters. A new period of the complex approach to the group. with cladistic analyses of molecular and morphological data started with the papers by Gonzalo Giribet and colaborators. ivo. Based on this analysis. Christian Juberthie is the most prolific author.Book of Abstracts.

. 13(1): 219-231. (eds). Juberthie C. 2010. The Biology of Opiliones. Invertebrate Systematics. de Bivort B. XI Europaisches Arachnologisches Colloquium. Based on the same criteria that define other families. Cladistic analyses of morphological characters may lead to a somewhat superficial approach that may result in serious oversights. a new family has to be raised.. A morphometrics-based phylogeny of the temperate Gondwanan mite harvestmen (Opiliones. in press.M. 2007. 34: 2070-2085 Clouse R. Harvestmen. Siedlce. and Karripurcellia sierwaldae Giribet. a globally distributed group of arachnids. 2004.. 2002. Journal of Arachnology. The characters analyzed show that the family Stylocellidae is more diversified than it was thought. 2003 from Western Australia. Invertebrate Systematics. Machado G. 1976. Biogeography of the World: a case study from cyphophthalmid Opiliones. References Boyer S. Revue d Ecologie et de Biologie du Sol. 1996.M. Journal of Biogeography. A phylogenetic analysis for the Southeast Asian mite harvestman family Stylocellidae (Opiliones. 213 . Cyphophthalmi. taxonomie et morphologie ultrastructurale des opilions cyphophthalmes. Explosive evolution of an ancient group of Cyphophthalmi (Arachnida: Opiliones) in the Balkan Peninsula.Book of Abstracts. 247-265. 303-308. Clouse R. Journal of Biogeography. & Giribet G. & Giribet G.. Paleontology. & Boyer S. & Massoud Z.a combined analysis using morphometric and molecular data.. MA. Cyphophthalmi) . 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. A new genus of cyphophthalmid from the Iberian Peninsula with a phylogenetic analysis of the Sironidae (Arachnida: Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi) and a SEM database of external morphology. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research.L. Poland from West Africa. Karaman I. Clouse R. 30: 110-128. Schwendinger P.. Les opilions cyphophthalmes biogeographie. De Bivort B. Consequently. Pettalidae). vittesse d’evolution. A cladistic analysis of the cyphophthalmid genera. In: Pinto-da-Rocha R. 1988. Juberthie C. & Giribet G. Clouse R. & Giribet G.J.M. Journal of Biogeography. Dunlop J. & Giribet G. & Giribet G. Benavides L. 2009.. 23: 515-529. pp. Sharma P. Biogeographie. pp. 18: 7-52. Cambridge.L. When Thailand was an island . Kuranarathna I. De Bivort B. 2009. periodes de colonisation du mileu souterrain. are congeneric.R. & Giribet G. Berlin. 2007. indicating that these territories are closely related. Manangotria taolanaro Shear & Gruber. the second species from Madagascar.A.the phylogeny and biogeography of mite harvestmen (Opiliones. Giribet G. the synonymy of these two families is possible. Cyphophthalmi.L. Harvard University Press..L. Murienne J..M. Stylocellidae) in Southeast Asia.

Cyphophthalmid opilionids new to Madagascar: two new genera (Opiliones. A review of the Cyphophthalmi of the United States and Mexico. Shear W. The Journal of Arachnology. 1993.Book of Abstracts. Cyphophthalmi). 2705: 1-34.The genus Troglosiro and the new family Troglosironidae (Opiliones. 21: 81-90. 1980. Shear W. & Gruber J. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. with a proposed reclassification of the suborder (Arachnida. American Museum Novitates. Cyphophthalmi ? Pettalidae). Siedlce. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society.A. Poland Shear W.A. 10: 181-186. 1996.A. Opiliones). 214 .

99 species were identified. 2008). Schmidt et al. Poland Diversity of the spider communities on the intensively managed grasslands of the “Medvednica” Nature Park. 1995. Siedlce. with 3384 adult specimens. They show that an extensive grazing or mowing has a positive effect on the grassland communities by preventing succession. was family Linyphiidae. Only the data sampled by pitfall traps were statistically analysed. Buchar & Ružička 2002. On the control plot. luka. Although a further research. Overall 5023 spider specimens were collected.katusic@biom. Hänggi et al. Warui et al. From June to October 2007 a research of spider communities was conducted on four meadows of the “Medvednica” Nature Park with a main goal to determine the influence of intensive management of meadows used for recreational purposes (skiing) on spider communities. species Alopecosa cuneata was the most abundant. On each meadow nine pitfall traps were placed within a 10 x 10 m plot. Grassland habitats of the mountainous “Medvednica” Nature Park are threatened by the loss of the traditional agricultural activities and an increasing number of Park visitors followed by the need to reform grasslands for recreational purposes.Book of Abstracts. As expected. is needed. the spider community of the control plot differed significantly from the intensively managed meadows and had the highest biodiversity. out of which 25 were recorded for the first time in Croatian spider fauna (Helsdingen 2009). The aim was to detect differences in the assemblages of spider communities on three frequently mowed meadows and on meadow not used for recreational purposes and mowed two times a year. 2007). 2003. On the disturbed plots the most abundant family. On these three disturbed plots the most abundant species were Oedothorax apicatus and Erigone dentipalpis. Croatia. Croatia Luka Katušić Association for Biological Research – BIOM. On the undisturbed plot family Lycosidae was most abundant. sweeping and pitfall trapping. based on a detailed analysis on environmental variables and habitat preferences of the recorded species. Nentwig et al. Pétillon et al. while intensive mowing or grazing impoverishes the spider communities through decreasing vegetation diversity and microhabitat availability (Cattin et al. Plantureux 2005. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Rothenbücher 2004. 2003. abundant and ubiquitous species on the all kinds of grassland habitats. 1882) was recorded. As a new species also the allochthonous spider species Mermessus trilobatus (Emerton. both in the number of specimens and in the number of species. The spiders were collected by hand. 2005.hr A lot of studies have been done so far dealing with the impact of different grassland management on the occurring arthropod communities. this 215 . frequent in habitats under anthropogenic impact (Roberts 1987. exhauster.

& Ružička V. Spinnen Mitteleuropas Determination Key.org. Stöckli E. improvement and challenges. Canard A. 33: 269-279. http://www..J. 3(2): 153-164.. Helsdingen P.. Impact of cutting and sheep grazing on ground-active spiders and carabids in intertidal salt marshes (Western France). & Bersier L. Roberts M. & Brown V.araneae.W.H. Hänggi A. & Gigon A. Young T. & Ysnel F. & McCracken D.european-arachnology. Nentwig W. References Buchar J..unibe. Peeters A. Poland preliminary research shows that intensive management of the meadows prevents the development of the natural grassland communities and lowers the biodiversity on such areas with the prevalence of species with broad ecological valence.2003. Villet M. 30: 201-209. Dissertation... Blandenier G. Harley Books. 2003. van 2009.. Ver. Banašek-Richter C. Biodiversity in intensive grasslands : Effect of management.. 17: 3003-3012. 2008. Agronomy research.F. 2004.H.F.R. Habitats of Central European Spiders. Atkinson P.. 2005.12.2).E.Book of Abstracts. Hänggi A. Fuller R.A. 1987. 1995.. Miscelanea Faunistica Helvetiae. The impact of mowing as a management strategy for wet meadows on spider (Araneae) communities. Feber R. Rotational fallows as overwintering habitat for grassland arthropods: the case of spiders in fen meadows. 216 . Plantureux S. The Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland.. Journal of Applied Ecology. Tallowin J. Colchester. & Blick T.M. Asteraki E. Rocker S. http://www. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2009.. Peres Publishers. 2002. 38: 647-664.J. Araneae. Warui C.P & Jocque R.. Praha. Biodiversity and Conservation.. & Nentwig W.J. Schmidt M.ch/. 2003. 8.J. 113: 179-188. 2007. Influence of grazing by large mammals on the spider community of a Kenyan savanna biome. Animal Biodiversity and Conservation.. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.K. Pétillon J. Vickery J. Biological Conservation. Cattin M. 2001. Volume 2: Linyphiidae. Hanafi J.. Catalogue of spiders of the Czech Republic. Kropf C. The Impact of Mowing and Flooding on the Diversity of Arthropods in Floodplain Grassland Habitats of the Lower Oder Valley National Park. Journal of Arachnology. Georges A. The management of lowland neutral grasslands in Britain: effects of agricultural practices on birds and their food resources. 4: 1-460. Rothenbücher J. Siedlce. Germany. 2005.

USA tharinab@gmail. The family Hexisopodidae. The acrosomal complex is relatively small. The phylogeny of Solifugae is widely unresolved. representatives of this family possess fossorial legs. Daesiidae and Solpugidae to a certain degree.com Solifugae is one of the mesodiverse arachnid orders comprising 12 families and about 1087 species.de 2 Department of Arachnology and Myriapodology. rather than cursorial legs.klann@uni-greifswald. Windhoek. roundish and their chromatin bodies are irregularly shaped. which occurs in southern Africa.Book of Abstracts. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Namibia. represents a very peculiar group differing from all the other solifugid species. Therefore the question arose whether the morphological peculiarity of the family Hexisopodidae is also reflected in the ultrastructure of their spermatozoa. The sperm cells of a species of the genus Hexisopus are aflagellate. National Museum of Namibia. Germany. Klann1 & Tharina Bird2 1 Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald. 217 . Department of Zoology. Overall the spermatozoa of this species resemble most spermatozoa of certain species of the families Ammotrechidae. Institute of Legal Medicine. anja. In contrast to all other species. The sperm cells form finger-like membrane protuberances and each sperm is surrounded by a secretion sheath. Apparently neither in the testes nor in the Vasa deferentia the spermatozoa aggregate to groups. Denver Museum of Nature and Science. The ultrastructure of spermatozoa has successfully been used for phylogenetic analyses in other animal groups. Denver. CO. Poland Ultrastructural characterization of Hexisopus spermatozoa in comparison to other solifugid species Anja E. Greifswald. Siedlce.

Vegetation structure was identified as a crucial driver for epigeic activity patterns. Opiliones) in three different conventionally managed crop fields in Brandenburg. Vegetation structure was identified by the height and cover values of the crop plants as well as of the weed. ground beetles (Carabidae) and arachnids (Araneae. Opiliones): distribution patterns and drivers for epigeic activity Jessika Konrad Institute for Land Use Systems. Analyses of the data with different multivariate methods (Cluster analysis. Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF). After ploughing and seeding the intercrops in two of the fields. ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). A total of 74 weed. The impact of the vegetation structure on spider coenoses as a whole as well as on etho-ecological traits is discussed in relation to some hypotheses of other authors about vegetation structure and animal communities. discriminant analysis (DA). respectively. revealed to be stable on different spatial scales (from single traps up to the field scale). 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. In 2008. field trials were performed to analyse the communities of weeds. rigorous species-specific changes in activity patterns occurred. respectively as well as its function as a driver for epigeic activity patterns. as well as of the assemblages of these species groups characteristic for each of the fields. and winter rye.de The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of vegetation structure on species composition of ground beetle and spider assemblages. peas. Poland The impact of vegetation structure on weeds. 218 . Germany. respectively. Germany. Ground beetles and spiders were caught with pitfall traps in intervals of 14 days from April to September and the species were identified in the laboratory. Vegetation surveys on 72 sample plots on each field were performed. arachnid communities (Arachnida: Araneae. These patterns represent qualitative and quantitative differences in the assemblages of these species groups. The crops cultivated were maize. Siedlce. Each field was divided into eight experimental plots.Book of Abstracts. 72 ground beetle and 84 spider species were found. The winter rye was intercropped with Sudan grass and mustard. correspondence analysis (CA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed patterns of the structural parameters. including species composition and -diversity as well as dominance and biomass patterns. konrad@zalf. at the end of June.

The archipelago is. For example. not in the inner. some continental or northern species. Many species included in the national Red Data Book live in Finland only or mainly in this archipelago area. Finland. Poland Arachnology in Finland. University of Turku. e. sepkopo@utu. 219 .g. and a selection of 35 publications from their production is presented here. was presented in an earlier report.g. I will deal with the Finnish arachnologists. sepkopo@utu. This large archipelago is situated in the Baltic Sea. 2 Seppo Koponen Zoological Museum. and he is now excluded. Many other spiders can be found only in Aland and other outer parts the archipelago. It consists of over 40 000 islands and islets of different size. who’s well-known activity in arachnology lasted from 1932 until 1983. Siedlce. Spider fauna (Araneae) in the southwestern archipelago of Finland Seppo Koponen Zoological Museum.fi About 450 species. found in inner parts of the archipelago. Aarno Kleemola. are absent on the large-size island of Aland. Jouko Kaisila. On the other hand. between Turku (Finland) and Stockholm (Sweden). Professor Pontus Palmgren (Helsinki). In the present report. Pseudicius encarpatus and Lasiargus hirsutus. Species diversity and faunal similarity in different parts of the archipelago are discussed. who have worked either at the University of Helsinki or at the University of Oulu during the second half of the 20th century. are hitherto collected from the southwestern archipelago of Finland. Finland. e. Alopecosa pinetorum. Sixteen researchers are dealt with. Juhani Itämies.Book of Abstracts. due to land rising after the Ice Age (ca 0. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. This report is based on the databases of the Zoological Museum. and some interesting distribution patterns are shown. Veikko Huhta. Timo Pajunen and Juhani Terhivuo. coastal zone. The most productive arachnologists of this period are (in alphabetic order) Walter Hackman.g.fi The history of arachnology in Finland has been earlier briefly described by Terhivuo (1996) and Koponen (2008). ca 70% of the known Finnish spider fauna. However. e. Labulla thoracica and Hyptiotes paradoxus. University of Turku.5 m /100 years). rather young. University of Turku. Amaurobius fenestralis. some species are known in Finland only from Aland.

18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Faculty of Science. we show how larva of Zatypota percontatoria Müller. Poland Host specific manipulation of spiders by a parasitoid wasp Stanislav Korenko & Stano Pekár Department of Botany and Zoology. In remaining cases the change in the structure was inconspicuous.com.cz Many parasites and parasitoids control behaviour of their host to achieve more preferable conditions for their development. Czech Republic. a narrowly specialised wasp parasitoid of theridiid spiders. Here. The wasp larva modified the web architecture of parasitised spiders shortly before pupating. bimaculata spiders the web architecture was modified in 19% (N=31). performs species-specific interaction with their hosts.stanislav@yahoo. In T. Masaryk University. 220 . In N. Parasitised T. We found that unparasitised T. korenko. varians the web construction was modified in 90% of cases (N=27). The modified web had denser silk strands around the position of spider in the web. Brno.muni. pekar@sci. Neottiura bimaculata (Linné) and Theridion varians Hahn. varians spider built a cupola-like web around the wasp larva that was used as a shelter for the pupa. Siedlce.Book of Abstracts. varians spiders construct such cupola-like structure during overwintering in litter which seems to serve as a protection structure against predators.

only two species of the family Mimetidae have till now been studied cytogenetically. Faculty of Science.cuni.ac. Czech Republic. Robertus lividus 22. University of the Free State. the recent study of Huber (2004) showed that the characters of both female and male copulatory organs of Palpimanidae rather correspond to those of haplogynes. Palpimaninae). South Africa. namely Ero japonica (2n=24. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Archaeidae and Huttoniidae. HaddadCR@ufs. Palpimanus schmitzi from Israel 28 (X1X2X3X40). According to a concept. However. up to 10 extant families belong to the superfamily Palpimanoidea. Suzuki 1954) and Gelanor sp. Czech Republic.cuni. The remaining families are considered to be related to the entelegyne superfamily Araneoidea. we provide a comparative karyotype analysis of four species of Palpimanidae. Diaphorocellus sp. X0. Palpimanidae and Stenochilidae is considered monophyletic. korinko1@natur. Faculty of Science. As a contribution to the discussion on the taxonomy of the superfamily Palpimanoidea. Mimetus sp. Considering Palpimanoidea in the broad sense. Jiří Král1. X1X20. Haddad3 1 Department of Genetics and Microbiology. The families Stenochilidae and Huttoniidae possess similar copulatory organ morphology and structure to palpimanids. pekar@sci. Two of them. one species of Mimetidae. In contrast to this. Following several recent revisions. Poland Cytogenetic data do not support a close relationship between the families Mimetidae and Palpimanidae (Araneae: Araneomorphae) Tereza Kořínková1. Palpimanidae and some other araneomorph families possess peculiar morphological characters related to their araneophagy. (X1X20) (Theridiidae). Chediminae). are among the most ancient groups of araneomorph spiders . Charles University in Prague. In contrast to the overwhelming majority of entelegyne spiders 221 . (2n=25.Book of Abstracts. only the clade comprising the families Huttoniidae. Male diploid numbers and sex chromosome systems were as follows: Palpimanus gibbulus from Greece 27 (X1X2X30).their fossil record is known already from the Mesozoic.cz 3 Department of Zoology & Entomology. Meta menardi 24 (X1X20) (Tetragnathidae). Palpimanids were traditionally considered as entelegyne araneomorph spiders with secondarily reduced female genitalia. Siedlce.cz 2 Department of Zoology and Ecology. 24 (X1X20) (Mimetidae). These families are currently grouped with Palpimanidae into the superfamily Palpimanoidea. Palpimanus cyprius from Israel 28 (X1X2X3X40) (Palpimanidae.cz. spider@natur. Schneider et al. 2008).muni. Masaryk University.za The systematic position the araneomorph family Palpimanidae and limits of the superfamily Palpimanoidea are a matter of controversy. and two representatives of the superfamily Araneoidea. Bloemfontein. karyotypes of 138 species of six families classified as Araneoidea (sensu Coddington 2005) have been reported. from Namibia 24 (X1X20) (Palpimanidae. which emphasizes mainly these characters. Stano Pekár2 & Charles R.

paired homologous chromosomes maintain a parallel alignment during late prophase I (the so-called postpachytene stage). At early prophase I they lie at the nuclear periphery. the present findings indicate that achiasmate meiosis might be a common characteristic of the whole family Palpimanidae. the two non-homologous gonosomes form a positively heteropycnotic body usually situated at the nuclear periphery and persisting until the zygotene – early pachytene stage. Unlike palpimanids. which was observed between pachytene and postpachytene. Poland studied so far. males of Mimetus sp. sex chromosome system. the palpimanid karyotypes contain both acrocentric and biarmed autosome pairs. Unlike the autosome bivalents. Král et al. Hypochiloidea or Austrochiliodiea). 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. these characters are rather typical for entelegynes and would in fact support the placement of Palpimanidae amongst entelegynes or proto-entelegynes. systems with three or four X chromosomes seem to be a frequent phenomenon. for details). Siedlce.Book of Abstracts. whereas at metaphase I they already lie separately. Instead. course of meiosis and meiotic behaviour of the sex chromosomes. Male meiosis of palpimanids is probably achiasmate. We found this course of meiosis in two palpimanid subfamilies (Palpimaninae and Chediminae). Within the frame of Opisthothelae. segmentata and R. This mode of meiotic division is characterized by a lack of crossovers and consequently by the absence of chiasmata at prophase during the first meiotic division. as indicated by our previous data. the combination of a high proportion of acrocentric chromosomes and the presence of multiple X chromosomes has not been found in previously karyotyped basal araneomorphs (Haplogynae. the presence of biarmed chromosomes is probably. Within the genus Palpimanus. Due to the lack of chiasmata. At diplotene the gonosomes become isopycnotic with the autosomes and later negatively heteropycnotic and less condensed than the autosomes. From postpachytene to metaphase I. the karyotype and course of meiosis in Mimetus is similar to that of typical araneoids. the sex chromosome unit does not decondense during a particular stage of transitional chromatin decondensation. In contrast to palpimanids. our data do not 222 . each of the autosome bivalents usually bears a single chiasma. Mimetids exhibit standard meiosis. The karyotypes of M. The co-occurrence of biarmed and acrocentric automosomes in a karyotype is a very unusual phenomenon feature amongst entelegyne spiders. lividus are similar to mimetid representative in terms of chromosome numbers and morphology. The sex chromosomes of palpimanids are heteropycnotic and more or less associated during most of the first meiotic division. This could support the position of Palpimanidae as one of the basal araneomorph clades. At the beginning of diplotene the X chromosomes pair end-to-end without chiasmata. including two X chromosomes. By transit from premeiotic interphase to leptotene. show a typical entelegyne karyotype formed entirely of acrocentric chromosomes. Achiasmate meiosis is another derived character that has not been confirmed in any other spider group so far except for some diplurid mygalomorphs (see abstract of J. Such systems are regarded as derived in spider sex chromosome evolution. However. they form a highly condensed unit usually situated in the centre of the plate. Although the third palpimanid subfamily Otiothopinae was unfortunately not included in our analysis. Therefore.

2008. Araneae) genitalia: a study based on histological serial sections. 2005. Cella D. Phylogeny and classification of spiders. Huber B. This research was partially supported by the Grant Agency of the Czech Academy of Sciences (project no. 18-24. Stávale L. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.M. Cytogenetic information on five species of entelegyne spiders [Infirmações citogenéticas de cinco espécies die aranhas entelegynae (Araneae: Araneomorphae)]. American Arachnological Society.M. IAA601110808 – TK. 1954. 2004. Salta. Abstract.A.. Cushing PE. JK) and by Czech Ministry of Education. Karyotype analyses of other groups considered closely related to palpimanids (especially Huttoniidae and Stenochilidae) would be needed in order to test for congruency of chromosome data and taxonomic hypotheses in the superfamily Palpimanoidea. Youth and Sports (project no. Brescovit A... Spiders of North America: an Identification Manual. III. Schneider M. B. Siedlce. 2nd Latinoamerican Congress of Arachnology. Poland support a phylogenetic relationship between the families Mimetidae and Palpimanidae. JK). eds. Paquin P.D. 30th Nov. pp. Roth V. 223 . Cytological studies in spiders... In: Ubick D.C. Journal of Morphology. p 152 Suzuki S.4th Dec. MSM0021620828 – TK. Evolutionary transformation from muscular to hydraulic movements in spider (Arachnida. 261: 364-376.Book of Abstracts. Journal of Science of the Hiroshima University. 15: 23-136. Studies on the chromosomes of fifty-seven species of spiders belonging to seventeen families with general considerations on chromosomal evolution. Argentina. References Coddington J. 2008.

M. Dysderidae Harpactea doblikae (Thorell. Vernadsky Taurida National University. Nadolny.b). V.ru Introduction The Crimean Peninsula is the mountainous highly isolated region. List of Crimean endemic spider taxa and their distribution (from published and personal unpublished data): Genera Deliriosa Kovblyuk. Marusik.Book of Abstracts.. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. in caves and buildings. who also published Catalogue of Crimean spiders (Kovblyuk 2004). 2003 – all the mountainous part of Crimea. 2008 – saline lands in the plain part of Crimea. Kovblyuk Zoology Department. 2009 (Lycosidae) Spinestis Saaristo. in the rocky mountain steppes. 2003 – steppe in the plain part of Crimea. Siedlce. surrounded by Black and Azov seas and connected with the mainland only by the narrow Perekop isthmus. Poland Diversity and endemism of spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) of the Crimean Peninsula. Gnaphosidae Berlandina shumskyi Kovblyuk. kovblyuk@mail. These species were analyzed by the author (Kovblyuk 2002). In 1875 Thorell published his two significant works (1875 a. Nadolny. continental part of Ukraine. 2003 – mountain plateaus at 1000-1200 m a. 1875) – all the mountainous part of Crimea.l. 2009 (Oonopidae) Species Agelenidae Malthonica podoprygorai Kovblyuk. During the last years more species and data on their distribution were found. Ukraine. 2006 – all the mountainous part of Crimea Tegenaria taurica Charitonov. 2008 – all the mountainous part of Crimea.I. Rostov Area of Russia. probably misidentified) – south part of the Crimean Mountains. Clubionidae Clubiona mykolai Michailov.s. Parasyrisca marusiki Kovblyuk. Micaria blicki Kovblyuk. Caucasus and Turkey). 1947 (also recorded from Caucasus by Mkheidze (1997). bosmansi Kovblyuk. describing about 50 new species. southern coast with sub-Mediterranean vegetation. many of them synonymised or found also in other regions (Bulgaria. The first spider record from Crimea was published by Falk (1786) while the first description of spider species was published by Doblika (1853). Ukraine Mykola M. 224 .

which inhabits the steppe plains.2%) and 2 endemic genera (0. 525 valid species from 225 genera and 38 families were recorded. 2710 m). and from Caucasus (Dysdera. Incestophantes australis Gnelitsa. Most endemic species live in the mountainous part. Lepthyphantes sensu lato) (Wunderlich 1995). Theridiidae "Crustulina" albovittata (Thorell. 2006).l. while endemism on Sardinia (27-29 species. Oonopidae Spinestis nikita Saaristo. Poland Linyphiidae Diplocephalus pseudocrassilobus Gnelitsa. Low endemism is probably caused by the smaller area. ~6%) and Corsica (43-51 endemic species. ~10%) it is much higher (Wunderlich 1995).8%). Tegenaria) and from Corsica (Nemesia. from the Balkans (Troglohyphantes. total species diversity of Crimean spiders is only twice lower than in Caucasus and 3 times lower than in the Balkans. 2006 – north slope of the Crimean Mountains. 2009 – sub-Mediterranean steppes in the east part of the southern coast of Crimea.. Harpactea) (Dunin 1992). Nevertheless. of them 17 endemic species (3. especially on southern slopes. With the area of about 27. Synaphridae Synaphris lehtineni Marusik. Siedlce. Karst topography is very well developed in the Crimean Mountains. 1910) (the species with the unknown generic position) – southern part of the Crimean Mountains Discussion In total. 1. Tegenaria) (Deltshev 2000). The phenomenon is well known in some genera from Sardinia (Harpactea. Salticidae Neon kovblyuki Logunov. 2009 – south slope of the Crimean Mountains. Dysdera.Book of Abstracts. except for Berlandina shumskyi. Another distinctive feature of Crimean spider fauna is the absence of endemic adaptive radiation. 1875) (species with unclear generic status) – the habitat and distribution is unknown "Dipoena" lindholmi (Strand. It is probably the result of stronger isolation of both islands (190 km and for Corsica respectively). Marusik. Gnelitsa. with 225 . Lepthyphantes sensu lato. 2006 – south slope of the Crimean Mountains. Lycosidae Lycosidae Deliriosa karadagensis Kovblyuk. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Kovblyuk. Typhochrestus longisulcus Gnelitsa.545 m a.000 km2.834 m) and Corsica (about 9000 km2. Endemism in Crimea is much lower than at the Balkan Peninsula (25% species from ~ 1500) (Deltshev 2000) and Caucasus (~22% species from ~1022) (Marusik et al. Crimea is similar to Sardinia (about 24.s. 2005 – southern coast of the Crimean Mountains. 2009 – southern coast of the Crimean Mountains. Also the number of spider species (500 from each island) is similarly. Leptoneta. 2004 – southern coast of the Crimean Mountains.000 km2 and maximum elevation of 1. land age and geographical isolation.

Aranei). 15-th issue: Problems of the ecology in the Crimea. Spiders of Georgia (taxonomy. However. Thorell T. Crimean cave species diversity is low. (eds). scientific and practical collected articles open to discussion. Verhandlungen der zoologisch-botanischen Vereins in Wien. Conclusions 1. 283-584. Siedlce. Stara Lesna. 1997. In: Gajdos P. 1995. Haplogynae). Verzeichniss Südrussischer Spinnen. 3. Kovblyuk M. 2004. 1992. ecology. Zapovedniki Krima. 1853. Beiträge zur Araneologie. 2002. To question about endemism of Crimean spiders (Arachnida. pp. 1789. Materialy II nauchnoi konferencii (25-26 April 2002). References Deltshev Ch. Pekar S. Proceedings of the 18th European Colloquium of Arachnology. 2. University Publishing House. 1999. 11: 39-122. Beitrage zur Thierkunde und Volkerbeschreibung. Supplement 1.M. and no endemic spiders are found. zur Evolution und Biogeographie der Spinnen Korsikas und Sardiniens. Mikhailov K. Bd. 2000. Turkey and Caucasus. The endemic spiders (Araneae) of the Balkan Peninsula.. Ecologia (Bratislava). mit neubeschreibungen (Arachnida: Araneae).Book of Abstracts. Analytical. pp. 211-262 [in Russian]. South Ukraine. Descriptions of several European and North-African spiders. Simferopol. 1-25 (spiders on 443-444). pp. Crimean spider species diversity is large. Catalogue of the spiders (Arachnida: Aranei) of the Crimea.P. 3: 115-124. Doblika K. Points on the development of the Crimea. cave spider fauna is very poor (5 species only). Tbilisi. Thorell T.M. Marusik Yu. Crimea is very different from adjacent Balkans. 1875a. 19: 59-65. 103-109 [in Russian]. Aranei. Kungl Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar. 3. 226 . but endemism is low. Beitrag zur Monographie der Spinnengeschlechts Dysdera.M. Adaptive radiation in endemic spider groups does not occur. zoogeoraphical review). 259-268.. Mkheidze T. 2006. The spider family Dysderidae of the Caucasian fauna (Arachnida. Horae Societatis Entomologicae Rossicae. Poland many caves. 4: 353-383. Advance in the study of biodiversity of Caucasian spiders (Araneae). and cave endemics are lacking.M.F. Simferopol: Tavriya-Plus. Inventory animals and plants species in the Crimea. Acta zoologica bulgarica.G. 1(3): 35-76 [in Russian with English summary]. Supplement 3. 13(5): 1-204. Wunderlich J. Kovblyuk M. Arthropoda Selecta.S. [in Georgian]. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. pp. & Guseinov E. In this aspect. Beiträge zur topographischen Kenntnis des Russischen Reiches. Falk J. 384 pp. 1875b. Dunin P. Zur Kenntnis der Endemiten.

X130). 53 (X0). 25 (X0). jana-musilova@seznam. Iberesia machadoi 76 (X1X20). Tereza Kořínková1 . Évora. Ctenizidae: Cyclocosmia siamensis 128 (?). 27 (X0). Psalmopoeus cambridgei 84 (X1X20). Henriques5 & Charles R.com 6 Department of Zoology and Entomology. Our study revealed a considerable diversity of diploid chromosome numbers. 73 (X0). San Diego State University. caudata. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Pterinochilus murinus 43 (X0). The 2n of male and sex chromosome systems were found as follows: Liphistiidae: Liphistius sp.sdsu. Cyrtaucheniidae: Cyrtauchenius walckenaeri 66 (X1X20). lenka_dulikova@seznam. Bloemfontein. Magda Vítková3. petrunkevitchi 90 (X1X2X3X40).ac. Czech Republic. spider@natur. Portugal. mhedin@sciences. Jana Musilová1. Marshal Hedin4. Karyotypes of other spider groups remain poorly understood. České Budějovice. Czech Academy of Sciences. USA. longipes 73 (X1X2X30).cuni. korinko1@natur. Ryuthela nishihirai 69 (X0). the typical spider karyotype is supposed to consist of acrocentric chromosomes comprising the X1X20 sex chromosome system. Mecicobothriidae: Megahexura sp. Ummidia sp. Sérgio S. Siedlce. Antrodiaetidae: Aliatypus sp. Diploid numbers of males vary significantly from 14 (I.. siamensis. South Africa. Haddad6 1 Laboratory of Arachnid Cytogenetics. Czech Republic. School of Biology. Dipluridae. Idiothele sp.cuni. Ischnothele caudata 14 (XY).cz. Grammostola rosea 72 (X1X20). Brachypelma albopilosum 74 (X1X2X3X40). Theraphosidae: Avicularia minatrix 78 (X1X2X3X40).Book of Abstracts. Migidae: Poecilomigas sp.cz. Ischnocolus adenense 85 (X1X2X30). Nemesiidae: Acanthogonatus pissii 61 (X1X2X30). Ctenizidae). Dipluridae) up to 128 (C.cz 3 Department of Genetics.cz 4 Department of Biology. Faculty of Science. Czech Republic. Poecilotheria formosa 110 (X1X2X3X40). University of the Free State. we studied 2 mesothelids and 22 mygalomorph species belonging to 9 families. Charles University in Prague. The greatest variability of 2n was found in the families Ctenizidae. chromosome morphology. and 227 . HaddadCR@ufs.cas. Department of Genetics and Microbiology. vitkova@entu. and sex chromosome systems of mygalomorphs. To determine fundamental trends in karyotype evolution of basal spiders. University of Évora. CA.za Based on the entelegyne lineage of araneomorph spiders. henriquesbio@gmail. Institute of Entomology. San Diego.edu 5 Department of Entomology. Lenka Dulíková2. Dipluridae: Diplura cf. Holothele cf. Euagrus lynceus 59 (X1X2X3X4X50). 43 (X0). Praha. 33 (X0).cz 2 GENvia Ltd. Citharischius crawshayi 67 (X1X2X30). Poland Evolution of the karyotype and sex chromosome systems in mesothelid and mygalomorph spiders Jiří Král1. Hexathelidae: Macrothele gigas 85 (X1.

Siedlce. Remarkably. we found the evolutionary intermediate between standard chiasmate and achiasmate meiosis (“cryptochiasmate meiosis”) in males of Diplura. The system X1X20. and Cyclocosmia (Ctenizidae). Euagrus.Book of Abstracts. X1X2X3X4X50 and X1. especially to restrict pairing and recombination only to pairs of homologous sex chromosomes. is less common in mygalomorphs than in entelegyne spiders. Mygalomorph autosomes contain a low number of nucleolar organizer regions (NOR). which is supposed to be ancestral for spiders. Iberesia (Nemesiidae) as well as a representative of the family Migidae. X1X2X3X40. We hypothesize that chromosome ends involved in this association contain information for initial assignment of homologous X chromosomes and are likely to promote their pairing. Finally. Most of the studied mygalomorphs exhibit a standard course of meiosis. X chromosomes retain unusual behaviour at female meiosis after fissions or fusions with other sex chromosomes or autosomes. One pair of NOR can often be distinguished by its enormous size. this pairing is the same as found in the basal araneomorph spiders with X1X2Y system but different from the distal end-to-end pairing of basal entelegyne spiders. Both examined genera of mesothelids show a high number of 228 . meiotic behaviour of sex chromosomes and autosomes in spider females is different. Interestingly. We hypothesize that the large portion of acrocentric chromosomes in karyotype of two representatives with the highest 2n. we found a unique behaviour of sex chromosomes during female meiosis in mesothelids and mygalomorphs. The complexity of sex chromosome behaviour in female meiosis is increased by an end-to-end association of sex chromosome pairs in premeiotic and prophase I nuclei. Similarly to other spiders. namely the representatives of the genera Diplura (Dipluridae). Homologous sex chromosomes pair already in premeiotic nuclei and are facultatively heterochromatinized until prophase of the first meiotic division. Poecilotheria (Theraphosidae). Interestingly. The majority of mygalomorphs exhibits higher 2n than araneomorph spiders. In some diplurids. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Rearrangements between autosomes and sex chromosomes resulted into neo-sex chromosomes in Ischnothele (neo-XY system). reflects frequent centric fissions during evolution of their genome. We suggest that inactivation of sex chromosome pairs in females has evolved to avoid negative effects of X chromosome duplications during spider evolution. Multiple X chromosomes show an unusual distal end-to-end pairing during male meiosis. Sex chromosomes of mygalomorphs exhibit usually a biarmed morphology. Presence of the same type of sex chromosome pairing in mygalomorphs and basal araneomorphs is a challenge to test in detail the relationship of these groups. our data allow us to determine specific features of mesothelid karyotypes.X130) have evolved from the X1X20 mode probably by non-disjunctions or by nondisjunctions and fissions. In contrast to homogametic sex of other animals. Biarmed chromosomes (metacentric and submetacentric) predominate in most mygalomorphs. Some species however display a predominance of acrocentric chromosomes. and achiasmate meiosis in males of another diplurid genus. Other multiple X chromosome systems (X1X2X30. Poland Theraphosidae. NOR was found also on one sex chromosome.

This pattern can indicate that the predominance of biarmed chromosomes is ancestral for opisthothele spiders. Siedlce. biarmed chromosomes predominate in most mygalomorphs as well as basal clades of araneomorph spiders.Book of Abstracts. These spiders often exhibit higher 2n than Atypoidea. Furthermore. Providing primary absence of multiple X chromosome systems in mesothelids and the first mygalomorph lineage. The third lineage is formed by the group Crassitarsae plus the families Hexathelidae and Dipluridae. Antrodiaetidae. The second mygalomorph group is formed by Rastelloidina.e. i. the superfamily Atypoidea could constitute a sister clade to opisthotheles. This group is characterized by relatively low chromosome numbers (<50 chromosomes) and X0 system. 229 . X1X20 and X0 systems found in these families arose probably by a gradual fusion of sex chromosomes. families Atypidae. The first mygalomorph lineage involves the superfamily Atypoidea. the karyotype diversity presented in our study allows to distinguish three basic evolutionary lineages of mygalomorphs. In contrast to mesothelids. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. The X1X2X30 system is hypothesized to be ancestral in families Nemesiidae and Theraphosidae. Poland predominantly acrocentric chromosomes and X0 sex chromosome system. and Mecicobothriidae. Predominance of karyotypes with 70-90 chromosomes suggests that ancestral diploid number of the lineage falls into these limits. sex chromosome system is X0 or X1X20.

Tereza Kořínková1. dysderids of the genera Kaemis.cz 3 Department of Genetics. Haddad5 1 Laboratory of Arachnid Cytogenetics. It is tempting to speculate that holocentric chromosomes of the superfamily Dysderoidea originated by multiple fusions from caponiid karyotype. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. marketa.de 5 Department of Zoology and Entomology. Biarmed sex chromosomes pair by both ends. HaddadCR@ufs. jana-musilova@seznam. spider@natur.pastuchova@seznam. the mode of their origin is unknown.Book of Abstracts. Bonn.Milan Řezáč2. Holocentric chromosomes are in general of polyphyletic origin in animal and plant kingdoms.za Basal clades of araneomorph spiders show a considerable diversity of chromosome structure and sex chromosome systems.cz. b.cas. Poland Evolution of holocentric chromosomes and X1X2Y system: two karyotype traits found in basal clades of araneomorph spiders (Araneae: Araneomorphae) Jiří Král1.cz 4 Alexander Koenig Zoological Research Museum. Department of Genetics and Microbiology. and it was also found in the segestriid genus Ariadna.huber. On the other hand. Charles University in Prague.ac. rezac@vurv. Jana Musilová1. České Budějovice. we studied cytogenetics of their putative relatives. To highlight the origin of holocentric chromosomes in the superfamily Dysderoidea. vitkova@entu. South Africa. Faculty of Science. Praha. Czech Republic. however.cz 2 Research Institute of Crop Production. Their karyotypes consist of holocentric chromosomes (superfamily Dysderoidea) or standard chromosomes with a localized centromere.cz. whereas the acrocentric and subtelocentric sex chromosomes pair only by their long arms. this karyotype predominates in oonopids. A discussed possibility of their origin is a fusion of enormous number of chromosomes with the expansion of kinetic activity over a large surface area of fusion products.zfmk@unibonn. Germany. Our analysis indicates that ancestral male karyotype of superfamily Dysderoidea was formed only by three autosome pairs and a single X chromosome. Siedlce.cuni. Further evolution of spider holocentric chromosomes has frequently included chromosome fragmentations. In spite of the considerable karyotype diversity of Dysderoidea. and Dasumia. Magda Vítková3. Huber4 & Charles R. Males of the examined species show 127 chromosomes including 11 sex chromosomes. Czech Republic. Harpactea. During male meiosis. Czech Academy of Sciences. Institute of Entomology. Markéta Pastuchová1. sex chromosomes of Caponia display achiasmatic pairing. korinko1@natur. Bloemfontein.cuni. 230 . Bernhard A. our data show that the ancestral diploid number was also lowered in some lineages by chromosome fusions.cz. family Caponiidae. University of the Free State. Czech Republic.

Altogether.Book of Abstracts. X1X20).nov. guineensis (2n♂=23. In contrast to the Old World pholcids. the evolution of pholcids is characterized by a reduction of the number of autosome pairs and sex chromosomes. Pholcidae. possibly by translocation of autosome material. In the Palaearctic species P. hispanicus ♂2n=23. The structure of the X1X2Y system is conservative. In general. Furthermore. published as well as our data suggest that the X0 system originated early in the clade of New World pholcids. Finally. opilionoides and P. guineensis (2n♂=17. lyoni and Crossopriza sp. Hypochilidae. X1X20). This type of X1X2Y system was found in two afrotropical taxa. Reduction of the X2 chromosome was accompanied by considerable enlargement of the Y chromosome. namely in the families Drymusidae. formed by sex chromosomes X and Y. and Crossopriza cylindrogaster (♂2n=26. Filistatidae. X1X2Y) only. X1X2Y). H. X1X20). We found the most ancestral karyotype in Smeringopus sp. In contrast to other X1X2Y spiders. from Madagascar. Hoplopholcus cf. NORs were detected on three autosome pairs. they show the same type of distal end-to-end pairing as found in Caponia. and Sicariidae. This modification of sex chromosomes may facilitate their achiasmatic pairing. Interestingly. the morphology of the X2 chromosome was changed to subtelocentric or acrocentric by pericentric inversion. senoculata. Furthermore. a fusion of X1 and X2 chromosomes produced an X0 system in some species of Crossopriza (C. These sex chromosomes usually exhibit a metacentric morphology including a tiny Y chromosome. we have studied diploid numbers and morphology of chromosomes. 2n♂=23. L. changes in the structure of sex chromosomes were accompanied by changes of the NOR pattern. X0) and in the genus Holocnemus (H. from South Africa (♂2n=28. and pattern of nucleolar organizer regions (NOR) in selected species. phalangioides contains NORs also on the ends of X chromosomes included into meiotic pairing. The original type of X1X2Y system is retained in Spermophora senoculata (2n♂=25. X1X2Y) and P. Our data suggest reduction of the X2 chromosome in the common ancestor of the genera Leptopholcus and Pholcus. cecconii from Israel (♂2n=28. from Morocco. Poland Karyotypes of some oonopid spiders are unique among all organisms because they consist only of a single chromosome pair. the metacentric morphology of the reduced X2 chromosome was changed to an acrocentric one. X0). To trace the evolution of pholcid karyotypes and sex chromosomes. Siedlce. All species studied so far show the X0 system. An early loss of the ancestral Y microchromosome changed the X1X2Y mode into a secondary X1X20 system. Both X chromosomes of this species retain a metacentric morphology. sex chromosome systems. In Smeringopus sp. these results indicate that the 231 . X1X2Y). The karyotype of P. 'Holocnemine' pholcids exhibit a considerably different evolution of the X1X2Y system. X0. pluchei ♂2n=27. the X1X2Y system of pholcids was converted gradually into the X0 system. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. suggesting that these groups form a monophyletic clade. In S. phalangioides (2n♂=25. A derived X1X2Y system with an achiasmatic sex-chromosome pairing during meiosis was found in some basal araneomorphs with standard chromosomes. our data confirm the evolutionary plasticity of the X1X2Y system in the family Pholcidae.

Poland X1X2Y clade can be more diversified than previously thought. Siedlce. Austrochilidae (XY). This concerns especially the families Scytodidae (X0). and Diguetidae (XY) whose karyotypes show some features typical for the X1X2Y clade. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.Book of Abstracts. 232 . It might include also families whose extant representatives do not have the X1X2Y system.

Shichang Zhang2. eunuch protects his parental investment by fighting off rival males and 4. Scientific Research Centre. and tested four explanations for adaptiveness of being a eunuch: 1. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. less aggressive behaviours. National University of Singapore. Singapore * Presenting author: simonakf@gmail. we conducted a series of male-male contests: intact vs. Slovenia 2 Department of Biological Sciences. they most frequently initiated and won contests and were most aggressive against competitors. the broken embolic conductor (EC) plugs the copulatory opening (CO) and thus prevents rival males' access. Matjaž Gregorič1. Furthermore. Full eunuchs were the most active guardians of females against rival males. We studied sexual behaviour in Nephilengys malabarensis. and in 10% of males the palp was first disfigured. Sexual cannibalism was rampant at 75%. only intact males and half-eunuchs achieved copulation. the plugging of female genitals. 3. We conclude that being a spider eunuch is adaptive: i) palpal loss enables higher levels of agility and aggressiveness. intact male. Second. The behavioural pathways leading to emasculation in nephilids are plastic and poorly understood. 2. Intact males and half-eunuchs showed similar. but only when not prevented by a full eunuch. including male genital mutilation. full eunuch. Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts. emasculation increases agility allowing the male to better fend off rival males. A palp insertion always resulted in male genital mutilation: 90% of males broke the entire bulb and plugged the female CO.com Nephilid spiders show peculiar sexual behaviours. half-eunuch. to establish the effect of palpal loss on eunuch behaviour. removing the bulb after initial EC breakage is advantageous for the sterile male in stopping hemolymph leakage. males of Nephilengys and Herennia exhibit an extreme form of emasculation by removing their palpal bulbs entirely to become "eunuchs". Daiqin Li2 & Matjaž Kuntner1 1 Institute of Biology. third and fourth hypotheses. which help outcompete rival males. Logically. First. Therefore. explanations of the seemingly non-adaptive eunuch phenomenon along with more precise observations are needed. Thus. then severed. Poland The adaptiveness of being a spider eunuch Simona Kralj-Fišer1*. we staged mating trials to precisely document palpal damage and emasculation and to test whether the broken EC functions as a plug. full eunuch. and half-eunuch vs.Book of Abstracts. Siedlce. intact vs. we found support for our first. We confirmed the plugging function of broken male genitals with a 75% prevention of any subsequent copulation. and sexual cannibalism. ii) aggressiveness and functional epigynal plugs together likely increase 233 . Ljubljana. a common SE Asian species. but not the second. intact vs. where giant females regularly devour their tiny mates. Copulation with a female was independent from the outcome of the male – male contest.

Poland the eunuch's paternal investment. Due to short insertion time. which males try to evade. 234 . iii) “remote copulation”. breakage of the entire bulb in the female CO may secure continuous sperm transfer even after the male has been (forcefully) removed from copula. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.Book of Abstracts. Siedlce. We also suggest another function of palpal severance. and high levels of sexual cannibalism.

Behavioural characteristics commonly come in packages (correlate) and form personality dimensions. Tadeja Papler2. In the first step we determined personality related behaviours. albeit opposite. malabarensis. boldness. sexual selection). such characteristics are referred to as personality-related traits. For this purpose. Tjaša Lukanc2 & Matjaž Kuntner1 1 Institute of Biology. survival and reproductive success. i. Larisa Zemljič2. behave as “mini-robots”. To reveal species personality dimensions. contest (aggressiveness to a conspecific of the same sex). This is in accordance with studies in vertebrates (great tits and rodents). the less explorative they tended to be in a novel environment. evolutionary pathway of these two behavioural traits. We investigated intraspecific behavioural differences in females Nephilengys malabarensis. The more aggressive the individuals were. Some personality dimensions. Few studies have investigated intraspecific behavioural variation in invertebrates. Siedlce. and their importance for web building and reproductive success. Analogous to humans.com Individuals of the same sex and species commonly differ from each other in their behavioural characteristics. personality related behaviours were correlated. The most and the least explorative spiders differed in their web building in captivity: more explorative spiders built webs with retreat only. Urška Velikonja2. Repeatability was shown for reactivity. sociability. This paucity of data is probably due to general belief that invertebrates. ecological and morphological variability is much higher than in vertebrates.Book of Abstracts. sexual cannibalism) and novel environment test (boldness and exploratory behaviour). Aggressiveness towards a conspecific did not correlate to aggressiveness towards a male during mating. Personalities influence individuals' ecology. Individual behavioural characteristics may be repeatable and consistent across multiple contexts. a common SE Asian nephilid spider. whereas non-explorative spiders 235 . exploration and aggressiveness towards a conspecific. Slovenia * Presenting author: simonakf@gmail. predator test (reactivity). implying their different underlying mechanisms (natural vs. Scientific Research Centre. such as aggression. suggesting a common. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Personalities are moderately heritable and often contingent on neuroendocrinological processes. although their species diversity as well as behavioural. University of Ljubljana. suggesting these behaviours are heritable and related to personality in N.e. exploration and general activity are universal for vertebrates. whereas others are species-specific. Slovenia 2 Department of Biology. Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts. each individual was repeatedly tested in a series of standardized tests. mating (aggressiveness towards a mate. in contrast to behaviourally plastic vertebrates. Poland Spiders have personalities: Intraspecific behavioural variability in Nephilengys malabarensis (Araneae: Nephilidae) Simona Kralj-Fišer1*. Ljubljana.

as in previous studies on Dolomedes and Agelenopsis. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. orb-weaving spiders N. Females that were more aggressive towards their mates also captured more prey. only a handful of studies exist researching spider personality. Spiders of different behavioural characteristics did not differ in their willingness to mate. 236 . exploration and aggressiveness towards conspecifics. Individual differences in exploration of a novel environment are reflected in web building abilities. Siedlce. the females that were most aggressive towards conspecifics of the same gender. Unexpectedly however.Book of Abstracts. In conclusion. malabarensis consistently differ individually in reactivity. and these are currently too scattered taxonomically to allow generalizations and syntheses in this promising field of research. To date. Poland built finished webs. caught least prey.

5%) and juveniles of the genus Pardosa (4. Bratislava. To compete in periodic world.000 specimens of ground-dwelling invertebrates.8%) and Pardosa lugubris (14. Bratislava.sk 3 Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.7%). Miroslav Krumpál2 & Ivan Hadrián Tuf3 1 Institute of Zoology. in autumn the coenose decreased in number of species to 42.5%). 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. including the circular mean. 60 traps were arranged in the forest and 40 traps in the deforested clearcut area in Litovelské Pomoraví Protected Landscape Area (Czech Republic.uniba. i. Panamomops mengei (3.Book of Abstracts. 101 species had recedent or subrecedent status.time chart of diel activity of epigeic spiders Zuzana Krumpálová1. only. ivan. 15. Palacký University.e. Poland Biological hours tick for everyone . Comenius University. 31 species were identical for both seasons. 21 and 24 o’clock). Olomouc. Ceratinella brevipes (2. Traps were checked once a three hour period (i. Slovakia. 237 . Czech Republic.e. The investigation was carried out in 2004. Spiders represented 108 taxa from 20 families. We applied the multivariate analysis using Past (Hammer et al. the organism must have a periodic activity (Park 1941). The traps were set in a line with three meters distances.tuf@upol. 2001) to evaluate of the epigeic spiders. Coelotes terrestris (5. Faculty of Natural Sciences. 6. This periodism is specific and individual. In general. 5. Considering the eudominant and dominant species.6%) were eudominant species. a high number of species was noticed at forest in spring (71 taxa). eight times a day. Results Of almost 12.817 spiders were collected and identified. 17 species were identical. length of mean vector. Slovak Academy of Sciences. Circular data of diurnal activity of spiders was evaluated according to Oriana (Kovach 2009).6%).krumpalova@savba. zuzana. 12. between 20 May – 7 June for 18 days and 23 September – 18 October for 25 days. Europe). a periodical pattern of animals synchronised with this environmental rhythm. 18. krumpal@fns. Slovakia.sk 2 Department of Zoology.cz Introduction The environment is periodic with respect to day-night. In the clear-cut area the number of species decreased from 62 to 26 taxa. at 3. Abacoproeces saltuum (43. circular standard deviation 95% and 99% confidence limit.2%) was dominant and subdominants were Pardosa prativaga (4. Material and methods Spiders were caught using the pitfall traps (plastic pots) without fixative solution. Siedlce.

the smallest spiders (1. dysderoides or P. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. terrestris. Similar activity we observed at W. mirabilis were confirmed at both sexes and juveniles.9 . praticola or M. diurnal one-phase in the afternoon. with maximum at 15 o’clock. mirabilis). This phenomenon of different activity of adults and juveniles we found at Coelotes terrestris. lugubris.4. amentata (confirmed males and females). O.2-1. dysderoides. herbigradus.6-1. In the category of diurnal morning activity belong – A. Conclusions Spiders’ body size seems to be very closely related with their diel activities. Poland The constant presence and higher dominance of P. with main activities in the morning and in the evening. picinus and M. We found four types of diel activity of epigeic spiders: diurnal one. C. Thanks to the research a high nocturnal epigeic activity of P. P. females and juveniles) and P. praticola (males and females) unambiguously demonstrated the diurnal diphase of diel activity with two peaks at 12 and 21 o’clock. we contribute to the diurnal diphase of C. is uniform for males. brevipes. A.0 mm) showed the diurnal diphase activity with two peaks. saltuum or W. prativaga with maximum in the afternoon (males. and in the evening or night were active males. saltuum is a diurnal linyphiid.phase in the morning.9 mm) with no differences in sexes’ body size showed the diurnal activity with one phase in the morning and the activity of both sexes were similar during the day. nocturnal one-phase in the night. herbigradus – with main activity at the noon and high males’ activity in the evening or night. females and juveniles. obtusa. D. picinus. mengei. In this category of diurnal diphase activity (morning – evening) belong – D. vary in size from 1.6-2. Siedlce. in the morning were active larger females. Considering to the genus Walckenaeria. opposite to the morning activity of W. 238 . W. Diurnal activity of P. Juveniles of the genus Pardosa as the adults of this genus demonstrated typical afternoon diurnal activity with the uniformity of examined species. diurnal-nocturnal diphase in the morning and evening (or night). brevipes. its high activity was noticed early in the morning. into the diphase morning – night belong O. Pisaura mirabilis and juveniles of the genus Pardosa at both study sites also characterized spider communities. obtusa is a diurnal spider with onephase activity in the morning. time lag of activity of W.0 mm (P. Males and females of C. We noticed the certain uniformity in the population of P.8 mm) and small spiders (2. only one spider species. mengei) to 17. while the juveniles typical diurnal ones. lugubris. terrestris seem to be a midnight spiders. Spiders with differences in body-size of sexes (females larger by about 0. prativaga. Small spiders (1. C.2 mm (P. mengei is a diurnal diphase spider.1 mm) . Dominant species showed a high frequency of occurrence at study sites alike. P. The species diversity in the spider communities varied. Thanks to the two different diel activities of sexes. obtusa.Book of Abstracts. dysderoides was shifted to the afternoon. The body size of 108 spider species markedly differed in length. W.

P. P. 02/0067/08 and 01/0176/09). In this category of diurnal afternoon activity belong all species of the genus Pardosa – P. Acknowledgement Thanks to the leaders and ardent students.0-12 mm) with sexes’ similar body size showed diurnal activity with one phase in the afternoon. lugubris. Big spiders (12-17 mm) demonstrated a typical one phase of nocturnal activity. Both sexes as well as their juveniles were active before the sun shining. and the juveniles of C. Poland Bigger spiders (8. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. P. This diel activity was confirmed at both sexes. prativaga. 2B 06101) for support this work. We would like thanks to the Slovak Grant Agency VEGA (No. the tireless collectors. mirabilis or C. terrestris. Siedlce. SP/2D3/155/08) and Czech National Research Programme II (No. their juveniles. terrestris. nocturnal activity was not confirmed. this research could be realised. amentata. 239 . pullata. In the category of nocturnal activity (midnight) belong spiders – P.Book of Abstracts. Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic (No.

Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts. which established a fully resolved monophyletic Nephilidae as sister to all other araneoid spiders. Peter Trontelj2. All of them built on a recent species level phylogeny based on morphological and behavioural data. some nephilid genera show a surprising phylogenetic structure strikingly differing from the current morphological phylogeny. Slovenia 2 Department of Biology. Spain 4 Department of Biology. and thus Kuntner's clade definition of Nephilidae separate from either Araneidae or Tetragnathidae is supported. University of Ljubljana. is becoming a model clade in spider evolutionary research.com The pantropical orbicularian spider family Nephilidae. sexual behaviours. Scientific Research Centre. Recent studies have focused on the evolution of extreme sexual size dimorphism. and discuss the first reinterpretations of nephilid evolutionary history. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Here. San Juan. 240 . Slovenia 3 Department of Animal Biology. Ljubljana.Book of Abstracts. We contrast our preliminary phylogenetic results with published analyses. Tjaša Lokovšek1 & Ingi Agnarsson4 1 Institute of Biology. Our research now focuses on testing the nephilid phylogenetic relationships by generating an extensive molecular dataset using nuclear and mitochondrial genes for over a 100 terminals spanning nephilids and orbicularian outgroups. University of Barcelona. However. University of Puerto Rico. Poland A molecular species level phylogeny of nephilid spiders Matjaž Kuntner1*. USA * Presenting author: kuntner@gmail. currently with four genera and close to 40 species. Miquel Arnedo3. we report on the first analyses of the incomplete dataset using maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic inference. PR. Siedlce. and webs. All analyses find strong support for nephilid monophyly and exclusivity.

The secretions released by the male are ingested by the female and may represent a mating effort or paternal investment. Males with an experimentally covered hump were not handicapped in terms of courtship behaviour but performed significantly more coupling trials before copulation commenced. In O. Germany.uhl@uni-greifswald. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Poland Experimental analysis of male cephalic modifications in the dwarf spider Oedothorax retusus (Araneae: Linyphiidae) Katrin Kunz & Gabriele Uhl Department General Zoology and Systematics. This suggests. University of Greifswald. retusus the secretions that are produced by the male head structure are taken up by the female during courtship and copulation. that our manipulation influenced the males ability to achieve a specific mating posture and that females were more hesitant to accept these males. Siedlce.Book of Abstracts. 241 . To this aim.de Males of many Erigoninae (dwarf spiders) have complex head structures – pits or humps equipped with numerous pores connected to extensive glandular tissue. We investigated the influence of the head secretions during different stages of a mating bout (courtship. after successful mating paternity success of both male types was not significantly different. However. oviposition and paternity). copulation behaviour. Within the genus Oedothorax (Linyphiidae. During courtship and/or copulation females are in contact with these structures. retusus males serve as a mating effort. Copulation duration was limited to one minute to keep chances equal for both males. katrin.de. Our results indicate that the head secretions in O. encounters between females and males with head secretions or males with an experimentally covered secretory hump were compared. copulation probability.kunz@uni-greifswald. Virgin females preferred to copulate with males that were able to release secretion. not as paternal investment. gabriele. Erigoninae) such gustatory courtship is common.

Book of Abstracts. 1939 in Poland. Lublin. Poland. For Larinia bonneti. the dynamics of a population size of Larinia jeskovi in north-east Poland is demonstrated.edu. The project of active protection of these species is proposed. Białystok.pl Department of Zoology. Białystok. only 2 male specimens have been described so far. 1986 and Larinia bonneti Spassky.pl Among 13 spider species of Thomisidae family. arachnologia@wp. Discussion covers the justification for description of new species basing on juvenile specimens. Poland Another male of thomisid spider from the Baltic amber Janusz Kupryjanowicz Institute of Biology. In the work presented further one male of Thomisiraptor is described. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 242 . Spiders of the genus Larinia in Poland Janusz Kupryjanowicz1 & Robert Rozwałka2 1 2 Institute of Biology. Based on 15 years of research. Poland. Habitat preferences in Poland for both species of Larinia are presented as well as information about their biology. Also an influence of succession of vegetation of sedges marshes on size of the population is presented. University of Białystok. redescription was made supported by SEM photographs.edu. kuprzool@uwb. Poland. known from the Late Eocene Baltic amber.pl The data presented concern distribution of two species from genus Larinia: Larinia jeskovi Marusik. Siedlce. the species reported for the first time in Poland. Institute of Biology and Earth Sciences of Maria CurieSkłodowska University. University of Białystok. kuprzool@uwb.

Results indicate levels of inventory completion of 70% for each locality and 10% of complementarity between localities. Buenos Aires. Gustavo Hormiga2. Luis N. In parallel. which yielded more than 1500 unique haplotypes. Dimitar Dimitrov2.edu 3 Universitat de Barcelona. we will discuss the effect of including DNA-aided identified immatures.edu. jpons@imedea. Miquel A.edu. Jackknife 2). 25% were represented by singletons and 10% by doubletons in our samples. Barcelona. and complementarity and similarity estimators.ar. luis. dimitard@gwu. Argentina.400 specimens. Jackknife 1. nearly 25% females and 15% males. Mallorca. We conducted a semi-quantitative sampling of four one hectare plots along a longitudinal transect spanning 350 km on the main cordillera of Panama. In addition. on the estimates of alfa and beta diversity.gov. marnedo@ub. USA. Washington DC. We use these data to estimate alfa and beta diversity using species acumulation curves and non-parametric estimators (ICE. Poland The use of DNA barcodes to assess the biodiversity patterns of megadiverse groups in tropical regions: the PANCODING project Facundo M. Piacentini1. ramirez@macn.ar. generally removed from morphology-based analyses.uib-csic. Here we present and contrast the results of comparing the patterns of genetic based alfa and beta diversitity with those inferred from morphological identification. Spain. Martín J. We have sorted more than 30. Siedlce. hormiga@gwu. Distinct genetic lineages were identified using the GMYC method.labarque@macn.gov. ligia@gwmail. including immatures. facundo. Chao2. ACE. Ligia Benavidez2.gwu.gov. 60% of which were immature. Ramírez1. we have sequenced the first half of the cox1 mitochondrial gene of more than 2.edu 4 Institut Mediterrani d’Estudis Avançats.000 specimens. Of the 408 hypothesized morphospecies.Book of Abstracts.ar 2 The George Washington University. 243 . Arnedo3 & Joan Pons4 1 Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”. Spain. These percentages fall within values reported from previous biodiversity inventories of Arthropods in Neotropical and Palearctic region.piacentini@macn. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Chao1. Labarque1.es The main goal of the PANCODING project is to evaluate the advantages of the DNA barcoding techniques to estimate patterns of species-richness and turnover of a megadiverse group (spiders) in a biodiversity hot-spot (the mountain forests of Panama).

tarsal organ. lat. University of Turku. colour patterns of legs. abdomen. presence and type of cheliceral stridulatory ridges. ultrastructural and ethological characters allowing the division of this family to two subfamilies. structure of tegulum and embolus. which are all left unnamed here and my lecture only uses species-groups names. presence of spination on different segments of legs. 1995. and carapace. Macromorphological characters. 1872 has quite seldom been used outside catalogs. as well as concentration of leg and other modifications to males.Book of Abstracts. the exact shape of the opening of the spitting glands in chelicerae. lato has been found to include an exceptional variability of chromosomal numbers. Pure ultrastructural characters include shape of epiandrous spigots and trichobothrial base. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. A treatment similar to that of other spider families is now regarded necessary. and several types of modified setae at the tarsal tip. Characters in copulatory organs include shape of male palpal tarsus. Sufficiently studied ethological characters include the mode of prey catching (web or hunting) as well as the type of the extremely variable web. in spite of their prey catching without web. pekleh@utu. several tribes in Scytodinae and altogether more than 20 new genera.fi Scytodidae has mostly remained almost monogeneric. Siedlce. fusulae) close to the gonopore in male. The presence of minute scytodids with clavate hairs as an ecological adaptation to live in litter layer of many tropical areas has not been known before. A critical survey of published records of Scytodidae reveals that previously described species have more often been wrongly than correctly identified! Presence of infraspecific variation suggesting presence of obvious subspecies has only been confirmed in some Oriental and Pacific species of Dictis s. The two-clawed Dictis L. Lehtinen Zoological Museum. and modifications of sternum. Widely different genital organs were found in the genus Stedocys Ono. My work on Scytodidae has revealed a large number of morphological. Cytologically the “genus” Scytodes s. presence and shape of the female copulatory pockets. surfaces of chelicerae and different leg segments. Finland.. The phylogenetically most important macromorphological somatic characters are: number of tarsal claws. Poland Phylogenetically important characters in the spider family Scytodidae Pekka T. and number of seminal receptacula characters related to sexual dimorphism include also lower carapace of male and similarity of male and juvenile colour patterns. Koch. The most important other type of infraspecific 244 . but information about many Ethiopian and Neotropical taxa is too patchy for final conclusions. All twoclawed scytodids do not belong to the same clade. whose details are best studied with SEM include especially the extremely variable patterns of the epiandrous spigots (=e. which also included an Oriental species always before catalogued as a Scytodes.

Siedlce.L. not related groups. the Western Mediterranean region. Only the taxonomic results dealing with the type species of Scytodes are published here. 1838. while most populations published as Scytodes thoracica outside these areas actually concern misidentified Scytodes tigrina C. thoracica (Latreille. and in the area around the big lakes in NE USA. S. thoracica belong to the cosmopolitan synanthropic “S. which belongs to a different. Koch. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.” bertheloti Lucas. Poland variation is a type of colour polymorphism present in parallel in several. 1838 (syntypes from Greece – examined). 1802) is present only in the western half of Europe.Book of Abstracts. still unnamed tribe. All Australian records as S. 245 .

2001). University of Antwerp. with a method taking 246 . As a consequence. limiting their scope and precluding their use in conservation strategies. select or monitor one or a few sites. such as rarity or threat status (e. Department of Biology. or assess the impact of different management modes. leroy.g.Service du Patrimoine Naturel. Hence. and (ii) scoring procedures. 2007. we propose a new flexible index for assessing the conservation value of species assemblages.com 2 Evolutionary Ecology Group. Therefore. spiders have characteristics that make them a good indicator taxon (Marc et al. However. based on biodiversity databases.Book of Abstracts. The selection of areas for biodiversity conservation is currently based on two main methodological approaches: (i) complementarity-based approaches. France. scoring procedures are more suitable for spiders because they can be applied to set local priorities.g. Complementarity-based approaches aim at selecting a network of complementary sites in the context of concerted conservation plans. 2003). geographic areas and spatial scales. 1999). Scoring procedures aim at ranking sites in order of value according to one or several criteria. and the availability of biodiversity databases compiling previous samplings and/or species lists available in a given region (e. However. Siedlce. Belgium Introduction There is a general underrepresentation of invertebrates in conservation research: only 11% of conservation articles between 1987 and 2001 involved invertebrates despite the fact that they represent 75–79% of all described species worldwide (Clark and May 2002). conservation planning tools have been developed specifically for taxa whose distributions are well known. existing scoring procedures are generally not transferable between different taxa. the reverse cannot be said (Moritz et al. such as birds. In this context. Species are weighted on the basis of their range size as estimated by their occurrence in the reference region. it has been demonstrated that although invertebrates are strong predictors of conservation priorities for vertebrates. University of Rennes I . 2008) make them a good candidate to develop suitable conservation tools. Simaika & Samways 2009). mammals and plants. unlike the complementarity based-approaches. Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle. Julien Pétillon2. Material and methods This index integrates two parameters: the proportion of rare species and the intensity of their rarity. Fattorini 2006. Samu et al. Alain Canard1 & Frédéric Ysnel1 1 URU 420. Poland Spider assemblages as indicators of habitat conservation value: a multi-scale approach in Western France Boris Leroy1. and in some cases.boris@gmail. Pétillon et al. conservation planning based on single surrogate taxa may fail to cover at-risk species (Lawler et al. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.

there were assemblages with high indices at low rarity cut-offs but not at high rarity cut-offs (i.) in relation to the macroclimatic areas within which they are embedded. but high proportion of less rare species).e. This new weighting method thus allows for calculating indices over a range of rarity cut-off points in order to precisely analyse the patterns of rarity in assemblages. The analysis provided consistent results. high proportions of rare species. Furthermore. same biotope). (i.Book of Abstracts. forests. Poland into account a rarity cut-off point (i. Second. we applied the index to compare the conservation values of the main habitat types of Western France (heathlands. presence of very rare species despite a low general proportion of rare species). the threshold of occurrence below which species are considered rare) (Gaston 1994). this method can be applied at different geographic scales and/or areas.g. Siedlce. 4. Results At a local scale we applied the index to spider assemblages colonising different biotopes of a National Nature Reserve in the Armorican Massif (Western France). Finally. there were assemblages with low indices whatever the rarity cut-off. The proposed guidelines worked well in fitting the range of rarity cut-offs to the considered geographic scale and thus permitted an accurate emphasis on at-risk species. We proposed two methods for ranking sites according to the index: the first consisted in ranking the sites by their median rank over a range of rarity cutoffs. The second method consisted in comparing sites with the known assemblages of the reference region. when the rest of the assemblage is composed of common species). dunes.g.e. lack of very rare species.. 3. The latter allowed for ranking sites depending on their position in relation to all the known assemblages of the reference region. First.e. globally weak proportion of rare species). as well as to characterize a particular site in relation to a comparable pool of sites from the reference region (e. Third.e. whatever the intensity of rarity considered). this analysis avoided the twofold risk of both neglecting assemblages of potential interest (with a high proportion of rare species) and missing very rare species (e. and to other taxa.e. At a higher scale. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 247 . Therefore. highlighting four main patterns of rarity (see Fig. 1): 1. 2. there were assemblages having high indices whatever the rarity cut-off (i. We developed guidelines for practical applications of the index following Gaston’s recommendations on rarity (Gaston 1994). but high indices at higher rarity cut-offs (i. there were assemblages with low indices at low rarity cut-offs.

248 . Values of the index as a function of the rarity cut-off point (based on four assemblages of the National Nature Reserve of Séné.05 0.Book of Abstracts.L.C. 17: 875-882. 1. A new method to identify important conservation areas applied to the butterflies of the Aegean Islands (Greece). 297: 191-192. This new index is particularly hopeful for setting conservation priorities. The rarity cut-off point is expressed as a percentage of the occurrence of the most widespread species. London. & Master L. 2003.20 Type 1 assemblage Type 2 assemblage Type 3 assemblage Type 4 assemblage Conservation value (Ic Index) 0. May R. Discussion In conclusion. characterizing and/or monitoring the conservation values of one or several sites in relation to a reference region. Poland 0.M. Fattorini S. Siedlce. Chapman & Hall. and could be quickly applied to different geographic areas and/or scales once occurrence data are available or can be gathered. Rare species and the use of indicator groups for conservation planning.J. Western France). References Clark J. 9: 75-83. Science. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Taxonomic bias in conservation research. Animal Conservation. Lawler J.. Gaston K. Sifneos J.00 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% 10 % 11 % 12 % 13 % 14 % Very rare species  Rare species  Uncommon species Rarity cut-off Fig. such an assessment of species assemblages provided consistent and reliable results.A. Rarity. 2006. or assessing the impact of different management modes. 1994. Conservation Biology.15 0.10 0. White D.J. 2002...

Proceedings of the Royal Society London B. 2008.. Pétillon J. Monteith G. Canard A. Conservation Biology. Canard A. 249 . Spiders (Araneae) useful for pest limitation and bioindication. 2007.. & Samways M..E.. 142: 638-651. 2009. 268: 1875-1881. Moritz C. Siedlce. Revista Ibérica Aracnologia.B.S. 2001. Richardson K.. Ferrier S. First assessment of spider rarity in Western France. 141: 1310-1320.. Simaika J. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.J. Agriculture.. Williams S. Stanisic J. Biogeographical concordance and efficiency of taxon indicators for establishing conservation priority in a tropical rainforest biota. 74: 229-273. 15: 105-113. & Ysnel F.. 1999.. Ecosystems and Environment.. Reserve selection using Red Listed taxa in three global biodiversity hotspots: Dragonflies in South Africa. From multi-criteria approach to simple protocol: Assessing habitat patches for conservation value using species rarity. & Whiffin T. & Ysnel F. & Szinetar C. Conservation Biology.Book of Abstracts.P. Poland Marc P. Csontos P. Samu F. Courtial C.

Germany 3 Ernst Moritz Arndt University.de 2 RWTH Aachen. Institute for Biology II. In contrast to other Opiliones. mite harvestmen transfer spermatozoa through spermatophores and show a peculiar sperm dimorphism. Within these germ cell cysts two types of spermatozoa develop: the later fertile eusperm and the supposed infertile parasperm. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Former studies on the reproductive system of Opiliones have generally focused on the structure of the penis (and ovipositor) for the search of characters of taxonomic relevance. Germany 4 Karl-Franzens University. in contrast to the homologous penis of other Opiliones. Department of Developmental Biology and Morphology of Animals. Aachen. and are surrounded by a thin layer of muscles.2. 2) two vasa deferentia which fuse to the long and thin seminal vesicle. 250 . Greifswald. Siedlce. duricorius.Book of Abstracts. surrounded by the supposed non-fertile parasperm and secretions. The anterior part of the seminal vesicle incorporates the ducts of two accessory glands. Department of Functional Genomics. vesicula seminalis and spermatopositor are described. Cyphophthalmus duricorius (Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi) Elisabeth Lipke1. The spermatopositor of C. Greifswald. Institute of Zoology. The fertile eusperm group in the centre of the establishing sperm ball. The epithelium of the testis consists mainly of somatic cells and germ cells. Germany. The male genital system can be divided into three parts: 1) the unpaired testis. flat. which the male will affix to the genital opening of the female. Each type can clearly be distinguished by the shape and condensation of the nucleus or the number of organelles like mitochondria. undivided and equipped with long bristles. Graz. alberti@uni-greifswald. Secretions of the accessory glands might help forming the spermatophores. Once released into the lumen of vasa deferentia and vesicula seminalis the sperm cells arrange in a distinct pattern. a European representative of the family Sironidae using light and electron microscopy. Ultrastructural details of vasa deferentia. The germ cells are arranged in clusters (or germ-cell-cysts). The present study describes the male genital system of Cyphpophthalmus duricorius. Although they are distributed worldwide and in recent times part of many phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies only little is known about their internal anatomy and the reproductive behaviour. Poland The male genital system of a European mite harvestman. Austria Cyphophthalmi or mite harvestmen are considered to represent the sister group of all other Opiliones. Interfaculty Institute for Genetics and Functional Genomics. Gerd Alberti1. Zoological Institute & Museum. and 3) a short spermatopositor. is short. Melanie Gutjahr3 & Reinhart Schuster4 1 Ernst-Moritz Arndt University. Department of General Zoology and Zoological Systematics.

Brasil Université Pierre et Marie Curie. determining the composition of macrofauna is crucial to understand the ecologic complex of these assemblages. Pará. 2006). Georges Brown 5. 251 . UFR Sciences et Techniques. Campus Amílcar Ferreira Sobral. Cedex. Colombia 7 Université de Rouen.2. whose livelihoods depend on agriculture practices or pasture areas. Bonaldo1. Colombo. Coordenação de Zoologia. France 3 Universidade Federal do Piauí. Poland Impact of land management on soil arachnofauna (Arachnida) in the southwest Pará. Belém. al. Additionally. thus providing a whole host of ecosystem services that helps to increase the heterogeneity in soils and the soil ecosystem’s resilience and resistance to ecological disturbance (Decaёns et. IRD (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement). al. França). Unfortunately the global demand for agricultural commodities produced in the Amazonia is growing and this region is increasingly affected by drought. The AMAZ (2007-2011) is an international project carried on Brazil and Colombia aiming to evaluate Amazonian landscapes changed by 6 Research support by: ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche. Thibaud Decaёns7. 1994). France * Corresponding author: nancylo@terra. Siedlce. Brazil 5 Embrapa Florestas. Alexandre B. al. The soil macrofauna plays important rules regulating soil physical properties. Raphaël Marichal1. CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico). 2002). Brazil 6 Nancy F. Unidad Suelos.Book of Abstracts. Catarina Praxedes1. Additionally. Stéphanie Tselouiko2.com. Carvalho3. Paraná. Marlucia Martins1 & Patrick Lavelle2. In fact. UFRA (Universidade Federal Rural da Amazônia). Elena Velasquez6.6 1 2 Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Piauí. very few information about diversity patterns of soil arachnid is available in Amazonia and the consequences of different land management techniques on this fauna are virtually unknown. Rafael P. Mont Saint Aignan. Leonardo S. São Paulo. Laboratório de Artrópodes. Brazil 4 Instituto Butantan. MPEG (Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi). Understanding changes that directly influence these processes are important for local people. UFPA (Universidade Federal do Pará).br Much of the biodiversity found in tropical forests lives in the soil (Decaёns et. several organisms of soil fauna can be proposed as bioindicators of soil quality and sustainability. Brazil 6 Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). soil carbon storage and maintaining nutrient cycles. Indicatti4. fragmentation and forest fires (Laurance et. Floriano. Cali. Lo-Man-Hung1*. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. São Paulo. The changing of soil use in Amazonia is intense and the conversion of native forest for agricultural practices or pasture is the principal factor pressing the remaining native forests (Fearnside 2006).

pasture and “roça’ (shifting cultivation). From a total of 897 arachnids (Araneae. The principal component analysis clearly separated two point of forest system (in Palmares II and Maçaranduba) from the other systems. reliable results are limited to samples taken in Brazilian Amazonia. To compare arachnids’ communities among the various types of land use and to try to identify their determinants. this study integrates the project AMAZ under the title "Ecosystems Services and Agricultural Systems Support on Landscapes in Oriental Amazonia" with the objective to evaluate socioeconomic aspects. The voucher specimens are stored in the collection of Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi in Belém. The samples were extending to sites in Colombia and Brazil but. Three sites (windows) were chosen on southwestern Pará state: Palmares II in Parauapebas municipality. The abundance and diversity of arachnids communities varied significantly in relation to the land use. by agricultural practices 252 . “juquira” (secondary forest dominated by herbaceous and shrubs). Siedlce. “capoeira” (secondary forest). Five different vegetation types (systems) under each window were identified: forest. Pará.001) there was a significant difference of the relationships of the arachnid communities between the windows. The social and economic importance of this kind of agriculture is well recognized. and each sub-window was divided in three plots (total of 45). during the dry season. so far. 111 species (including morphospecies) were identified: 48 species in Palmares. Pseudoscorpiones. In the laboratory. Schizomida and Scorpiones). we used a principal component analysis (PCA). According the Monte-Carlo test (p=0. Opiliones. A total of 135 spatially independent points were sampled. the arachnids were counted and identified. Rarefaction analyses showed that Pacajá significantly harboured more species of Arachnida than the other windows. The sampling methodology used to collect soil and litter macro-invertebrates was based on the Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Program (TSBF method): which was the digging on soil one block of dimensions 25 cm long. the impacts on the landscape structure and the biodiversity in Amazonia. 25 cm wide and 20 cm deep and two blocks 25x25x10 cm on each sampled point. The experiment was established between April and June 2008. Each window was divided in three sub-windows (total of 9). The macrofauna were hand-sorted in the field and the arachnids were stored in 80% alcohol. Poland familiar agriculture. but its environmental impact is not sufficiently known. Forest system comprised significantly more species of Arachnida (78 adults – 50 species) followed by juquira (35-30).Book of Abstracts. although none of the accumulation curves approached saturation. 52 in Maçaranduba. Therefore. The PCA result suggested that this pattern can at least be partly explained by changes in structural features of the soil. pasture (22-13) and roça (11-9). Brazil. Each plot was divided in five sampling points (45 points each window). and 37 in Pacajá. Patterns of species richness between three windows and vegetation system were analyzed by visual inspection of 95% confidence intervals of individual-based rarefaction curves. All analyses were based only on adults. capoeira (2214). Maçaranduba in Nova Ipixuna municipality and Travessão 338 Sul in Pacajá municipality. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.

In: Posey D. This conclusion is supported by other studies in Amazonia where population sizes and species richness are clear negatively influenced by human impacts on land management. al. Gioia C. 2006.. 2006. (eds. these systems exhibited more dense litter and consequently more soil biological activity.. 1994). Decaёns et. Fearnside P. Blanchart E.M. 253 . Lavelle P.. Measey G.. Our study suggests that soil arachnid fauna can be considered as a sensitive indicator of land management. Columbia University Press... Venticinque E. In: Sanchez P. forest and juquira systems had higher abundance and species richness than the remaining systems.M. & Rippstein G. Impact of land management on soil macrofauna in the Oriental Llanos of Colombia. & Da Costa C. most similar studies reported a reduction in the macrofauna density in used landscapes when compared with the original forest (e.J.. New York. Human Impacts on Amazonia: The Role of Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Conservation and Development.M. 1992. Soil Science Society of America. Predictors of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Laurance W. Martin A. & Lavelle P. Myths and science of soils of the tropics. Fearnside P. 185 p. Siedlce. 42: 23-38. As mentioned.Book of Abstracts. Decaёns T.. 158-171.J. European Journal of Soil Biology.. Poland or pasture. References Decaёns T.F. in forest systems. Escobar G. In fact. The addition of the samples obtained in Colombia and the analysis of soil and environmental variables will be essential to understand the population dynamics and the process of arachnofauna re-colonization in these regenerating environments.J. Fragile soils and deforestation impacts: The rationale for environmental services of standing forest as a development paradigm in Latin America. Schroth G. & Balick M.J. pp..M. Albernaz A.. The impact of soil fauna on the properties of soils in the humid tropics.K.g. biological activity is concentrated in the litter and few centimetres upper the soil.V. Bergen S. Spain A. Jimenez J.. The values of soil animals for conservation biology.. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.A. & Lal R. Jimenez Jaen J. 1992. & Martin S.A.. European Journal of Soil Biology. Journal of Biogeography. (eds). 1994. 29: 737-748.). Lavelle et. Besides.al. 30(4): 157-168. Altogether. Lavelle P.

sjl197@hotmail. several genera have been more thoroughly reworked using modern morphological techniques and higher-quality standards.Book of Abstracts. Despite this. Kildare. with around 50 currently valid genera and more than 400 species. on which to base broader studies. and gain additional value to historical museum collections. with about 115 valid genera and more than 900 described species to date. UK The tarantula family Theraphosidae is the largest mygalomorph spider family. As molecular technologies rapidly advance in the post-genomic age. EIRE. Poland Resolving the nomenclatural nightmare for tarantulas with molecular analyses Stuart J. 254 . NC. The most prominent attribute of this diverse subfamily is the presence of urticating hairs. Yet here. Add that much of the existing taxonomic foundation is either unrevised Victorian work. This has lead to significant revision and progress in recent years. The Natural History Museum (NHM). and quickly highlight priorities for more intensive revision with all available data. to resolve long-standing debates and quickly revoke controversial results of superficial amateur studies. Furthermore. Steven Turner2. we discuss the ability of molecular data to provide radical new insights for the systematics and taxonomy of tarantulas. The group is itself dominated by the new-world subfamily Theraphosinae. When combined with rigorous morphological analysis and revision of historical material.3 & Alfried Voger3 1 Department of Biology. confusing traditional taxonomy through misinterpretation of convergence. building towards a robust molecular phylogeny of the subfamily and beyond. London. phylogenetic analysis of molecular data can now provide an independent scaffold of plausible generic relationships. Preliminary analyses with molecular data suggest the doubtful monophyly of several existing genera within the Theraphosinae. Adaptation to differing environments has had a persuasive impact on the morphology and behaviour of distinct tarantula species. National University of Ireland at Maynooth. it should be possible to construct a stable systematic scheme for the tarantula spiders within the subfamily Theraphosinae. Raleigh. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.com 2 Department of Entomology. Longhorn1. Siedlce. and the nomenclatural nightmare becomes apparent. USA 3 Department of Entomology. or newer descriptions without examination of suitable types and small notes of poor scientific rigor. we suggest how high profile genera and species of tarantula spiders can be use to explore new sequencing technologies. North Carolina State University. and now is more common to reinterpret morphological character congruence in a plausible evolutionary framework. with several hair subtypes that may be useful to diagnose both specimen identity and clarify systematic relationships.

edu Using genomic technologies. modern molecular analyses should be able to provide useful insights into the ancient evolutionary history of diverse arachnid lineages. Given the current taxon sampling. National University of Ireland at Maynooth. Kildare. and rare genomic characters. 255 . 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Poland Towards resolution of the arachnid phylogeny with molecular data Stuart J. Siedlce. OR. smasta@pdx. we specifically introduce information from new mitochondrial genomes of several additional acariform mites and an enigmatic opilioacarid. when systematic relationships among major arachnid groups can be inferred with confidence. Here. we compare insights from several recent molecular analyses across major arachnid lineages to explore their relative utility to infer such deepphylogenetic relationships. In contrast. Expanded or modified taxon sampling can similarly influence analytical results and subsequent interpretation.com 2 Dept of Biology. Longhorn1 & Susan Masta2 1 Dept of Biology. Importantly. the deepest relationships among arachnids are proving difficult to resolve. USA. it is possible to map on unusual aspects such as tRNA truncation to give polarized insights about changes over deeptime. despite recent accumulation of substantial data from complete mitochondrial genomes. Yet. Here. it appears that mites often have unusually fast rates of mutation accrual that can lead to conspicuous long-branch effects in molecular analyses of arachnids. EIRE. and polarize unusual features of their genome evolution. multiple orthologous nuclear genes. to put systematic insights on these lineages in the context of other arachnid orders. sjl197@hotmail. Portland State University. Portland.Book of Abstracts. we highlight how the organization and relative arrangements of genes in mitochondrial genomes can have a persuasive influence on the reliability of such mitogenomic data for systematic inferences. complicating phylogenetic analyses and even misleading the inferred topology.

109 taxa: 74 mysmenids). Furthermore. The characteristic spherical web of Mysmeninae evolved once and has never been lost. Poland Phylogeny of the spider family Mysmenidae and evolution of web architecture in “symphytognathoids” (Araneae: Orbiculariae) Lara Lopardo1. including the morphological dataset. 123: 1-99. our preferred phylogenetic hypothesis suggests that the kleptoparasitic behaviour of some mysmenids has a single origin and has never been lost. Its circumscription and diagnosis have always been elusive. 6100 characters. Mysmenidae monophyly is supported by at least 20 morphological and about 420 molecular synapomorphies. In addition.Book of Abstracts. laralopardo@gmail. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 1998).3. Orbiculariae: Deinopoidea. Greifswald. its monophyly never thoroughly tested. E-M-AUniversity. The George Washington University. 1998. with relatively high support and moderate clade stability. USA One of the most distal clades within Orbiculariae is the suprafamilial group informally known as “symphytognathoids” (sensu Griswold et al. a small symphytognathoid family.com 2 Museum of Comparative Zoology. MA. Phylogeny of the orb-web building spiders (Araneae. is one of the least studied families among all orbweaving spiders. Mysmenidae is monophyletic under the combined partitions analysis. & Scharff N. The composition and the inter-familial relationships among symphytognathoids remain contentious and poorly studied. Gonzalo Giribet2 & Gustavo Hormiga3 1 Zoologisches Institut und Museum. Siedlce. USA 3 Department of Biological Sciences. Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology.. Hormiga G. 256 . Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society.. Araneoidea). We explore the phylogenetic signal of the combined dataset and of the data partitions. Mysmenidae. Germany. Washington DC. Allgemeine und Systematische Zoologie. References Griswold C. Cambridge. Symphytognathoids are circumscribed and interrelated as follows: (Theridiosomatidae (Mysmenidae (Synaphridae (Anapidae + Symphytognathidae))). which comprises about 400 species of minute orb-weavers that build highly modified orb webs. Behavioural aspects have been documented only for a few species. Coddington J. Our results suggest that within symphytognathoids the planar orb web evolved independently twice from threedimensional webs. We also study the evolution web architecture in symphytognathoids. Harvard University.. We combine nucleotide sequences from six genes with an extensive morphological dataset in a total-evidence phylogenetic analysis (ca. the orb web has been secondarily and independently modified into a sheet or a cobweb three times.

E-M-AUniversity. For the anterior system. Our preferred phylogenetic hypothesis suggests a striking and challenging pattern of evolutionary changes in the anterior respiratory system. reduced book lungs have originated at least twice from its homologous tracheal system. Greifswald. Furthermore. and ultimately being lost. The evolutionary implications of behavioural and morphological variation within symphytognathoids are also discussed. well developed book lungs has been proposed.e. conversely. 257 . towards a complete replacement of book lung leaves by anterior tracheae. Allgemeine und Systematische Zoologie. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Germany 2 Department of Biological Sciences. a pattern of two separate spiracles located midway between the spinnerets and the epigastric furrow has been hypothesized as the ancestral condition of Symphytognathidae s. and test some of the hypotheses on its evolution. our data suggest that structurally similar book lungs might have evolved from different pathways of tracheal transformation. We present the first comparative morphological study based on an extensive SEM survey of respiratory structures in symphytognathoids.. USA The great diversity of respiratory arrangements in “symphytognathoids” (i. Symphytognathidae. The driving forces that have produced this exceptional diversity of respiratory arrangements in symphytognathoids remain unclear. with a progressive decrease in leaf number. Anapidae. For the posterior system. We explore and discuss the evolution of such structures in a phylogenetic context.2 & Gustavo Hormiga2 1 Zoologisches Institut und Museum. Theridiosomatidae. later becoming fused into a single median spiracle situated posteriorly at the base of the spinnerets. A tendency for the posterior tracheal system to become either a highly complex or completely lost is suggested. We propose a new evolutionary pattern for both the anterior and posterior respiratory systems of symphytognathoids. (Anapidae + Mysmenidae + Symphytognathidae). Siedlce.Book of Abstracts. and Synaphridae) has resulted in many hypotheses to explain its variation and evolution. We use our recent cladistic hypothesis of symphytognathoid relationships as the comparative framework to explore the evolution of these respiratory structures. a pattern of reduction of the primitive. Poland Take a deep breath… Diversity and evolution of the respiratory system in “symphytognathoid” spiders (Araneae: Araneoidea) Lara Lopardo1. Washington DC. where the anterior tracheal system evolved from fully developed book lungs and. The George Washington University.l. Mysmenidae.

These dimorphic modifications and their associated arrangements of glandular tissue seem to play a crucial role during courtship. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. The phylogenetic hypotheses resulting from the analyses of the combined dataset do not recover the monophyly of some Oedothorax species. Phylogenetic analyses were performed under a variety of algorithms: parsimony analyses using dynamic and static homology approaches. retusus. laralopardo@gmail.com Male cephalic modifications (such as grooves. Males of Oedothorax species exhibit different degrees of cephalic modifications. E-M-AUniversity. agrestis. glandular tissue arrangements. fuscus. gibbifer. lobes.Book of Abstracts. the 16S gene fragment seems to provide more reliable information regarding species monophyly and identification than the traditionally used CO1 fragment. and at least the cephalic modifications appear to have originated independently several times across the subfamily. O. the hypotheses of species phylogenetic relationships and discuss their evolutionary implications. Poland Evolution of head structures in the dwarf spider genus Oedothorax (Araneae: Linyphiidae): Preliminary results based on mitochondrial sequence data Lara Lopardo & Gabriele Uhl Zoologisches Institut und Museum. as well as different mating strategies. Erigoninae (three species). Allgemeine und Systematische Zoologie. Micronetinae (nine species). and sulci) are extremely common in many genera of erigonine spiders. In order to explore the evolution of these features within the genus and preliminary asses their implications in the evolution of their associated mating strategies. The sulci seem to have a single origin within the genus. However. gibbifer. we comment on the discrepancies between the phylogenetic signals of individual genes: surprisingly. Greifswald. humps. Germany. they suggest the presence of a cephalic hump optimizing at the base of Oedothorax. maximum likelihood and bayesian inference. O. bulges. spires. retusus. In addition. We report on the preliminary results of such analyses. The ingroup includes sequences from up to 76 specimens representing six European Oedothorax species: O. O. agrestis. in a distal clade comprising O. and O. Siedlce. The outgroup comprises 10 non-linyphiid species and representatives of Linyphiinae (16 species). pits. partial fragments of two mitochondrial genes (16S and CO1) were analyzed independently and combined into a single total-evidence dataset. 258 . apicatus. O. and some representatives of O. being secondarily lost at least in O. gibbosus. apicatus. although no trend can be perceived regarding the evolution of its size. Mynogleninae (three species) and two Linyphiidae incertae sedis. We also report on the evolution of the complexity of cephalic glandular arrangements. O.

state of Minas Gerais is also considered a junior synonym of A. juruenicola and A. São Paulo. 1924 is considered a junior synonym of A. 1909. 1972 based on a male from Guaxupé. L. geniculata by the fused base of the spermathecae. 1923 and A. Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul. Mato Grosso do Sul. The spider collection of the Instituto Butantan holds a great number of specimens belonging to this genus. chacoana by the male palpal bulb less compact and with a longer embolus and from A. Hector M. Koch. chacoana. Espírito Santo. paulensis based on the original descriptions and figures of the male palpal bulb. New distribution records for A. Brazil The genus Acanthoscurria Ausserer. Acanthoscurria paulensis resembles A. paulensis are provided from the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso. sylvialucas@butantan. Siedlce. Twentyseven South American species are cited or described for Brazil (Platnick 2010). chacoana Brèthes. Poland Redescription and new distribution records of Acanthoscurria paulensis (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae) Sylvia M. 1842) by the large size (over 50 mm). important for the identification of species. Brazil. São Paulo and Campo Grande. and differs by the square or slightly wider than longer base of the spermathecae and by the terminal lobes directed towards each other. geniculata by the absence of a third accessory keel. This material enabled us to redescribe the male of Acanthoscurria paulensis Mello Leitão 1923 a common species in state of São Paulo. Pirassununga. due to the well developed prolateral inferior and superior keels. The male of A.gov.2 & Antonio D. Gonzalez-Filho1. paulensis based on examination of the holotype. juruenicola and A. Goiás. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Acanthoscurria atrox Vellard. geniculata by the aspect of the male palpal bulb with an embolus ending like a shell. The female resembles A.O. Instituto Butantan. A. Paula1. 259 . Lucas1. and also supported by the study of a several specimens from both type localities. Mato Grosso do Sul. paulensis resembles that of A. geniculata (C. Brazil and detect and describe the conspecific female and illustrate the sexual structures of male and female. 1871 currently includes 40 species. Brescovit1 1 Laboratório de Artrópodes. two from Central America and 38 from South America (Platnick 2010). It can be distinguished from A. Acanthoscurria guaxupe Piza. juruenicola and A. Felipe S. Minas Gerais. juruenicola Mello-Leitão. A.Book of Abstracts. Ten new Acanthoscurria species were described from Brazil by Mello Leitão in 1923. Brazil. A. The author did not mention the morphology of the male palpal bulb and seminal receptacle. chacoana.br 2 Uniesp-Faculdade Renascença de São Paulo.

2. Universitat de Barcelona. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. The morphological and ecological diversification patterns. Phylogenetic and population analyses of mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequence data of 200 individuals confirmed lower gene flow and deeper geographical population structure in the highly diverse lineage. Tenerife. however. widespread species that exhibits limited amount of phenotypic variation mainly associated to an elevation gradient. differ significantly between the two lineages. Poland Contrasting phylogeographies underlay among-lineage variation in species diversification in the spider genus Dysdera from the Canary Islands Nuria Macías-Hernández1. Leticia Bidegaray-Batista1. generalist) play a major role on structuring populations of these species. two of which have large. Canary Islands. Our results also indicate that demographic and phylogeographic patterns may explain phenotypic diversification asymmetries among lineages. We present a comparative phylogeographic and demographic analysis of two lineages originated as part of the large species radiation of the woodlouse-hunter spider genus Dysdera in the Canary Islands.es Phylogenetic studies at the population/species interface combined with the use of historical population genetics tools hold great promise for addressing key questions concerning the geography of speciation and its association to adaptive processes. Pedro Oromí2 & Miquel A. share similar within-lineage genetic divergences and estimated time of origin.Book of Abstracts. Arnedo1 1 Biodiversity Research Institute & Department of Animal Biology. and uncovered cryptic diversity in both lineages. and demonstrate that contrasting ecological strategies (specialist vs. allopatric distributions on Tenerife (one restricted to laurel forest and the other widespread along different habitats) and the other two which are cave-dwelling species with restricted geographical ranges. Siedlce. Common phylogeographic features in the two widespread species suggest that the geological history of Tenerife had left a footprint on the distribution of the genetic diversity. Spain 2 Universidad de La Laguna. Spain. The second lineage includes a single. nemacias@ull. 260 . Both lineages are endemic to Tenerife. The first lineage includes four nominal species.

Canada. Siedlce. Thus. and conversely many major salticid clades are largely restricted to a single continental area. wmaddisn@interchange. from chromosomes to ant mimicry.Book of Abstracts. so little time Wayne P. and Australasia) is dominated by different major salticid clades. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Vancouver. These replicate radiations provide an opportunity to study general patterns in community assembly over evolutionary time.ca The beautiful diversity of salticid spiders has long proved a challenge for systematists.ubc. Poland Phylogenetic radiation of salticid spiders: so many species. one hundred years of phylogenetic work has yielded progress. enticing but overwhelming. 261 . A combination of molecular and fossil data suggests that salticids are young. Afro-Eurasia. the salticids of each area have radiated into diverse body forms and ecologies more or less independently from those in other areas. However. and a surprising result: each major region (the Americas. Maddison University of British Columbia. diversifying during the Tertiary after the continents had separated. Our reasonably-complete phylogeny now allows us to consider evolutionary patterns in many features.

com The fauna of spiders from Estação Ecológica do Seridó (ESEC-Seridó) was evaluated in two areas of Caatinga under different levels of anthropogenic habitat disturbance. Poland Spiders (Araneae) of two areas of Caatinga under different levels of anthropogenic habitat disturbance. with 25 in the preserved site and 22 in disturbed site. semi-arid. compared with the results of an occasional sampling in the same area during the rainy season. A total of 942 individuals and 28 families were present in the two sites. suggests that this may be linked with a strategy theses organism to tolerate the low supply of resources during the dry season in the Caatinga. biodiversity. sampling methods. Siedlce. transects. with pitfall traps. The pitfall traps was the method that caught the greatest richness of families and greater abundance of individuals. richness of families. entomologic-umbrella and direct sampling in leaf-litter. This proportion of young in the dry season. Brazil Marília G. The ESEC-Seridó is located in the municipalities of Serra Negra do Norte. followed by Anyphaenidae.Book of Abstracts. Rio Grande do Norte State. Rio Grande do Norte. and with the data of the literature for fauna of spiders in areas of Cerrado and Atlantic forest. Keywords: araneofauna. About 75% of the specimens were young. A standardized sampling was used in both sites. Salticidae was the family most abundant in both sites. Maia & Alexandre Vasconcellos araneae@hotmail. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 262 .

elevation range and slope aspects.au. 263 . social spider prey capture and nest sites are highly related to habitat structure which shapes their niche within habitats. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. This geographical distribution may be related to the size distribution of available prey (Guevara & Aviles 2007). Evolution. 25 species (out of 41.majer@biology.dk Social spiders occur in tropical and subtropical habitats worldwide. but is widespread across the spider phylogeny (Lubin & Bilde 2007). & Maddison W. it is found in c. spiders may vary between permanent social living and periodic‐social living depending on altitudinal and latitudinal gradients (Powers & Aviles 2007). Siedlce. Evolution of sociality could involve similar ecological factors. 2007. the Middle East and Asia (Kraus & Kraus 1988). Aarhus University.. Ecology and Genetics. Coddington J. Denmark * Corresponding author: marija. 60: 2342-2351. The aim of this study is to perform species distribution modelling (SDM) on collected presence data of all Stegodyphus species to identify and test potential ecological or environmental factors that drive Stegodyphus diversity gradients. Genus Stegodyphus contains three independently derived permanent social species and 15 ancestral subsocial species. Avilés L. 2006. around the Mediterranean basin. These variables have so far been shown to be correlated to species richness and niche width of European spiders (Entling et al. In order to estimate the relative importance of hypothesized environmental predictor variables. distributed across arid and semi arid habitats in Africa.. Sociality (non-territorial permanently social behaviour sensu Avilés 1997) in spiders is rare. Within the same genus. References Agnarsson I. Jens-Christian Svenning & Trine Bilde Department of Biological Sciences. niche utilisation of each species is estimated through correlates of their ranges with the following variables: annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation gradients. 2008).000 described species (Platnick 2009)). My study aims to reveal how diversification of niche utilisation among species varies in relation to their level of sociality. vegetation index (NDVI from remote-sensed data). Moreover. Finch et al. Sociality in Theridiid spiders: repeated origins of an evolutionary dead end. The understanding of functional relationships shaping Stegodyphus species niche is relevant for gaining insight to the evolution of group living in spiders (Downes 1994). Poland Macroecological approach to evolution of group living in spider genus Stegodyphus (Araneae: Eresidae) Marija Majer*.Book of Abstracts. as the phylogenetic relationships among social spiders suggest several independent origins (Agnarsson et al. 2006).

The evolution of sociality in spiders. 16: 440-448.Book of Abstracts.0. 2009.Structure. Kraus O. 2007.. Bacher S. 2007. Nest of the Social Spider Phryganoporus candidus (Araneae. Desidae) . Schmidt M. Advances in the Study of Behavior. Multiple techniques confirm elevational differences in insect size that maz influence spider sociality. 76: 995-1003.amnh. 88: 2015-2023. 42: 237-259. Platnick N.S. Schuldt A. version 10. The world spider catalog.F. Guevara J.I. 2007. moisture and the evolution of the habitat niche. Finch O. Lubin Y & Bilde T. 1994. 37: 83-145.org/entomology/spiders/catalog/index. species groups.D.H. Entling W. & Aviles L. 30: 151-254. 1988. Verhandlungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereins in Hamburg. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. and parallel evolution of social living. online at: http://research.. Brandl R. Australian Journal of Zoology. & Kraus M. Siedlce.html Powers K. Araneae) sibling species. The role of prey size and abundance in the geographical distribution of spider sociality. Journal of Animal Ecology. AMNHistory. Ecology. 264 .. Global Ecology and Biogeography. 2007. 2008. Poland Downes M. & Aviles L. Annual Growth-Cycle and Host-Plant Relationships. Blick T. & Nentwig W. Niche properties of Central European spiders: shading. The genus Stegodyphus (Arachnida. Macroecological patterns of spider species richness across Europe. 17: 2849-2868.. Biodiversity and Conservation..

Considered ecologically distinctive because of their large levels of endemicity and economically important for their utility as pasture for livestock. Adrian M. Poland Effects of vegetation structure and fire on spider diversity in New Zealand tussocklands Jagoba Malumbres-Olarte1. Jagoba. The extent of the presence and impact of exotic species was also assessed.com 2 Biosecurity Group. burning and over sowing in the last 150 years. giving special attention to the families and species with potential as ecological indicators of changes in the ecosystem. AgResearch. Our study aims to answer some of the questions about the arachnofauna of these ecosystems. However.nz 3 Entomology Research Museum. where we assessed the changes in the spider communities over a period of eight years. Paterson1. covering preand post-fire years. Thus.3 1 Ecology Department. have been transformed into pasture for livestock through clearing. Agricultural and Life Science Faculty. Vink2. New Zealand. New Zealand. The physical characteristics of tussocks were determined as the main cause of the limited efficiency of other sampling techniques. we conducted an evaluation of the efficiency of spider sampling methods in narrow leaved snow tussock (Chionochloa rigida) grasslands in order to determine which one(s) should be given preference and included in monitoring protocols or ecological studies.Book of Abstracts. Cor.co. Lincoln University. we investigated the effects of controlled fire in semi-modified tussocklands through a medium-long term experimental study. which once covered large parts of the South Island. such as suction sampling. Lincoln University. tussock grasslands have been the subject of relatively extensive botanical research. and which conditions they should be used in. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 265 . and more particularly spider fauna has been overlooked and little ecological research has been carried out on them. Results and discussion Pitfall traps were identified as the most effective and efficient method to collect spiders in tussock grasslands. Next.olarte@gmail. their invertebrate. Rob H. However. Finally. Tussock grasslands or. the thin stems and tips are too exposed to the wind and severe climatic conditions. methods that target these layers will be the most successful for collecting a large proportion of the spider fauna. Cruickshank1 & Cor J. most spiders are found on the lowest layers of vegetation where the grass blades at the base of the plant are densely packed. The predominantly vertical structure of tussock plants constrains the living space available to spiders. Siedlce. New Zealand native ecosystems have been modified and reduced since the arrival of humans.malumbres.Vink@agresearch. we analysed and identified the biotic and abiotic factors that drive diversity in tussock covered areas. In addition. New Zealand. First. Therefore. the potential of molecular techniques to complete ecological data and help answer ecological questions was evaluated.

This experiment. the family Linyphiidae showed a large increase in the years following the fire. In addition. This shows the importance of addressing the question of the effects of disturbances on the interactions between native – mostly endemic – and exotic species in New Zealand ecosystems and the dangers that they may pose to native biodiversity. species and values of other diversity indicators decreasing drastically after the fire and remaining significantly different for four years. it was concluded that environmental factors. run for eight years. Poland unique species were found through other collecting methods. it helped with the identification of undescribed species. such as soil moisture affects the plant composition and structure in tussock ecosystems. which was necessary to complete the data prior to ecological analyses. which in turn determines the spider composition and the relative abundances of the families and species present. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. which would have been classified as exotic species using morphological criteria. Although the overall trend was a decrease in the abundance of most spider families. which could be included in monitoring programs for conservation management. Such surrogate variables were related to environmental gradients between areas with different types of vegetation that indicated differing soil conditions or the three dimensional structure of the plants. and after the confirmation of such relationships by individual variables. This can be explained by their efficient dispersal and ability to colonise new habitats. Mitochondrial DNA sequences of the species present in the study areas allowed the separation and identification of undescribed species. The 266 . The information obtained allowed the identification of certain families and species as potential ecological indicators of the structure and conditions of a tussock area. Conclusions This study shows the complex and combined effects that different environmental variables have on spider assemblages in tussock grasslands. These gradients in vegetation were matched by gradient in spider communities. such as Linyphiidae. with number of families. A number of biotic and abiotic factors were combined through data reduction in order to create surrogate explanatory variables that explained the variation in spider assemblages in space. A larger project looking at the changes in invertebrate diversity of native tussock grasslands of New Zealand provided the opportunity to study and demonstrate the profound effects of fire in an ecosystem not adapted to regular burning. a European species well established in New Zealand. consisted of plots representing spring and summer burnt treatments as well as a control treatment with samples collected before and after a controlled fire. and most particularly the species Diplocephalus cristatus. An increase in the number of exotic linyphiid species. Spring and summer burnt treatments showed significant differences in spider diversity with respect to the control.Book of Abstracts. Pitfall trapping should be combined with other techniques when the objective is to carry out an exhaustive spider survey or a complete ecological study of the spider community. may be behind this trend. Siedlce. with families like Orsolobidae favouring areas with marshland vegetation and aerial web building families. preferring sparsely distributed patches of shrubby plant species. Therefore.

Poland abundance of tussocks determines spider diversity at both general and specific level through their physical structure. We also demonstrate that fire as a disturbance has a drastic effect on spider assemblages.Book of Abstracts. More research is necessary to elucidate the interactions between spiders and other invertebrates at different trophic levels and thus understand the specific mechanisms that drive the changes in tussock ecosystems. Furthermore. In this context. molecular techniques provide valuable information that can complete ecological data by identifying cryptic species that otherwise would not be considered. which also affects the performance of collection methods. indicator species may be used in simple protocols designed for monitoring natural or human caused changes in this ecosystem. The use of key or indicator species or groups like the ones identified in our study have the potential to help with this task. probably in part through changes caused to the vegetation. 267 . which last for several years and may be beneficial for exotic species. Siedlce. Molecular techniques were also useful to discern whether some species were native or exotic. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.

the internet offers the potential for building a profoundly democratizing resource. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Poland A revision of Gandanameno (Araneae. endemic to southern and eastern Africa. marhabaie@gmail. I recently travelled to Leiden (The Netherlands) for three months of training in revisionary taxonomy and arachnology. For taxonomic information. In the future. Iran. While cybertaxonomic content is currently too sparse to be very practical.eu/blog/2007/04/11/what-is-cybertaxonomy/). I plan to apply what I have learned to develop knowledge of the spider fauna of Iran and to train new colleagues. is a process that involves the use of standardized electronic tools to access information (databases. The Netherlands. I will contribute content to cybertaxonomic resources including the Encyclopedia of Life. Ebach. Isfahan. No identification key for Iranian spiders exists. The subject was the small eresid genus Gandanameno (five described species as of the start of the project). Thus.Book of Abstracts. and ZooBank. knowledge in the form of training and publications must be transferred from the developed world to the developing world. For training. Siedlce.nl Taxonomic research benefits from easy exchange of people. I turned to the internet and international contacts. Cybertaxonomy.e-taxonomy. As a student from a developing country (Iran) with virtually no endemic expertise in arachnology. Leiden. In addition to a standard journal publication. Eresidae) and the promise of cybertaxonomy Mohammad Marhabaie1 & Jeremy Miller2 1 2 Isfahan University. specimens.com Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis. Libraries featuring good coverage of publications in arachnology do not exist in Iran. and data around the world. I (MM) found it very challenging to access basic information on spider taxonomy. e-publications) and/or to generate knowledge bases such as identification keys (Malte C. the Global Biodiversity Information Facility. For the most part. By contrast with traditional libraries. BGBM) (http://wp5. miller@naturalis. experts and libraries are concentrated in developed countries while biodiversity is concentrated in developing countries. To ameliorate this disparity. 268 . students or experts must travel and participate in courses or collaborative projects. or eTaxonomy. online digital information is relatively easy to access in Iran and throughout most of the developing world. basic infrastructure is in place and new content is being added all the time.

269 . Russian Academy of Sciences. Pholcomma. it was described as a new species in a new genus Scutpelecopsis wunderlichi (Marusik & Gnelitsa. Ventral scuta have been reported for such genera as Castianeira (Corinnidae). and Zodariidae. They possess the dorsal scutum. the aim of this presentation is to describe different types of the ventral scuta and to demonstrate their importance in the identification and classification of spiders. Oonopidae (several genera). However. besides a single dorsal abdominal scutum (rarely two in Oonopidae). Thus.. Outside of the Holarctic spiders scutum has been described in Clubiona s. Poland How many scuta do the Linyphiidae have? Yuri M. Pelecopsis. the male of Euophrys frontalis (Salticidae). Magadan. Abdominal scuta can be divided into three types according to their position: dorsal. Zodariidae (several genera) and others. etc. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Palpimanus (Palpimanidae). Gnaphosidae (males of Zelotini). and in several other families (e.). All three types can be represented by a single solid scutum or by several scuta. In addition to the dorsal scutum. In the Holarctic region. Theridiidae (some Euryopis s. Linyphiidae (several genera: Ceratinella. Later. spiders with the scutum have been reported from Anapidae (Comaroma). in front of the epigastral furrow. As the dorsal scutum is most common. 2) inframammillary (close or around the spinnerets) [the terminology follows Crosby & Bishop 1925] and 3) intermediate (between the epigastral furrow and spinnerets). l. the majority of scutate spiders have one or more ventral scuta. Linyphiidae (several genera). some Aelurillus). Ceraticellus). l. and up to four pairs of lateral stripelike scuta. Comaroma (Anapidae). Marusik Institute for Biological Problems of the North. With regard to the number of scuta. the world champions are Tetrablemmidae. Siedlce. Ventral scuta can be grouped into three types: 1) epigastral (anterior part of abdomen.g.ru Introduction Scutum is defined as a sclerotized abdominal plate of some spiders (Dippenaar-Schoeman & Jocqué 1997). there can be more scuta. Palpimanidae (all species).. Euophrys frontalis. Scuta in Linyphiidae My attention was attracted to ventral scuta when I had found a heavily scutate Erigoninae spider from the Caucasus. Salticidae (males of Chalcoscirtus. lateral and ventral. yurmar@mail. up to four ventral unpaired scuta. Tetrablemmidae). from one to six pairs.Book of Abstracts. Styloctetor. 2009). Corinnidae (♂. Phrurolithus). Silhouettella (Oonopidae). Castianeira. Trachelas. Most of arachnologists are familiar with the dorsal abdominal scutum. The scutum has been described in many spider families belonging to different superfamilies and even suborders. Araneidae (Cercidia). Russia. no attention is usually paid to the ventral scutum (scuta).

2) a pair of the book-lung scuta (bl). Ceraticelus. all the ventral scuta are fused. Dorsal scutum usually covers a part of the dorsum. 270 . showing different levels of the sclerotization and fusion of scuta.l. Fig.Book of Abstracts. Siedlce. ip . Poland The male abdomen of this species is almost a capsule.. Ceratinella. In the literature. Ventral scuta in some erigonids. Males have larger scuta than females. wunderlichi is unique in this respect. except for some species of Ceraticelus s. and whether such a scuta are present in other Erigoninae. and Ceratinella spp.infrapetiolar scutum. some of which could be fused: 1) a pair of the infrapetiolar scuta (ip). or whether S. The female of this species possesses 5 ventral scuta! The question arose: how could these numerous scuta have originated.l. wunderlichi with other scutate erigonids. (several species). 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. with large dorsal and ventral scuta leaving two orifices: for the pedicel and for the spinnerets. Idionella. A fusion level of the epigastric scuta in males is higher than in females. wunderlichi. I have found only one mentioning of the paired epigastral scuta. 1945. In the male of S. im – inframammillary scutum. Styloctetor. In most of these taxa only males possess the scutum. etc. 1. Ventral scuta: When I had compared S. bl book-lung scutum. Epigastral scuta can be fused to various extend or can even form a single solid scutum. I recognized that many of them have several ventral scuta (maximum of 5). Dorsal scutum is known in several Erigoninae: Pelecopsis s. Pelecopsis bishopi Kaston. 3) an unpaired inframammillary (im). which leads to a unique conformation of the genital area.

Poland While studying scutate erigonids. & Jocqué R. 1925. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Acknowledgements This project was supported in part by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research grants: 08-04-92230-ГФЕН. A comparison of different species of Ceratinella or scutate Pelecopsis from Finland has demonstrated that the shape of epigastral scuta can be used as an additional character for species identification. wunderlichi or the infrapetiolar scuta in females seem to have stridulatory organs (setae with enlarged bases).C. Such the spiracle is displaced and wider compared to the species lacking the inframammillary scutum. Perhaps similar structures are present in other armored linyphiids (Ceraticelus and/or Idionella). New York State Museum Bulletin. 271 . Plant Protection Res. Siedlce. This fact may indicate that the Far Eastern populations may belong to a different species or subspecies. 18: 57-68. 2009. 1997.A. & Gnelitsa V. Marusik Y. Genera: Ceratinella and Ceraticelus. 09-04-01365 and 10-04-91225. Dippenaar-Schoeman A. Arthropoda Selecta. Description of a new genus of spiders from the eastern Mediterranean and the most armored erigonid species from the western Caucasus (Aranei: Linyphiidae: Erigoninae).Book of Abstracts. I have found two interesting structures connected to the ventral scuta. Studies in New York spiders. References Crosby C. The tracheal spiracle is always situated on the inframammillary scutum. Inst. 9.M. no. & Bishop S. The anterior part of the male scutum of S. 264: 1-71. I have not studied other scutate taxa by means of SEM. 392 pp. Handbook. Pretoria. Taxonomy A comparison of different populations of widespread Ceratinella wideri has revealed differences in the size of ventral scuta.R.S. African Spiders: An Identification Manual.

5) Constructional: radix. subfamilies) have an identical conformation of the male palp (we call this conformation the Dictyna-type palp). paracymbium. basal. A similar situation occurs in Desidae and Hahniidae. tibial.penney@manchester. whereas in others the same name is applied to non-homologous structures.ac. embolus. then the occurrence of this palpal conformation in different families can be expected. 272 . The University of Manchester. supra(tegulum). embolic. was that several families have very different types of male palp. Russia. psembolus. we should consider some terminological issues. While working with different families in the RTA-clade we recognized that many supraspecific taxa (genera. Lehtinen (1967) was the first to clearly demonstrate the importance of copulatory organs in spider classification.uk Introduction For a long time the suprageneric classification of spiders was based exclusively on somatic characters (as in entomology). 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Magadan. What surprised us however. 2) The etymology of terms is often based on very different principles. despite their somatic morphology being more or less uniform. while in Agelenidae. yurmar@mail. We recognized at least six different etymological backgrounds for palpal structures: 1) Topographical/position: median. For example all Dictynidae or Cybaeidae have the same type of palp. Terminology Before further discussing morphology and possible relationships between taxa with similar palps or similar somatic morphologies. Russian Academy of Sciences. retrolateral. palea (if derived from ‘upper’). Poland Conformation of the male palp in some spiders belonging to the RTA-clade and problems in taxonomy Yuri M. He significantly changed the whole principles of spider taxonomy and made many changes. one subfamily (Ageleninae) includes groups with completely different palps (Agelenini vs Tegenariini & Textrixini). He especially made many changes in the classification of families within the RTA-clade. Marusik1 & David Penney2 1 Institute for Biological Problems of the North. embolic division. subterminal. Siedlce. palea (if derived from ‘membranous’). 2) Deviating: (belonging. If the Dictyna-type palp is plesiomorphic. The current use of terminology is rather chaotic: 1) In some instances different names are used for homologous structures. radial. terminal. 4) Functional: Conductor.Book of Abstracts. and same term can be applied for different structures on the same palp. sub(tegulum). tribes. david. 3) Shape: lamella characteristica. United Kingdom.ru 2 Faculty of Life Sciences. derivative): tegular.

Septum: applied for non-homologous parts. Suggestion: if an author is not sure what to call a specific structure. Priority is good (great) in the ICZN because it serves for the stabilization of taxonomic nomenclature. An unlimited number of names are available in taxonomy. while the interpretation of morphological terms tend to be broader or thinner. Such a pattern of distribution can be explained by at least two alternative hypotheses: 1) The same type of the male palp evolved independently in somatically different families. Scapus (scape): applied for nonhomologous. or 2) The different somatic characters. at least in sister groups. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Desidae. homology etc. such as spinneret structure. Examples of confusables include: Spermatheca: in Hersiliidae used in addition to receptaculum. Lathys. but in comparison very few terms can be used in descriptive morphology. Hahniidae and possibly Amaurobiidae. It may be impossible to standardize terminology for all spiders. which is totally different (Agelena versus Textrix or Hahnia versus Cryphoeca)? The most parsimonious explanation is that the current systematic classification of 273 . Siedlce.Book of Abstracts. but an effort to use same term for homologous structures should be made. Species names are more or less fixed. In Agelenidae it occurs in Ageleninae: Textricini and all Tegenariini. but just a term used in that specific publication for a character of unclear status with regard to origin. etc. Argyronetidae. it is better to give it a neutral term. even independently within different tribes of the same subfamily. while many groups have true ducts Hahniidae. But how can we explain why Agelenidae and Hahniidae have at least two different types of palp. Ducts (insemination): furrows vs true ducts (many groups have closed furrows (Araneidae. The Dictyna-type of palp In this presentation we concentrate on the Dictyna-type of palp as it occurs in different families. Poland 6) Patronymic: Fickert’s gland. Tegenaria. Always remember in morphological analysis/comparison that the same term is often used for non-homologous characters. are a result of divergence from a common ancestral stock with a Dictyna-type of palp. one of which is the Dictyna-type and another. The same is true for epigynal structures. Receptaculum (seminis): in Hersiliidae used in addition to spermatheca. and stress that it is not a real establishment of a new term. position of tracheal spiracle. but this idea is not applicable to morphology. Theridiidae). etc. Linyphiidae. Dictynidae. even for non-morphologically or non-functionally similar things. and that different names can be used for homologous characters in different groups. Cybaeidae. in taxa currently attributed to Agelenidae.

The upper (prolateral) part of the conductor can be extraordinarily enlarged (Lathys. with seminal duct following a circular course 5) Filamentous embolus 6) Modified (complicated) tip (retrolateral tip) of conductor. Examples of Dictyna. str.subtypes of the male palp. Siedlce. This basic type can be split in two easily recognizable subtypes: Dictyna s. Fig. 1. 274 . starting near the base of the conductor. 7) Conductor (retrolateral part) terminates on the retrolateral side of the bulbus. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.Book of Abstracts. Tegenaria-type is easily recognizable due to 1) presence of median (tegular) apophysis.and Tegenaria. Poland these groups is poor. 2) in most genera the prolateral part of the conductor terminates at the level of the mid-part of the bulb and is bifid (exception Azeriscape). 1) Fungus-like (two-armed) conductor 2) Round and large base of embolus (if short) 3) Conductor originates near the base of the embolus 4) Flat tegulum. 2006) or almost reduced (Cicurina). type & Tegenaria-type. because it is based only on somatic characters and totally ignores the copulatory organs. How we define the Dictyna-type of palp. see Marusik et al.

=> Dictyna-type widespread. Dictyna s. Saltonia (previously placed in Agelenidae). 275 .. “Hahniidae”: Cryphoeca silvicola and related taxa Fig. Argyronetidae: Argyroneta (treated by Lehtinen (1967) in Dictynidae. or at least passes through (nearby) the base of the bulbus (cymbial-tibial connection). but Dictyna-type is known in at least five families. as a subfamily). Cicurina. etc). 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. l. Tegenaria-type: Agelenidae/Ageleninae: Tegenariini. Brommella). 2. Poland In all Dictyna s. placed by Lehtinen (1967) in Tuberta. Mastigusa – currently in Dictynidae. better known and causes more ‘problems’ (open questions) in comparison to the Tegenaria-type. str. Tricholathysinae (Devade. in at least seven subfamilies or tribes. Why Dictyna-type but not Tegenaria-type if Tegenaria has plesiomorphic state? Tegenaria-type is known in one subfamily of Agelenidae. Siedlce. Agelenidae: Agelininae: Textricini (Textrix). (treated by Lehtinen (1967) in Dictynidae.subtypes among different taxa. terminal arm terminates in the wrong place. Cicurininae (Yorima. “Hahniidae”: Cryphoeca (?C. Blabomma. str.and Tegenaria. Dictynidae: Dictyninae. Desidae: Paratheuma. Distribution of the Dictyna. Argenna. Corthesia. as a subfamily). type the retrolateral part of the conductor terminates. but the palp is more similar to the Dictyna-type. type occurs in: Cybaeidae: Cybaeus s. montana).Book of Abstracts. but palp not typical. and one current subfamily in Hahniidae). Tuberta – currently in Hahniidae:+Cryphoecinae. Note: Tegenaria-subtype is plesiomorphic in comparison to Dictyna (apomorphy – reduction of median (=tegular) apophysis).

276 . It may be more appropriate to test simple. Acknowledgements This project was supported in part by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research grants: 08-04-92230-ГФЕН. 2006. It is not difficult to test what is more correct.V. Classification of the cribellate spiders and some allied families. 13(9): 353-360.. Dictynidae). 1967. Annales Zoologici Fennici. Uncommon conformation of the male palp in common Holarctic species belonging to the Lathys stigmatisata group (Araneae. Poland Conclusion What is wrong (or what seems less probable than others): 1) taxonomy. Ovchinnikov S. For example we suggest to compare two absolutely different types (Agelena – Tegenaria) and two subtypes of Dictyna. but clear hypotheses rather than attempting to make a standard cladogram in the first instance. or 3) morphology of the copulatory organs? In our opinion taxonomy and somatic morphology are causing the problems. for example: Agelena (not a Dictyna-type) – Tegenaria (Tegenaria subtype) – Dictyna or Agelena – Tegenaria – Cryphoeca – Dictyna or Tegenaria – Dictyna – Cybaeus – Textrix. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society. M. References Lehtinen P. with notes on the evolution of the suborder Araneomorpha. 4: 199-468. 09-04-01365 and 10-04-91225. Marusik Yu. Siedlce.Book of Abstracts.T. & Koponen S. 2) somatic morphology. just apply DNA analysis for a selected group. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.

277 . Poland Chelicerate relationships as inferred by mitogenomic data Susan Masta Portland State University. we can gain only a limited understanding of how features of these organisms have evolved. These rare changes in genes that are otherwise highly conserved can also be used in phylogenetic inference.edu Relationships among the lineages of chelicerates have proved difficult to infer with confidence. within spiders. Siedlce. these different types of data are yielding surprising information about the evolution of chelicerates. We use the sequence data from mitochondrial genomes. the sizes and structures of some mitochondrial genes differ drastically within certain lineages of arachnids. despite their strong conservation in other metazoans. Together. My lab has addressed this challenge by sequencing mitochondrial genomes from divergent lineages of arachnids and pycnogonids. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. in conjunction with the rare structural changes we have discovered in these genomes. Without well-supported phylogenetic hypotheses of relationships. smasta@pdx. OR.Book of Abstracts. Ancient gene rearrangements have reshaped the mitochondrial genome in multiple lineages of chelicerates. and can thus be used as informative characters for phylogeny reconstruction to help us understand aspects of chelicerate evolution. For example. In general. rare genomic changes show little to no homoplasy within chelicerates. but before the opistothele lineages diversified. numerous gene rearrangements occurred after opistothele spiders diverged from mesothele spiders. Portland. Additionally. USA. to help infer systematic relationships. I map these gene rearrangements onto a phylogeny of chelicerates inferred from amino acid sequence data from the 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes.

paddy cultivation is different from other agricultural productions. 76°19'E-76°33'E). Faced with the need to reduce pesticide usage on crops and optimize natural biological control. The investigation was carried out for a period of 6 months. India * Corresponding author: elizabethvmathew. India Elizabeth V.. Poland Vertical stratification of spiders in Kuttanad rice agroecosystem. is the region selected for the study. 1996). They exhibit extremely high diversity and are the dominant insectivores in many terrestrial ecosystems. Ambalaparambil Vasu Sudhikumar & Pothalil Antony Sebastian Division of Arachnology. It is less common for workers to analyze the vertical stratification of spider community in the field (Anbalagan & Narayanasamy 1999). one of the “Rice bowls of Kerala”. Rice agroecosystems demand greater attention as rice is the staple food in developing countries. Consequently. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. full investigation of the means by which spiders influence pest abundance is long overdue.com Introduction Spiders are of economic value to mankind because of their ability to suppress pest abundance in agroecosystems. The Rabi season is characterized by heavy rain (Southwest monsoon) and high humidity while the Kharif season is characterized by low rainfall and dry weather (Menon et al. It contributes nearly 20% of the total rice production of the state. Material and methods Kuttanad (9°17'N-9°40'N. Sampling was conducted during two seasons viz.Book of Abstracts. Department of Zoology. 278 . Siedlce. Asia accounts for more than 90% of the world’s rice production and consumption. from July 2009 to January 2010. a preliminary study was conducted on vertical stratification of spiders in the Kuttanad rice agroecosystem to analyze the microhabitat association of spiders in paddy fields.here@gmail. there are a growing number of investigations in which spiders in agroecosystems are used as tools to gain insights into the role of generalist predators in community and ecosystem function (Sunderland 1999). In this context. The biodiversity of wetland rice ecosystem is highly varied than that of many natural ecosystems (Schoenly et al. Being a wetland agroecosystem. 2000). Studies of the rice field spider fauna of India are limited to the identification of spiders and investigation of the dominant spider species (Sebastian et al. 2005). Rabi 1 (Monsoon crop: July 2009 to September 2009) and Kharif 1 (Winter crop: November 2009 to January 2010). The diversity and density of spiders are important in any kind of attempt for the implementation of integrated pest management (IPM). Mathew*. Sacred Heart College.

Spiders of the family Salticidae and Oxyopidae show this type of feeding behaviour. The second dominant guilds are the ground runners and space web builders (11% each). 20-40 cm. The spiders which build irregular cob-webs were also present near the bottom of the field or below half level of the average plant height. date and other significant notes. Spiders of the orb weavers guild construct perfect orb webs for prey capture. 45 genera and 15 families were collected during the study period. The spider guild classification was composed according to the families collected during the study. Results A total of 1632 individuals from 70 species. Designation of the spider guild was based on the ecological characteristic known for the family (Young & Edwards 1990). Ground running spiders mainly feed on ground layer of the field and rarely come to the foliage or canopy of the plant for prey capture. Families Araneidae (7 species). The ground area near plants was also searched. They were then identified with the help of available literature (Barrion & Litsinger 1999). Hence Araneidae and Tetragnathidae were found foraging mainly at the top layer of the rice plants. namely <20 cm from water/soil surface. The most species rich family was Salticidae (15 species) followed by Tetragnathidae (12 species) and Araneidae (7 species). Ambushers (10%). on leaf blades. The spiders which build perfect orb-webs were mainly present at the canopy level of the crop. although there is possibility of these spiders coming up for pursuing the insect prey. properly labelled with collection locality. five main functional groups were recognized based on the activity and foraging behaviour related to average height of the rice plant. Siedlce. The final growth stage of each plant was thoroughly examined from top to bottom. Spiders were divided into five strata based on the activity and foraging behaviour related to average height of the rice plant. sheet web builders (5%) and foliage runners (3%) are the other ecological guilds of these spiders. There is very little chance of locating ground dwelling spiders at the canopy level of the plant. This stratum provides sufficient area for the construction of web and increases the chance of prey entanglement in the webs. Spiders under the category stalkers actively jump over the prey for feeding. 60-80 cm and >80 cm (Lee & Kim 2001). dry leaves and ground stratum. Tetragnathidae (12 species) and Uloboridae (2 species) constitute this category. 60% belongs to stalkers (30%) and orb weavers (30%). Oxyopidae represented by 6 species of a single genus and Salticidae consisted of 15 species coming under 12 genera. 40-60 cm. The location where the spiders were spotted was taken note of. The families 279 .Book of Abstracts. flowers. Among the 70 species of spiders collected from Kuttanad. Spiders were collected by leading them into glass vials from the ground stratum and terminals of the plants. Poland Spiders were collected by handpicking. The spiders collected during the study were classified into 7 ecological guilds based on the foraging mode of the spiders. The collected specimens were preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. For the present study. Ground dwellers such as lycosids were mainly present at the bottom level of the field.

diversity and foraging behaviour of spiders. the spider is confronted with an array of potential prey species. Ambushers show a “sit-and-wait” type of behaviour for prey capture. Clubionidae and Miturgidae with one species each. The web building and plant wandering spiders rely on vegetation for some part of their lives. Spiders of the guild sheet web builders construct sheet like web for capture. 1994). Uetz (1991) suggested that structurally more complex shrubs can support more diverse spider community. Foliage runners hunt on foliage for phytophagous insect pests. This will ultimately lead to the path of increased food security. Discussion The variation in spider diversity between the base of the plant and its canopy was primarily due to the difference in position of their habitation in the paddy field. micro environment and the level of disturbance (Young & Edwards 1990). The most common explanation for the observed pattern of spider guild structure accounts for the effects of host crop. The physical structure of the environment has an important influence on the habitat preferences of the spider species especially web-building species. Wise 1993) and may be critical to successful insect suppression (Riechert & Bishop 1990). Once in feeding patch. Linyphiidae. with 3 species. including its structural diversity. The structure of the vegetation is therefore expected to influence the diversity of spiders found in the habitat. Pisauridae (1 species) and Thomisidae (5 species) are members of this guild.. This guild is formed of 2 families viz. it would seem logical that the spider community would be a key component of integrated pest management strategies. Since more than half of the predatory fauna in rice agroecosystem are spiders and it is known that changes in spider density can impact pest populations (Nyefeller et al. it is imperative to decipher exactly how crop growth stages that change the habitat structure within relatively homogenous fields influence the density. with derived benefits to growth and reproduction. Belonging to this category are the families Pholcidae (2 species) and Theridiidae (6 species). Choice of foraging habitat has been recognized as one of primary importance through its effect on feeding rates. Siedlce. In order to increase the emphasis on spiders as agents of biological control. Spiders of the guild space web builders construct irregularly spaced webs for prey capture.Book of Abstracts. Only one family of paddy field spiders belong to this category namely. Spiders of the families Philodromidae (1 species). Poland Lycosidae (6 species) and Scytodidae (2 species) come under this guild. Habitat structure maintains diverse spider assemblages (Uetz 1991. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 280 .

Leiden. but little consistency of patterns of relationships at deeper levels. Maxwell1. Poland Molecular and morphological analysis of Sicarius systematics across a wide geographic range Elise N. USA National Museum of Natural History. Lewis & Clark College. We analyzed genetic structure in the lineage using molecular phylogenetics of 28S. Siedlce. Out of all characters examined. We present a standardized analysis of Sicarius systematics across a wide geographic range of taxon sampling from Africa. We confidently assign species names to most of the South American taxa. The Netherlands The taxonomy of the Haplogyne spider genus Siciarus has been piecemeal with no unified systematic revision. genitalic characters are the most helpful in differentiating species. 16S and ND1. This work provides the basis for a future thorough systematic revision. OR.Book of Abstracts. Central and South America. We also investigated a wide range of somatic and genitalic morphological characters. CO1. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. These analyses show consistent support for many terminal clades. but are not confident about assigning species names to any of our African taxa given the current nomenclature. Jeremy Miller2 & Greta J. Portland. Binford1 1 2 Department of Biology. 281 .

the disappearance of many species is left undocumented. Nearly 40 million people inhabit this hotspot. as well as to analyse their diversity. mathewmj@asianetindia. 2004). the Western Ghats is listed among the 34 biodiversity hotspots of the world (Mittermeier et al. They cover an area of about 160. Sebastian2 & John Joseph2 1 2 IT@School Project. Although around 15% of the Western Ghats is protected in 20 national parks and 68 sanctuaries. The collection sites selected for the study include Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve. Kochi. India Introduction The Western Ghats is a chain of mountains running parallel to India’s western coast. Mathew1. Against this backdrop. Much of the remaining forest cover consists of timber plantations or disturbed secondary growth. Periyar Tiger Reserve 282 . As a result. The average height of the Ghats is 1500 m above sea level. roads. Studies on patterns of species richness.000 km² and stretch for 1. which ranges from 75% in amphibians to 40% in insects and hence. Poland Araneofauna of the Western Ghats of India Mundackatharappel J. a large share of spider diversity in the Western Ghats still remains unexplored. abundance and ecology. 2005). 2000).com Sacred Heart College. Due to the paucity of workers and funds. but in the southern reaches. Material and methods The study area consisted of Kerala Region of Western Ghats. Western Ghats supports some of the pristine forest patches. India. it rises up to 2000 m and to exceptionally higher peaks of 2500 m and above. and railways. at a density of 260 people/km² (one of the highest in hotspots) (Jha et al. Pothalil A. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 2000). The forests of the Western Ghats have been selectively logged and highly fragmented throughout the entire range. Kochi. the different study sites corresponding to the various geographic locations of the Western Ghats of Kerala region were identified. Forests have been converted to agricultural lands for monoculture plantations and are also cleared for building reservoirs. a study was conducted to document the araneofuana of the Kerala region of Western Ghats. Siedlce. This area is one of the world's ten "Hottest biodiversity hotspots" and at least 325 globally threatened species occur here (Myers et al. This region exhibits very high level of endemism. diversity and their spatial distribution has widely been acknowledged as sine qua non for effective conservation planning (Cushman & Mc Garigal 2003. In order to conduct exploratory surveys of spider species richness and diversity. between the latitudes 8ºN to 20ºN and longitudes 73ºE to 77ºE.Book of Abstracts. extremely high population pressure has seriously stressed the region's biodiversity.600 km from the country’s southern tip.

Among them. let alone the real extent of endangered species. Periyar Tiger Reserve (East Division). Unfortunately. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. endemism. Siedlce. This technique involved a combination of four collection methods to assess the diversity of spider fauna namely. 3 spp. endangered or extinct. richness. 2005). The diversity. Poecilotheria rufilata (endangered) and P. The sampling data was also utilized to analyse the guild composition as well as seasonality. The 2009 IUCN Red Data Book (IUCN 2009) lists 26 species of spiders as threatened. The highest species occurrence was recorded in the post-monsoon months followed by pre-monsoon months and the least occurrence was during the monsoon period. Nonetheless. Discovery of new species. Habitat associations of spiders were observed and recorded. 6 species were new records to India. Results and discussion The study documented 173 species of spiders belonging to 85 genera and 25 families from Western Ghats of Kerala including 6 new species. striata (vulnerable). A total of 6 species recorded from the study area endemic to Kerala and 29 species endemic to IndoSri Lankan region. these small numbers reflect how little we actually know about spider populations in general. Analysis of the various diversity indices revealed that Periyar Tiger Reserve East Division recorded the highest values for most of the diversity indices computed. Silent Valley National Park and Wynad Wildlife Sanctuary. as well as to the fauna of Sri Lanka. were recorded from Western Ghats of Kerala during this investigation. One sample unit equalled one hour of uninterrupted time during which all spiders encountered were collected (Sebastian et al. These are Haploclastus kayi (endangered). Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary. Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary. It has been observed that the araneofauna of Western Ghats of Kerala bear affinities mainly to oriental and Palearctic regions. Analysis of the faunal composition revealed that Araneidae was the taxonomically dominant family. At the generic level. The overall trends in abundance of spider community showed correlation with seasons. Many species may be threatened. as well as sighting of a number of species and genera for the first time from India indicates the biological wealth of this region and further points out the necessity of more detailed exploration in order to comprehensively understand the biodiversity of the country.Book of Abstracts. Chimmony Wildlife Sanctuary. Poland (West Division). ground hand collection. The random transect method using the technique adopted by Aiken and Coyle (2000) was used for spider sampling. and evenness indices of spider communities were computed using the software SPDIVERS. but research on them is lacking. A detailed analysis was also made on the taxonomy.BAS of Ludwig and Reynolds (1998). 4 genera and at the species level. beating and sweeping. Abundance data revealed that Pardosa pseudoannulata (Family Lycosidae) was the most abundant species. Time was used as a as a measure of sampling effort to make the methods comparable. Sampling was conducted monthly in the selected study sites for a period of three years from February 2006 to February 2009. due to this limited information on 283 . Analysis of the guild structure revealed that orb weavers were the dominant feeding guild. aerial hand collection. affinities and conservation status.

2002). is more important in establishing regional conservation priorities (Platnick 1991). 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Poland distribution. Science. Jha C. Journal of Natural History.F. IUCN 2009.. 2005. Cushman S. Pathummal Beevi S.M. Hierarchical analysis of forest bird species environment relationships in the Oregon Coast Range. 14: 1090-1105.R. and conservation efforts targeted toward them could help to avert the loss of biodiversity. 25: 1083-1088. & Coyle F. Conserving biological wealth requires action in both areas of endemic species and areas of high biological diversity.iucnredlist. 2004. Landscape-level patterns of avian diversity in the Oregon Coast Range.A.A.1. Ecological Applications. 2000. Joseph J. K.I. References Aiken M. 73: 259-281. 403: 853-858. 1991. 1998. & Reynolds J. & McGarigal.. Journal of Arachnology. Mittermeier R.. Siedlce. 352 pp.B. www. 284 . &. Platnick N. Cushman S.. 2003. & Kent J. The Spider Fauna of the Irrigated Rice Ecosystem in Central Kerala.A. as indicated by levels of endemism and habitat specialization. Dutt C. Version 2009.B. Hoffman M. Nature.A.. life history and behavior of Tetragnatha spider species in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 2000. 33: 247-255. Statistical Ecology: A primer on methods in computing. population and conservation status of spiders. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.J. Habitat distribution. Mittermeier C. Mittermeier R. Ecological Monographs.S. Fonseca G. Deforestation and land use changes in Western Ghats.A. et al. Ludwig J. Journal of Arachnology. Mathew M....A. & Biju C.A. Brooks T.org. 79: 231-238. 2002.Book of Abstracts. 295 (5558): 1280-1284...G. Downloaded on 18 September 2009.N.A. 2000.G. Patricio R. temperate.S.. India across Different Elevational Ranges. it is difficult to get them listed under national or international legislation. Myers N. & Bawa K.. & McGarigal K. Conservation International. John Wiley & Sons. Da Fonseca G.M.A. The present investigation could serve as a baseline for future study of spiders of Western Ghats. Mittermeier C.. 28: 97-106. Patterns of biodiversity: tropical vs. The uniqueness of species compositions. pp. Pilgrim J..B. Biodiversity Hotspots for Conservation Priorities. Roberts C. Current Science.S. Sebastian P. & John E. 1-432. Lamoreux J.. New York. 2005. India. Hotspots revisited: Earth's biologically richest and most endangered terrestrial ecoregions. Colin J. Marine Biodiversity Hotspots and Conservation Priorities for Tropical Reefs. Threatened centres of endemism are major biodiversity hotspots (Roberts et al.G.

diluted in 1 litre of distilled water) and submitted to a 0. 1878) Viviane F. Unidade de Mundo Novo.38 g of Na2HPO4. four males and three females of P. Leonardo S.br Araneidae comprises 168 genera and 2992 species taxonomically described. 1873). and one male of Wagneriana sp. 1878). Brazil. The chromosomal preparations were obtained from testis and ovaries of two male specimens of A. with 22 autosomal elements and a sex chromosome system of the type X1X2. The aim of this work is to characterize Alpaida truncata (Keyserling. chromosomal morphology.5 g of NaCl. and sex chromosome system type. Instituto Butantan. Parawixia kochi (Taczanowski. 2. represents the third largest family concerning the number of described species as well as chromosomal data. kochi. All individuals were collected in São Francisco Island. carvalho@ufpi. The spiders were collected at Parque Nacional de Ilha Grande. In Araneidae. with the exception of A.edu. and the X1X2X3 and XY type were registered only once for each species. one male and one female of A. 2. Thus. On other studied species the diploid number varied from 2n♂=13 to 2n♂=49. Carvalho2. Brazil. marcia_kraeski@hotmail. Antonio D. veniliae. both in the State of Paraná. velutina. Brescovit3 & Douglas Araujo1 1 Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul.br 3 Laboratório de Artrópodes. the chromosomal morphology is acro/telocentric on most species. and Wagneriana sp. daraujo@uems. Campus Amílcar Ferreira Sobral.com.Book of Abstracts. Alpaida veniliae (Keyserling. Brazil. Brazil.72 g of KH2PO4. Kraeski1. Parawixia velutina (Taczanowski. which was collected at the margins of Xambrê lake. vivianefagundesmn@hotmail. Mattos1. in relation to the diploid number. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Besides the sex chromosome system of the type X1X2.com. municipality of São Paulo. Piauí. adbresc@terra. the most common within the family. the specimens were deposited in the arachnological collection of Instituto Butantan.com. one male of P. State of São Paulo. with about 65 species from 18 genera cytogenetically characterized. more than 50 revealed a diploid complement composed by 2n♂=24. 1865). Siedlce.16% colchicine solution (prepared with 285 . 1865). truncata. After the gonads dissection. São Paulo.br 2 Universidade Federal do Piauí. veniliae. Brazil. Marcia G. Mato Grosso do Sul. in the boundary between the states of Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraná. The gonads were dissected in physiologic solution (7. From the 65 species karyotyped. Poland Cytogenetical characterization of five orb-weaver species (Araneae: Araneidae) with special regard to the diploid number polymorphism in Parawixia velutina (Taczanowski. the type X occurred in a smaller frequency.

The hypotonic treatment consisted in immersion of the gonads in tap water during 20 minutes. Siedlce. A. and Wagneriana sp. evidencing n=10 chromosomes. the diploid number of 2n♂=22 was registered for the first time for P. velutina presented an astonishing characteristic. the sex chromosomes are heteropycnotic in a number of diplotene nuclei. kochi. indicating a diploid complement of 2n♂=24. A female pachytene cell of A. The differences regarding male diploid number between P. The autosomal bivalents presented only one terminal or interstitial chiasma. composed by 20 autosomes and the X1X2 sex chromosomes. Therefore. Mitotic metaphases of one female individual of P. Both species presented two sexual univalents that always appear side by side and correspond to the X1 and X2 chromosomes. In P. velutina. respectively. veniliae showed meiotic formulae composed by 10 autosomal bivalents and two sexual univalents (10II+X1X2) for both species. truncata the X1 and X2 sex univalents appears always associated side by side. composed by 20 autosomes and the sex chromosome system of the type X1X1X2X2. The microscopy slides containing the preparations were stained with 3% Giemsa solution. The chromosomal morphology was not established in both species. kochi (2n=22) and P. revealed 10 autosomal bivalents and two sexual univalents (10II+X1X2). In both species. The sex chromosomes were heteropycnotic in relation to the autosomes and appeared always closely associated. In A. On both species. the diploid number is composed by 2n♀=25. with a large metacentric chromosome. A. together with the external genital characteristics described on a taxonomical review of the genus. velutina the meiotic formulae is 11II+X1X2. all studied 286 . Poland physiologic solution) during 2 hours. The observation of spermatogonial diplotenes of P. the meiotic formulae of P..Book of Abstracts. truncata. kochi and P. indicating possibly the occurrence of 2n♀=24. due to the lack of mitotic or metaphase II cells. contrasting with the telocentric elements of the karyotype. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. kochi. Among all araneids. veniliae. The mitotic and meiotic cells were photographed using a digital capture system coupled to a light microscope. truncata and A. taking into account that both species were collected in the same area. but bivalents with an interstitial chiasm also occurred. velutina (2n=24) could be useful as a cytotaxonomical character. Differential pycnosis was not noticed in any chromosome of the complement in Parawixia species. the autosomal bivalents presented only one interstitial or terminal chiasma. suggesting a diploid number of 2n♂=22. It was not possible to identify the chromosomal morphology due to the lack of mitotic metaphases of metaphases II. veniliae revealed 12 chromosomal bivalents. Only one metaphase II nucleus was found in P. without pair. indicating a diploid number of 2n♂=22. velutina showed 10 and 11 autosomal bivalents. The analyses of male diplotene cells in Wagneriana sp. This complement was confirmed by the presence of 2n♀=26 in oogonial metaphases of two females in P. and the fixation is performed with Methanol: Acetic Acid solution (3:1). corresponding to a diploid number of 2n♂=22. The majority of autosomal bivalents presented only one terminal chiasm. kochi is 10II+X1X2. The analyses of spermatogonial diplotenes in A.

With some degree of chance the intermediary or heterozygotic condition can also be found. it can be supposed that the fusioned metacentric pairs with their two homologous telocentric elements. as presently verified in the cytotype of P. The presence of species with 2n=22 exclusively in these genera among araneids could be a reinforcement of their close relationship. presents exclusively acro/telocentric chromosomes. Alpaida. This type of rearrangement can be observed in the heterozygous condition in some population. It is not possible to determine if the chromosome number polymorphism found is presented over a wide geographic area or if there are two chromosome cytotypes. We also show that even in some genera. suggesting that this diploid number could be more common in araneids than anyone could imagine. as Parawixia and Alpaida. Centric fusions have been of major importance in the karyotype evolution of many groups of animals. due to the formation of a trivalent during meiosis and unbalanced segregation. This diploid number is also very frequent in Theridiidae. each cytologically monomorphic throughout most of its range. the genus Parawixia. In many cases. chromosome changes produce reproductive barriers when they cause problems at meiosis in heterozygotes. However. there is no cytogenetical data on other genera considered closely related to Parawixia. Parawixia velutina with 2n♀=25 represents a case of numerical polymorphism within a population. Taken into account that the other specimens of P. 287 . as well as the other araneids in general. or 22 to 24 chromosomes are relatively common among araneoid spiders. another araneoid family. This type of rearrangement is a very common evolutionary change and has been reported in most groups of organisms. because it is rare the presence of certain meiotic stages. which suggests that the rearrangements involved in the conversion of 24 to 22 chromosomes. some species presents 2n♂=24 while others presents 2n♂=22. Salticidae). It is interesting to notice that according to a taxonomical review. in which the centromeric regions of two acro/telocentric chromosomes fuse to form a single meta/submetacentric chromosome. Siedlce. as in P. velutina. velutina with 2n♀=25. A similar case of heterozygosis in spiders was registered in Evarcha hoyi (Peckham & Peckham. formed a trivalent. leading to reduced fertility. it was not possible to observe the pairing. Unfortunately. such as Eriophora and Acanthepeira. In this study we found four species with 2n♂=22. The distinction will be clear only after an extensive investigation involving a study of many populations. velutina with 2n♀=25. and Wagneriana shared some external morphological putative synapomorphies. Unfortunately. Poland in this work. 1883. but with a zone of overlap in which chromosome number heterozygotes with 2n♀=25 occurs. generating a heterozygosis condition. the metacentric element observed in the polymorphic specimen has arisen through a Robertsonian fusion (centric fusion). one with 2n♀=26 and the other with 2n♀=24. However. with the original telo/acrocentric elements disappearing from the population. there are a number of ways in which a trivalent can generate balanced gametes after segregation.Book of Abstracts. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. as the polymorphic individual was a female. but in many cases the homozygous condition rapidly reached fixation.

presented predominantly biarmed chromosomes in the karyotype. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Gasteracantha possess 2n=16 exclusively acro/telocentric chromosomes. According with some literature proposals. Siedlce. there is no metacentric chromosomes in the karyotype with 2n=16. such as some Neoscona species with 2n=14. 288 . despite the chromosome number reduction.Book of Abstracts. tandem/centric fusion followed by pericentric inversion from a karyotype with 2n♂=24 acro/telocentric chromosomes are involved in the origin of the karyotype with 2n=16. On the other hand. Due to the pericentric inversions. Poland Some araneids with diploid numbers smaller than 2n=24. evidencing the occurrence of centric fusions.

2 & Magdalena Felska1 1 Institute of Biology. Pachygnatha clercki Sundevall. Poland. The summaries concerning the present topic have been provided by Welbourn and Young (1988) and Fain and Jocque (1996a). with particular reference to spiders as regular hosts of these mites. All new records involve the interaction with the representative of one mite species. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences. Russia and France. which exploit spiders as hosts. Siedlce. Prostigmata) Joanna Mąkol1. 1823 and Nuctenea umbratica (Clerck. this being a serious limitation in studies on the host spectrum of parasitic species.pl 2 Institute of Natural Sciences. Pachygnatha clercki and Tetragnatha montana (Tetragnathidae) were recorded as hosts of terrestrial Parasitengona for the first time. by larvae of two different Parasitengona species. 289 . i. Trombidium brevimanum (Berlese. Out of 28 species of Araneae recorded as hosts. i. brevimanum remains the only member of terrestrial Parasitengona. though not simultaneously. Parasitengona families: Erythraeidae (eight species). Department of Invertebrate Systematics and Ecology.e.Book of Abstracts. Microtrombidiidae (one species) and Eutrombidiidae (two species) were recorded as parasites of spiders representing 19 families. only two. Eight records apply to new. Bathyphantes alticeps. Prinerigone vagans (Linyphiidae). Oedothorax retusus. Data on host–parasite relations between spiders and Parasitengona mites are scattered in the literature. Poland Host . Achaearanea lunata. Poland Terrestrial Parasitengona mites are known as protelean parasites of arthropods and vertebrates. whose wide host spectrum points to affiliation with Arachnida. 1910). For the time being T. 1758) were parasitised. Trombidiidae (seven species). hitherto unpublished data. The aim of this work is to summarise all the existing data on larvae of Parasitengona terrestria. The list of taxa is based on the literature and results of the recent survey of alcohol-preserved material originating from Poland.g. Baker and Selden (1997) have summarised the records on Araneae.wroc. Helophora insignis. joanna. Larvae of four. the only exception being the record pertaining to molluscs. Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences. Theridion varians (Theridiidae).e. parasitised by larvae of Leptus (Parasitengona: Erythraeidae). out of 14. order or family).makol@up. In many cases the host identification is limited to higher taxonomic ranks (e.parasite relations between spiders (Araneae) and terrestrial Parasitengona mites (Acari: Actinotrichida.

direct searching (4ªCGS.PMP) and Winkler extractors (19 BC e GM).com In urban influenced landscapes such as those found in Salvador. The surveyed remnants were the 19º Batalhão de Caçadores de Salvador – 19 BC – with an area of 166 ha. The spider distribution patterns in these rainforest landscapes is still poorly known (Brescovit 2009). The forest remnants created by fragmentation represent important refugia for a high number of species (Rodrigues et al. Alessandra R. Spiders were identified to the species or genus level. Dias. Centro de Ecologia e Conservação Animal.425 ha. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. the Parque Joventino Silva park – PJS . PJS. terciosilvamelo@hotmail. JBS. Siedlce. Marcelo Cesar L. GMA. Marcos Vinicius A. the Jardim Botânico de Salvador – JBS . showing low connectivity and mostly composed of motorways. 39 samples of one meter square leaf litter were taken for sampling in the Winkler extractor for 24 hours each. PJS. The habitats are highly modified by human occupation. the Área de Proteção Ambiental Lagoas e Dunas do Abaeté. Andrade. residential zones and business areas. Brazil between 2000 and 2009. Therefore. Bahia. In addition. Abaeté. Berlesse funnels.72 ha. otherwise classified as morpho-species. Specimens were deposited at the Coleção Aracnológica in 290 . and from surveys carried out in seven Atlantic Forest remnants in the city of Salvador.18 ha. For all of these Forest remnants the urban matrix was made. the heterogenity of habitats may influence the local biodiversity. Guimarães & Sheila Luzia de Santana Varjão Catholic University of Salvador. canopy traps (PMP). Poland Metropolitan spider fauna in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest remnants under urban pressure Tércio S. this study objective was to build a spider database for the fauna of Salvador city Atlantic Forest remnants and to compare the species composition for seven most important localities in order to undertake the future conservation actions. Benati. Peres. shopping centres and industries (Pickett et al. motorways. 1993. the 4ª Companhia de Guardas de Salvador – 4 CGS . Melo.60 ha.S. the Grande Moinho Aratu remnant – GMA . Brazil.5 ha. Katia R. beating trays (Abaeté. JBS. such as building sites. Brown Jr & Freitas 2003). PMP). Material and methods The data came from the arachnological collection of the Centro de Ecologia e Conservação Animal at the Universidade Católica do Salvador. The spiders were sampled with pitfall traps (19 BC. 1800 ha. 2006). PJS e PMP). and the Parque Metropolitano de Pituaçu – PMP .Book of Abstracts. Marcelo A. bringing a variety of new elements.

A=0. A=0.. if compared with other similar regions and landscapes. fragmentation (Brazil et al. distant 100 km from Salvador. the authors found 130 species (Pinto-Leite et al. Results and discussion We registered 7. The most frequent species were Scytodes fusca Walckenaer. we identified 3. This method does not have the assumption of Gausian distribution. A study conducted in 1. Diguetidae.00562091. Poland the Laboratório de Artrópodes Peçonhentos do Instituto Butantan (curated by Dr.04575580. A=0. and JBS and PJS (MRPP: p=0. presenting 85. Corinna sp.0003. 5..201 adults from 39 families. using data collection from non standardized techniques during surveys. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.390 ha Atlantic Forest remnants. Corinnidae (n=10. showing 100% frequency. The families Clubionidae. 1999).41%). Peres et al. Scytodidae and Theridiidae were the most frequent. These may suggest that events such as. when remnants were compared (MRPP: p=0. Pisauridae were represented only by immature individuals in all sample sites and surveys. may be related to the environmental structure . 2000. was then used to compare these remnants composition. and Alpaida sp. the form and distance 291 . once they had the same sample design applied during the study effort. Oonopidae. Antônio Brescovit). Some recorded families presented higher richness: Salticidae (n=28. fragment size and age (Bolger et al. We also used three replicated remnants to compare species composition (4ªCGS. therefore was considered the most suitable for this study.47%). We also found a significant difference for richness. JBS e PJS). A=0. Ctenidae.05803102. The multiple response permutation procedure . (2006) registered 117 species in an urban matrix remnant in the Brazilian north-eastern region.182 spiders representing 44 families.88%) and Oonopidae (n=10. Araneidae. Hahniidae. 1837... 16. 170 species and morpho species.6071755). The information found in literature suggests that the richness in Salvador can be considered low. Siedlce.06077587. T=-6.0000.0000. Higher frequency of Araneidae. (1998) stated that changes in the structural complexity and the spatial heterogeneity may result in the loss of richness of spider species in time.Book of Abstracts. Halaj et al. applying the Bray Curtis distance. 2005). Laurence & Vasconcelos 2009). Theridiidae (n=26. 9. T=-4. Salticidae and Theridiidae. Mesabovilar sp. 15. Corinnidae.0660198).29%). Among the recorded species.8678563). 143 genera.02763257. between 4ªCGS and PJS (MRPP: p=0. Tenedos sp.88%). Mysmenidae.secondary Forest formations promoting web builders and foraging behaviour mode of Salticidae (Wise 1993). 2008). it was found significant differences between 4ª CGS and JBS (MRPP: p=0. When post hoc comparison were performed. 5.9105393). T=-3.MRPP (PcOrd ©: McCune and Mefford. Presence (1) and absence (0) matrix of the recorded species were created for fauna composition analysis in each remnant. T=-6.71%. Araneidae (n=16.

these structural differences in association with the loss of connectivity. Gazeta Medica da Bahia. Guerrero A. 106: 91-100.. Ross D. Mcintyre 2000).. Aranhas e araneísmo: uma curta historia das araneomorphae peçonhentas da bahia.K.E. The Journal of Arachnology. & Brazil T.. Biological Conservation.A. 2001. which was consequently promoted by the urban growth along the century. 292 . Gibb H. Brescovit A. Cancello E.W. Pinto-Leite C.C..R. Halaj J. Siedlce.H.invertebrados terrestre .I.T. indicating that remnant size and shape is important. 31(2): 114-125.F. & Cadenasso M. Ecology of Urban Arthropods: A Review and a Call to Action. and even though they are located in the same urban matrix. 78. Pickett S. concepts.L. 1993. 52: 257-274.F. may have contributed to the differentiation among these remnants as observed by Gibb and Hochuli (2002) in Sydney. Wise D. Landscape and Urban Planning. Laurence W.Book of Abstracts. 2006. Avalização do estado do conhecimento da diversidade biológica do Brasil . Cambridge University. Habitat fragmentation in an urban environment: large and small fragments support different arthropod assemblages. and results from the Baltimore ecosystem study. Ground arthropod community structure in a heterogeneous urban environment.F. 93. Mcintyre N. 26:203-220.USP. 2000.. 79. 2002.R.L. & Moldenke A. Conseqüências ecológicas da fragmentação florestal na Amazônia. Advancing urban ecological studies: frameworks. Poland between remnants (Steffan-Dewenter & Tscharntke 2002.F. & Yamamoto C. Habitat structure and prey availability as predictors of the abundance and community organization of spiders in western Oregon forest canopies. However. Australian Ecology. & Hochuli D. 2000. Non-random patterns of spider species composition in an Atlantic rainforest.E. Rang J. as well as the landscape matrix where these fragments are immerged. The spider species composition recorded in the Atlantic Forest remnants in Salvador city was considered low. Oecologia Brasiliensis. this composition was different. The Journal of Arachnology. may directly influence the species composition (Laurence & Vasconcelos 2009). 13(3): 434-451. 2009. & Vasconcelos H. 1998. Cambridge. & Faeth S. 2008. Spiders in Ecological Webs.M. References Brandão C. 36: 448-452. Fagan W. Museu de Zoologia.H. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Mcintyre N. 2009.M. Australia. However. Annals of the entomological society of America.

Spider fauna of the floodplain meadows in Estonia has earlier been described by A.ee Spiders play an essential role in grassland ecosystems. as they are among most important predators and form an important link between grass layer and soil food chains. Flooding is lethal for most spiders. influence of flooding and management Mart Meriste Tartu Collage of Tallinn University of Technology. In this delta. According to the environmental conditions and food availability. a salinity gradient forms from floodplain to the coast of open sea. investigate the abundance and diversity of spider fauna in flooded seminatural grasslands in Western Estonia. Vilbaste 1964 but on coastal meadows the knowledge is very scarce. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. In addition. However. Estonia. Salinity of water determines the differences the plant community composition. while coastal sites are influenced by brackish water from the sea. is largely unknown. 293 . although some species can survive shorter flooding either by climbing on the higher vegetation or even sunken under water for few days. spider fauna of flooded habitats is similar to other disturbed sites and consist mostly of euryoecious species with good dispersal ability. but how the different flooding regimes (and salinity of water) are affecting spiders. Poland Spider fauna of coastal and floodplain meadows in Matsalu (Estonia). Due to the harsh environmental conditions. spiders particularly are considered to be precise indicators of the environmental conditions in communities. Studied communities situate in historical river delta area. whereas others are abandoned already years ago. semi-natural grasslands in this region provide good system for studying the influence of flooding regime and management on spider communities. The aim of this study was to: 1. Siedlce. Intermediate areas are usually flooded by rivers but with strong western winds the sea water rises in the narrow bay and flow to these grasslands. mart. information about fauna of seminatural grasslands is certainly needed due to their possibly high and characteristic diversity and occurrence of rare species. floodplain meadows turn slowly to coastal meadows on the coasts of long and narrow Matsalu bay. spider community composition can be very variable in different grasslands habitats.meriste@ttu. coastal and floodplain meadows are rather uncomfortable habitat for spiders. Hence. Sites on floodplain are influenced by fresh water from rivers (mainly Kasari river). Some of the grasslands in the region are currently managed. Due to more or less regular floods. Thus. Here I studied the spider community composition and dynamics in seminatural grasslands with different flooding regime. When comparing habitats where flooding occurs – coastal and floodplain meadows – there are differences in the duration of flooding as well as origin (and salinity) of flooding water.Book of Abstracts.

It is noteworthy that considering different ecotypes of spiders in coastal meadows (eurytoecious. but also other invertebrates that fell into pitfall traps were recorded. Vegetation in managed sites is very low and the structure of spider fauna is more random. In three locations (two coastal and one floodplain meadow). study differences in spider fauna in managed and unmanaged sites. Thus the salinity of the flooding water is different in different meadows. In conclusion. Organic matter content. Total spider abundance and diversity did not differ according to the height from sea level. K and Na content were measured from soil samples. Material and methods Study is based on the material collected from Matsalu National Park in western Estonia in 2006. but the community structure is dependent on the characteristics of the inundation. The abundance and diversity of spiders were not dependent on the abundances of other arthropods as potential pray or other predators as potential competitors. soil moisture. the faunas of both unmanaged sites seems to be quite similar whereas grazed sites were very different. This is probably not because the saltwater influence but more likely due the different flooding regime and duration. Poland 2. but the pattern differed between meadow types. The salinity of habitats in Matsalu bay are dependent on the balance between the fresh water from river Kasari and the brackish water (around 6‰) from the sea. duration and depth of inundation are dependent on height from the sea level which on average was between 0.). Spiders were collected with pitfall traps from ten different wet meadow sites which formed a gradient from typical floodplain meadow to the typical coastal meadow. Siedlce. Significant differences occurred between managed and unmanaged sites. This is probably because higher vegetation in unmanaged sites that creates stable condition for spider community and protects it against the floods. the pairs of managed and unmanaged sites for comparison were chosen. spider fauna on flooded grasslands in Estonia consists mainly of euryoecious species. hygrophilous. xerophilous etc.3 and 3. especially flooding in both coastal and floodplain meadows and in sites with intermediate origin. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 294 . 3.Book of Abstracts. The area.6m in studied sites. The differences in spider diversity and abundance between managed and unmanaged sites can be explained by different vegetation structure. The abundance of Lycosid spiders decreased significantly from floodplain meadows towards coastal ones. study environmental conditions that affect spider community composition. Results Altogether 1460 adult and 170 juvenile spider specimens were collected.

We carried out two field surveys on spider colonies found in Acacia trees in the Arava valley. Facultat de Biociències. and the effect of food supply on their tendency to remain in the web (second experiment). Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research. We further conducted two experiments inside net houses with Acacia trees. laia. but colony success and prey abundance were not correlated. BenGurion University of the Negev. However. Colonies in the compost sites were more successful both in numbers of individuals per colony and fecundity. Spain. Israel. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Sede Boqer Campus. Some trees were near an organic fertilizer depot that attracted large numbers of insects (“compost sites”) and others were at increasing distances from it (“non-compost sites”).ac. Cyrtophora citricola (Araneidae) in a hyper-arid environment Laia Mestre1.cat 2 Centre de Recerca Ecològica i Aplicacions Forestals (CREAF). We investigated the effect of prey availability on juvenile site tenacity and on colony success in the spider Cyrtophora citricola (Araneidae). as well as sampling flying insects with sticky traps. We tested the effect of prey remains in the female’s webs on the establishment decisions of the juveniles (first experiment). In each survey.il Several studies on colonial spiders have pointed at prey abundance as the main cause of grouping tendency. Facultat de Biociències. once established. However. the link between group formation due to higher food availability and colony success in a given site remains largely unexplored. The field experiments showed that juvenile spiders are able to detect prey remains in a female web: they settled with lower probability when they were released on empty webs in comparison with webs containing prey remains.Book of Abstracts. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Barcelona. lubin@bgu. Siedlce. we counted the number of spiders and eggs and measured colony volume in each tree. Biologia Vegetal i Ecologia (BABVE).2 & Yael Lubin3 1 Departament de Biologia Animal. which suggests that individuals are reluctant to disperse after an establishment decision has been made on the basis of indirect cues. Barcelona. a hyper-arid region in Israel.mestre@uab. Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Spain 3 Mitrani Department of Desert Ecology. Centre de Recerca Ecològica i Aplicacions Forestals (CREAF). with most work focusing either on group formation or on the advantages of coloniality. where we left females to build webs and released juveniles on these webs after a few days. 295 . Poland Impact of local prey abundance on a colonial spider. differences in food supply only slightly affected the number of juveniles that remained in the female web.

e. References Michalik P. Mysmenidae. axonemal patterns. the „RTA clade“. Nesticidae and Theridiidae.. Poland An unseen world… First phylogenetic analysis of spiders (Araneae) based on sperm morphology and male genital system Peter Michalik1 & Martín J. Germany. Araneomorphae. Here. Dipluridae. Heptathelidae.g. Mygalomorphae. The male genital system of spiders (Araneae) with notes on the fine structure of seminal secretions. Mimetidae. or centriole-associated structures. Oonopidae. Corinnidae.CONICET.Book of Abstracts. Sparassidae and Selenopidae. we explore character transformations based on the resulting phylogenetic hypothesis in order to elucidate the evolution of spider spermatozoa and male genital system. shape of nucleus and acrosomal complex. we present the first approach to incorporate such characters in previous analyses of spider relationships. Pholcidae. Araneidae. Dictynidae. Dysderidae. Argentina Spiders are characterized by an astonishing diversity in sperm morphology. We defined 45 sperm characters at different organizational levels (cellular to aggregation levels). michalik@uni-greifswald. Our results further revealed insights in the evolution of spermatozoa. Contributions to Natural History. Synotaxidae. Mygalomorphae (5 families). Characters were added to previous and ongoing morphological phylogenetic matrices and analyzed using parsimony. Segestriidae. e. Haplogynae (10 families) and Entelegynae (23 families). The taxon sampling includes representatives of all main spider lineages. Most sperm characters are related to the level of sperm cell organelles. Ramírez2 1 Zoologisches Institut und Museum. 12: 959-972. Filistatidae). Mesothelae. Filistatidae. Anyphaenidae. Haplogynae (excl. In addition. Ochyroceratidae. 296 . Despite the high amount of potential phylogenetic information that sperm characters might offer. More than 90 species representing 38 families of spiders were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. Siedlce. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Atypidae. sperm aggregates (transfer forms) and the male genital system which are also discussed. Anapidae.de 2 Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales „Bernadino Rivadavia“ . Linyphiidae. Sicariidae und Scytodidae. Ernst-Moritz-Arndt Universität Greifswald. Buenos Aires. Based on the results of our analyses spermatozoal synapomorphies can be proposed for the following taxa: Mesothelae. seminal fluids and organization of the male genital system (Michalik 2009). 2009. Philodromidae. i. they have never been included in phylogenetic analyses to date. Liphistiidae.

Germany. has confirmed this phenomenon by addressing the mechanistic bases of sperm depletion in spiders. University of Florida. and no male testes produce sperm after the terminal moult. Spermatogenesis occurs only during the young male sub-adult stage. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Gainesville. Greifswald. In some spider species. Poland Permanent sperm depletion in spiders (Araneae) Peter Michalik1 & Clare C. Rittschof2 1 Zoologisches Institut und Museum. FL. 297 . Siedlce. USA. there is behavioural documentation that males permanently deplete all of their lifetime sperm after a single mating.Book of Abstracts. however. michalik@uni-greifswald.de 2 Department of Biology. The decrease in testis size corresponds to the maturation process of the sperm and a subsequent absence of testis tissue devoted to sperm production as males mature and age. Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität. Here we evaluate permanent sperm depletion in the spider Nephila clavipes using gross measurements and light and transmission electron microscopy of the male genital system.edu Sperm is a costly and limited resource for males. No study. Permanent sperm depletion has implications for the evolution of male mating strategies and male terminal investment strategies in spiders. critter@ufl. Male testis size decreases as males approach their maturation moult and reaches its lowest point after the first sperm induction.

abbas. Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute. Iran. The total protein of product was estimated to be 2. Immunization of horses were carried out for the first time in 9 injection protocol and the titer of antivenom was found to be 315 LD50 while when second time immunization was carried out in 5 series of injection the titer of antivenom was found to be 762 LD50. In the present work the venom of spider was extracted by removing the venom glands from spider Latrodectus tredecimguttatus and dissolved in distilled water. Hamid Reza Goudarzi. Housein Zolfagharian & Naser Mohammadpur Department of venomous animals and antivenom production. Pyrogeny test indicated that the product is free of endotoxins and pyrogenic factors. Two healthy horses were selected for immunization and the antigen was prepared using complete and non complete Frunds adjuvant.09%.Book of Abstracts. Poland Latradectism in Iran and laboratory scale antivenom production against Latrodectus tredicimguttatus Abbas Zare Mirakabadi. In conclusion the laboratory scale of spider antivenom production showed that there is possibility of producing safe and effective anivenom against medically important spiders of Iran.zare8@gmail.5g/l respectively. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Karaj. The specific tests for standardization of antivenom was carried according to WHO recommended parameters. 298 . LD50 of the venom was determined and found to be 18. PH and phenol content of product was adjusted to 6. Reports from hospitals in Khorasan province indicate the serious cases of spider bites which some cases lead to death in children.75 and 1. Siedlce.76% and dry weight was 4.5 when the venom extraction was carried out in 4C. The duration of treatment varies from few days to two weeks in hospital.com Hundreds of people suffer from spider bite yearly in Iran.

Mitov Department of Zoology and Anthropology. Siedlce. Sofia University. Bulgaria. The closest species morphologically. clearly separates this new species from any other nemastomatid. Faculty of Biology.Book of Abstracts. is the troglobiont Paranemastoma (Buresiola) bureschi. as well as the absence of scutum armament. 299 . collected from the Stojkova Dupka 1 cave in the Slavyanka Mountains (SW Bulgaria) is described and illustrated based on a single male specimen and two juveniles. and the only other eyeless example. The penis. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. chelicerae and form of the pedipalp. pl_mitov@yahoo.). which is known from numerous caves in the Balkan mountain range (Stara Planina Mts. 1936 from Bulgaria (Opiliones: Nemastomatidae) Plamen G. Sofia.com In this paper a new eyeless representative of Paranemastoma. Poland A new anophthalmous species of the genus Paranemastoma Redikorzev.

Poland Nemastomatid harvestman (Opiliones) in Baltic amber Plamen G. 2009 – previously known from the German Bitterfeld amber – is now recorded for the first time in Baltic amber. Nematostominae. given that modern ortholasmatines are restricted to East Asia and North/Central America. but both ?Histricostoma tuberculatum (Koch and Berendt. 300 . Sofia. pl_mitov@yahoo. This is a significant find for the Palaeogene of Europe. Bulgaria. These species probably belong to new (fossil) genera. Berlin. 1854. Siedlce. Mitostoma gruberi Dunlop and Mitov. Germany. the absence of (male) genital characters makes unequivocal comparisons with extant genera difficult. Sofia University. can be recognised. Dunlop2 1 Department of Zoology and Anthropology. three new species. Key pedipalp characters cannot be resolved in the poorly-preserved holotype of Nemastoma incertum Koch and Berendt. Considering species previously described in the literature. Within the other subfamily.de Nematostomatid harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones: Dyspnoi: Nematosomatidae) are described from Palaeogene (Eocene) Baltic amber. Mitov1 & Jason A. 1854) show subtle somatic differences compared to living representatives of these groups.dunlop@mfn-berlin. 1854) and ?Mitostoma denticulatum (Koch and Berendt. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.com 2 Museum für Naturkunde. Leibniz Institute for Research on Evolution and Biodiversity at the Humboldt University Berlin. The fauna includes the first fossil example of the subfamily Ortholasmatinae.Book of Abstracts. jason. which is here treated as a nomen dubium. each in a new genus. Generally. in particular the legs and pedipalps of the fossils appear to be longer. Faculty of Biology.

or by using descriptive statistics that examined the relationship between spider richness/abundance and local environmental measures. In particular. we used GLIM (error distribution was either Poisson or negative binomial) that includes two local variables (plant height and PCA of plant composition) and three landscape variables (forest cover. insect pests for agricultural crops are believed to be kept at low densities by spiders. and residual of forest-edge length. Here we investigated how species richness and abundance of grassland-dwelling spiders are determined in multi-scale contexts in a typical agricultural landscape in Japan.u-tokyo. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. the largest island of Japan. and recorded local vegetation structure (plant height.jp Spiders are one of the most diverse and abundant arthropod predators in terrestrial ecosystems.a. we searched for the appropriate scale by 1) generating different sizes of buffer circles around the focal site. These characteristics led researchers to examine the effects of environmental factors on species richness and abundance of spiders in various ecosystems. and residual of the forest-edge length from forest cover). tmiya@es.ac.Book of Abstracts. plant species composition). Poland High species richness and abundance of grassland dwelling spiders in the landscape with an intermediate level of forest surroundings Tadashi Miyashita & Yuki Chishiki Laboratory of Biodiversity Science. Species richness of spiders exhibited the lowest AIC with a 400m buffer radius. To identify factors determining species richness and abundance of spiders. Siedlce. and the best model at this scale included forest cover. When analyzed separately for each species. and one species each showed a monotonic increase and decrease with 301 . School of Agriculture and Life Sciences. However. and 3) selected the best model on the basis of AIC (Akaike’s information criterion). We collected spiders inhabiting grasslands by sweeping. which consists mostly of rice fields and secondary forests. square of forest cover. Because it was not possible to determine the spatial scale in advance. we expected that spiders are more diverse in the grasslands with an intermediate level of forest surroundings. each site being located at least 500 m apart from another. Species richness showed a peak with around 60% forest cover. University of Tokyo. the square of forest cover. and increased with increasing forest-edge length. Japan. We have chosen 35 sampling sites on Sado island. most studies were conducted either in small-scale experimental settings. Total abundance of spiders showed a similar pattern. and they often determine population and community structures at lower trophic levels. 6 out of 8 species exhibited a peak at intermediate levels of forest cover. 2) calculating percentage of forest cover within a buffer circle. Because mosaic structure of the landscape is considered to increase species richness.

Book of Abstracts. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. The reason why intermediate levels of forest surroundings favoured species richness and abundance is not clear. but we speculate that prey abundance is higher or temporarily more stable where two ecosystems (rice fields and forests) meet with a moderately ratio. species richness and abundance of grass-dwelling spiders are largely determined by landscape-level factors. respectively. In summary. thereby enhancing local density of each species and species richness as a result. Siedlce. Poland increasing forest cover. 302 . Local factors were mostly unimportant for determining species richness and abundance of spiders. and mosaic structures of a landscape seemed to have an important role.

Richard Lounsbery Foundation. USA.Book of Abstracts. lorenzo@amnh. Based on the phylogeny and known distributions. Further remarks are given concerning the diversification of Australian liochelids which appears to be the result of the fragmentation of a once widespread rainforest habitat due to aridisation in the Middle Miocene. lionel. Switzerland. New York. Poland Liochelid scorpions of the Indo-Pacific: systematics and biogeography Lionel Monod1. 2001 are poorly understood.monod@ville-ge. Route de Malagnou 1.2 & Lorenzo Prendini2 1 Muséum d’histoire naturelle. National Science Foundation.ch 2 Scorpion Systematics Research Group. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 303 . American Museum of Natural History. Financial support: AMNH Graduate Student Fellowship. based on 358 morphological characters and ca. was conducted to test hypotheses concerning their current pattern of distribution. Siedlce. a revised biogeography of Indo-Pacific Liochelidae is presented. Genève. Division of Invertebrate Zoology. The taxonomic validity of several currently recognised genera remains uncertain. 4 kb of DNA sequence from four loci in the nuclear (18S rDNA and 28S rDNA) and mitochondrial (12S rDNA and 16S rDNA) genomes. A phylogenetic analysis of relationships among the Indo-Pacific liochelid genera. NY. USA.org Phylogenetic relationships in the scorpion family Liochelidae Fet & Bechly.

The cave-dwelling species. Germany.de. Pandercetes. six nominal species of the genus are reported from Asia. Spariolenus) and Australia (Heteropoda. three morphologically different specimens of the genus were encountered.moradmand@senckenberg. Pandercetes. Representatives of Heteropodinae are common inhabitants of subtropical and tropical forests of Africa (Barylestis). Asia (Barylestis. are impressive giant spiders and have leg spans up to 15 cm. Taxonomy and zoogeography of the current species in relation to other species of the genus are discussed. Sinopoda. Heteropoda. Pseudopoda. Poland On three new species of the genus Spariolenus Simon. majid.de Spariolenus Simon. Martensopoda. Yiinthi). 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.Book of Abstracts. Currently. In this study. peter. Spariolenus sp.jaeger@senckenberg. 1. with comments on taxonomy and zoogeography Majid Moradmand & Peter Jäger Research Institute Senckenberg. During surveys in semiarid parts of Iran (caves as well as river banks). 1880 (Sparassidae: Heteropodinae) from Iran. 304 . After vanishing of the ancient tropical forest in the territory of the today’s Iran. The other two species were caught from crevices in rocks near river banks. the subfamily Heteropodinae is recorded for the first time from Iran. Frankfurt am Main. Sparassids of Iran have been poorly investigated with just three recorded species. Bhutaniella. 1880 is one of the rarest genera of the spider family Sparassidae with just few species described so far. Results from investigations of somatical and copulatory characters as well as analyzing CO-I sequences will be presented as well as a discussion about the species status of the new forms. Siedlce. Occurring of the members of Heteropodinae in the current arid and semiarid areas suggests that the region used to be humid in former times. the relict populations retreated into places like caves as remaining suitable (=humid) habitats.

Siedlce. majid. 1903 (Araneae: Sparassidae).moradmand@senckenberg. These similarities in traits as well as some interspecific variations have challenged a discrimination of species. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Poland Taxonomic revision of the genus Eusparassus Simon.Book of Abstracts. 305 . Germany. they show a strange type of uniformity in somatical and copulatory characters. 1903 comprises 29 nominal species described from Southern Africa to Mediterranean Europe and through the Middle East toward Central Asia. These medium to large Sparassidae are among the foremost arthropod predators of deserts and semiarid areas.jaeger@senckenberg. peter.de. Despite representatives of the genus are distributed through the vast part of the Old World. Frankfurt am Main. The aim of our study is to explore the diagnostic characters which can be used to recognize species boundaries and define and describe the species within the genus.de The genus Eusparassus Simon. Part 1: finding diagnostic characters Majid Moradmand & Peter Jäger Research Institute Senckenberg.

Book of Abstracts, 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010, Siedlce, Poland

Phylogeny and biogeography of Ricinulei
Jerome Murienne1, Ligia R. Benavides2, Gustavo Hormiga2 & Gonzalo Giribet1
1

Museum of Comparative Zoology, Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, 26 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA, USA 2 Department of Biological Sciences, The George Washington University, Washington DC, USA

Very little has been published about the interrelationships of the ca. 60 species of Ricinulei. Here we present a molecular data set based on multiple markers for the entire distribution range of the group to generate the first molecular phylogeny of Ricinulei in order to test the monophyly of the three genera, Ricinoides in west Africa, and Cryptocellus – Pseudocellus in the Neotropical region. We use this phylogeny to discuss biogeographic aspects of this group of arachnids with low vagility and compare it to other studies of arachnids that overlap with Ricinulei in their distribution range.

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Differentiation of Nurscia albomaculata and N. albosignata (Araneae: Titanoecidae): two sibling and sympatric species from Crimea, Ukraine
Anton A. Nadolny & Mykola M. Kovblyuk
Zoology Department of V.I. Vernadsky Taurida National University, Ukraine, nadolnyanton@mail.ru, kovblyuk@mail.ru

Introduction The genus Nurscia Simon, 1874 contains only 4 described species distributed in Palaearctic (Platnick 2010). Two species of Nurscia sympatrically occur in Crimea: Nurscia albomaculata (Lucas, 1846) and N. albosignata Simon, 1874. N. albomaculata is distributed from Europe to Central Asia, N. albosignata – from Bulgaria and Cyprus to Central Asia. Males of these species well differ by length of palps. However, identification of the females is very difficult, because their epigynes are similar. Comparative identification drawings for these species were never published. Material and methods 29 specimens of N. albomaculata and 69 specimens of N. albosignata collected mostly by pitfall traps in Crimea in 1995-2007 have been studied. In order to found differences in females, they were studied from samples containing both males and females. Then the identified differences were checked in females from samples without males. Results Males of these species well differ by the length of the palp (shorter than carapace in N. albomaculata and longer than carapace in N. albosignata), by the teeth on hooked tibial apophysis (long in N. albomaculata and short in N. albosignata), and by the shape of embolus (straight in N. albomaculata and curved in N. albosignata). Females are well distinguished by the shape of epigynal median plate, narrow in N. albomaculata and wide in N. albosignata. Septum in N. albomaculata is three times longer then wide; septum in N. albosignata is as long as wide in posterior part. Margins of epigynal septum are parallel in N. albomaculata, and curved and not parallel in N. albosignata. These species do not differ by habitats and are frequently found in the same biotopes. Both species are found in some kinds of steppe and in salt marshes. However, these two species differ by phenology. The peaks of abundance for both species are in July, but males and females of N. albomaculata were collected since May, and males of N. albosignata – since June, females – from July. So, activity of N. albomaculata starts one month earlier than of N. albosignata. The latest males of both species were collected in

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August. The latest females of N. albomaculata were collected also in August, and these of N. albosignata – in October. Discussion It is interesting when two related species, occurring sympatrically, do not differ in geography and habitat, but only in phenology. References Platnick N.I. 2010. The world spider catalog, version 11.0. American Museum of Natural History, http://research.amnh.org/entomology/spiders/catalog/.

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Identification of Wolbachia in the Iranian scorpions
Shahrokh Navidpour1 & Jelodar Zadeh Abbas2
1

Razi Reference Laboratory of Scorpion Research, Venomous Animals Department, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Karaj, Tehran, Iran, Navid1038@hotmail.com 2 Veterinary Medicine School, Chamran University, Ahvaz, Iran

Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia are intracellular parasites of insects, filarial nematodes, crustaceans, and mites. The successful spread of Wolbachia is partly due to their extraordinary ability to alter host development, sex determination, and reproduction to their own advantage. Similarly to other bacteria in the order Rickettsiales, Wolbachia are obligate intracellular endosymbionts of eukaryotes. The founding member of this genus, Wolbachia pipentis, was first observed by Hertig and Wolbach in the ovaries of the mosquito Culex pipiens. Since then, Wolbachia have been detected in most orders of insects and are believed to be the most pervasive endosymbiont, infecting 15–76% of all insect species worldwide. Here we report the Wolbachia in the Iranian scorpions for first time. Four species of Iran scorpions were studied, Androctonus crassicauda, Mesobuthus eupeus, Scorpio murus townsendi and Hemiscorpius lepturus, and the bacteria was found in H. lepturus by Multilocus Sequence Typing and by Wolbachia Surface Protein.

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Faunistic study on scorpions of the Province Lorestan, Iran
Hassan Nayebzadeh1*, Shahrokh Navidpour2 & Mohammad Hassan Kayedi3
1

Department of Parasitology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lorestan University, Khorramabad, Iran, hassannayeb@yahoo.com 2 Department of Venomous Animals & Toxin, Razi Reference Laboratory of Scorpion Research, Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Hesarak, Karaj, Iran 3 Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran * Corresponding author

Lorestan is a mountainous province located to the south-west of Iran between eastern 46º51' to 50°3', and northern 32°37' to 34°32'; surrounded by the mountains of the Zagros range. In localities of this province there are two scorpion taxa, Mesobuthus eupeus phillipsii (Pocock, 1889) and Hottentotta saulcyi (Simon, 1880). Additionally, Androctonus crassicauda (Olivier, 1807), Compsobuthus matthiesseni (Birula, 1905), Hemiscorpius lepturus (Peters, 1862); Scorpio maurus townsendi (Pocock, 1900) and Orthochirus iranus (Kovařík, 2004) have been seen in the province. Researchers from Razi Reference Laboratory of Scorpion Research (RRLS); Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, and Lorestan University have identified three other species in the province for the first time: Hottentotta zagrosensis (Kovařík, 1997); Razianus zarudnyi (Birula, 1903); Hemiscorpius lepturus (Peters, 1862). In addition, a new species of Hottentotta was described.

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Grazed versus ungrazed – case study of one xerothermic slope in Moravian Karst (Czech Republic) 7
Jana Niedobová1, Vladimír Hula1 & Fric Z. Faltýnek2
1

Department of Zoology, Mendel University, Brno, Czech Republic, Naaudia@seznam.cz 2 Department of Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Entomology, Biology Centre, ASCR, České Budějovice, Czech Republic, fric@entu.cas.cz

Grazing undoubtedly influences grassland ecosystems and belongs to the widely discussed questions of present natural and landscape protection. It is necessary to maintain some kinds of grasslands by grazing especially in the landscape protected areas because most of critically endangered species are depended on grazing ecosystems. Grazing helps to keep biotopes on the some succession stage and it leads to enrichment ecosystem by endangered and critically endangered species (mainly in case of plants). But grazing can destroy some kinds of organisms too. It happens especially by trampling and pasturing. We tried to find influence of grazing on invertebrates in Moravian Carst. There were two transects in the Macošská stráň slope. First of them was ungrazed and second transect was grazed. Our research took place from April to November 2008 and samples were taken in a month or two-week intervals respectively. To be able to find the most species of invertebrates we used three samplings methods: pitfall traps, yellow Möerick cups and sweeping. We used two groups (Araneae and Carabidae) of invertebrates for evaluating grazing influence. And than we evaluated data with the programme CANOCO. DCA analyses didn’t showed significant affinity to grazed or ungrazed transect. We found only one difference between transects – t-test showed that localities under grazing are inhabit by ubiquitous species of spiders (t=-2.89, df=6, p=0.027). It means that this habitat has little bit richer fauna of spiders, but only the common ones.

7

The study was supported by grants IGA-AF-MZLU-SP2100101/224 and VaV-MZPCR-SP/2D4/59/07.

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Spiders from the Pico da Neblina: species diversity and distribution along an altitudinal gradient in Brazilian Amazonia (Arachnida: Araneae)
André do Amaral Nogueira1,3, Eduardo Martins Venticinque1,2 & Antonio Domingos Brescovit3
1

Pós-Graduação em Ecologia, INPA - Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Brazil, andrearanhas@gmail.com 2 Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Departamento de Biologia, Brazil, eventicinque@wcs.org, 3 Laboratório de Artrópodes, Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, adbresc@terra.com.br

Montane ecosystems have always drawn the attention of biologists. The conspicuous changes observed in biotic communities along a mountain have always interested ecologists and biogeographers, while their usually high diversity and endemism level also attracts zoologists and botanists. One of the most studied features about mountain biota is the species richness distribution patterns along the altitudinal gradient. Early surveys, as well as the resemblance in some aspects with the latitudinal gradient of species richness, led to the belief that richness always decrease with increasing altitude. However, several recent works, usually based on standardized sampling, have revealed other patterns, especially the occurrence of richness peaks at intermediate altitudes. The reasons responsible for this pattern have been intensively debated in recent years, and explanations are usually based either on ecological/environmental factors, or in a hypothesis known as geometric constraints. This hypothesis, also known as the mid-domain effect (MDE), sustains that the disposition of species ranges in a bounded domain tend to lead to a greater richness near the centre of this domain, due to the overlap of ranges, suggesting thus that intermediate richness peak occurs regardless of environmental or ecological gradients. In this work, we investigate the spider community of the Pico da Neblina, a mountain located in Brazilian Amazonia. Our goal was to assess the patterns of richness distribution along the gradient, and to test the MDE hypotheses, using it as a null model to generate an expected richness pattern and compare it with the observed pattern. We also test another hypothesis concerning gradients, the Rapoport Effect, which claims that there is positive relation between the size of the range of a specie and the altitude (or latitude) where it lives, i.e., species from higher altitudes would also be expected to have larger ranges. Finally, we also investigated other parameters of the community, as structure and composition, discussing the changes observed along the gradient. Our study site was the Pico da Neblina (0°15'N, 66º10'W), the highest Brazilian mountain, with 2.994 m. a.s.l. The Pico da Neblina is located on the northern border of the Brazilian state of Amazonas, a mountain region that represents the boundary between Brazil and Venezuela, as well as the watershed
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between the Orinoco and Amazonas basins. The climate of the region can be classified as tropical humid, with an annual average rainfall of 2.500-3.000 mm/year, an average temperature of 25° and 85-90% of humidity, with little variation through the year. With increasing elevation, there is an increase in rainfall and humidity and a decrease in temperature, and, in the highlands (> 1.800 m) of the region, the rainfall decreases and is replaced by a constant mist, with humidity reaching almost 100%. In those altitudes, temperature can drop to an average of 10° in the coolest month. Vegetation of the lowlands is mainly composed by a tall, evergreen forest, being gradually replaced by submontane (400 to 800 m), montane (800 to 1.500 m) and upper-montane forest (1.500 to 2.000 m) (Huber 1995). Higher altitudes present more open types of vegetation, such as high-altitude meadows and grasslands. Spiders were collected in September/October 2007, with a beating tray, during the day, and through manual active searching, during the night. Sample unit of the first method correspond to the investigation, with a beating tray, of 20 small trees, or shrubs, or other components of the vegetation. Sample unit of the second method correspond to one hour of search along a 30 m long transect. All spiders obtained with those two methods were conserved in alcohol at 70%. Adult spiders were sorted in morphospecies and identified to the most accurate taxonomic level possible. We sampled at six different altitudes, 100, 400, 860, 1.550, 2.000 and 2.400 m.a.s.l., and in each altitude we investigated three different sites. In each site the sampling effort corresponded to 9 diurnal and 9 nocturnal samples, which lead us to an amount of 54 samples by altitude (27 diurnal and 27 nocturnal), and to the final count of 324 samples (172 of each method). We also measured the temperature at each sampled site. We used a Monte Carlo simulation to generate the richness pattern expected by MDE predictions, and tested the Rapoport effect with a simple linear regression, relating for each species the size of their range with their weighted altitudinal midpoint (calculated as the number of individuals in each altitude, multiplied by the altitude value, and divided by the total abundance of the species, a.k.a. specimen method). Finally, we performed an NMDS to verify the similarity of spider communities from all the sampled sites. We obtained 2.950 adult spiders (1.896 females and 1.054 males), divided into 469 species. Since the match of males and females was very hazardous in most cases, results presented below refer only to females, which accounted for almost two thirds of adult individuals and were sorted to 349 species. The mean richness (i.e. the mean richness of the three sites sampled by altitude) and standard deviation by altitude are presented below, with the total richness by altitude in brackets: 100 m, 62,6±7 (141); 400 m, 51,3±6 (121); 860 m, 54,3±5 (119); 1.550 m, 42±6 (79); 2.000 m, 14,3±4 (37); 2.400, 9,6±4 (18). Thus, richness decreased along the gradient, and presented a very poor fit with the richness predicted by the MDE (R2=0,2497; p>0,1). The Rapoport Effect couldn’t be observed either, since the relation between the size of the range and the weighted average midpoint was also very weak and non-significant (R2=2.7, p >0.01). The richness distribution pattern exhibited by the community is clearly non-random, and seems to be very influenced by environmental factors, notably
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temperature. Our gradient presents a plateau of high diversity in the three first altitudes, with a small decrease in the fourth altitude and a steeper decrease in the fifth altitude. Several studies indicates that the structural complexity of the environment have a positive relationship with the diversity of spiders, which would explain the large number of species found at the first altitudes. So, the lower richness of the last two altitudes would be a consequence of a less complex environment, with open types of vegetation, and also of a harsher climate. We believe that this environmental disruption in our gradient was also one of the causes of the absence of a Rapoport Effect in our community, since the species from forested sites would have difficulties to expand their ranges upward, at non-forested and cooler sites, while the species adapted to those highaltitude environments couldn’t expand their range downward. So, species distributed at higher altitudes would have shorter ranges, while species from forested sites could have larger ranges, but at lower altitudes, the opposite of what is predicted by the Rapoport Effect. The changes observed in the composition, however, revealed an unexpected pattern, since the fourth altitude (1.550 m) was associated with the higher sites, despite the structural difference between them. It indicates that the temperature may have an important role as limiting factor for many forest species, and the decrease in richness observed at 1.550 when compared with the other forested sites seems to confirm that. Anyway, the similarity between the faunas from the three last altitudes, revealed by the NMDS (Stress=0.17), seems to be very influenced by a few dominant species. Finally, the structure of the community, defined here as the dominance and proportion of rare species (singletons and doubletons), goes through very important changes along the gradient. Community from the first altitude presented a very low dominance and a very large proportion of rare species (the dominant specie represented 4% of the total abundance, while the rare species represented 24%), and, as altitude increase, there is an increase in the dominance and a decrease in the importance of rare species. As a consequence, the last altitude presented a very different community, where the dominant specie accounted for 55% of the total abundance, while the rare species only 9%. So, at least some of the changes observed in the spider community of the Pico da Neblina along the gradient, notably the richness pattern and the structure of the community, seems to be in agreement with the changes observed in spiders communities along the latitudinal gradient.

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Does seasonal isolation influence on relations between saprophagous and predatory invertebrates, Collembola and Araneae?
Izabella Olejniczak1, Paweł Boniecki1, Marzena Stańska2 & Izabela Hajdamowicz2
1

Centre for Ecological Research PAS, Dziekanów Leśny, 05-092 Łomianki, Poland, izaolejniczak@wp.pl 2 University of Podlasie, Department of Zoology, Siedlce, Poland

Relations between saprophagous and predatory invertebrates are one of the most important questions in soil biology, especially in seasonal flooded environments. Both groups of invertebrates may indirectly affect mineralization and humification of organic matter. Moreover they are known as indicators of soil properties. Activity of epigeic saprophagous Collembola and predatory Araneae were studied in alder forest-Alnus glutinosa-Carex elata association. There were chosen 25 alder tussocks that average surface was 0,50m2 and the high was 0,40m. Distances between particular tussocks ranged from 1m to 11m. Carex elongata was the dominant plant in all alder tussocks. Samples were taken twice in the season: during the spring, when tussocks were washed by water and during the autumn when tussocks were not washed by water. Three plastic tubes of 1 cm diameter and 6 cm high were placed in each tussock. Tubes were filled with 96% ethanol and emptied every seven days in June and September. Activities of Collembola and Araneae were higher in the spring than in the autumn (P<0,05), but there were no significant differences between particular tussocks as well in the spring as in the autumn. Size of the alder tussocks did not influence on invertebrates’ activity. The contribution of collembolans in invertebrates communities was higher in the autumn – 54% than in the spring – 18%. The contribution of spiders in invertebrates communities was nearly the same in the spring and autumn and ranged from 20% to 11%. The impact of predatory invertebrates on collembolans activity was differ in relation to degree of isolation of alder tussocks. Spiders’ activity influenced on collembolan activity only in the autumn (P=0,05).

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316 . oleszczukm@vp. The samples were taken with biocenometer from the area of 0. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. The influence of landscape type and the distance from forest belts on the share of ecological groups of spiders was analyzed. The spider density were between 0. Poland. Poland Local and landscape scale factors influencing spider density and diversity in crop fields Maria Oleszczuk Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment. Siedlce. In the distance of 10 m from forest belts 14 spider species in cereal crops and 8 species in sugar beet crops were noted. The distance from forest belts has not changed essentially the share of ecological groups of spiders. Poznań. The proximity of forest belts positively influenced spider species diversity in the studied crop fields.4 to 5. In the distance of 50 m nine and five spider species respectively were recorded.pl The studies of local (distance from forest belt and crop type) and landscape (heterogeneous and homogenous landscape) factor’s influence on spider density and diversity in the crop fields of winter cereals. Polish Academy of Sciences. the above differences were not statistically important. However./1 m2.25 m2 (10 samples in one site) twice a year for three consecutive years. The exception was the alfalfa crop.2 ind. In the landscape with forest belts larger part of foliage-dwelling spiders than aeronautic spider species was noted. Statistically important difference in spider density and number of species were noted between winter cereal crop in homogenous landscape and sugar beet crop in homogenous landscape and sugar beet crop in heterogeneous landscape. sugar beet and alfalfa are presented. and in the homogenous landscape the tendency was opposite. were the number of spider species has not been changed with the distance for the forest belts.Book of Abstracts.

1757) the prey gift works as a sensory trap where the male exploits the female's foraging motivation in a sexual context (Stálhandske 2001. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. When the males approached so mach close to each other that were almost touching by its chelicerae the first one very fast rushed in attack and pierced the second spider’s cephalothorax. Bilde et al. The observations of the mortal combat and nuptial display are based on single case by this time. When a male find out the female’s shelter it settles there and constructs its own refuge. They roll part of the leaf into a short tube and cover openings by the web. When the spiders approached to each other they had menacing poses and started to spin around the stem with spread first pair of legs and chelicerae. Afterwards it hung the corpse at the side of the shelter on a short thread for approximately 5 minutes. Russia. During this time each spider both spiders were trying to near to its rival from one side. Then it threw it down and had gone to its own shelter. There male stayed approximately 4 minutes as though making a demonstration of the dead body to female. Male’s shelter is a light semi-transparent marquee located above female’s shelter. omelkom@gmail.77"N.Book of Abstracts. The all event since meeting with the newcomer spider up to the moment when the corpse was thrown took 15 minutes. 1833)) are known from continental Southern Far East of Russia (Mikhailov 1997). 2007). 1906 (Araneae: Cheiracanthiidae) 8 Mikhail M. 132º09'25. For example in Pisaura mirabilis (Clerck. The females make their shelters on grasses. Poland Mortal combat and nuptial display of the loser in Cheiracanthium japonicum Bösenberg & Strand. virescens (Sundevall. First spider detected and met newcomer one rather far from the female’s shelter. 8 The work supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant #10-04-01424-а). japonicum wander on upper leaves of herbaceous plants. 317 . Our observations were carried out in Maritime Province near the Gornotaezhnoe biological station of the Russian Academy of Science (43º41'42. Then it lifted the corpse up and brought to the shelter where the female was hiding. The victorious spider was standing at that place and holding the dead motionless rival. At present time only two species of Cheiracanthidae (Cheiracanthium japonicum Bösenberg & Strand. Hereon the fighting was finished instantly and the killed one became rigid at once. Omelko Mountain-taiga station of Russian Academy of Sciences. Siedlce. A demonstration of menacing poses was going on a little less 1 minute. During mating season the males of C. low trees and bushes and try to found females.com Nuptial prey gifts are known in various groups of spiders and insects. 1906 and C.48"E) in June of 2004.

269: 905-908. Nuptial gifts of male spiders: sensory exploitation of the female's maternal care instinct or foraging motivation? Animal Behaviour.Book of Abstracts. Tuni C. 73: 267-273.G.. The female doesn’t neither eat the loser’s body nor change its behaviour in any way so this nuptial gift cannot be something like a sensory trap in other groups of spiders. 2007. Stálhandske P. Proceedings of the Royal Society.. & Toft S. Siedlce. Trudy Zoologicheskogo Muzeya MGU. Conducting an investigation in nature and laboratory to solve this question of behaviour of C. Aranei). 318 . 37: 1-416. Mikhailov K. 1997. 2002. Biological Sciences. Nuptial gifts of male spiders function as sensory traps. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.. References Bilde T. Poland At present time it isn’t clear for me which function the display of the corpse is performing. Catalogue of the spiders of the territories of the former Soviet Union (Arachnida. Elsayed R. japonicum is planned. Pekar S.

1942). Having described thirty-one species based on Roretz Collection in Wien. Siedlce.go. Simon (1886. Some general and extreme examples of distribution are shown. The spider fauna of Japan is biogeographically surveyed here on the basis of results of these taxonomical studies continuing for 130 years. Saito (1934. about 1500 species of 64 families were recorded from this country [Karsch (1879. Oi (1960). Franz Hilgendorf (18391904) from Germany (three years in Japan. Japan. Ludwig Koch (1878) took the lead in reporting Japanese spiders. 1914). European researchers were active in spider collecting in Japan. 1873-1876). Since then. Tokyo. Poland The spider fauna of Japan. 1881). A. A difference of species diversity between the Ryukyu Islands (Southwest) and the Izu Ogasawara Islands (Southeast) is made clear based on some aspects referring to the geological history of the Japanese islands. ono@kahaku. Komatsu (1961). Yaginuma (1960). such as Albrecht von Roretz (1846-1884) from Austria (the length of his stay in Japan: eight years between 1874 and 1882). Okuma (1988) and further works of many arachnologists]. (?Anatole) Mellottée from France (1881-1882 in Japan) and Friedrich Karl Wilhelm Dönitz (18381912) from Estonia (1873-1886 in Japan). Nakatsudi (1937.jp After the opening of the Samurai country to the West urged by the Meiji Restoration around 1868.Book of Abstracts. Bösenberg and Strand (1906). 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. which are integrated into a volume of ‘The Spiders of Japan’ recently published (Ono 2009). 1939). Kishida (1909. 1889). 319 . with a brief view of the geological history traced back to the Mesozoic Hirotsugu Ono National Museum of Nature and Science.

Nevertheless. Some authors have suggested that European Macrothele originated in Asia and subsequently colonized Europe following a west-wise pattern. Spain. As an example. Portugal 4 Sociedad para el Estudio y la Conservación de las Arañas.Book of Abstracts. Universidade dos Açores. Its inclusion in the Bern Convention listings and the Habitats Directive was motivated by its putative role as quality bio indicator of the diminishing cork forest areas.org 3 Azorean Biodiversity Group (CITA-A). M. would have colonized Iberia from northern Africa. Arnedo1 1 Department of Animal Biology. To investigate the origins of European Macrothele species and the genetic affinities of the newly found populations of M. 1805) from the southern Iberian Peninsula and Macrothele cretica Kulczyński. pcardoso@ennor. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. which probably dates back to the Pliocene. such as hot. dry summers and mild. we have expanded 320 . The genus belongs to the family Hexathelidae. Nevertheless. These observations led some authors to propose that the species should be removed from the Bern convention and Habitats Directive. calpeiana far from being threatened seem to be expanding their range. calpeaina is a recent introduction from China. some population of M. USA. National Museum of Natural History. Pedro Cardoso2. and ancient separation of populations. Little is known on the origins of the European Macrothele spiders. while others proposed that.Opatova@seznam. In addition. Departamento de Ciências Agrárias. some with restricted distribution only explained by the long-term presence of the species in the Iberian Peninsula. Spain.es The funnel web spider genus Macrothele includes 26 species with a disjunct distribution. Poland Origins and phylogeography of the European protected funnel-web Macrothele spiders (Araneae: Hexathelidae) Věra Opatová1. calpeiana includes distinct genetic lineages. calpeiana.edu 2 Smithsonian Institution. at least M. Siedlce. humid winters are better predictors of its presence. Vera. Washington DC. 1903 endemic to Crete. a better understanding of the species distribution revealed that the species was not restricted to cork forest and that climatic variables.3. harpactea@yahoo. The two European Macrothele species have received conservation attention. which is particularly diverse in Australia and New Zealand. molecular analyses have revealed that M. previously unknown localities have been recently reported from southeast Spain. Macrothele calpeiana is the only spider species protected by European Union legislation. University of Barcelona. calpeiana.cz. It has also been suggested that M. and only two are known from Europe: Macrothele calpeiana (Walckenaer. Miguel-Angel Fernández4 & Miquel A. marnedo@ub. cretica is included in the IUCN red list under the data deficient category. southern Portugal or even northern Italy. few have been reported from Central Africa. Most of them are found across South-eastern Asia.

321 . calpeiana from Italy and Portugal. the tRNA leucine and the NADH dehydrogenase subunit I. cretica and Macrothele from China and Central Africa. Phylogenetic relationships of Macrothele were inferred from a combined data set including the nuclear ribosomal genes 18S and 28S and the protein gene EF1gamma. Poland former phylogenetic analyses to include for the first time samples of M. Results of these analyses bring new light on the origins and evolutionary relationships of European Macrothele and provide essential information for conservation planning and management of these unique elements of the European fauna. as well as new samples of M.Book of Abstracts. Siedlce. Population analyses were based on the mitochondrial genes cytochrome oxidase I and a fragment expanding the ribosomal 16S. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.

while the immigrant spiders consumed the less nutritious prey. Weintraub3. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. and an immigrant species. USA 3 Agricultural Research Organization. Poland Molecular tracking of the role of agrobiont and immigrant spiders in Negev (Israel) wheat fields: trophic delineation of biological control potential Itai Opatovsky1. Yael Lubin1 & James D. As a result. KY. Gilat Research Center. These results clearly demonstrate the potential role of immigrant spiders in biological control of pest species in winter wheat fields in Israel. BenGurion University of the Negev. Enoplognatha sp. the aphids. shelter and alternative prey. Alioranus pastoralis (Linyphiidae). 322 . Therefore. were examined.il 2 Department of Entomology. Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research. Chapman2. Eric G. The two web building spiders that are common during the wheat season.Book of Abstracts. Israel Natural enemy populations are important in suppressing outbreaks of pest populations. Sede Boqer Campus. lubin@bgu. Phyllis G. the consumption of pests (aphids and hessian flies) or alternative prey (Collembola) by spiders inhabiting wheat fields was examined. the higher-productivity agricultural fields attract predators from the surrounding natural desert environment during the crop season. Siedlce. However. and may be competing for the same resources: an agrobiont species. Using DNA based gut-content analysis. which provide reproduction sites. Lexington. However. alternative habitats. are important for natural enemies that immigrate into the agricultural fields during the crop season. The agrobiont species showed feeding preference towards the more nutritious prey. it is not known whether these immigrant predators consume pests or alternative prey after colonizing the fields. Agricultural Science Center North. Harwood2 1 Mitrani Department of Desert Ecology. share the same niche. University of Kentucky. disturbances in agricultural fields due to crop management do not allow maintenance of sustainable predator populations. Department of Entomology. (Theridiidae). Israel. In the desert agroecosystems of Israel there are large ecological differences between natural habitats and crop fields.ac. the Collembola.

Moreover.Book of Abstracts. Siedlce. The palpal organization is a tripartite structure that consists of a subtegulum. Ovtcharenko & Boris Zakharov Department of Natural Sciences. USA. Other additional structures are missing from the palps of these spiders. New York. zakharov@amnh. 1979 is presented.org A detailed morphology of the male palpal organs of Australian ground spiders of genera Encoptarthria Main. and was also widely distributed all over Australia. Taieria has an exceptional structure that does not occur in other Australian gnaphosid spiders – the terminal membrane. Poland Morphological organization of male palpal organ of the Australian ground spiders (Araneae: Gnaphosidae) Vladimir I. The genera Encoptarthria and Taieria are the sister groups. The genera Intruda and Anzacia have the simplest male palps of the Australian gnaphosids. NY. In addition. Besides a distal sclerotized tube. 1954 and Taieria Foster. Analysis of the male palpal organs is presented and its implication for classification of these groups is discussed.cuny. Comparative analysis shows that Encoptarthria males have more complicated palps and differ significantly from other Australian gnaphosid spiders by having a very complex organization of the terminal part of the bulbus. Anzacia male palps have unique shape of the conductor. a tegulum and an embolus. Hostos Community College of the City University of New York. vio@hostos. which is divided on three parts: the distal. median and proximal lobes. 323 . The genus Encoptarthria is endemic although widely distributed all over the Australia. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. The genus Taieria was known previously only from New Zealand. The sister genus Taieria has simpler palps with a fulcrum only.edu. which includes the conductor and median apophysis. the terminal part of bulbus poses a prominent distal apophysis and a closely spaced embolus terminal apophysis and fulcrum.

Further systematic research on Biokovo Mt. Among them. Biospeleological research in region began in the first decades of 20th century but most intensive systematic research was performed between 20022006 with cooperation of Biokovo Nature Park and Croatian Biospeleological Society. Opiliones (4) and Araneae (22). Troglochthonius. Biokovo was declared as Nature Park in 1981. Very similar to Velebit Mt. Stygopholcus. Sulcia. Until now. Neobisium (Neobisium). with many different cave habitats. and further 47 taxa are endemic for Dinarides. biodiversity and endemicity. Poland Arachnid cave-dwelling fauna on Biokovo Mt. Demetrova 1.hr Biokovo Mt. Chthonius (Chthonius). During that period 115 speleological objects have been researched through 192 visits. with relatively small surface of 200 km2. but also on soil and surface arachnid fauna. Centromerus. Protoneobisium. 324 . even 65 taxa are endemic for Biokovo Mt. Chthonius (n. Opilioacaris. (1762 m). is a hot spot of arachnid cave-dwelling fauna. Neobisium (Blothrus). Barusia. roman. 23 taxa are endemic for Biokovo Mt. Chthonius (Globochthonius). 44 taxa new for science have been recognized. Siedlce.ozimec@hbsd. Croatia. Central Dalmatia. same as Dysderidae and Leptonetidae (Araneae). Croatia Roman Ozimec Croatian Biospeleological Society (CBSS). 57 cave-dwelling taxa belong to Arachnids: Acari (7).. 10000 Zagreb.. subg. Endemism of cave-dwelling fauna is extremely high. but also development centre for some phylletic lines of families Chthoniidae and Neobisiidae (Pseudoscorpiones). and Orjen Mt. Stalagtia. unique geomorphologic features. will continue on cavedwelling. A total of 186 different taxa have been recorded that show some cave-dwelling affinities. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Mesostalita.. Roncus. Due to extremely karstification. Typhlonyphia. Five biogeographical zones are recognized on Biokovo Mt. All cavedwelling arachnid taxa are endemic for Dinarides. Neobisium (Ommatoblothrus). is situated in Central Dalmatia (Croatia) and belongs to the Dinaride Mountains. Palpigradi (1).Book of Abstracts. with at least 20 new for science. Cyphophthalmus. Pseudoscorpiones (23).). Folkia. It seems that Biokovo Mt. Most representative genus are: Rhagidia. Eukoenenia. Biokovo was under continental glacial and Mediterranean influence. Histopona.

it The Ramsar Convention.com. recognized for the first time. 2007: Veneto). The research started with a preliminary ecological analysis of the Natural Reserve of Fondotoce. on the relation species-habitat. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 2010). the extent of occurrence and the quality of habitat and the effects of introduced taxa. Hansen 2002. marco. on the structure of spider communities and on specific turnover across different habitats. Università di Torino. An example is provided by the fen raft spider (Dolomedes plantarius). (2005) and two more works on riparian habitats by Arnò (2001) and Beikes et al. (2004). for which conservation measures are required. Studies aiming to monitor the present state of conservation of these habitats are essential to evaluate their ongoing degradation. with special reference to the environmental evaluation of the habitat. competitors or parasites. These habitats are characterized by the presence of high bio-diverse ecosystems that harbour species with relevant conservation value. urbanization. the lack of studies on this topic is particularly striking. strictly related to agricultural intensification. 1879: Lombardia. hybridisation. induced us to develop an extensive three-years project in collaboration with the Regional Museum of Natural Science of Turin. pathogens. Spiders were collected by means of 325 . focusing especially on spiders. without any information on the state of conservation of the habitat. studies on spider communities are generally lacking. on the presence of stenoecious species.paschetta@gmail. To give two examples of the extraordinary spider biodiversity of wetland ecosystems. Villepoux (1993) recorded 177 species in wetlands of the Rhine valley and Patocchi (1993) 171 species in riparian habitats in Switzerland. Italy.Book of Abstracts. mauro.isaia@unito. At regional level for example. at international level. especially considering the decline in area of occupancy. pollutants. amphibians and plants. pollution and global warming. Our recent finding of this species in the Natural Reserve of Fondotoce (North-Eastern Piedmont) in the framework of a preliminary research founded by the Reserve itself. Poland Spiders and wetlands conservation: a new challenge at regional scale in Piedmont (NW Italy) Mauro Paschetta & Marco Isaia Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e dell’Uomo. especially among birds. land reclamation. signed in 1971. Despite the huge diversity of spiders and their great potential for biodiagnostic purposes in wetland biodiversity assessment (Cristofoli et al. Furthermore. the ecological values of wetland habitats and the importance of their conservation. When considering the Italian fauna. whose presence in Italy is only recorded from a few localities (Pavesi 1873. Pesarini1994: Sardinia. wetlands may harbour peculiar species whose conservation is closely related to the survival of such ecosystems. The importance of this species is underlined by the fact that Dolomedes plantarius is among the few species of spiders cited in the IUCN European Red List (“vulnerable”). the only contributions given on this topic in Piedmont are the work of Isaia et al. Siedlce.

Mendoza canestrinii and Pirata hygrophilus that also represent new records for the regional fauna.) and a transition zone at the border of the bed of reeds. Our work underlines the vulnerability of the bed of reeds. According to the classical trend of ecotonal habitats. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.Book of Abstracts. Siedlce. Random hand-collecting was also performed in order to maximise species richness and to provide new faunistic data. Pardosa alacris and Ozyptila praticola. The habitats with higher species richness (anthropogenic heath and mown meadow) were dominated by euriecious species like Trochosa ruricola. a riparian wood. Analogous ecological analysis are going to be performed with the main purpose to assess the environmental quality of wetlands using spiders as bioindicators 326 . attesting a certain degree of disturbance (the undergrowth was. confirming the high degree of disturbance. Pirata piraticus. The result of this test is a numerical value (T with associated p value) that quantifies in statistical terms the distance between two or more matrixes. Pardosa prativaga and P. On the other hand. in fact. We recorded 37 species by pitfall traps and 40 by hand-collecting. We performed the analysis of specific turnover by means of MRPP (Multi Response Permutation Procedure). an anthropogenic heath colonized by an invasive allochtonous plant (Solidago sp. highlighting that the distribution of the spider assemblage in the anthropogenic heath followed a logarithmic distribution. From the ecological point of view the bed of reeds stood out for the presence of several interesting stenoecious species. Indicator species analysis on pitfall data revealed statistically the close relation between hygrophilous species like Bathyphantes gracilis. the lowest mean T was found in the transition area that was characterized by low specific turnover. a class of multivariate permutation tests of group-differences that offers vast improvement over the traditional analysis of variance-based tests in terms of robustness under non-normal data and heterogeneous error variances. Pachygnatha terilis. Antistea elegans and the bed of reeds ecosystem. The research carried out at the Reserve of Fondotoce is part of a threeyears PhD project that is going to involve some other wetlands in Piedmont. the mown meadow was characterized by semihygrophilous species like Arctosa leopardus and Pachygnatha terilis and also by generalist species like Pardosa proxima. especially considering its peculiar spider assemblage (presence of Dolomedes plantarius). like Trochosa hispanica. By combining average distances between each habitat. MRPP demonstrated the uniqueness of spider assemblages found in the bed of reeds and in the riparian wood (high specific turnover). The riparian wood was characterized by several generalist species. The structure of the spider assemblage found in each habitat was tested in terms of rank-abundance modelling. the general low ecological quality of nearby habitats (dominance of euriecious/invasive species) and the high environmental pressures around it (rapid process of urbanization taking place around the Reserve). proxima. like the previously cited Dolomedes plantarius and Donacochara speciosa. dominated by the allochtonous Phytolacca and Impatiens shrubs). Gnathonarium dentatum. Poland standardized pitfall transects placed in five different habitats: a bed of reeds. a mown wet meadow.

. & La Posta S. 1993. 2002. 1994. vol. 10: 773-780. Isaia M.. Bona F. Saggio di una fauna aracnologica del Varesotto. Bollettino del Museo civico di Storia Naturale di Venezia. 9-15. 2: Species ecology along a European Gradient: Maculinea Butterflies as a model. Sofia-Moscow. 327 . …. Etude de la rèpartition des araignèes d’une zone humide. 2010. 14th Eur. Bollettino del Museo civico di Storia Naturale di Venezia.. 53: 268-272. 2004. Mahya G. Ruffo S. 3: 209-267. Stato attuale della conoscenza della fauna dei ragni presente nel territorio della laguna di Venezia e nelle aree limitrofe (Arachnida: Araneae). Beikes S. 21: 789-817. & Thomas J. Colloq.. Kekenbosch R. Pavesi P. References Arnò C. (eds. teleius pSCI in NW Italy. Segnalazioni 40 – Philaeus chrysops. of Arachnology. & Lambeets K. Ragni dell’area protetta “Fascia fluviale del Po”: nota preliminare su tre specie nuove per l’Italia e una nuova per il Piemonte (Arachnida. Studies on the Ecology and conservation of Butterflies in Europe. Hansen H. Ecological Indicators. I ragni della Valle Maggia: studio faunistico ecologico delle zone alluvionali. 1879. Atti della Società Italiana di scienze naturali. 58: 11-82. Arachnida Araneae. In: Minelli A. 2005. & Badino G. Araneae) of a Maculinea alcon . Spiders (Arachnida. 16: 68-78.). Catania. 1873. p. Rivista piemontese di storia naturale. Calderini. In: Settele J. 45. Bollettino dell’Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali. Badino G. 26: 361-370. Cristofoli S. Araneae). Villepoux O. (eds. Montani M. Pavesi P. Poland and to outline the current state of conservation and distribution of Dolomedes plantarius in Piedmont..Book of Abstracts. 2007. Hansen H. Isaia M. Proc. Memorie Società Ticinese di Scienze Naturali. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Siena.).. Segnalazioni 21 – Scytodes velutina. Check-list delle specie della fauna italiana 23. Patocchi N. 1993.. Bologna. Analisi ecologica dell'araneofauna di fasce riparie di tratti fluviali a differente livello di funzionalità. 4-6 ottobre 2003.A.. Spider communities as evaluation tools for wet heathland restoration.. Bonelli S. Enumerazione dei ragni dei dintorni di Pavia. XIV Convegno Nazionale della Società Ecologica Italiana. 22: 155-164. & Balletto E. Pensoft Publishers. Pesarini C. 2001. Siedlce. Kuhn E. Atti della Società Italiana di scienze naturali.M.

with contribution of local endemics (Prószyński 1996). The analysis for particular islands shows distinctive differences is genus and species composition. depending on island origin. Poland. Araneae) of Fiji. being the result of geological history and isolation. Salticidae (Arachnida. 36 salticid species were recorded from Fiji (Karsch 1878. evolution and relationships of faunas. 1997.siedlce. The archipelago seems to be the centre of speciation for same genera e. List of species with notes on their zoogeography Barbara M. size. 2008a. 328 . University of Podlasie.Book of Abstracts. Siedlce. Australian/New Guinean and wide spread taxa. University of Podlasie. Żabka 1988. Prószyński 1984. biota and distance from other faunistic sources. Siedlce. Patoleta Department of Zoology.pl The salticid spider fauna of the Pacific Islands is mixture of Asian. patoleta@ap. Patoleta Department of Zoology. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 1996. Xenocytaea. patoleta@ap. age. The work is part of a long-term project aimed to study salticids of SW Pacific region in order to describe entire systematic composition and to analyze the origin. The Fiji archipelago is of volcanic origin and its fauna is largely the result of influence of Indopacific (54%) and widespread (36%) genera. Sobasina and Palpelius. My study shows that New Caledonia has unique salticid fauna. Siedlce. 2008b). The most interesting is high endemism of species (53%).pl Before this project started.siedlce. 1998). Roewer 1944. 1879.g. 49 species were recorded from the archipelago. Berry et al. with 25% endemic genera and over 70% endemic species. Poland. accompanying climatic changes and evolution of biota. Poland The New Caledonian Salticids: uniqueness and diversity – zoogeographical account Barbara M. Cytaea. The uniqueness of New Caledonian fauna is related to its 65-70 MY long post-Gondwanan isolation. As the result of my study (Patoleta 2002 unpubished PhD thesis.

At the family level. Masaryk University. Utilising published data on the prey of almost 600 species of spiders and phylogenetic comparative methods we aim to find whether stenophagy (a low diversity of prey) is a derived state.Book of Abstracts. Todd Blackledge2 & Jonathan Coddington3 1 Department of Botany and Zoology. with myrmecophagy being most frequent followed by araneophagy. Siedlce.cz 2 Department of Biology. utilisation of a narrow trophic niche. and Thomisidae.muni. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Akron. whereas dipterophagy was most frequent in species positioned at the middle of the family tree. Caponiidae. Future studies are needed to bring stronger evidence on the effect of phylogeny once better resolution of spider phylogeny and more prey data is available (now it is only 0. dipterophagy and crustaceophagy. lepidopterophagy. Brno. i. whether it promoted diversification. Within families some types of stenophagy are clearly derived. But araneophagy turned out to be a primitive in Salticidae. USA Most studies centred upon the evolution of stenophagy. Archaeidae. and Araneidae. little is known about forces that drive evolution of stenophagy in carnivores. were done on herbivores or parasites. Six categories of stenophagy were found among spiders. and whether it is determined either by a foraging guild or a geographical zone. as the most diversified group of terrestrial predators. stenophagy has evolved repeatedly and independently in several families at various positions of the tree. As concerns diversification we found that euryphagous families or genera have about 4-times higher species diversity than those in stenophagous families or genera. Zodariidae. Washington DC. 329 . Lepidopterophagy was derived in Araneidae.e. while others are plesiomorphic. OH. termitophagy. USA 3 Smithsonian Institution. Mimetidae. Palpimanidae. Salticidae. National Museum of Natural History. Czech republic. to test whether stenophagy can be explained by phylogeny.1% of known species). And the diet breadth was lower in the cursorial than in the web-building species. The diet breadth of species from the tropics and subtropics was on average less diverse than that from the temperate zone. Specifically. Termitophagy and crustacophagy also appear to be derived on the family level. We conclude that at present the evolution of stenophagy in spiders appears to be governed by several determinants including phylogeny. Zodariidae and Oecobiidae are considered stenophagous on the family level. pekar@sci. Myrmecophagy was found to be derived in Zodariidae. We used spiders (Araneae). Ammoxenidae. Poland Evolution of stenophagy in spiders (Araneae): evidence based on the comparative analysis of spider diets Stano Pekár1. Therefore. University of Akron.

and consequently benefited the hosts. Previous studies showed that conspicuous body colourations of spiders may function as visual lure to prey. The presence of A. The body colouration of A. The interaction between these two spiders may therefore be mutualistic. mutualism. in which the presence of kleptoparasites was manipulated and prey catching rates of host webs were monitored by infrared video cameras. or parasitism. Siedlce. Mutualistic interactions involving different species of spiders have rarely been reported. I performed a field experiment. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. I examined the nature of interactions between the kleptoparasitic spiders. Poland Mercy landlord or good lodgers? A form of interaction between kleptoparasitic and host spiders Po Peng Department of life science. whether or not the host spiders were present. Argyrodes fissifrons.tw The interactions between different species of spiders are usually described as competition. while that of the Cyrtophora hosts is dark brown. fissifrons increased the prey catching rates of Cytophora webs. 330 . In this study. Taichung 40704. Taiwan. Tunghai university. g98232001@thu. and their Cyrtophora host spiders. In this study I tested whether the conspicuous body colouration of A. body colouration. predation. Keywords: kleptoparasitic spider.Book of Abstracts. fissifrons functioned as a visual lure to attract prey to the webs of Cytophora hosts. fissifrons is very conspicuous.edu.

Philip J. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. United Kingdom. with 2297 species in 112 genera (Platnick 2010) and form the most species rich spider family in the fossil record (Dunlop et al. Robert Bradley4. spatulata Bryant from Hispaniola and C. Andrew McNeil4. from China (Levi 1963. prominent clypeal projection and their heavily sclerotized epigastric region. The proparatype is preserved in a clear piece of amber-orange Dominican amber and belongs in the collections of the Senckenberg Museum.uk 2 Institute for Biological Problems of the North. The University of Manchester. Yuri M. They represent the most diverse spider family in Miocene Dominican amber. longioembolia Yin et al. Poland X-ray computed tomography of a new Craspedisia (Araneae: Theridiidae) in Miocene Dominican amber David Penney1.penney@manchester. Material and methods The proholotype is well preserved in a clear. Green3. (2003) differs to such an extent from the generotype. so the actual mine tunnels are fairly shallow as compared to the deep La Toca mines.ru 3 Manchester Museum. The La Bucara mines tend to be lower on the mountain slopes compared to the La Toca mines. oval piece of yellow Dominican amber with two small insect syninclusions and numerous soil particles. They are easily identified by their small size. The proparatype is poorly preserved and 331 . with 38 named species (Penney 2008). Penney 2008). Yin et al. including in the structure and location of the clypeal projection. C. The University of Manchester. their pedipalps are rather variable. The species described from China by Yin et al.ac. La Bucara is close to the La Toca group of mines. david. The University of Manchester. 2010). Siedlce. David I. 2003). mine provenance unknown. Frankfurt (SMF). most of which were described by Wunderlich (1988).5. He considered it too poorly preserved to diagnose sufficiently to assign a species name. Magadan. Withers4 & Richard F. This is due to their regular occurrence in Cenozoic ambers (Marusik & Penney 2004. cornuta (Keyserling) from Brazil.5. Marusik2. but they are unknown from the Mesozoic (Selden & Penney 2010). which are close to the ridgeline. yurmar@mail. who also described a mature male specimen of Craspedisia Simon. However. There are no syninclusions. Preziosi1 1 Faculty of Life Sciences. that it is probably misplaced in Craspedisia. but has only been worked for the last several years. Russia. United Kingdom 4 School of Materials. Only three extant Craspedisia have been described: C.Book of Abstracts. United Kingdom 5 Corresponding authors Introduction Comb-footed spiders (Araneae: Theridiidae) rank fifth (out of 109 families) in terms of extant spider diversity. It was excavated in the La Bucara amber mine.

tomographic reconstruction employed the TXMReconstructor software by Xradia. carapace punctate. Siedlce. maxillae not converging. 343. The specimen was scanned using the Xradia MicroXCT at the University of Manchester's Henry Moseley X-ray Imaging Facility. presumably overburden pressure and increased temperature. dentition not visible. This step was necessary because such samples show low levels of attenuation contrast. thick embolus arising retrolaterally (clearly visible in the proparatype). using a combination of automatic isosurface extraction via thresholding. lateral eyes contiguous. Description Proholotype male. 1894 Craspedisia sp. and manual segmentation. The clypeal projection does not have a downwards-curved tip as in the extant species. fig. However. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. which have distorted and modified the cuticle of the legs and body. raised in the ocular area. The recent application of VHR-computed tomography to amber inclusions has produced remarkable results (Penney et al. 1894 Craspedisia Simon. Taxonomy Theridiidae Sundevall. chelicerae unmodified. Wunderlich.63 and 1. Total length 2. 2007). Following the application of a phase-retrieval algorithm. Eight eyes: AME largest. These conditions resulted in a pixel size of 2. Epigastric region with heavily sclerotized covering extending around pedicel. 332 . Sternum punctate. there is a distinct.0µm and a FOV of 4. covered with short setae (not resolved by computed tomography). It was used here to reveal characters that would otherwise have been inaccessible.6 planapochromatic objectives. with four heavily sclerotized dorsal sigillae and many tiny scerotized dots (possibly pits bearing setae) over entire surface. Each slice was exported as a 16-bit TIFF file and imported into Avizo 6. with a highly distinctive projection.1 for visualisation.Book of Abstracts. 1833 Pholcommatinae Simon. Light microphotographs were assembled from a stacked series of digital images recorded by a Nikon Coolpix 4500 camera mounted on a Leica M10 stereomicroscope with 0. Pedipalp structure not clearly visible. Legs without modifications. tarsal comb on fourth leg indistinct. Poland may have been subject to diagenetic processes. (to be diagnosed and named) Craspedisia sp. Clypeus twice diameter of AME. Abdomen globular.0 mm. relatively short for a theridiid spider. tarsi with three claws. nor was it possible to reconstruct sufficiently well with computed tomography. However. The 3D virtual volume was reconstructed from 1531 16-bit radiographs (projections) acquired with a significant sample to detector distance (180mm) such that phase contrast was visible. covered with fine setae and with a long proximal and distal spine dorsally on each patella and tibia (tibia of third leg with one spine).1mm. the features important for identification are clearly visible and it is possible to assign both specimens to the same species. following the technique described by Green (2005). long. 1988: 147.

Poinar (1999) proposed that the demise of certain groups known from Dominican amber but absent from the Greater Antilles today resulted from a cool period associated with increased aridity during the Plio-Pleistocene. & Jekel D. 1963. version 10. Siedlce. Many lineages appear to have survived with little change despite proposed glacial episodes in the region (although the degree to which these affected the Greater Antilles is unclear). Australian Journal of Mineralogy. Wirada and Craspedisia (Araneae: Theridiidae). the rapid rate by which humankind is depleting tropical forest cover globally is cause for immediate and great concern. the carapace raised in the posterior region.amnh.W. 70: 170-179. demonstrates the great antiquity of components of at least this neotropical ecosystem. Miocene Dominican amber forest. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.. cornuta differs from both the aforementioned species by having a shorter embolus. 2010. The discovery of yet another fossil species from an extant genus in the fossil Dominican amber assemblage that has its closest relative in the extant Hispaniolan fauna.html. Female unknown. and in possessing a longer and more curved clypeal projection. Discussion Based on both pedipalp and somatic morphology the new fossil species is most closely related to C. Distribution. 1: 201-218. Green D. Psyche. there are some differences in other groups. A summary list of fossil spiders. Penney D..M.A. Penney D. 333 . References Dunlop J. Acknowledgements Peter Jäger (SMF) is thanked for the loan of the proparatype.I. but with distinct colulus and anal tubercle. 11: 13-24.Book of Abstracts. Hetschkia. Dmitri Logunov (Manchester Museum) is thanked for access to resources and we are grateful to Dr Chris Martin (University of Manchester) for X-ray imaging support. Special Issue. AMNH. Assuming that this neotropical assemblage has remained relatively little changed for the majority of the last 16 million years (and possibly much longer).5. 2005. although Peñalver & Grimaldi (2006) suggested that the insularization of Hispaniola was probably more important. (2010): The world spider catalog. and so makes sense in terms of geography. Digital combination photography: A technique for producing improved images of microscopic minerals. online at: http://research. spatulata. which occurs on Hispaniola today. Penney 2008). The spider genera Cerocida. C.I. 2004. with descriptions of six new species. Arthropoda Selecta. Poland Spinnerets without modifications. Levi H. In: Platnick N.org/entomology/spiders/catalog/index. Marusik Y. A survey of Baltic amber Theridiidae (Araneae) inclusions. While the fossil and extant spider faunas are extremely similar at family (and in large part genus) level (Penney & PérezGelabert 2002.

2002.I. Biological Reviews. 12: 383-384. & Grimaldi D. & Xu X. Platnick N. online at: http://research. Russian Entomological Journal. Penney D. 2: 1-378. 2003. 1999. Bao Y. American Museum Novitates. Wunderlich J. Cnudde V. Yunnan. 2010. ecology and biogeography.. 334 .. 2007. Manchester. Beiträge Araneologie. Van Hoorebeke L. 1988. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 6: 203-223. faunistics. Comparison of the Recent and Miocene Hispaniolan spider faunas. Extinction of tropical insect lineages in Dominican amber from Plio-Pleistocene cooling events.amnh. Masschaele B. 2006. Griswold C.A. imaged in Eocene Paris amber using X-Ray Computed Tomography. Siri Scientific Press. New data on Miocene butterflies in Dominican amber (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae and Nymphalidae) with the description of a new nymphalid. version 10. 8: 1-4. Zootaxa. Poinar G.. Siedlce.. 3519: 1-17. Poland Peñalver E. Revista Ibérica de Aracnología. Yin C. 2010...H. Penney D. Fossil spiders. China.5.org/entomology/spiders/catalog/index. Dierick M. 1623: 47-53. 2008. Penney D. Die fossilen Spinnen im dominikanischen Bernstein. & Pérez-Gelabert D. A new species of the spider genus Craspedisia from the Gaoligong Mountains.M.O. Jr. Selden P. Dominican Amber Spiders: a comparative palaeontologicalneontological approach to identification. The world spider catalog. First fossil Micropholcommatidae (Araneae). & Jacobs P.. Penney D. AMNH. 85: 171-206.Book of Abstracts. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society.html. Vlasssenbroeck J..E.E.

All prey items were measured. Peretti et al.. in January and March 2007 and February and June. Nuptial gifts consist on any form of nutrient transference by the male to the female during any stage of the copula and it is best known in insects (Vahed 1998). nov. nov. Schneider & Lubin 1998). Drengsgaard & Toft 1999. 2008. Siedlce. The specimens were collected in pounds of Brasília.br Introduction In order to achieve reproductive success. The occurrence in spiders is rare and has been studied almost exclusively in Pisaura mirabilis (Pisauridae) (Austad & Thornhill 1986. nov. Brazil. nov. Bilde et al.br. More recently it was also reported for Paratrechalea ornata and Paratrechalea galianoae (Trechaleidae) by CostaSchmidt et al. 2006). Nuptial gifts have been thought as male mating effort. (2008). Motta Universidade de Brasília. 2007). Courtship in spiders is formed by ritualized patterns that are important to reduce female aggressiveness and stimulate sexual excitement (Robinson 1982. the spiders were separated into three groups of 30 individuals each (15 couples by group) according to the prey size (Leurolestes circunvagans) to be used by the male as nuptial gift. (Pisauridae) in central Brazil Rommel B. 2007). analyze the importance of the nuptial gift for the courtship and mating. and verify whether the size of the nuptial gift has any influence on the duration of the copula and in the spiderling production. Thaumasia sp. it can be found on aquatic plants during the daylight. It is semi-aquatic species and although has nocturnal habits. This species is being described by Estevam L. insurance against cannibalism and parental investment (Stålhandske 2001. and the aims of this study are: describe the reproductive behaviour of Thaumasia sp.C. White spots are found in the abdomen and the ventral part of the abdomen is white. group B received a small prey item (body length 1-7 mm) and males from group C 335 . Poland Reproductive behaviour and the role of the nuptial gift for Thaumasia sp. Huber 2005. central Brazil. mottapc@unb. The juvenile spiders were reared in laboratory (20-22ºC) separately in plastic vials. The sexes are similar in size and colouration. Stålhandske 2001. bio_aracnideos@yahoo.Book of Abstracts. Methods Thaumasia sp. The males from group A was deprived from prey items.com. Pereira & Paulo C. but these hypotheses are not excluded (Stålhandske 2001). Bilde et al. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. brownish colour with lateral white stripes surrounding the body. Lise. Spiders’ diverse mating systems can be seen as a mechanism of reproductive isolation (Foelix 1996). animals use courtship to establish intersexual communication (Robinson 1982. has body length from 7 to 11mm. represents the first record for nuptial gift in Brazilian Pisauridae. and fed ad libitum with Leurolestes circunvagans. Silva and Arno A. Having reached the sexual maturity.

Females were introduced first at one end of the tank and the males were introduced 24 hours after the females at the opposite end. It also shook its abdomen alternating this movement with taps against the substrate with the legs I and II. he plucked the gift out. For the group C. Ten minutes after introducing the males. Results Reproductive behaviour We did not observe the sperm induction or the males touching the females’ draglines. the water changed and the Styrofoam pieces washed. Then the male went to the solid substrate with the prey in its chelicerae and started moving the body up and down and. but the end of the copula was always the female prerogative. The courtship started as soon as the male captured the prey. the average copula duration was 55. The female responded rubbing its legs II. The couple assumed a lateral position where the male in the first palpal insertion placed its prosoma right beside the female opisthosoma and she did just the opposite. He also rubbed the legs I and II or II and III. Once this happened he began to shake the body and this movement produced concentric waves. Males from the groups B and C that have lost their prey for the females did not court them or interrupted the courtship (n=3). The male put the prey on the substrate and started to cover it with layers of silk while doing this the male never lost contact with the female touching her with his legs. This movement was copied by the male. then. It. Female remained with legs I raised up and flexed back. and then preserved and measured. The next step was the making of the nuptial gift. The female kept the present during the whole copula. the prey item was offered. Experiments on the role of nuptial gift Males from the group A (without preys) do not show courtship or copula behaviours. Siedlce. The experiments had duration of 1 hour per time started to be counted right after the prey introduction. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. At the end of each experiment the arena was completely cleaned. at the same time. Then. moved around the female in little jumps. The individuals were used only once.9 s and the total number of spider lings was 6914. The first separation was done by the male. The experiments were held in the evening at the same time (07. There were nine successful copulas in the group B resulting in five egg sacs. placed himself in front of the female assuming a hyperflexed position exposing the gift in its chelicerae. The female would grab the gift and the copula started.24 mm). Poland received large preys (8 . Then the male placed itself in front of the female with legs I raised up and flexed back. moved towards the female touching her with his first legs. This position was inverted for the second papal insertion.Book of Abstracts. As a courting arena we used a glass tank (50 cm x 30 cm x 40 cm) with water (15 cm depth) and two pieces of Styrofoam glued to each end of the tank were used as solid substrate. four copulas were successful resulting in four egg 336 .00 pm) and were filmed. While covering the prey with silk the male would press it against the substrate with his palps.

P. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Bilde T. When analyze the results between treatments the number of offspring produced did not vary significantly (ANCOVA. p=0.39. Elsayed R. p=0. nov. mirabilis whose males have obtained success in mating without nuptial gifts (Stålhandske 2001). when we analyze the size of the nuptial gift regardless the groups. Tuni C.30±0. 1986.10=2. 337 . most of the time the same plant leaf while waiting for a prey to be trapped in the water film so the males do not have to wander searching for the females. β=0.14).8 s and the total number of spiderlings was 6201. mirabilis and the two Trechaleidae reported by Costa-Schmidt (2008). This study shows clearly that a lot more is yet to be done with this new species in order to fully understand their behavioural patterns and to establish evolutionary connections between the spiders’ families. β=0. Pekár S. The nuptial gift is mandatory for the courtship and copula since nothing happened with the couples deprived from prey items. Spearman correlation r2=0. 2007.77. then we have a significant difference in the offspring production and the size of the gift (Multiple Steps Regression F1.11=6.. Female reproductive variation in a nuptialfeeding spider. & Thornhill R.40%. mirabilis.62±0. p=0. the average copula duration was 80. The second important aspect observed was the moment the males made the nuptial gift. Siedlce. In each group. Thaumasia sp. References Austad S. the copula duration was different according the prey size (n=13. differently of P. The size of the nuptial gift has significantly influenced the duration of the copula and the offspring production.002). Mann-Whitney U=45.. so establishing the importance of the nuptial gift in reproduction.32. Only males with gift presented some courtship display and copula. indicating that a nuptial gift can work as a parental investment.39).N. n=9. p=0. Discussion There are some important differences between the courtship pattern of this new species and its most famous relative P.Book of Abstracts.75. n=9. The size of the nuptial gift has significantly influenced the duration of the copula (n=13. Nuptial gifts of male spiders: sensory exploitation of the female’s maternal care instinct or foraging motivation? Animal Behaviour.02). mirabilis and the two Trechaleidae they made the gift before meeting the females. In P.003). p=0. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society. starts to make it in the course of the courtship. 7: 48-52. The body size of the females does not have influence in the number of spiderlings (ANCOVA.. However. R2=32.24. Poland sacs. One possible explanation for this may reside in the fact that both males and females live close together in their natural habitat sharing. The nuptial gift did not work as a protection against sexual cannibalism since none of the 45 males were attacked by any females. F2. & Toft S. 73: 267-273.

Cambridge. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 80: 363-385. Nuptial gifts and sexual behavior in two species of spider (Araneae. & Briceño R. Nuptial gift in spider Pisaura mirabilis maintained by sexual selection. 2005. 1996. 83: 469-506. Biology of spiders.M. Annual Review of Entomology.F. Huber B. Intersexual conflict in spiders.E. Oikos. & Araújo A. & Toft S. 1999. The function of nuptial feeding in insects: a review of empirical studies. 12: 691-697. 27: 1-20. Robinson M. Poland Costa-Schmidt L.M. 136: 877-897.E. 73: 3-78. 338 . 1998.L. Foelix R. Schneider J. Paratrechalea). Animal Behaviour. Siedlce. Biological Reviews. 1998. & Lubin Y. 2006. Courtship and mating behavior in spiders. Peretti A. Eberhard W. Trechaleidae. Behaviour. 95: 731-739.. Sexual selection research on spiders: progress and biases.A.. Drengsgaard I. Harvard University Press.Book of Abstracts. Biological Reviews. Mass. Vahed K. 72: 413-421. Sperm competition in a nuptial feeding spider.G.D. Behavioural Ecology. 1982. 2001. Carico J.H. Stålhandske P. Copulatory dialogue: female spiders sing during copulation to influence male genitalic movements. Pisaura mirabilis. Naturwissenschaften. 2008.

seemanni in a glass container (10 x 33 cm of base. 1897) also can secret silk from their tarsi. (2009) gave some additional elements to support their hypothesis of tarsal silk production.two hours later. seemanni and Grammostola mollicoma (Ausserer. Blaberidae) and provided with water. This amazing discovery was interpreted as a mechanism to improve the ability of tarantula to climb on vertical surfaces. theraphosidae@gmail. and transverse cuts were done with a microtome. Montevideo. in sections of 5 micrometers. All cuts were observed to determine the presence of gland tissue or gland conduits and compared with images of spider silk glands from the literature. we completely sealed the spinnerets of the same individuals with paraffin (60ºC) and repeated the experiments in the same conditions. Uruguay. We carried out two series of experiments. 339 . the zebra tarantula cannot secret silk or similar threads (Pérez-Miles et al. to determine if gland conduits were present. alecita2007@gmail. Poland The fall of spiderman: silk production from tarantula tarsus experimentally questioned (Araneae: Theraphosidae) Fernando Pérez-Miles. (2006) reported that the zebra tarantula. As all other spiders. The second series was performed seventy. 2009).uy. Gorb et al. disagreeing with previous reports.com The abdominal spinnerets are specialized structures of the spiders. Blattaria. which are also discussed here.com.Book of Abstracts. Material and methods We used four females of A. Tarantulas remained 14 hours (overnight) in the container and after that. theraphosid tarantulas spin silk from abdominal spinnerets. The internal surface of tarsi exuviae of A. and 15 cm height) which had the floor and two vertical walls covered with 20 microscope slides. slides were carefully examined with optical microscope to determine the presence of silk threads. Recently Gorb et al. seemanni collected in Guatemala. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. myga@fcien. We observed spider behaviour for the first and last two hours of the experiment. The histological analysis was made with standard hematoxiline-eosine technique.P. David Ortiz-Villatoro & Cintya Perdomo Sección Entomología. After the experiments. considered as key features unique to the group. Leg tarsi of other preserved specimens were included in paraffin. Torremolinos on August 15. Facultad de Ciencias.O. the slides were carefully examined.com. All individuals were kept in glass terrariums fed with insects (Blaptica dubia. In the first series we placed each specimen of A. In several instances of spider walking behaviour (mainly vertical walking) they were photographed. cuquis266@hotmail. Escuintla. Siedlce. We tested that when the abdominal spinnerets are experimentally sealed.edu. 2008. 1875) were also studied by observation with a scanning electron microscope. Alejandra Panzera.-Cambridge. Aphonopelma seemanni (F.

Merrit 2007). As well. (2009). mollicoma by SEM. Gorb et al. We discovered that tarantula entangles silk threads from the spinnerets with their tarsi. This pattern could be maintained once the silk line is adhered to the substrate. seemanni tarsi and no structures interpretable as silk glands or silk conduits were observed. but a question that remains is: how could Gorb et al. A morphological reconstruction from several views led us to interpret these orifices as the basis of macrosetae. (2006). None of the slides in the second series with sealed spinnerets showed silk threads and we found only urticating setae. Additionally. Summarizing. we did not find evidences of silk-like secretion through leg structures in tarantulas. They propose that presumably any fluid phase adhesive would be lost in the transference from abdomen to tarsi. explained that in A. No evidences of gland conduits were found. When we examined the internal face of the tarsal exuvia of A. with free spinnerets. most slides (24 out of 40 in horizontal. (2009) discard if it was a silk line directly adhered from abdominal spinneret? Tarsal structures interpreted as spigots by Gorb et al. The presence of a developed dense scopulae brush with spatulated setae on the ventral surface of tarsi and metatarsi of all Theraphosidae seems rather incompatible with the presence of spinning spigots in a lower layer. 340 . In both series of experiments we observed the spiders walking on horizontal and vertical surfaces. Coddington 1989. in insects.Book of Abstracts. we found orifices without traces of silk or other substances inside. The other point is that tarantula silk released from spinnerets involve multiple parallel silk threads which are better observed when magnified. 2005). seemanni the friction with scopulae setae is enough to guarantee spider climbing. Niederegger & Gorb (2006). Griswold et al. a distinct broad area at the beginning of the fiber that they interpret as an initial fluid. For additional evidences we made transverse cuts of A. The tarantula usually use hind legs to entangle silk. This could explain the presence of thread footprints photographed by Gorb et al. Scopulae setae could interfere with silk release. seemanni entangling with their other legs which answer one of the points of the reply of Gorb et al. We agree with this interpretation. seemanni and G. Poland Results and discussion In the first series of experiments. although combed or stepped by tarsal scopulae. Siedlce. We found that such structures are very similar in morphology and size to fragments of tarsal thermo-sensory setae reported for other tarantulas (Raven 2005). but we also observed A. a common origin or convergence was proposed for silk spigots and sensory setae (Ross 1991. (2009) found by SEM examination of a silk line. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. and 16 out of 40 in vertical slides) showed silk threads together with dislodged abdominal urticating setae. (2006) are very different from diverse kind of spigots reported for spiders (Bond 1994.

.Y. & Gorb S. Zootaxa. Silk production from tarantula feet questioned. Griswold C.. Pérez-Miles F. Ortiz-Villatoro D.. 33: 192-241. Canberra & Melbourne Univ. Nature. & Platnick N. Press. Journal of Comparative Physiology. & Perdomo C. Nature. Merrit D. Raven R. 1989. 2009. 2009.A. Poland References Bond J. 22: 19-22. Theraphosidae). 1991. 1994. Vötsch W. 2007.P.N. Atlas of phylogenetic data for entelegyne spiders. Coddington J. Siedlce. & Walther P.. 1004: 15-28. Gorb S.E.. Reply. 341 . A.E. 443: 407.. 2005.N. 192: 1223-1232. and the group Theridiidae plus Nesticidae. Gorb S.. Journal of Arachnology.Y.J. Coddington J. Summers A. Spinneret silk spigot morphology: evidence for the monophyly of orb weaving spiders.N. Hayashi C. Niederegger S. & Walther P. Friction and adhesion in the tarsal and metatarsal scopulae of spiders. 2006. 17: 71-95.Book of Abstracts. Niederegger S. Niederegger S. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. In: The insects of Australia 405-409.J... Hayashi C. Setae-spigot homology and silk production in first instar of Antrodiaetus unicolor spiderlings (Araneae: Antrodiaetidae). 2006. Panzera A. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. 56: 1-124.P. The organule concept of insect sense organs: Sensory transduction and organule evolution. A new tarantula species from northern Australia (Araneae..I. Advances in Insect Physiology.E.. 461: oi:101038/nature8404. Summers A. Silk like secretion from tarantula feet. 2005. Ramírez M. Cyrtophorinae (Araneae).S. Journal of Arachnology. Nature: doi:101038/nature08405.. Ross E.A. Vötsch W.

Therefore. Biological Reviews. It is recognized to be both a conditional and phenotype-dependent process dependent on factors related to density and body condition. inbreeding and long-time survival of populations and species (for reviews see Bowler & Benton 2005. In first instance. genetic drift. Belgium Dispersal plays a central role in the dynamics and evolution of spatially structured populations (Kokko & López-Sepulcre 2006) and is involved in processes like colonization. Causes and consequences of animal dispersal strategies: relating individual behaviour to spatial dynamics. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 38: 231-253. Belgium.and phenotype-dependent dispersal in a spider with a clustered distribution Julien Pétillon1. gene flow. Gent.ac. local adaptation. Science. 313: 789-791. & Lopez-Sepulcre A. in Flanders.E. & Benton T. Further. landscape composition may induce fast evolution in dispersal traits. julien. How does it feel to be like a rolling stone? Ten questions about dispersal evolution. Ronce 2007). Kokko H. Atypidae) populations often reach high densities within clusters under natural conditions. we assessed the relationship between density (assessed in the field.g. the presence of heritable variation and strong selection pressures related to e. we confirm our specific hypotheses on ballooning dispersal by means of laboratory experiments and additionally demonstrate that emigration decision making is determined by preceding ballooning events. 2006. Atypus affinis (Mygalomorpha. Ronce O. From individual dispersal to species ranges: Perspectives for a changing world. Belgium) and individual body condition (estimated by sugars and lipids measurements). David Deruytter2. Arthur Decae2 & Dries Bonte2 1 Evolutionary Ecology Group. Annual Review of Ecology.Book of Abstracts. we expect natal dispersal through ballooning to be positively related to local densities of spiderlings and to increased starvation. University of Antwerp. Ghent University. 2005. Poland Condition. 342 . 80: 205-225. Siedlce. References Bowler D.be 2 Terrestrial Ecology Unit. 2007. Antwerpen. Evolution and Systematics. In second instance.petillon@ua.G.

Elton is a biter lake located in the NW Caspian Sea Lowland. Poland Ground-dwelling spiders of Lake Elton area (Caspian Sea Lowland. Piterkina Institute of Ecology and Evolution. Tangles of reed and cattail grow on the banks of small rivers. Russia. piterkina@yandex. at the contact of steppe and semi-desert zones (49°12. Russian Academy of Sciences. Agropyron desertorum and Festuca valesiaca form the main part of landscapes around the lake. ratio of families. 343 . pauciflora. Material was collected using pitfall traps. austriaca) as well as Kochia prostrata. The seasonal dynamics of total abundant. Lines of traps were functioning all year round. The material is at the stage of initial processing. one intrazonal and three extrazonal biotopes. sex and age structure of population is revealed. A. from 10 May 2006 till 10 May 2007. Desert steppe associations with different wormwoods (Artemisia lerchiana.ru The purpose of the research was investigation of the araneofauna and seasonal dynamics of spider population structure in the Lake Elton area. Ten habitats were chosen as model ones. A. among them are six zonal. Russia) Tatyana V. 46°39. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Moscow.47'N. Siedlce.75'E). Hyper-halophytic plant communities occupy salt-marshes.Book of Abstracts. Gullies running into the lake are occupied with arboreal vegetation.

edu The spider genus Loxosceles has a widespread distribution. Siedlce. and the vast majority of its species are concentrated in North and South Americas. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. rufescens. rufescens lineage are placed as the sister group of the L. Biologia Animal. The evidence of the diversity in the Loxosceles lineage in NW Africa has been pointed out by Duncan et al. which includes the widespread L. 344 . rufescens lineage several independent evolutionary lineages are discussed. enplanas@gmail. and has been the only representative accepted of the genus in this area until the recently discovered Loxosceles mrazig Ribera & Planas. cribera@ub. Several individuals from SW Morocco. Recent collecting trips carried out in Morocco and Canaries provided us with abundant material of Loxosceles. the authors indicated the existence of a NW African clade. Universitat de Barcelona. In this contribution we present the preliminary results on taxonomy and phylogeny of this species from Canary Islands and Morocco. has its original distribution range in the Mediterranean basin. In this paper. Spain. and a wide representation of specimens from the Mediterranean Basin.Book of Abstracts. rufescens. latest evidence on Loxosceles diversity in Canary Islands and Northwestern Africa Enric Planas & Carles Ribera Institut de Recerca de la Biodiversitat (IRBio) and Dept. Poland Not so banal after all. morphologically consistent with L. 2 in Gran Canaria plus the cosmopolitan L. Canary Islands harbour an endemic group of Loxosceles species clearly distinctive by morphology and molecular characters. This clade also includes Loxosceles foutadjalloni Millot. Our data suggest a single colonization event to the Eastern Canary Islands (Fuerteventura and Lanzarote) and a posterior interinsular colonization to Gran Canaria and Tenerife. mrazig and some evolutionary lineages present in the Maghreb and Canary Islands. 1820). Sagunt. We provide individuals from the type locality. 1941 from Guinea and the South American Loxosceles amazonica Gertsch. 2 in Tenerife. rufescens clade showing a high genetic divergence. The cosmopolitan Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour. Until now we have identified 6 species: 1 in Fuerteventura and Lanzarote. (2010). 2009 from Tunisia.com. the new recently described L. The lack of geographical structure due to human-mediated dispersal impedes the clarification of the dispersal patterns. 1967. but the genetic distance among groups and the fact that populations of geographical proximity don't have genetic flux could suggest a cryptic speciation. Within the L.

The possibility to complete a life cycle within the field is discussed for each of the species as well as differences in the time of development together with regional and meteorological aspects. and from April to September in maize and perennial grassland. prativaga and Trochosa ruricola) and the juvenile and adult stages of an erigonid spider (Oedothorax apicatus) were identified from field material. Germany. mentioned above. 345 . We concluded that the subadults and juvenile stages caught in these fields belong to these species. juveniles. Brandenburg. At first. respectively. The time of development was determined and compared for each crops. year of investigation and location (Federal State). instars. P. Siedlce. Then the fields were identified where one of the species of the (genera). was caught exclusively.g. subadults and adults) were identified for wolf spider species (e. collected during three years (2005-2007) a wide spectrum of agricultural landscapes in Germany (Federal States of Bavaria. Poland Development and life cycles of erigonid and wolf spiders (Araneae: Linyphiidae: Lycosidae) in arable fields: differences due to crop type and region Ralph Platen Institute for Land Use Systems. P. platen@zalf.Book of Abstracts. collected with pitfall traps on arable land. palustris. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. These stages were identified and their individual lengths were measured. MecklenburgVorpommern. Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF). summer as well as winter cereals. Pardosa agrestis agrestis.de Different live stages of development (egg-cocoons. the adults of the spiders were determined. In each year five pitfall traps were used in each field from April to July in legumes. Schleswig Holstein and Thuringia).

Siedlce. The altitude of hills does not exceed 300 meters. X.K. Our investigations were carried out in 12 localities of Eastern Ukraine within the three administrative regions. Spiders of chalk lands of Eastern Europe have not been studied purposely. In the grass layer of chalk habitats. these slopes are occupied by a forbgrass-feathergrass-fescue steppe. and 134 species in the forest ones. 179 spider species were registered on chalk lands of Eastern Ukraine. Agalenatea redii (Scop. In the forest-steppe natural zone. Results and discussion In total. In literature.). being the most numerous in granite and forbgrass steppes. Geological history of the landscape.K. Poland Araneofauna of chalk lands of Eastern Ukraine Nina Yu. striatipes L. structure features of the chalk. Polchaninova Kharkov National University. specific calcareous vegetation forms an azonal chalky steppe. there are only a short remark of the species richness for South-Eastern Ukraine (Polchaninova & Prokopenko 2003). among them. 100 species in steppe communities. Polchaninova & Procopenko 2007.) Neoscona adiantum (Walck. Grasslands on the northern slopes are represented by a meadow steppe. occupy a vast region.. common steppe dominants as Theridion impressum L. high albedo. Ponomarev & Polchaninova 2006. Mangora acalypha (Walck.). relic tertiary forests of Pinus cretaceus are scattered as small patches. Xysticus cristatus (Cl. with chalk bedrock on the upper interfluves and right high river banks of the river Don basin. Becides.). In the steppe natural zone. and records in the lists of local faunas of North-Eastern Ukraine and Southern Russia (Kulczyński 1913. Dictyna arundinacea (L.ru Introduction Underlying bedrock of chalk creates specific conditions for the forming of a chalk biota. the other six main families are equally represented in the chalk community.).) Argiope bruennichi (Scop. as well as thermophilous and xerophilous ones that enrich local fauna with southern elements. as in all steppes types. that is regarded as an island of the forest-steppe in the steppe zone.) and Cheiracanthium 346 . while on the upper part and on the southern slopes in both zones. Prisny 2003. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Heliophanus flavipes (Hahn) prevail. as well as on the Donetsky Ridge. low daily moisture and temperature fluctuation of the upper layers promote development of extrazonal communities.. Excluding Linyphiidae. Material and methods In the South of Central Russian Upland. where a great number of relic and endemic species are presented.Book of Abstracts. Ukraine. chalk lands. Gnaphosidae is the richest family of the fauna (Tab. Tibellus oblongus (Walck. 1). In chalk grasslands. Among them. Polchaninova 2009). polchaninova@mail. the upland and right river banks are partly covered with oak forests.

.K.). the other main families (see table 1).K. 13% of the fauna) were dominants. Zilla diodia (Walck. Xysticus ninni Thor. Eresus cinnaberinus (Oliver).. G. Th.. Tetragnatha pinicola L. Stemonyphantes lineatus.K. made up from 7 to 8. Berlandina cinerea (Mg). 17%. with Dictyna latens (Fabr. Linyphia hortensis. in Central Forest-Steppe. tenuipalpis Sim. Linyphia triangularis (Cl. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Araneus marmoreus Cl. in the litter. Alopecosa trabalis (Cl.. 347 . L. Zora pardalis Sim.K...). Hypsosinga sanguinea (C. Alopecosa sulzeri (Pav. ruricola (De Geer).). T. the other 4 species were rare. is typical. There are no specific spider species characteristics of calcareous grasslands. etc).) densely settle low shrub thickets.).). Stemonyphantes lineatus (L.K.).L. Tibellus macellus Sim. Thomisus onustus Walck. In the litter. typical of forests of the foreststeppe and steppe zones. the following species can be referred: Pardosa italica Torng. Drassodes pubescens (Thor.). steppica (Ovtsh.) settle northern chalk slopes..-C. Alopecosa cuneata (Cl.L.. Two families (Linyphiidae..).L. G. T.). Uloborus walckenaerius Latr. Dictyna latens. Araneus diadematus Cl. Poland pennyi O... Microlinyphia pusilla (Sund. Asianellus festivus (C. In the forest-steppe zone of Ukraine. a typical dweller of sand habitats. in addition to them.. Photophilous dwellers of grasslands penetrate under the canopy and/or occupy glades and cuttings (Enolpognatha thoracica (Hahn). 112 spider species were registered. and Theridiidae. Gibbaranea bituberculata (Walck. a lot of species never occurring in this habitat southwards appear on chalk hills (Robertus lividus (Bl.. Neriene clathrata (Sund. and less numerous Atypus muralis Bertk. and Philodromus cespitum (Walck. the tendency is more evident. taurica Thor..L. terricola Thor. Tibellus macellus. Haplodrassus umbratilis (L. Thanatus arenarius L. Micaria rossica Thor.).). are numerous in the North of the area in question. Uniqueness of the spider complex consists in presence of the southern and eastern elements which have an area disjunction and sometimes northern.). Northwards. Phlegra fasciata (Hahn) were found.).).. some polytopic mesophilous species (Micrommata virescens (Cl. Simitidion simile (C. 20 species altogether).L.P. nigrovariegatum Sim. Theridiom impressum. Phylaeus chrysops (Poda) dominating in the South.K. 30 species are rare or sporadic. Aelurillus festivus. Pisaura mirabilis (Cl.). Phrurolithus festivus (C. settles Artemisia thickets.. including Philodoromidae.).). Araniella cucrbitina (Cl. Only 5 species were recorded exclusively in chalk grasslands. Siedlce. As an example. More than a half species (62) was presented by forest or polytopic mesophiles. G. a bulk of common species Meioneta rurestris (C.Book of Abstracts. Neoscona adianta.8%.or westernmost bounds of their distribution. Cyclosa oculata (Walck. Meioneta rurestris.K. Xysticus kochi Thor. Alopecosa cursor (Hahn). it included Atypus muralis. mongolica Sim. Philaeus chrysops and others.).). The bulk of dominants of the grass and lower shrub layer was composed of Mangora acalypha. triangularis. Alopecosa sulzeri.). Gnaphosa taurica Thor.). Arctosa lutetiana (Sim. Philodromus cespitum. In a pine forest on chalk hills on the Donetsky Ridge.). Zora nemoralis (Bl. L. penetrating to other natural zones along the chain of chalk lands.K.). Gnaphosa licenti Schenkel. local dominants Trochosa robusta (Sim..).).

L.Book of Abstracts.K. Agroeca brunnea (Walck. Zelotes electus (C.)..K.L. X. Many close species display specific patterns of distribution in these forests. Poland Thanatus sabulosus (Mg). typical of the forests (Dipoena erythropus (Sim. Phrurolitus festivus is common in the first case and very rare in the second one.).. pedestris are numerous.K. degeeri Sund. A comparison of spider fauna of chalk oak forests with that of the three local plane forests in the South of the Forest-Steppe. and a leap in the Gnaphosidae richness from 5 to 10%. Zelotes aurantiacus Mill. Unlike to pine forest. constituted of common forest species with an addition of northern and southern elements. Tapinopa longidens (Wid.). Thanatus sabulosus.5%). electus. shows a gradual decrease of the Linyphiidae ratio from 40 to 24%. Thomisidae and Salticidae (7% each). the family Philodromidae was very poor (3%). Siedlce. a guild of photo. and Cozyptila blackwalli (Sim. 129 spider species were found. do not occur in the chalky forest.K. Atypus piceus (Sulz. Ceratinella scabrosa (O. In this habitat. cuprea Mg. Theridiidae and Lycosidae (11-13. while on the South one. Linyphiidae was the most numerous – 24% of the fauna.). bicolor (Hahn). the spider fauna of calcareous pine forest is richer than that of pine forests on sand soil in river valleys (we collected in the three local fauna in Eastern Europe 72. There is the sole example of their finds in oak forests of East Europe.and thermophiles enriched the spider complex with atypical elements (Ero aphana (Walck. the araneofauna of chalky oak forests is heterogeneous.P.K. In the chalky forest it was found on the North wet slope. suggesting that representatives of nemoral biota might have survived here. robustus are present in single finds. a slight increase of the Lycosidae (4-8%) and Theridiidae (9-12%) families. On the whole.) have been found far away from their main area in the forest zone o (for the last one). muralis was numerous. Clubiona caerulescens L.). laterillei (Sim. Microlinyphia pusilla. the second group was composed of Gnaphosidae.). G. 77 and 89 species. Trochosa robusta. Gnaphosa taurica.. pseudoneglecta Wund.). The six species. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Cheiracanthium erraticum (Walck. Z.) in quadrate samples.. Xysticus ulmii (Hahn). Trachyzelotes pedestris (C..) do not advance southward in the steppe zone.-C. only A. where P. kukushkini Kovblyuk and Z.K.) are characteristics of steppe communities and/or polytopic on the North coast on the Black see. X. Asianellus festivus in pitfall traps and Tenuiphantes flavipes (Bl. Ozyptila claveata (Walck. respectively). 24 species altogether). During the Quaternary Period. Z. we have not found any spider species preferring or typical of this very habitat. 348 .) occurs in plane forests in the driest places. Pachygantha listeri Sund. However. Efimik. the third one was formed of Araneidae. In the neighbouring oak forest. the Donetsk Ridge was not covered with ice. Xysticus robustus (Hahn) etc. D. melanogaster (C.).. and Xerolycosa nemoralis (Westr. A. So. Pardosa palustris (L. Ozyptila brevipes (Hahn).).). Zelotes aszheganovae Esyunin. Gnaphosa montana (L. in spite of its ancient age. and Z.L. luctator L..K.). in the north of the forest-steppe zone. Titanoeca schineri L. a half of species also belonged to common forest dwellers. C.).

8 80 100 Total N % 22 9.0 17 17.5 29 15.9 12 9.0 17 21.5 15 18.6 28 12.6 21 9.0 10 10.0 20 20.8 27 14.6 128 100 189 100 Theridiidae Linyphiidae Araneidae Lycosidae Gnaphosidae Thomisidae Salticidae Others Total Chalk N % 12 12.4 39 20.Book of Abstracts.0 14 14.3 6 7.3 30 23.0 5 5.1 27 21.9 17 9.3 15 6.0 18 7.5 8 10.4 20 10.6 10 7.4 19 10.0 11 11.5 13 6. Siedlce.8 47 20.3 7 5. Species composition of the main families in the spider fauna of different steppe types of Eastern Ukraine (number of species and %). 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.9 36 15. Families Steppe type Granite Forbgrass N % N % 12 9.1 25 13.5 5 6.3 9 11.2 41 18.3 14 17.0 11 11.0 100 100 Limestone N % 6 7.2 14 10.0 16 12.6 228 100 349 . Poland Table 1.

The data matrix comprised 30 characters. coxae. The aim of this paper is to describe six new species of Celaetycheus and apply a cladistic analysis based on parsimony to test the phylogenetic relationships of the species of the genus. SP. the genus is monotypic (Polotow & Brescovit.com. danielepolotow@gmail. Brazil. Brazil. 2009: figs 12C. 2009: figs 11C–D) in the epigynum. Brazil. Poland Taxonomy. São Paulo. Siedlce. flavostriatus Simon. version 2.5 (Maddison & Maddison 2008) was used to build and edit the character matrix. Instituto Butantan. Departamento de Zoologia. the pattern of distribution of the species is discussed. Material and methods A total of 15 terminals composed the taxonomic sample used in the cladistic analysis. Brescovit 1 Laboratório de Artrópodes. The genus can be distinguished from the remaining Ctenidae genera by the presence of several small ventral spines on the endites. and the spermathecae divided in two parts. Instituto Butantan. with the tip below the median plate. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.com 2 Laboratório de Artrópodes. Brazil. Currently. São Paulo. Universidade de São Paulo. SP. Morphological observations and illustrations were made using a Leica MZ12 stereomicroscope with camera lucida. respectively. Bahia.br Introduction The spider genus Celaetycheus was proposed by Simon (1897) to include the type species C. all recorded to northeast of Brazil. The epigynum was detached from the abdomen and submerged in clove oil to clear the internal structures. The parsimony analysis was performed using the computer program TNT 1. In addition. 2009). Results Nine new species are described to the genus Celaetycheus. CEP 05503-900. Av. with a round head and large and curved base (Polotow & Brescovit. phylogeny and biogeography of the Neotropical spider genus Celaetycheus Simon (Araneae: Ctenidae) Daniele Polotow & Antonio D. Nonapplicable and unknown data are presented as “–” and “?”. Instituto de Biociências.Book of Abstracts. São Paulo. Vital Brasil 1500. Mesquite. 1897. SP. 13A–C) and the presence of a cymbial retroventral process (Polotow & Brescovit. described based on a single female collected at Salobro.0 (Goloboff et al 2003-2004). The genus Celaetycheus arises as a monophyletic group and 350 . 2009: figs 11A–B) in the male palp and short lateral spurs. All measurements are in millimeters. femur and trochanter (Polotow & Brescovit. All characters were equally weighted and all multistate characters were coded as nonadditive. adbresc@terra.

Poland it is supported by four non-ambiguous synapomorphies: basal projection of the cymbium. posterior medium spinnerets reduced and tick and elongated anal setae. The subfamily is also supported by one ambiguous synapomorphies: reduced number of cylindrical glands. 2008.P. References Goloboff P.S. Celaetycheus appears as sister group of the Calocteninae genera used in this analysis: (Celaetycheus (Arctenus gen. Maddison W. nov. spermathecae with a rounded projection and spines in the endites and labium of the male.5. rounded-shaped cymbium. Revision of the new wandering spider genus Ohvida and taxonomy remarks on Celaetycheus Simon. Siedlce. Zootaxa.dk/public/phylogeny.0. The genus is transferred to Calocteninae. The genus is also supported by two ambiguous synapomorphies: elongated conductor and five pairs of spines in tibia I and II. Farris J.Book of Abstracts. Program and documentation available at http://mesquiteproject. 2115: 1-20.R. The subfamily Calocteninae is supported by three non-ambiguous synapomorphies: short labium. 351 . Version 1. 2009. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.zmuk. (Caloctenus (Toca + Gephyroctenus)))). & Nixon K.D. 2003-2004. Version 2. & Maddison D.. Program and documentation available from the authors at http://www. Mesquite: a modular system for evolutionary analysis.A.org Polotow D & Brescovit A. TNT: Tree analysis using new technology. Ctenidae). 1897 (Araneae.

Besides. the gaps. In addition.com The edges have been shown to produce both positive and negative effects upon their inhabitants. Sara Bumrungsri1 & George A. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Thailand King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi. lizards. Bangkok. etc. Siedlce. In addition. Since the edges are a transitional zone of neighbouring habitats. quickly respond to environmental changes and they are complete predators thus they are highly satisfactory to test the hypothesis of preference of predators to edge habitats. Songkhla Province. therefore the spider species of both neighbouring habitats will be found at the edges. and several types of adjacent areas namely plantations adjacent to forests. Sunthorn Sotthibhundhu1. mainly arthropods. Thailand Booppa Ponksee1*. A gap that makes edge effects difficult to create any generalization is a lack of knowledge in several aspects and the inconsistency of research results. They are 917 juveniles and 836 adults. The prediction of the current research is that species richness of web-building spiders at the edge will be higher than the adjacent habitats. Totally.Book of Abstracts. Species richness of spiders at the rubber plantations is highest. web-building spiders will be surveyed along transects across the rubber plantation-forest edges. Web-building spider assemblage is reasonably suitable for assessing their responses to the edges since they live in a particular habitat. Gale2 1 2 Prince of Songkla University. Songkhla. 352 . especially in tropical areas. being generalist predators make them directly and indirectly correlated with many prey species and their species richness and abundance may reflect the abundance of their prey. Their richness at the edges is higher than forests. ants. Accordingly. because of various life histories (web design.. Certain species are found interesting to study in depth to find for underlying mechanism responding to edge effects. studies on their effects are not known. Although rubber plantation-forest edges are commonly found in many parts of Southern Thailand. 1753 individuals of spider were found. butterflies. In the present study. The roughly result analyses is different from prediction. 67 morphospecies of spiders were found from the adults. Thailand * Corresponding author: zigzagargiope@yahoo. time to prey) among species so they are appropriate for assessing which type of life history is the most sensitive to edge effects. in the communities. web site. several groups of organisms including spiders. edge preferences of predators have been supported in some ecosystems and not in the others. await further studies in order that certain principles and theories on the edge effects can be formulated. etc. Poland The effects of rubber plantation-forest edges on the distribution of web-building spider composition at Khuan Khao Wang Forest Park.

With a ban on collecting in many countries around the world. Siedlce. 353 . Polish Academy of Sciences. In each case species are recognizable and placed only by internal structure of epigyne. Warsaw. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. and by body diversity of other. jerzy. using digital photography. which surprises us by morphological similarity of prolific species within some genera. and by palps. Poland Are Salticidae (Araneae) of Indonesia exceptional? Jerzy Prószyński Museum and Institute of Zoology.pl Describing fauna of islands we should be prepared for island speciation pattern. The challenge is to bridge the gap between validity of deteriorated preserved specimens with beauty of photographs of alive Salticidae.Book of Abstracts.proszynski@wp. the study of Salticidae fauna can further develop using the passions and skills of a new generation of naturalists.

1895) regarding genitalia (Roberts 1995) and thus they are not considered as two different species. purbeckensis are two different species. P. Kronestedt (1990) reached to the same conclusion with the pulverulenta group using ecological. ecological differences can indeed lead to reproductive barriers between two species of invertebrate in only dozens of generations (Hendry et al. morphology and phenology. exclusively found in salt marshes or polders of the north west of Europe (Heydemann 1970. populations of P. morphological and sexual behaviour characters. purbeckensis by exposing the two varieties to a gradient of salinity which is relevant with their habitats preferences. As the two species can be found in closed stations.ac. Frédéric Ysnel1. Lycosidae received a special attention as they include closely related species with similar foraging strategies and overlapping patterns of microhabitat use (DeVito et al. purbeckensis (F. (submitted) showed a higher salinity tolerance for P.ysnel@univ-rennes1. Platnick 2009). France. saturatior are two different species because of their differences in habitat preference. agrestis and P. 2002.Book of Abstracts. agrestis and P.canard@univ-rennes1.be Introduction Identifying sympatric speciation is currently a hot and growing topic in modern ecology and taxonomy (Elias et al. This species is undistinguishable from the variety P. 2005). Model species Pardosa agrestis (Westring. presents some differences in its habitus (median band of cephalothorax not dilated. agrestis 354 . mainly found in drier banks adjoining the flats.petillon@ua. frederic.g. Belgium. But the last.com. Pétillon et al. 2004). more especially in the south and east. we suggest that they have been submitted to a sympatric speciation. Alain Canard1 & Julien Pétillon2 1 URU 420.Cambridge. Pétillon et al.O.f. Among spiders. agrestis’ ones) (Locket & Millidge 1951). P. In this study. Furthermore. The species status of P. Harvey et al. P. alain. we compared two sibling species of Pardosa. agrestis still remains uncertain. purbeckensis being frequently considered as a (junior) synonym of P. despite a high variety of epigynes in P. agrestis due to their high morphological similarities (e. As an example. as would reveal a cladistic analysis of different populations. University of Rennes I. julien. 2008). chalk pits or clay soils (Harvey et al. Poland The dark and salty identity of Pardosa purbeckensis (Araneae: Lycosidae) Charlène Puzin1. Siedlce. charlenepuzin@gmail. 2002). purbeckensis (Roberts 1987). purbeckensis.f 2 University of Antwerp. 2007). Barthel and von Helversen (1990) considered that Pardosa wagleri and P. We more precisely tested the hypothesis that both P. 1861) is a mainland species widely distributed in Europe. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. purbeckensis – P. males’ metatarsi and tarsi I with many long hairs) and its size (both male and female are larger than P.

A. Gompert Z. 2-4 July 1990.. Further developments are also planned in population genetic (DNA barcoding technique. Belgium. N-W France). 1998) whereas only one cohort has been found for populations of P. Evolutionary Ecology Research. (2004). Adaptative latitudinal shifts in the thermal physiology of terrestrial isopod..R. Provisional atlas of British spiders (Arachnida. Habitus of females and males of the two varieties were compared (bands of cephalothorax. Physiological tolerances of three sympatric riparian wolf spiders (Araneae: Lycosidae) correspond with microhabitat distributions. & Formanowicz Jr D. width and length of male palp and length of median apophysis. Huntington 2. length of tibia I. Isaia M. genitalia: width and length of epigyne. 1990. & Rollard C. Biological Records Centre. 2009. Elias M.. Harvey P.E.g. DeVito J. 17-23. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Proceedings of the 12th European Colloquium of Arachnology. 2004. Heurtault J. In: Célérier M. Switzerland and Italy (1 population in each country). Siedlce. Jiggins C. Populations of P.. Pardosa wagleri (Hahn 1822) and Pardosa saturatior (Simon 1937).. several populations from different parts of Europe were studied to eliminate variations of size due to unsuitable local conditions (e.. 2004. 2008.…) and several measurements were done: body: width and length of cephalothorax. Courtship behaviour in syntopic and cryptic species: the case of Pardosa vljimi (Araneae.. agrestis were collected in France (2 populations in Brittany. purbeckensis (Puzin et al. Lardies M. colouration. & von Helversen O. Lycosidae). Spiridopoulou K. i.. & Telfer M. Lycosidae). body condition and physiological tolerance may vary with latitude: Castañeda et al. & Castellano S. Abstracts of the 25th European Colloquium of Arachnology.e.R.. Alexandroupolis.Book of Abstracts.M. (eds). Meik J. Belgium. 2002. & Bozinovic F.L. Populations of P. 6: 579-593. a new record for the Italian fauna. Mutualistic interactions drive ecological niche convergence in a diverse butterfly community.M. pp. United Kingdom (Essex) and Netherlands (1 population in each country). & Willmott K. Canadian Journal of Zoology. a pair of sibling species (Araneae. 6: 2642-2649. submitted). sequencing of mitochondrial DNA and more specifically the gene coding for the Cytochrome C Oxydase subunit I) as well as different courtship behaviours (Chiarle et al 2009) and cross breeding experiments if no pre-zygotic isolation occurs. References Barthel J. Stathi I. Nellist D. PLoS Biology.G. Paris. In: Chatzaki M. purbeckensis were collected in France ((2 populations in Brittany and in Normandy).R. Chiarle A. Poland exhibit two cohorts (Samu et al. 8: 1119-1125. Araneae). (eds). Gerson M.. 355 . Castañeda L. Methods and expected results To assess the differences between the two species. 16-21 August 2009.

Szita É. 1970..I. Zoologica Scripta. & Canard A. 19: 203-225. Ray Society. Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. The speed of ecological speciation. Lycosidae). Separation of two species standing as Alopecosa aculeata (Clerck) by morphological. 1995. with remarks on related species in the pulverulenta group (Araneae. Ökologische Untersuchungen zum Problem der halophilen und haloresistenten Spinnen. British spiders. Hendry A. Pétillon J. 21: 455-464. Colchester. & Rieseberg L. Tóth F. American Museum of Natural History. 215-221.. Samu F.. The Spiders of Great Britain and Ireland (volume 1: Atypidae . 310 p. Lambeets K. 229 pp. HarperCollins Publishers.F. behavioural and ecological characters. Are two cohorts responsible for the bimodal life-history pattern in the wolf spider Pardosa agrestis in Hungary? In: Selden P. Acou A. Bulletin du Muséum d‘Histoire naturelle de Paris. 1987. Nosil P. Locket G. 383 pp.amnh.. Bonte D. 1951. pp.. 356 . Edinburgh.). Németh J.. (ed. & Szinetár C.P. Ysnel F.. Ract-Madoux B. Roberts M..-C. Roberts M.. 1990. 33: 236-242. 41: 226-232. H. Functional Ecology. Kronestedt T. & Pétillon J.. Siedlce. 1998. 2005. 2007. (Submitted to Animal Biology). Are salt marsh invasions by the grass Elymus athericus a threat for two dominant halophilic wolf spiders? Journal of Arachnology.A.J. Kiss B. London. http://research. Lefeuvre J. Proceedings of the 17th European Colloquium of Arachnology.5. 2009..H.. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. London 1. The world spider catalog. Lycosidae) under different habitat suitability conditions. Poland Heydemann B.Theridiosomatidae).J. & Renault D.Book of Abstracts. 14-18 July 1997. Puzin C. & Millidge A. Harley Books.org/entomology/spiders/catalog/. Pétillon J. Vernon P. version 9. Comparison of reproductive traits between two salt-marsh wolf spiders (Araneae. (Submitted to Zoology). Relationship between habitat preference and saline stress tolerance in ground-living spiders. Platnick N.

sampling was carried out following five semi quantitative methods viz. Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve. information on spider assemblages in the Himalayan region is scanty in comparison to other regions of the country because of its tough terrain and climatic conditions.7% of the total species). pitfall trapping.5%) each.5% of the 52 genus recorded followed by Theridiidae and Thomisidae (9. ground hand collection.gov. India Shazia Quasin & Virendra Prasad Uniyal* Wildlife Institute of India. Gnaphosidae and Lycosidae with 5 species each (5.3%). Results A total of 96 species/morphospecies of spiders belonging to 52 genera and 24 families was reported during the study period. Thomisidae and Salticidae. exploiting a wide variety of niches in virtually all the earth's biomes and play vital role in sustaining the ecosystem. Identification was then carried out in the laboratory using a binocular microscope. followed by Linyphiidae 8 species (8. 11 species (11. Theridiidae with 7 species (7. Pitfall trapping.6%).3%). being both diverse and abundant in almost all habitats. For the first time diversity of spiders has been investigated in Chir Pine (Pinus roxburghii) forest in Western Himalayan region of India near Joshimath (15002000 m) area of Chamoli district of Garhwal Himalaya.5% of the specimens were identified up to species level and 61. Dehradun. India * Corresponding author: uniyalvp@wii. adjoining to Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR). Material and methods Spider samples were collected during February 2009 to November 2009. Western Himalayas. Species richness within families decreased as follows. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Siedlce. Sampling was carried out in select plots (10m × 10m) in the forest area.. 38.Araneidae with 16 species (16. Dehradun.in Introduction Spiders are ubiquitous in nature. The specimens that were immature were identified only up to genus level.2%). Araneidae and Salticidae were represented by 11. Of all the species collected. sweep netting and litter sampling. aerial hand collection. In order to collect the spider samples from all the niches. Poland Spider (Araneae) composition structure in the chir pine (Pinus roxburghii) forest habitat. The spider specimens after collection were preserved in 70% ethanol in glass vials. In India. Tetragnathidae and 357 . Chandrabani.Book of Abstracts. ground hand collection and litter sampling methods were employed to collect wandering spiders while sweep netting and aerial hand collection was carried out to capture web builders and ambushers. All voucher specimens were deposited at the Wildlife Institute of India.5% were identified up to genus level.

18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Poland Uloboridae with 4 species (4. Siedlce. 358 . Discussion The 24 families reported from this area represent 40% of the total families reported from India. The initial result suggests that Araneidae. further investigation will help to understand spider diversity of Western Himalayan Ecosystem. The area has rich diversity of spider.Book of Abstracts.2%). while the other families were rare and composed of 26% of the total species with 25 species. Thomisidae and Salticidae are the most speciose families in this area. The genus Episinus (Theridiidae) was documented for the first time in India.

moultoni have the pedipalpal tibial spination (Gravely 1915. S. that is. Western Australia.Book of Abstracts.wa.harvey@museum. Siedlce.au 3 Natural History Laboratory. S. Japan. cavernicola (Thorell. the state found in Charon. 1895. They are distinguished by the morphology of the pedipalpal patella spination. 1928.jp Whip spiders are bizarre arachnids characterized by the strong raptorial pedipalps equipped with sharp spines. brevispina Weygoldt. Vietnam. Mark S. 9) that is characteristic in the family Charinidae. The two Neocharon species show unusually disjunct distribution pattern. Rahmadi & Harvey 2008). and S. S. 1949. longispina Gravely.rahmadi@lipi. Malay Peninsula.id Department of Terrestrial Zoology. moultoni is known only from western Borneo whereas the record from Sumatra (Quintero 1986. Weygoldt 2002.3.go. Welshpool.ac. 1949 has an undivided pedipalpal tarsus. whip spiders in the genus Stygophrynus could be restricted to Myanmar. The holotype of Stygophrynus forsteri Dunn. two spines about equal in size in Charon and three spines in Stygophrynus and pedipalpal tarsus. An extensive study on the genus is required to confirm the record and taxonomic status of the species in Borneo and Solomon Islands. 1949. 1915. 2002. Nine species are currently placed in the genus Stygophrynus (Harvey 2003. of which the following seven are in the nominotypical subgenus and distributed from Myanmar. mark. S. moultoni confirm that the specimens might prove to be members of family Charinidae since the pedipalpal tarsus lacks a basal row of setae. 1901. Western Australian Museum.gov. jkrte@mx. Harvey2 & Jun-ichi Kojima3 1 2 Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense. The family Charontidae is one of the five families in the Amblypygi and is restricted to the Australasian region. Sumatra and Java. Weygoldt 1996). Harvey 2003) has been clarified by Rahmadi and Harvey (2008) and S. 359 . Recently collected specimens from East Kalimantan which have similar morphological characters to S. dammermani Roewer. cahyo. 1879 and Stygophrynus Kraepelin. Poland Does the whip spider genus Stygophrynus (Amblypygi: Charontidae) extend its distribution eastward to the Solomon Islands? Cahyo Rahmadi1. forsteri Dunn. They are nocturnal and live under stones or within tree buttresses or they are often found in caves. 1889). In conclusion. S. Thailand. sunda Rahmadi & Harvey. fig. Vietnam. Malay Peninsula to Java: S. Specimens recognized as S. cerberus Simon. forsteri only from Solomon Islands. S.ibaraki. a typical character for Charontidae (Quintero 1986. Indonesia. flattened body and extremely elongate antenniform first legs. Ibaraki University. berkeleyi Gravely 1915. Thailand. 2008. The family has two genera. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. S. the tarsus is divided in Stygophrynus and undivided in Charon. are placed in the subgenus Neocharon Dunn. The remaining two species. Charon Karsch. 1915 and S. suggesting that the specimen is a juvenile of a Charon species (Rahmadi 2009). moultoni Gravely.

Siedlce. 2008. 2000. una neuva familia y un nuevo genero con tres nuevas especies (Arachnida: Amblypygi). 58(2): 117. Zoologischer Anzeiger. Proceedings of the Ninth International Congress of Arachnology. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 2009. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.S. S. A revision of the Oriental subfamilies of Tarantulidae order Pedipalpi. A review of the family Charontidae (Archnida: Amblypygi) with notes on the systematic and distribution [Abstract]. Weygoldt P. 1915.G. 56(2): 281-288. Ricinulei and Solifugae. CSIRO Publishing. Rahmadi C.Book of Abstracts. spec. and Stygophrynus brevispina nov. Quintero D. 11: 433-455. 2002. Washington D. 1928. 360 . brachydactylus (Charinidae). grayi. Catalogue of the smaller arachnid orders of the world: Amblypygi. In: Eberhard W. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolution Research. Acta Arachnologica. morphology and systematics.. Rahmadi C. Weygoldt P. 41st Annual Meeting of the Arachonological Society of Japan. Records of the Indian Museum. Harvey M. Sperm transfer and spermatophore morphology of the whip spiders Sarax buxtoni. The first epigean species of Stygophrynus (Amblypygi: Charontidae) from Java and adjacent Islands with notes on S. dammermani Roewer. Whip spiders: Their biology. Palpigradi. Schizomida. Charon cf. Evolutionary morphology of whip spiders: towards a phylogenetic system (Chelicerata: Arachnida: Amblypygi). 1996.H.D. Panama 1983: 203-212. 1986. Uropygi. Melbourne. Smithsonian Institution Press. Apollo Books: Stenstrup.S. Weygoldt P. (Charontidea). Jr.C. 241: 131-148. 34: 185-202. & Robinson B. Revision de la classification de Amblypygidos pulvinados: creacion de subordenes. 2003. Poland References Gravely F. & Harvey M. (eds). Lubin Y.C.

biomass and guild structure of spiders. Brazil Florian Raub & Hubert Höfer Institution: State Museum of Natural History Karlsruhe. 361 .de Data were collected during the German-Brazilian research program SHIFT (Studies on Human Impact on Forests and Floodplains in the Tropics). within the experimental area of the Brazilian research institute Embrapa . hubert. ambushing and running ground spiders. but not in the pitfall study.4% (biomass) of the arthropod fauna in soil cores and the respective litter fraction. From June to August 2001 spiders were then sampled with pitfalls during 4 weeks in 16 replicate plots of another polyculture system. Poland Guild structures and biomass of spiders in forests and agroforestry systems in central Amazonia. In the Berlese samples of the secondary forest the biomass reached 62% and in the two polyculture plots 5% and 27% of the biomass observed in the primary forest.de. Germany.raub@smnk. Within the first study 3073 spiders were extracted from soil cores: 1203 from primary forest. In the activity based pitfall samples. with small spiders much most frequent. 30 km outside the city of Manaus. 59°59'W). Spiders accounted for 3. Soil/litter fauna has first been collected at two sites of a polyculture agroforestry system. An analysis of the size distribution of adult spiders in pitfall samples showed a pattern distinctly differing from a normal distribution in the primary forest.7 to 4. Web builders were less abundant than stalking. Siedlce.7% (abundance) resp. 937 from secondary forest and 933 from the polyculture. whereas in the agroforestry systems the size distributions were equally normal. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. one site of secondary forest. slightly more web builders than hunters or stalkers were captured. florian. and one site of primary forest by repeated sampling between July 1997 and March 1999 with soil cores extracted by a Berlese apparatus. 0. In the Berlese study the spider diversity was higher in the natural forest.7% of all arthropods. We analysed the data for expected differences between natural and anthropogenic sites in abundance. The studied sites are situated in Central Amazonia. In pitfall traps spiders accounted for 4. Guild structure differences (due to the lack of some guilds and a dominance of others) occurred in the disturbed sites and abundance as well as biomass decreased by anthropogenic alteration of the natural habitat.6-8. The biomass of spiders was distinctly lower in the disturbed areas than in the reference sites (primary forest.6 to 3.Book of Abstracts. another natural forest and a rubber tree monoculture. both in quadrat-based samples and pitfall samples.hoefer@smnk. The differences in biomass between primary forest and the anthropogenic sites were even greater in pitfall data: biomass in the polyculture reached 36% and in the monoculture only 5% of the primary forest. in contrast to the abundance based soil core sampling. From the pitfall study resulted 1001 spiders (686 adults) sorted to 27 families.Amazonia Ocidental (02°53'S. body size distribution. where the highest diversity could be measured in the polyculture.

2005. Scent gland secretions are a source of unique natural products. guenther. however. 362 . complex patterns of methyl ketones and naphthoquinones (including unique chloro-naphthoquinones) were found (Raspotnig et al. but usually constitute more complex mixtures. In the present contribution. defensive glands) are an important synapomorphic character of all Opiliones. and naphthoquinones and unusual anthraquinones have just recently been reported for a first representative of Dyspnoi (Raspotnig et al. University Novi Sad. 2009). clearly suggesting their potential use as novel phylogenetically important characters. have arisen since the late 1970s. Karl-Franzens University Graz. Also for laniatoreans outside the Gonyleptoidea (e. 2005). Following disturbance. prosomal sac-like “scent glands” (syn. Jones et al. The chemistry of opilionid scent gland secretions has been investigated since the 1950s.g. repellent secretions from scent gland orifices (ozopores) which typically are situated near coxae I (Palpatores). 1994) and to a small group of Palpatores. Secretions may contain only one component (e. even comprising up to more than 20 components such as in some Cyphophthalmi (Raspotnig et al. many species discharge distinctly scented. 1977. some phalangodid Laniatores). namely to some North American sclerosomatid Eupnoi (Ekpa et al. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. for 12 species of Palpatores and for 3 species of Cyphophthalmi. terpenes. published chemical data are available for about 40 species of Laniatores. Siedlce.raspotnig@uni-graz. with focus on recent developments and some recently accumulated data. Poland Scent gland chemistry in harvestmen (Opiliones) Günther Raspotnig1. in a representative of Insidiatores) a completely distinct set of compounds was detected. including bornyl esters. 1985). beginning with the finding of distinct chemical equipments (naphthoquinones) in secretions of phalangiid Eupnoi (Palpatores) (Wiemer et al. miriamschaider@hotmail. Miriam Schaider1 & Ivo Karaman2 1 Institute of Zoology. 1984).at. the current state of knowledge of opilionid scent gland chemistry is reviewed. some large gaps in the knowledge of opilionid gland chemistry could be closed: In pioneering studies on secretions of Cyphophthalmi. and nitrogen containing compounds (Ekpa et al. near coxae II (Laniatores) or atop latero-dorsally protruding prosomal tubercles (Cyphophthalmi). secretions exhibit a characteristic group. Indications for a much more complex situation. Not until recently. 1978).Book of Abstracts. Petra Föttinger1. Austria. Results from early opilionid scent gland research were strongly biased and restricted to some gonyleptoid laniatoreans (Eisner et al.g..com 2 Department of Biology and Ecology. These data suggested a “chemical dichotomy” between phenol.and benzoquinone-rich secretions of Laniatores and acyclic compounds-dominated secretions in Palpatores.and even speciesspecific chemical composition. and meanwhile. Serbia Large. Moreover.

Quinones and phenols in the defensive secretions of neotropical opilionids. Opiliones. Stylocellidae) from Sulawesi with comparisons to other Cyphophthalmi. 81B: 555-557. demonstrating that certain phenols (but no benzoquinones) had already been developed in (presumably) basal Grassatores. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. & Raspotnig G. in preparation). The chemical defences of a stylocellid (Arachnida. & Meinwald J. e. Journal of Chemical Ecology. Cokendolpher J. Leis H. Cokendolpher J.. 3: 321-329. the overall-picture of scent gland chemistry in harvestmen is still highly fragmentary. Acosta L. Rossini C.. 207: 1313-1321.. Hicks K.M. Journal of Arachnology. Ekpa O. under review.M. Chemical data that possibly contribute to solve important questions on the gross phylogeny of Opiliones are still missing: so far. 2004.C. unpublished). References Eisner T. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology.. 2010)... 1985. 363 . Tetrahedron Letters. Poland 2010). no chemical synapomorphies have been found to justify a sister-group relationship between Eupnoi and Dsypnoi. Pachylus paessleri (Opliliones.H.. Journal of Experimental Biology. Wheeler J. 37: 147-150. Benzoquinone-rich exudates from the harvestman. 2010. A first study on Phalangodidae is meanwhile also available (Shear et al. Föttinger P. 2009. N. & Duffield R. Chemosystematics using scent gland secretion profiles may also be applied to the problem of discrimination of cryptic or morphologically very similar opilionid species as just successfully demonstrated for a number Balkan Sironidae (Raspotnig & Karaman. Ketones and alcohols in the defensive secretion of Leiobunum townsendi Weed and a review of the known exocrine secretions of Palpatores (Arachnida: Opiliones).NDimethyl-ß-phenylethylamine and bornyl esters from the harvestman Sclerobunus robustus (Arachnida: Opiliones). & Duffield R.C. & Eisner M. dominate the secretions of Cladonychiidae (Raspotnig. Siedlce. Gonyleptidae.. may have evolved in morederivative Laniatores since they seem to be restricted to the Gonyleptoidea (Föttinger et al.Book of Abstracts. certain compounds or classes of components seem to characterize groups of Opiliones on superfamily and family levels. Eisner T. Shear W. as outlined above.E. Jones T. 2010). Nitrogen-containing compounds may be very characteristic for the Insidiatores (or a group of these) and. 1984. 1977... & Giribet G.H. Wheeler J. Ekpa O.g. Jones T..E. Pachylinae) with comments on the phylogenetic significance of secretion compounds in the Laniatores. Journal of Arachnology. in their turn. González A.A.W. Despite these recent advances mentioned above.W.J. Chemical defence of an opilionid (Acanthopachylus aculeatus). Silberglied R. 25: 1315-1318. By contrast.. or (as more recently proposed) between Dypnoi and Laniatores. Benzoquinones.

31: 1353-1368. Siedlce. 36: 158-162.. Fauler G. exilis.. & Leis H.A. Raspotnig G.. Leis M. & Komposch Ch. 364 .-J. 2010. 2005. 2010.. Jones T. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 15: 27-28. Chemical defence of phalangodid harvestmen: Bishopella laciniosa (Crosby & Bishop) and Texella bifurcata (Briggs) produce 2-methyl-5-ethylphenol (Opiliones: Grassatores: Phalangodidae). Leutgeb V. Poland Raspotnig G. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.Book of Abstracts.J. Journal of Chemical Ecology.H. Schaider M. Chemical profiles of scent glands secretions in the cyphophthalmid opilionid harvestmen. Naphthoquinones and anthraquinones from scent glands of a dyspnoid harvestman.. Siro duricorius and S. Shear W. Paranemastoma quadripunctatum. & Snyder A. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society.

Australia. often incongruent in the slowness of the attack. As with the repeated loss of the cribellum in araneomorphs. morphology and systematics Robert J. No doubt that is often driven by unstable political issues in understudied regions. Theraphosids remain a dominant focus both in diversity and phylogeny and a review of South American genera is desparately needed. the decline of taxonomy worsens as the quality of submitted papers belies a lack of understanding of critical processes in the science. Although many are the prey of mammals. some closely related barychelids show a tendency to lose the second pair of spinnerets. they seem simple and informative: animals with poor vagility. orogenic activity and habitat fragmentation through progressive drying. Siedlce. most are conservative burrow dwellers. isolated on continents by continental drift. And their conservation status begs careful attention to their biologies. Many groups are Gondwanan in distribution and origin. In contrast. Raven Queensland Museum.au Mygalomorph spiders. resists change from earlier hypotheses. sedentary habits. Biogeographically. or at least 365 .Book of Abstracts. However. Controversies over the present of sil glands in theraphosid scopula hairs rage. Qld. Their phylogeny.gov. rest uneasily as sister group to the Araneomorphae. In habitat. In river beds. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Preliminary studies on the Australian fauna indicate that ontogenetic changes in the growing animal contradict the expected development sequence (Haeckel’s Law). restricted by glaciation.Raven@qm. South Brisbane. especially with the tarantulas ascending further as preferred pets. though much contented. Poland A review of the Mygalomorphae: biology. A few make extensive aerial webs. many other mygalomorph groups remain seriously unknown.qld. like parts of Africa. Their species concepts are conflated by uninformative and highly homoplasious characters and significant bilateral assymetry but challeneged severely by the resolution provided by venom differences at the population level. through deserts and down to the intertidal zone. they are the longest lived of spiders and some persist in suburban areas. Robert. Uninformative monotypic genera abound. Attacked by a diversity of organisms. with their plesiomorphic morphology. Research opportunities are many as still the value of their silk in phylogeny remains untested. In behaviour. they endure weeks of inundation during extensive and often flash flooding. Many build trapdoors which usually work to their advantage but are sometimes exploited by birds. Challenges abound as putative neotony conflates the cladistic use of their morphology. Molecular studies are needed to better illuminate this dilemmas but so far acceptable overarching proposals have not been forthcoming. some are also mammal predators. they range from areas snow covered in winter.

the unrelated Mouse Spiders (Actinopodidae) with massive chelicerae and diagonally acting fans that “lock” on the prey. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. cryptic burrows and burrowing behaviour severely limits useful knowledge of their biology. seemed incongrously harmless until it was understood that the spider rarely engages its reduced venom glands. of considerable interest to pharmaceutical companies is neutralised quickly by dogs. several species persist in close allopatry with no evident barrier.Book of Abstracts. In south-western Australia. Mygalomorphs includes the most venomous spiders in the Australian Funnel-webs (Hexathelidae) responsible for 14 known deaths. mice and guinea-pigs and the spiders themselves are the prey of large lizards. cats. As such. they are among the frst spiders to be listed as threatened but often their low incidence. their venom. In contrast. mygalomorphs are surrogate “super-mammals”: long-lived and univoltine but with high local endemicity. Poland appear so. the mygalomorph fauna challenges all preconceptions. In New Caledonia. However. Biologically. 366 . Siedlce.

NY. The Australian endemic subfamily Deleninae is monophyletic with relatively little morphological diversity (Rheims 2007) containing ten genera with ~99 species (Platnick 2010. and physiological strategies influencing social evolution in endemic social and solitary huntsman spiders from Australia. In this presentation. What factors make cooperation beneficial although closely related species succeed without those benefits? How do physiological and ecological constraints interact so that group-living becomes more beneficial than a solitary life style? Why do young adults remain with their parents when they could have better opportunities to breed if they left home? These questions are at the essence of understanding the costs and benefits of group-living in animals. Here I will present data on comparative patterns of group-living. To aide in determining whether there are phylogenetically independent characters associated with social evolution in these species. LSR1@cornell. Australian National University. I will discuss some of these differences in behavioural. general biology. and metabolic rate in 15 species from 7 genera of delenine huntsman spiders. many live in retreats under bark. especially among potentially cannibalistic predators such as spiders. Siedlce. ecological. and physiological strategies Linda S. and physiological strategies for living in groups. lifehistory.edu Why do some animals live in social groups while others are solitary? Throughout Animalia are examples of closely related taxa in which the majority of species live essentially solitary lives while a few species have evolved to live in cooperative social groups. Rayor Department of Entomology. Evolution of sociality must involve adaptive benefits to offset the costs of living closely with competitors. 367 . prey sharing. These adaptations may involve behavioural. which are not seen in the solitary huntsman species. and habitat preferences. Hirst per.). Cornell University.Book of Abstracts. ecological. ecological. often in neighbouring trees. These endemic delenine spiders share a number of key traits that make them particularly valuable for comparative studies: The social and solitary species overlap geographically. in body size. there are solitary congeners for comparison. Ithaca. comm. dispersion. USA. I will discuss some of the factors that effectively reduce the costs of group-living for the social species. The social and solitary species appear to be very similar in most superficial traits except that two huntsman species from different genera live in social groups for most of their lives. Australia. Research School of Biology. Poland Social evolution in huntsman spiders: behavioural. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Canberra.

dummy decoration bands arranged in a cruciate form attracted significantly more insects than those arranged in a vertical/horizontal form. Such results suggest that pollinator insects’ innate preference for bilateral or radial symmetric patterns might be one of the driving forces shaping the arrangement pattern of spider web decorations.Book of Abstracts.com Properties of prey sensory systems are important factors shaping the design of signals generated by organisms exploiting them. Siedlce. Taiwan. Moreover. In this study it was assessed how prey sensory preference affected the exploiter signal design. Poland Insect form vision as a potential shaping force of spider web decoration design Cheng Ren-Chung Tunghai University. we hypothesized that cruciate form decorations were evolved from liner form due to their higher visual attractiveness to insects. We then performed field experiments in which the number and orientation of decoration bands were manipulated. We first reconstructed a molecular phylogeny of the genus Argiope and results of ancestral character state reconstruction showed that the linear form was ancestral and the cruciate form derived. 368 . 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Decoration bands arranged in a cruciate from was significantly more attractive to insects than those arranged in a linear form. by investigating the evolutionary relationship and relative attractiveness of linear and cruciate form web decorations built by Argiope spiders. Since insects have innate preference for bilaterally symmetric patterns. bolasargiope@gmail.

a fact that has also contributed to the extensive number of studies concerning their systematics. 1804 is one of the most diverse genera of spiders. Universitat de Barcelona. cribera@ub. hispanica. enplanas@gmail. There are only few species redescriptions and no recent revision at the genus level has been carried out in this area. tarantula Group and the L.edu 2 Dept. behaviour and ecology. bedeli and the Europeans L.es The genus Lycosa Latreille. Poland Untangling the ambiguous: taxonomy and biogeography of Western Mediterranean Lycosa (Araneae: Lycosidae) using molecular and morphological data Carles Ribera1. 369 . Enric Planas1 & Carmen Fernández-Montraveta2 1 Institut de Recerca de la Biodiversitat (IRBio) and Dept. Psicología Biológica y de la Salud. some of them also colonize the northern areas near the Mediterranean and some islands (Corsica and Sardinia). 17 of which are recorded from Western Mediterranean. Spain. mainly after the Roewer’s revision (1955). tarantula and L. the taxonomical status of the species of Lycosa from Western Mediterranean remains controversial. The fact that original descriptions are very old (18th.Book of Abstracts. In this contribution we present the preliminary results on taxonomy and phylogeny of these species. Lycosa groups 240 species. carmen.com. subhirsuta Group. Results show a basal group of species (maghrebi group) located in the South of Morocco and Tunisia. and some of them are among the largest representatives of the spider fauna of this area. Biologia Animal. impedes or seriously obstructs the identification to the specific level. Spain. In addition there are two independent evolutionary lineages with European representatives: the L.montraveta@uam. 19th and the first half of the 20th century) and the majority of the type material has been lost. 1900. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. although. The phylogenetic analysis suggests a single colonization event from Tunisia to Europe through the Sicilian island. Phylogenetic analysis using information from mitochondrial and molecular genes allows us to examine the phylogenetic relationships and diversification patterns of the genus in the Western Mediterranean. Posterior glacial periods separate the Iberian and Italic representatives. Its worldwide distribution and its wandering life style place some Lycosa species among the best-known and widely studied spider species. the taxonomic status of most of these species is confused. which transferred many “true” Lycosa species from western Mediterranean to the genus Allocosa Banks. Despite of the numerous studies. Moreover. Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. Siedlce. In an attempt to clarify the situation we undertook a series of collecting trips in Western Mediterranean with a main objective: to make the redescription of the Lycosa species from this area and to nominate the neotypes of the species that have been lost. The tarantula group contains the Tunisian L.

Morocco and Tunisia). Siedlce. Balearic Islands. 370 .Book of Abstracts. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. munieri (from Iberian Peninsula. Poland Within the subhirsuta group appear L. subhirsuta (spread in Balearic Island. Tunisia. Sardinia and Corsica) and L.

Siedlce. Results and discussion The WS spider fauna is different from the other vegetations in Serra do Cachimbo. 2004) seasons. Material and methods Serra do Cachimbo is located in Southeastern Brazilian Amazonia. with scattered riparian forests (RP) along watercourses. Samples similarity were represented in a two axis ordination generated by a non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) (Bray-Curtis index) (Legendre & Legendre 1998). 2009). Two expeditions were made. also called “campina”. Universidade Federal do Paraná. Brazil Introduction The white sand vegetation.com Laboratório de Aracnologia. Several questions about species distribution in Amazonia still remain unanswered and some megadiverse animal groups. This vegetation grows over sandy soil and occurs in patches throughout Amazonia. Pará. Poland Spider composition in less diverse sites in Brazilian Amazonia and its importance for conservation Janael Ricetti1 & Alexandre Bonaldo2 1 2 Departamento de Zoologia. to verify the significant differences between the spider fauna of the four vegetations types. The lack of faunistic studies in this particular Amazonian landscape leaded us to survey the spider fauna of selected sites at Serra do Cachimbo region.94b (Hammer et al. State of Pará. jricetti@gmail. The Southeastern Amazonia. is known by its low plant diversity and high endemism rates (Anderson 1981. Novo Progresso. The sampling effort. was obtained using beating tray and sweeping net. nocturnal manual search and Winkler extractors. as spiders. This may be due to the structural homogeneity and low productivity of 371 . An Analysis of Similarity (ANOSIM) were performed. Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. at the “Campo de Provas Brigadeiro Velloso”. presenting a peculiar vegetation mosaic of Rain Forests (FO). cattle grazing and inadequate wood extraction practices. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. haven’t received well-deserved attention. WS had the lowest species richness per sample (Ricetti & Boanldo 2008). savannah-like vegetation or Cerrado (CE) and white sand vegetation (WS). presenting extensive white sand areas. Brazil. The main objective of this study was to analyze how the species composition associated with white sand vegetation ecosystem contributes to the Amazonian spider diversity.Book of Abstracts. Analysis were performed with PAST v.1. is nowadays endangered mainly due to the irregular land usage for monoculture. Frasier 2008). represented by 60 samples per site. when compared with other Amazonian ecosystems. Belém. The similarity among the spider assemblages in each vegetation type was calculated with Morisita coefficient. during both dry (August and September 2003) and wet (March and April. as a distinctive vegetal formation presenting from open fields to low-canopy forests (Anderson 1981). The sampling was carried out in these four vegetations types. using the Bray-Curtis index (Clarke 1993).

L. Australian Journal of Ecology.L. More than a half (55%) of WS species occurred only in this vegetation type.J.A. these results suggests that. Borges S. Pará. Habitat selection in a large orb-weaving spider: vegetational complexity determines site selection and distribution.R. & Ryan P. 2000. as well for plants and birds. 8: 144-157. Legendre P. Biogeographic implications of new avian records from a patch of white-sand forest in southwestern Brazilian Amazonia. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Frasier C. 98: 88-99. 2000. Sér.Book of Abstracts. with average of 10% more exclusive species than the other vegetations. 2008. 25: 423-432. 13: 199-210. Macnett B. Spider biodiversity in connection with the vegetation structure and the foliage orientation of hedges. 2004. FO and RP shared more than 70% between them. 18(1):117-143. Some recent data about avian community also demonstrate that white sand ecosystems may harbour several species differentiated of more complex Amazonian ecosystems. 28: 107-114. Iheringia.0001). Organisms Diversity and Evolution.. Amsterdam. 1998. Poletto F. Ecological Entomology. The ordination showed a visible proximity of WS samples. Ibis. Ricetti J. & Aleixo A.A..17. 2005. Brasil. 2008. 22(4): 1196-1200. p=0. Amazonian lowland. White-sand vegetation of Brasilian Amazonia.. 2009. & Bonaldo A. Diversidade e estimativas de riqueza de aranhas em quatro fitofisionomias na Serra do Cachimbo. Even with the need of more complete observations.H. Biotropica.B. Elsevier. 2. ed. Ysnel F. Numerical Ecology. Harper D. as well Polleto & Aleixo (2005) stressed the importance of intensifying faunistic surveys in white sand patches. Poland this vegetation type (Mcnett & Rypstra 2000. The spider species composition was significantly different between the areas (ANOSIM: r=0. PAST: Palaeontological Statistics software package for and data analysis. in contrast with the other vegetations samples. 1981. Ysnel & Canard 2000) compared with the Rain Forest. Clarke K. Non-parametric multivariate analysis of changes in community structure. Borges (2004) discussed the association of a distinct bird assemblage with white sand vegetation of western Amazonia. Rypstra A. & Legendre L. while CE. 1993. 146: 114-124. 372 . Species poor but distinct: bird assemblages in white sand vegetation in Jaú National Park. Albert V. white sand areas as ancestral regions for South American biodiversity: biogeographic and phylogenetic patterns in Potalia (Angiospermae: Gentianaceae). highlighting the conservation importance of this environment. Hammer O. which were less aggregated. aiming to add more data on endemism and biogeography. Siedlce. Amazonian Brazil. 4(1): 9. References Anderson A. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia [online]. Paleontologia Eletronica.D.T. Zool. WS shared less then 15% with the other vegetations. & Struwe L. & Canard A. Journal of Arachnology. spider species endemism may occur in the white sand ecosystems.

Linnaean hierarchies. unlike cladistic trees. For example. In Australia for example.richardson@csiro. Such an approach was explored using a data set of point records for Australian jumping spider genera. Seven genera were predicted for Eyre though no actual locality records in Eyre were available.e. that is different from that occupied by the species of another genus” (Wood and Collard 1999). for example the estimation of geographical distribution based on bioclimatic profiles using modelling programs. or adaptive zone. Such genera provide entities suitable for analysis using ecological attributes. Specimens of six of these genera were found from there in the collection of the South Australian Museum. The data for 4500 locality records was stored in BioLink and a map of the predicted distribution of each of 51 genera was generated on the basis of its bioclimatic profile. jumping spiders are a diverse component of the Australian fauna. Usually the only distribution information available is point data associated with taxonomic revisions or museum collections. 2008).au In much of the world the information available for making management decisions is very limited for groups like the jumping spiders. 373 . Such generic distributions can be of great use in countries such as Australia where most species are undescribed.Book of Abstracts. In taxonomic work they allow relevant geographical areas to be identified when planning fieldwork (i. are intended to represent a natural biological hierarchy of functional entities at each level. a table was prepared allowing a list of the likely genera in any given area to be obtained before field work is undertaken or management decisions made. Poland Making the most of limited locality data: predicting the distribution of jumping spider (Salticidae: Araneae) faunas in Australia Barry J. Canberra. Australia. Innovative approaches need to be developed and used for making the best use of these data. 2000) found 37 genera of which 18 were undescribed and a brief survey in south western Queensland (Richardson 2009) found 15 species of which 13 were undescribed. a genus can be considered “a species or group of species of common ancestry that occupies an ecological situation. Test 1: Eyre region in South Australia. ACT. Siedlce. As well. Richardson CSIRO Division of Entomology. barry. A recent study in the Murchison Region (Harvey et al. with over 350 species described and possibly a further 1000 species present (Richardson and Zabka. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. The predictions were tested by comparing them with independent data sets for four landscape regions in Australia (Bridgewater 1987). areas predicted to support members of the genus even though no specimens known) and for management decisions as to which habitats or areas need to be surveyed or given priority protection. using the BIOCLIM package as compiled in BioLink.

have no salticid genera predicted. Of 21 predicted genera. Siedlce. areas that regularly receive snow. Afraflacilla or Pellenes are known to occur in such habitats. the approach gave surprisingly good predictions of the genera likely to be present in areas where no data were available for many hundred of miles. Firstly. Seven of the eleven genera predicted to be present were found. The four genera predicted but not collected were all likely to be ground dwellers and their apparent absence. Several limitations need to be noted however. highly endemic. WA. The remainder are largely genera represented in eastern Australia as outliers of cosmopolitan or oriental genera that presumably have been unable to make their way across the much drier Nullabor region. but presently unknown fauna adapted to the region. 374 . Few genera were also predicted for the Australian Alps and Barrington Tops. Poland Test 2: South Western Australia. areas that lie beyond the range of bioclimatic zones included in the training set cannot give proper predictions. the survey also collected examples of a further 18 undescribed genera. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. These results highlight the shortcomings of past fieldwork in Australia. In the Murchison study. which has concentrated on the higher rainfall areas. of 24 genera predicted for SW Western Australia for which no specimens from the area were used in making the prediction. Such systematic bias cannot be offset in an approach such as this and it seems likely for example that inland Australia will support a large.Book of Abstracts. though it had not been modelled due to lack of data. Presumably the climate profile for these areas is outside predicted ranges based on specimens collected at lower altitudes. Secondly. Very dry landscape regions such as Simpson or Cooper for example. This will be demonstrated for the genus Prostheclina. Such a situation is difficult to imagine. In summary. Elsewhere some genera such as Grayenula. specimens of twelve were found from the region in the collections of the Western Australian Museum. 19 were collected during a detailed biodiversity survey carried out in the Region. Test 4: North-eastern Simpson Desert. given that heavy flooding that had recently occurred. especially as large parts of these areas support vegetation. The predicted distribution of a genus can also be compared with the combined predicted distributions of the known species in a genus to identify geographical areas that may contain new species. Test 3: Murchison Region. unknown or very poorly known genera cannot be considered. was not surprising. while one genus of the eight predicted to be present in the general region but not on the study area was also found. Similarly. In the Simpson study a genus known from only several specimens elsewhere in Queensland was found.

18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.harvey@museum. and a valuable dataset for exploring phylogenetic hypotheses. WA.gov. 375 . where micropholcommatid spiders can be very common within moss and leaf litter microhabitats. Siedlce. Rix* & Mark S. known from southern-temperate habitats throughout Australasia and Chile. Considerable recent progress has been made in micropholcommatid systematics.rix@museum. Three subfamilies are proposed. A Gondwanan biogeography is suggested for the Micropholcommatidae. Although poorly studied biologically and largely neglected taxonomically.au. Australia.gov. distinctive araneoid spiders. a taxonomic framework and a phylogenetic foundation now exist for the Micropholcommatidae: a template by which new species can be described and existing species can be identified. mark. Most importantly. trees and tiny spiders: progress and prospects in micropholcommatid systematics Michael G. Western Australian Museum. the Micropholcommatidae are a diverse lineage. with a significant. Molecular and morphological data have been used to test the phylogenetic position and phylogeny of the micropholcommatid taxa. Papua New Guinea. generic diversity.wa. michael. Welshpool DC.wa. and explicitly tested in the new tribe Textricellini. New Caledonia and Chile. at multiple taxonomic levels. Perth. Textricellin biogeography is further explored in the south-west of Western Australia.au * Presenting author The Micropholcommatidae are a family of tiny. and previously unrecognised. The greatest abundance of individuals and the largest diversity of taxa occur in the cool-temperate rainforests of south-eastern Australia and New Zealand. and 18 genera are recognised from Australia. New Zealand. Harvey Department of Terrestrial Zoology. Poland Genes.Book of Abstracts. and now inform a comprehensive generic classification of the family. where phylogeographic research has revealed a rich and locally endemic fauna.

P. P. Origes. Brazil (Mello-Leitão 1943b). São Paulo. Koch. Little is known on the relationships between Polybetes and the remaining sparassid genera. This revision resulted in the synonymy of 11 species restricting the genus composition to the thirteen species considered valid to date: Polybetes delfini Simon. P. P. P. P. and only two promarginal teeth on the chelicerae. In the same year. A few years later. rarely straight.Book of Abstracts.gov. P.rheims@butantan. P. thus increasing the genus composition to 14 species. Pediana Simon Eusparassus Simon. from Chile. Argentina (Mello-Leitão 1941a). Simon (1897a) included it in Deleneae. germaini Simon. Siedlce. with three species. Koch. Cercetius Simon. Typostola Simon and Zachria L. Poland Cladistic analysis of the South American genus Polybetes Simon (Araneae: Sparassidae). cancroides from Corrientes. P. tucumanus from Tucumán. SP. Sarotesius Pocock. punctulatus. Nonianus Simon. Megaloremmius Simon. obnutptus Simon. Nisueta Simon. Argentina (Mello-Leitão 1945). P. Argentina (Mello-Leitão 1941b). P. Holconia Thorell. Argentina (Mello-Leitão 1938). It was characterized by having anterior and posterior eye rows slightly procurved. and P. Cerbalus Simon. Simon (1897b) included Polybetes germaini. At the time of it’s description. proximus Mello-Leitão. Instituto Butantan. rubrosignatus Mello-Leitão and P. Mello-Leitão described an additional nine species: Polybetes vittatus and P. Origes Simon. The genus was revised by Gerschman & Schiapelli (1965) who considered it to be a senior synonym of Streptaedoae Järvi. P. Rhitymna Simon. and Voconia maculata Keyserling [=P. This classification was not accepted by Petrunkevitch (1928) who presented a classification with similar divisions to those proposed by Simon 376 .br The genus Polybetes was originally proposed by Simon (1897a) to include the type species. pythagoricus (Holmberg)]. cris. pythagoricus (Holmberg). Damastes Simon. Isopeda L. P. semivittatus from Buenos Aires. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. to include Polybetes. martius (Nicolet). trifoveatus (Järvi) (Platnick 2010). and Polybetes delfini Simon. Olios martius Nicolet. Spatala Simon. pallidus Mello-Leitão. Delena Walckenaer. P. Järvi (1912) removed Polybetes from Deleneae and proposed Polybeteae based solely on genital characters. from Bolivia. rapidus (Keyserling). Brazil (Mello-Leitão 1943a). together with Cebrennus Simon. proximus from Paraíba. punctulatus Mello-Leitão. P. with three species. from Buenos Aires. rubrosignatus from Rio Grande do Sul. P. Brazil. parvus (Järvi). pallidus from Santa Fé. Paenula Simon. Argentina (Mello-Leitão 1944). from Argentina. Paenula and the new genera Leptosparassus Järvi and Streptaedoea Järvi. obnuptus Simon. quadrifoveatus (Järvi). Remmius Simon. Olios Walckenaer. with notes on the subfamily Sparassinae Bertkau Cristina Anne Rheims Laboratório de Artrópodes. humeratus and P. from Chile. from Paraguay and P. and Leptosparassus Järvi.

one to include O. Cercetius. Polybetes pallidus MelloLeitão 1941 with Polybetes quadrifoveatus Järvi 1914. Thus. based on the examination of the type specimens. Macrinus Simon. Järvi’s Polybetinae was placed together with Delena. Pediana. their placement cannot be confirmed without a much broader analysis of the family as a whole. Megaloremmius. Olios fuscovariatus Mello-Leitão 1943 and Stasina koluene Mello-Leitão 1949 with Olios niveomaculatus Mello-Leitão 1941. 1875). Sarotesius and Vindullus Simon. except Adcatomus Karsch. The data matrix comprised 35 terminal taxa scored for 48 morphological characters.Book of Abstracts. Siedlce. the genus is redefined to include only seven species (Polybetes martius. In addition. The most recent catalog (Roewer.-Cambridge 1899). Nonianus. P. Micrommata Latreille. germaini and Olios hyeroglyphicus Mello-Leitão based on the double helix type embolus on the male palp and on the anterior part of the copulatory duct looped around the copulatory openings of the female epigyne. including representatives of most Sparassinae genera and other sparassid subfamilies. Polybetes proximus Mello-Leitão 1943. Both genera arise within a clade formed by genera currently included in Heteropodinae Thorell. trifoveatus (Järvi)) based on the presence of a modified tegular grove that acts as a conductor for the embolus of the male palp and by the widening of the first winding of the female copulatory ducts. Pseudomicrommata Järvi. P. Eusparassus. P. Both genera arise as sister groups within a large clade that includes all Sparassinae genera. niveomaculatus and Olios subadultus Mello-Leitão. No synapomorphic characters have been found to support the monophyly of the subfamily and nothing is known on the relationships between it’s genera and the remaining sparassids. 377 . and one to include P. Rhytimna. I present a cladistic analysis of the genus. does not form a monophyletic unit. Polybetes punctulatus Mello-Leitão 1944 with Olios fasciatus (Keyserling 1880). Here I present a taxonomic revision of the genus Polybetes and. fasciatus. Polybetes obnuptus Simon 1897 with Polybetes pythagoricus (Holmberg. based on the presence of three prolateral and four retrolateral spines on metatarsi IV and the subdistal origin of the RTA on the male palpal tibia. Nisueta. propose eight synonymies: Olios vitiosus Vellard 1924 with Polybetes germaini Simon 1897. rapidus. Streptaedoea is revalidated to include P. Damastes. Isopeda. Remmius. Cerbalus. the species present only two promarginal teeth in the chelicerae and a straight or slightly procurved eye row (Jäger 1998). The analysis yielded three most parsimonious tree with 131 steps and shows that Polybetes as currently defined. Origes. Polybetes delfini Simon 1904 with Olios bombilius (F. 1954) lists Polybetes in Sparassinae together with Adcatomus Karsch. Typostola and Zachria in Eusparassinae. P. Cebrennus. pythagoricus. parvus and P. Olios. Mostly.P. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Poland (1897a). Although this clearly shows that their species are not congeneric with either Polybetes nor Streptaedoea and are not related to the remaining Sparassinae. P. quadrifoveatus. supported by the presence of two retrolateral spines on the male palpal tibia and bell shaped pockets on the median septum of the female epigynum. rubrosignatus. bombilius. Two new genera are proposed. Paenula. P.O.

Zool. Arañas de Misiones. 27e Mémoire. 1: 313-339. Catamarca. Platnick N.F.html. de 1941a. XLII. 65: 465-510. Catálogo das aranhas do Rio Grande do Sul. 1954. de 1943a. (ed. 1897. Las arañas de Córdoba. de 1938. en la Argentina (Araneae-Sparassidae). 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Roewer C. 378 .).amnh. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences.). El género Polybetes Simon. 2010. Mello-Leitão C. Las arañas de la provincia de Santa Fe colectadas por el Profesor Birabén. http://research. AMNH. Zool.F. 1897a.F.I.F.. 1928. Poland References Gerschman de P.). First results of a taxonomic revision of the SE Asian Sparassidae (Araneae). 2: 1-192. 37:147-245.S. Systema Aranearum.S.S. Petrunkevitch A.S. Araneologica varia brasiliana. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France. Revista del Museo de La Plata (N.F. de 1945. Simon E.F.).H.5. Mello-Leitão C. Schiapelli B. Bruxelles. Mello-Leitão C. Järvi T. Proceedings of the 17th European Colloquium of Arachnology. In: Selden P.S). 1998.S. Archos del Museo Nacional Rio de Janeiro. 4: 213-302. Algunas arañas nuevas de la Argentina. Etudes arachnologiques.D. Revista del Museo de La Plata (N. Siedlce.org/entomology/spiders/catalog/index. 1912. Mello-Leitão C. Revista del Museo de La Plata (N. de 1944. de 1943b. The world spider catalog.A. Jäger P.. 1: 89-118. 15: 255-265. Arañas de la provincia de Buenos Aires. La Rioja. Mello-Leitão C.. pp. Annales Academiae Scientiarus Fennicae. Simon E..). 3: 311-393. 1897b. 2: 199-225. Mello-Leitão C. Tucumán. Revta. Allgemeiner Teil. Zool. version 9. Revista del Museo de La Plata (N. 1965. 1: 1-1040. Katalog der Araneae von 1758 bis 1940.). I. 2: 99-198. Histoire naturelle des araignées.F. & Schiapelli R. Mello-Leitão C. 29: 1-270. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências.F.Book of Abstracts. Zool. 4: 1-131. Revista del Museo de La Plata (N. Edinburgh. 53-59. de 1941b. Revista do Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturais Bernardino Rivadavia (Ent. Paris.. Salta y Jujuy colectadas por los Profesores Birabén. Descriptions d'espèces nouvelles de l'ordre des Araneae. Corrientes y Entre Ríos. Das Vaginalsystem der Sparassiden.

379 . mojavensis Fox and O foxi Roewer (Platnick 2010). Roth raises the possibility that the vial was actually mislabeled. schistus Chamberlin.gov. Jäger & Kunz (2005) confirmed Roth’s suspicions and matched the lectotype to specimens from Tanzania. all assigned to the genus Olios Walckenaer: Olios franklinus Walckenaer. The name abnormis was preoccupied by Sparassus abnormis Blackwall 1866 and the species was given the new name Olios foxi by Roewer in 1951. O. pragmaticus Chamberlin. Mexico. only thirteen species have been described from this region (eight from the USA and five from Northern Mexico). The female type was never located and the identity of the species is considered doubtful. O. concolor Keyserling. To date. O. respectively). from the Mojave desert.br The Nearctic region comprises most of the North American continent. a widely distributed pantropical species. USA. Also. from the USA. giganteus Keyserling. the first species to be described from the Nearctic. O. and Pseudosparianthis cubana Banks. in SW USA and Florida respectively. Arizona. positivus Chamberlin. USA. based on Simon’s description. Arizona. Baja California. Los Angeles. He also recorded the presence of Heteropoda venatoria (Linnaeus). Brazil. fasciculatus by Fox (1937) who revised the Nearctic fauna of Sparassidae and described three new species: Olios albinos. and a few years later (1924). including Greenland and the northern highlands of Mexico. Chamberlin (1919) described O.Book of Abstracts. the species is not native and does not occur in the Nearctic region.. fasciculatus by Banks (1893) and the latter removed from this synonymy by Roth (1988). pragmaticus from the Gulf of California (Tiburon Is. from Phoenix. Keyserling (1884) described O. bibranchiatus Fox. O. and San Lorenzo Is. was proposed by Walckenaer in 1837. giganteus. designated a male lectotype. O. O. Siedlce. peninsulanus Banks.. O.. schistus from Claremont. Poland On the Nearctic species of the family Sparassidae (Araneae) Cristina Anne Rheims Laboratório de Artrópodes. USA. since no other specimens were found in the collections of Olios from California. concolor and O. on both sexes from Mariposa Co. San Francisco Is. naturalisticus. O. originally described from Cuba. O. O. scepticus Chamberlin. Olios pragmaticus was synonymized to O. giganteus were synonymized with O. bibranchiatus. based on a male and a female from San Jose del Cabo. Olios concolor and O. O. Nevertheless. Roth (1988) examined the type series and. no females fitting the original description were found amongst those in the type series suggesting that these were added posteriorly and were not conspecific with the described male. albinus Fox. O. O. Instituto Butantan. Thus. naturalisticus Chamberlin. São Paulo. abnormis from New Mexico. and Olios mohavensis.rheims@butantan. O.. Mexico. O. Olios fasciculatus was described by Simon (1880).. Olios franklinus. positivus. California. scepticus and O. cris. Olios peninsulanus was described by Banks (1898). from Madera Canyon. SP. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Ceralba Is.

34: 223-351. Platnick N. Fox I.amnh. 85: 163-213. Roewer C. 1951.V. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Claremont. especially that of Mexico and Central America. 1884. 32: 437-456. Comparisons between these species and the type species of the genus Olios. 33: 649-684. 2005. 27: 461-474. peninsulanus and O. Arachnida from Baja California and other parts of Mexico. Roth V. at www: http://research. Notes on spiders.F.D. concolor and O. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. Neue Namen einiger Araneen-Arten. Journal of the New York Entomological Society. The spider fauna of the shores and islands of the Gulf of California. scepticus and O. The world spider catalog. The Nearctic spiders of the family Heteropodidae. 1988. with descriptions of such species as appear to be new to arachnologists. Senckenbergiana biologica. Neue Spinnen aus America. All species are redescribed and illustrated. 1866. positivus are synonymized with O. 1: 205-308. Poland Here I present the taxonomic revision of the Nearctic fauna of Sparassidae based on the examination of the available type specimens. 1898. 12: 561694. Révision de la famille des Sparassidae (Arachnides). Keyserling E. Simon in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle. pragmaticus are removed from the synonymy of O. Chamberlin R. Jäger P. 380 . O. Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 1: 123-134. Abhandlungen des Nturwissenschaftlichen Vereins zu Bremen. Simon. O. the correct placement of these species in new genera will only be possible after a more thorough revision of the Nearctic and Neotropical fauna. Banks N.Book of Abstracts.org/entomology/spiders/catalog/index. 1924. Paris. foxi with O. albinus and O. O. References Banks N. 1893.html. 1937. 18: 451-468. giganteus. American Agelenidae and some misidentified spiders (Clubionidae. New Californian spiders. Siedlce. Araneae. Chamberlin R. Sparassidae). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. An illustrated key to genera of African huntsman spiders (Arachnida. Bulletin du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. AMNH. 2010. 12: 1-17. Verhandlungen der ZoologischBotanischen Gesellschaft Wien. A list of spiders captured in the southeast region of equatorial Africa. Olios argelasius Walckenaer. naturalisticus. E. Nevertheless. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. Actes de la Société Linnéenne de Bordeaux.I. Oonopidae and Sparassidae) of E. 1919. 10(A): 25-37. & Kunz D. schistus.5. 1880. fasciculatus and considered junior synonyms of O. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. shows that none of them are congeneric and true Olios does not occur in the Nearctic region.V. Blackwall J. version 10.

The subfamily Marpissinae Simon includes about nine genera.S. very long embolus. based on the general appearance of its flat species.Book of Abstracts. male palp with three retrolateral tibial apophyses. small croissant-like atrium and a median posterior depression. Also. Siedlce. a species closely related to Breda that missed states considered synapomorphies for that genus. Poland Molecular evidence for the placement of Breda Peckham & Peckham within the amycoids and proposal of two new genera (Salticidae: Amycoida) Gustavo R. Recently acquired DNA sequences (both 28S and Actin genes).com The genus Breda Peckham & Peckham was proposed in 1894 to include two South American species. Two other new genera will be proposed to include these species. The second new genus includes only one species with a shorter and higher carapace. short RTA. leg I without spines on femur or tibia. place Breda within the Amycoida. 1901. The list of genera of the Marptusa group as presented by Peckham & Peckham included all the salticid species with low carapace known until that time. Marpissa milvina C. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. epigynum has an anterior. gustavoruiz86@hotmail. Since then. 381 . The exam of recently collected material from areas in Brazil revealed the existence of two new lineages supposed to be closely related to Breda. three new species were found and described. long embolus. This species is based on several males and several females from Alagoas. an extra loop on the sperm duct and a thin. conversely. from Bahia. from Peru. 12 other species have been described or placed in the genus.L. long. Brazil. The first new genus includes only one species with very low. São Paulo. and Marpissa lubomirskii Taczanowski. epigynum with anterior. 1878. dark carapace. most from the New World. very reduced chelicerae. This species is based on a single male and a single female from Central Brazil (Goiás and Piauí). reaching two and a half circles around the tegulum. Brazil. Ruiz Instituto Butantan. being currently known as the Marpissinae. almost triangular atrium. NE Brazil. This group has been refined by other authors. The genus Breda was considered as belonging in the Marpissinae by Maddison & Hedin. male palp with a single. internally with coiled copulation ducts and small. composing the current list of 14 species in Platnick´s catalog. anterior spermathecae. The genus Breda was revised in 2005 (Ruiz & Brescovit unpublished data) and ten species were considered valid. anterior spermathecae. 1846. Koch. designated as type species. The genus Breda was proposed as belonging in the “Marptusa group” (Marptusa is currently a junior synonym of Marpissa). A new genus was also proposed to include Breda flavostriata Simon. internally with short copulation ducts and small. Edwards and Ruiz & Brescovit.

the genus Breda shows up close to the base of Amycoida. they do not group with one species of Hurius sampled. Scopocira Simon e Titanattus Peckham & Peckham. Despite Breda and the related new genera have the same pattern of cheliceral teeth as the species of the Hurieae group (Huriinae). such as Agelista Simon. Poland The clade Amycoida was discovered by Maddison & Hedin during a study on molecular data of salticids. which may be an important clade for the amycoids due to their early branching.L. Asaracus C. 382 .Book of Abstracts. The main groups within the amycoids are the Amycinae. Sitticinae and the rest of the group. Besides. sometimes in a polytomy with the Thiodininae. Synemosyninae and Thiodininae. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. The group includes a great portion of the Neotropical diversity of jumping spiders. Sitticinae. Hyetussinae. Instead. being composed by about 60 genera and 420 described species. Koch. as shown by our preliminary results. The amycoids will receive a better sampling and their morphology will also be studied to help us reconstruct their phylogeny. Siedlce. there are some incertae sedis genera. Huriinae. Fluda Peckham & Peckham. clarifying the position of Breda and related groups. The study by Maddison & Hedin did not include any member of Breda.

mostly from the New World. we treated nuclear data independently from mitochondrial. Ballinae and Marpissoida.ubc. four gene fragments – the nuclear 28S and Actin and the mitochondrial 16S and ND1 – were amplified and sequenced in this study. we used 40 terminals as outgroups. limiting sampling to the large clade which includes the Astioida. It includes many hundreds of species. gustavoruiz86@hotmail. The main goal of this work was to sequence DNA regions of dendryphantine terminals in order to reconstruct the phylogeny of the entire subfamily. Dendryphantinae lineages present an unusual morphological homogeneity across the entire group. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.ca The subfamily Dendryphantinae is one of the few groups of jumping spiders with well established boundaries. Ruiz1 & Wayne P. Siedlce. Canada. whose males have a carina on the retrolateral surface of the chelicerae and palps with a reduced spiral embolus. some problematic incertae sedis species and some lineages of undescribed species. sometimes resulting in small groups of unrelated species.Book of Abstracts. including almost all described genera. For the first set. Bayesian analyses were done using MrBayes. Since male palp morphology is especially conservative in Dendryphantinae. We had two sets of partitions. we tried to sample the largest possible diversity of dendryphantine lineages. Despite being one of the largest subfamilies of jumping spiders. As an attempt to solve deeper level and shallower level divergences within the group. Despite the notorious “long branch attraction” caused by Maximum Parsimony. To root the trees. similar DNA types. In addition to the dendryphantine terminals. in this order of preference.com University of British Columbia. which needed to be revised under a phylogenetic scope. During this study. All these facts have contributed to the current chaotic classification of the group. Maddison2 1 2 Instituto Butantan. of many genera with loose boundaries. as is the first pair of legs). molecular data are of extreme importance for phylogenetic reconstructions in the group. male chelicerae are often stout and elongated. of which more than 85 were sampled for the first time in molecular studies. which can lead to wrong tree estimation especially when dealing with 383 . Model parameters were permitted to differ among data partitions. we used terminals of Astioida and Baviinae. comparable only to that of the subfamily Euophryinae.S. The lack of diagnostic characters for genera caused the indiscriminate proposal. For the second set of partitions. this can be explained by the frequent homoplasy of single male secondary sexual characters (for instance. Vancouver. In part. allowing the review of its systematics and the understanding of such large biodiversity. São Paulo. due to their close relationship to the Marpissoida+Ballinae clade. Poland Phylogeny of dendryphantines (Araneae: Salticidae) Gustavo R. using the GTR invariantgamma model. Brazil. In total. we sampled over 100 species of Dendryphantinae. were treated as having similar evolution patterns. nuclear or mitochondrial. one set with 8 and one set with 4 partitions. by earlier arachnologists. Baviinae. wmaddisn@interchange.

Despite the fact that the subfamily seems to be a group originated in the American continent.P. such as Chirothecia Taczanowski. Two of these invasions are probably older and were carried out by lineages with epiandrous fusules.-Cambridge.L.O. Marpissinae. Within the Dendryphantinae.L. Mabellina Chickering and Rudra Peckham & Peckham.-Cambridge and several South American genera. Synagelinae and Dendryphantinae were recovered as monophyletic (the clade Marpissoida includes the Marpissinae. Terralonus Maddison. Selimus Peckham & Peckham and species of the “Messua” limbata group). allowing their taxonomic simplification and easier recognition. the Dendryphantinae has reached the Old World at least three times independently. Koch and Pelegrina Franganillo. Eris C. Parsimony analyses were done using TNT treating character states as unordered and gaps as missing data. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. the genus Dendryphantes. Besides biogeographical studies. are the only groups of dendryphantines who have epiandrous fusules. Alcmena C. Ballinae.P. Siedlce. many other aspects of their evolution can be inferred based on this topology. The position of the genus Itata and of a poorly understood species from Costa Rica is still considered doubtful within the Marpissoida. we also inferred trees using this method for all the genes independently and for the same complete matrix used in the Bayesian analysis. Poland large molecular data matrices. Phidippus C. the Bagheera group (Bagheera Peckham & Peckham. among other genera) and a huge clade from North America. Tutelina Simon. the Dendryphantinae and undetermined genera such as Itata Peckham & Peckham). Koch. Lurio Simon. such as the evolution of sexual secondary dimorphism (chelicerae and legs). mimicry (beetles/ants) or the evolution of male palp structures. while the third seems to be a very recent invasion by an infusulate group. Gastromicans Mello-Leitão. Based on this phylogenetic hypothesis.-Cambridge. 384 . The North American clade includes Ghelna Maddison. Species of this genus. Dendryphantes C.P. Homalattus White.L. Koch. The loss of these fusules characterizes a large clade which includes most dendryphantine lineages. The general topology found under parsimony for the All-Genes matrix agrees with the Bayesian analyses: (Astioida (Baviinae (Ballinae (Synagelinae (Marpissinae (Dendryphantinae)))))). The clade of the infusulate dendryphantines includes three major lineages.L. the genus Hentzia Marx seems to be sister to the rest of the subfamily.O. Koch and Admirala Peckham & Peckham. The first is the genus Zygoballus Peckham & Peckham. the clades Marpissoida. Phanias F. who still has members in North America. We hope that this will increase the interest of younger arachnologists on the group and propitiate the description of the several hundred new species that remain unknown and unnamed. Paraphidippus F. the second is a huge clade including Metaphidippus F. the Synagelinae. Ashtabula Peckham & Peckham. the third lineage includes the genera Ramboia Mello-Leitão. the Bellota group (Bellota Peckham & Peckham. As the result of the Bayesian analyses.Book of Abstracts. where it presents a fantastic diversification. Paradamoetas Simon and Sassacus Peckham & Peckham. namely Macaroeris and Homalattus (former Rhene Thorell). along with those of Macaroeris Wunderlich. natural groups of genera will be revised with criticism. Parnaenus Peckham & Peckham. Beata Peckham & Peckham.

Oxyopidae.G.de Ernst Moritz Arndt Universität Greifswald. Pholcidae. Linyphiidae. From the end of September to the middle of October 2008 and 2009. Pisauridae. 385 . thirteen locations were chosen which differed in vegetation type. Theridiidae. Dysderidae. Araneidae. Specimens from the following taxa were collected: Agelenidae. spiders were collected at different locations on Ibiza. Germany. Segestriidae. Lycosidae. Uloboridae. this survey showed the aranaeofauna of Ibiza to be much more diverse then previously thought. significantly less attention has been paid to the island of Ibiza than to those of Majorca and Minorca. grade of agricultural use or building density. To ensure the sample covered a broad faunistic spectrum. Thanks to the sampling techniques used. Siedlce. Sicariidae. Oecobiidae. Nemesiidae. Over a dozen species were revealed to be new to Ibiza. Philodromidae. Zodariidae and Zoropsidae. Gnaphosidae. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. However. some locations were sampled at different times of day and night. Müller2 1 2 Rostock. Zoologisches Institut und Museum. Poland Survey of the araneofauna (Araneae) of Ibiza (Balearic Islands) Jens Runge1 & Carsten H. Greifswald. Miturgidae. Tetragnathidae.Book of Abstracts. Salticidae. Thomisidae. Germany The araneofauna of the Balearic Islands has been the focus of a number of faunistic studies. Due to differences in the diurnal activity of different spider taxa. Use of a dip net and exhauster and collection by hand allowed us to draw qualitative conclusions about the composition of the araneofauna. rung-gee@gmx.

cz Introduction Spiders are among the most common and ubiquitous of animals. Jan Mikula2 & Ivan H. and a floodplain forest growing on a gravel bank. the question arises: what about “soil spiders”? The objective of our study was to search for permanent soil spiders. We extended our previous study. A wide spectrum of spider underground habitats also exists. Faculty of Science. myops exclusively inhabits the deeper soil layers. and at different depths of from 5 to 135 cm. Porrhomma microps is known as an inhabitant of the leaf-litter in deciduous forests and also of caves. spiders inhabiting the deeper soil profiles for their entire life cycle. C. In the floodplain forest. Czech Republic. bring new data. České Budějovice. Palacký University. whereas P. microps was found at depths of 5–45 cm. jmikula@email. it was found at depths of 65–135 cm. The material was collected in the soil layers at two localities in the Czech Republic: a beech forest growing on arenaceous marl bedrock. 61 individuals from 11 spider species were trapped. where it was found at depths of 35–95 cm. The collected animals enter the tube through holes situated at 10 cm interval. We have a quantity of knowledge on the vertical distribution of spiders in scree fields. Czech Republic. Siedlce.e. it is safe to assume there will also be spiders living close by. cicur was found at a depth of 5–115 cm. both species were found to inhabit the deeper soil layers.cz. ivan.cz.tuf@upol. In beech woods. Cicurina cicur and Porrhomma microps were the most numerous. Poland Soil spiders? Vlastimil Růžička1.cz 2 Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. vruz@entu. Biology Centre. Numerous studies have been devoted to the study of cave spiders. Vratislav Laška2. Tuf2 1 Institute of Entomology. Where any form of terrestrial life exists. and prepared a mini-review. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. i. P. vratislav. Porrhomma myops is known as an inhabitant of screes and caves. Porrhomma microps and Porrhomma myops were the most numerous.laska@email. under the soil cover. P. 386 . Olomouc. Results and discussion Altogether. Thus. Spiders have conquered all of the possible ecological niches upon the land. Material and methods Spiders were collected using subterranean traps. In this study. they are indeed found everywhere over the life-supporting land masses of the world.cas.Book of Abstracts. microps exclusively inhabits the deeper soil layers. Very little still seems to be known about those invertebrates inhabiting the shallow void systems within the bedrock.

and those adaptations to life within the cave environment (troglomorphisms). microphthalmum). we registered two principal different routes of incursion into the undergroud realm. and could have evolved into separate species when colonizing the deep underground habitats. Siedlce.g. as well as the atrophy or even loss of eyes are common adaptations. and the habitat of P. among cave inhabitants both gigantism and dwarfism are known. which colonized two different shallow underground habitats. The size ranges of soil inhabitants are generally smaller than those of related epigeous species. We registered two different originator populations. microps from the soil profile exhibit similar body dimensions and proportions as those specimens from the leaf litter in South Moravia. Wiehlea calcarifera. they usually inhabit caves. We assume that the ancient epigean ancestor of the contemporary P. Hahnia microphthalma. e. Poland Modes of speciation We have evaluated our findings from the perspective of the development of the adaptations of arthropods to subterranean life. Czech Republic. The shortening of the appendages is a typical edaphomorphism. Porrhomma cambridgei. supplemented by Wiehlea calcarifera (not microphthalmous. pygmeum. myops exhibited similar body proportions as did the epigean P. 387 . microcavense remains unknown. The specimens of P. The four smallest species i. the scree and cave populations of P. Depigmentation. but generally known as a soil inhabitant). by the exclusion of specialized myrmecophilous species. myops. Compared with their close relative P. however. desclerotization. In the case of P. The ‘hotspots’ of subterranean biodiversity in Dinaric Karst harbour highly specialized forms at the end of a long-term underground evolution. pygmaeum (similar to the other epigeic species. The specimens of P. and Pseudomaro aenigmaticus could be candidates for soil spiders.e. Any such previous specialized cave fauna at higher temperate latitudes must have been eliminated by the rigorous periglacial climate. P. while the elongation of the appendages is a typical troglomorphism. The large species of the genus Porrhomma are prevalent. myops exhibit leg elongations (a troglomorphism).Book of Abstracts. microps also inhabits the leaf litter. therefore the territory today lying in the Pleistocene periglacial zones harbour invertebrates at the beginning of their underground evolution. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. whereas the soil population exhibits cephalothorax diminutions (an edaphomorphism). Soil spiders? Searching for the true edaphobionts. we evaluated the set of obvious microphthalmous Central European spiders. We distinguished between those adaptations to life in the soil environment (edaphomorphisms). myops from the soil profile exhibit relatively shorter legs than do the specimens from caves. We recorded similar morphological adaptations to subterranean life in several spider species. P.

these results suggest that the environment experienced by both males and females affect the outcome of mating interactions. OH. males in good condition started courtship sooner and were more likely to mate than their food limited counterparts. however. Siedlce. USA. courtship commenced sooner and was most likely to end in mating with well fed females. rypstral@muohio. We set up a series of laboratory experiments involving males and /or females who had been maintained on a high or low quantity of prey. Glenside. Hamilton. Arcadia University. USA 3 Department of Biology. Overall the sex ratio was female biased. the effects of male condition on mating behaviour. Miami University. are large. Males of the cellar spider. 388 . Hoefler3 1 2 Department of Zoology. The condition of both males and females affected both courtship and mating. Ashley Ziegler3. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. clutch size and courtship suggests that they may be sperm limited and that they play are larger role in the mating dynamic than is typically predicted by traditional sex role theory. Oxford. Taken together.edu Department of Zoology.Book of Abstracts. by some measures larger than females. Pholcus phalangioides (Pholcidae). Miami University. however clutches produced by well fed females contained more males than the clutches of food limited females. Rypstra1. clutches of well fed females mated with well fed males contained more females than clutches produced by well fed females mated to food limited males. Leighton Fain2 & Chad D. PA. Although large egg sacs produced by females make their choosiness within the traditional sex role framework. Ashley Conner2. and reluctant to mate in the 24 hrs after an initial copulation event. when paired with food limited females. Surprisingly the condition of both males and females affected the number of eggs produced and the sex ratio of the offspring. USA In species with low sexual dimorphism. we predict that there would be less distinction in sex roles. Poland Condition dependent mate choice affects clutch size and offspring sex ratio in the cellar spider Ann L. We tested for environmental effects on mate selection and copulation as well as the sex ratio of the clutch produced. OH. Although male feeding status had no influence on sex ratio when the female was food limited.

Species that live communally in built structures may concurrently rely on the architectural properties of the group and the behaviours of individual group members to achieve maximal prey capture success or protection from predators.C. Vancouver. maximizing individual fitness during activities such as foraging may depend on a combination of individual.ubc. Siedlce. B.. In this study. University of British Columbia. 389 . We conducted a field experiment with two social species from the genus Anelosimus that differ in individual and group morphology. salomon@zoology. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.Book of Abstracts. we examined how group architecture and individual behaviour determine the functional morphology of social groups of web-building spiders in the context of foraging.and group-level characteristics. We discuss how the functional morphology of a group may contribute to the overall success of a social lifestyle. Canada. Poland Functional morphology of social groups of web-building spiders Maxence Salomon Department of Zoology. and show that spiders achieve foraging success by combining different functional properties of their communal webs and individual cooperative behaviours.ca For group-living species.

390 . while for spiders in the cereal plots the presence of meadows had a positive effect after controlling for local environmental variables and taking into account spatial effect. samu@julia-nki.hu Institute of Ecology and Botany. This analysis had been performed five times for each plot to take into account habitat types within five different radii between 50-1000 m. Zoltán Botta-Dukát2 & András Horváth2 1 2 Plant Protection Institute. Poland Scale and intensity of interaction between meadow and arable field spider assemblages in a Hungarian agricultural landscape Ferenc Samu1. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. thus represented a land-use intensity gradient. Vácrátót. Dóra Neidert1.Book of Abstracts. Strongest effects were observed for habitats within the 250 m and 600 m circles both for meadow and cereal plot spider assemblages. Budapest. Hungary The Mezőföld region in Hungary typically consists of intensive arable land which dominates large areas on the loess plateaus of the region. For spiders in the meadow plots the presence of arable habitats had in general a negative effect. HAS. Kinga Fetykó1. Hungary. Éva Szita1. We studied the effect of the presence of different habitat types in the landscape neighbourhood of the plots on spider species richness. We carried out a landscape experiment in seven 5x5 km quadrates in the Mezőföld region of Hungary. The quadrates contained different proportions of arable land and meadow areas. abundance and community composition. Samples were taken for three years in two cereal field plots and in one meadow plot per landscape quadrate. We studied the interaction between the spider assemblages of these habitat types at a series of spatial scales. Cereal fields which had at least 5% of meadow in their 250 m neighbourhood had nearly twice the spider abundance than field with less than 1% of meadows in the same neighbourhood. HAS. Siedlce. These and further studies into the effective distances of interacting habitat types may help to optimize the spatial distribution of seminatural areas in a landscape in order to maximize landscape-level biodiversity. and meadows in mosaic with wooded areas which are typical for the incised loess valleys.

UFRRJ. places for reproduction and deposition of the eggs (Rypstra et al. Dr. The traps were filled with 300 ml of hiperconcentrated saline solution (3 kg of salt+10 litres of water+detergent). Brazil Rita de Cássia Santos de Souza1. in the housing sector (22°46'2.0"S. Poland Inventory of soil spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in the UFRRJ Campus.6"S. in Lago Açu (22°45'40. investigating the effects of environmental complexity on spiders’ assemblages. All these factors have a direct influence on availability of refuges. 2008. There is a wet period in the summer and a non-rigorous dryness period in winter.br 2 Associated Professor. 43°41'W. Brazil The researches with spiders suggested that the richness of species and its dominancy present a tendency to be highly related to the spatial heterogeneity. 1999) and are indirect related to the diversity and abundance of preys (Souza 2007). The climate presents the AW in Köppen classification. Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ). 9 times) by 30 pitfalltrapps in each of the four different locations: in the campus of the Instituto de Florestas (22°45'26. in the city of Seropédica was made.com. 391 . in São Paulo. 43°41'32. * latrodectus_ufrrj@yahoo. The spiders have been deposited in the collection of Instituto Butantan. Material and methods The campus of UFRRJ presents an area about 3. Rodrigo Santana de Sá1 & Ronald Bastos Freire2 1 Department of Animal Biology.9"W).024 ha and it is situated at 22°45'S. 43°41'43. structures to support the webs. without apparent winter. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 43°41'24. a mapping of the araneofauna (Arachnida.7"W). Institute of Biology. Antonio Domingos Brescovit and his research group.June. 2000). Siedlce.Book of Abstracts.4"S. Brazil.3"S. popularly called “capoeira” (Canellas et al. Brazil under the guidance of the Prof. The spiders were sampled (January .2"W). In this study.9"W) and in pines grove (22°45'57. Department of Animal Biology. Such a solution has a reduced environmental impact (Moreira 2006). The specimens were sorted out and identified at the Laboratório de Artrópodes of Instituto Butantan. Araneae) from the campus of Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ). Panicum maximum and Imperata brasiliensis. purposing to characterize and identify the spider fauna. 43°41'13. Institute of Biology. their height. and by the structure and composition of the litter. The vegetation is dominated by grasses of the species Melinis minutiflora. Rio de Janeiro. being hot and humid. Seropédica. determined by the plants community where they occur. The highest areas were covered with arbustive vegetation.

Ildemar Ferreira. References Canellas L. followed by Theridiidae (6 sp. These spiders are more tolerant to to environmental disturbance (Tsai et al. following by the pines grove. Thanks to Prof. The family Corinnidae is predominated by Ianduba varia Keyserling. Altogether 910 spiders were collected. 35: 133-143. Prof. Hore U.G. Silva S. 2006). Dr. Dr. Diversity and composition of spider assemblages in five vegetation types of the Terai Conservation Area. At the Instituto de Florestas the specimens of Mygalomorphae (Nemesiidae and Theraphosidae) were found. 285 immatures. At the Instituto de Florestas the web spiders. a typical synanthropic species.. The partial identification of the material collected shows abundance of three dominant families. Theridula gonygaster Simon. 2000. In the forest the vegetation was the most dense and diverse. 1891. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.B. Silva M. Marilia Carvalho de Brasil Sato and Dr. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira. Frações da matéria orgânica em seis solos de uma toposseqüência no estado do rio de janeiro.Book of Abstracts. for important support in the identification of spiders. Elaine Folly Ramos for the relevant presence in this project and the encouragement. Consequently. The highest variety of morphospecies showed Linyphiidae (7). Antonio Brescovit. Plantations and open areas have a tendency to present high abundance of soil spiders and few orb-weavers (Hore & Uniyal 2008). 392 . Corinnidae and Salticidae in the pines grove. Members of the Lycosidae were abundant in Lago Açu and the housing sector and the Pholcidae was predominant in Instituto de Florestas. & Uniyal V. Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to the Prof. Berner P. supporting the webs.). 1871. the presence of the genus Hasarius Simon. Siedlce.P. The preliminary analysis has shown the relation between environment characteristics and soil spiders assemblages.. Rita de Cássia Santos de Souza was supported by PIBIC UFRRJ/CNPq. there were distinctive differences in araneofauna between the locations. especially Pholcidae predominated due to high vegetation density. India. Journal of Arachnology. housing sector and the Lago Açu. Poland Results and discussion The vegetation complexity from each area was evaluated. 2008. In house sector and Lago Açu many specimens of Lycosidae of considerable size were found. 36: 251-258. Dr. Linyphiidae. We also thank the CNPq and the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro for the financial support. 1873 (Araneae: Theridiidae) was especially unexpected from synsntripos area.P. & Santos G..G. In Salticidae. In the pines grove there was abundance of Salticidae and Corinnidae in the litter. The species is recorded only from few localities in Brazil.A. This genus has a wide distribution. originated from Africa and also synanthropic was very significant.

Monografia (Bacharelado modalidade Zoologia).E. Carter P. Rypstra A. Rio de Janeiro. Araneae) do Parque Nacional da Tijuca. Souza L.T. Influência da Estrutura do habitat na abundância e diversidade de aranhas.A. & Japyassú H. Rio de Janeiro.Book of Abstracts. 1999. & Marschall S. Balfour R.. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Ecologia e Comportamento de Aranhas. 393 . Siedlce. Journal of Arachnology. 2007. pp.. UFRRJ/ Instituto de Biologia. Santos A. Architectural features of agricultural habitats and their impact on the spider inhabitants. Editora Interciência. 60 pp.S. 2006. 27: 371-377. 25-43. (eds). Levantamento da Araneofauna (Arachnida.D.O.. Poland Moreira T.F.L. In: Gonzaga M.J.

dieter@gauss. which.de. Properties of 3D-webs and their design can be analyzed and compared for phylogenetic purposes. art and space – an interdisciplinary project on 3D-visualisation Tomas Saraceno1.phgr. Dieter Steineck2. as its web is large enough and forms a three-dimensional construction. Germany. Switzerland.tu-darmstadt. Frankfurt am Main.ch How can we measure. wulff@geod. Germany. tomas@t-saraceno. artists and architects worked for two years to find a solution. could be useful for different disciplines. 394 .verm. Poland Spider webs in science. Subsequently.zschokke@unibas. peter. It was pre-installed in a hangar close to Frankfurt and will be exhibited in the Bonniers Konsthall in Stockholm in the first half of 2010.Book of Abstracts.de 3 Senckenberg Research Institute.de 4 Section of Conservation Biology.jaeger@senckenberg.org ² Institut für Photogrammetrie und Kartographie. Results will be presented including a stereoscopic image processing method of a laser illuminated spider web. the web was transferred from the electronic data set into a hand-knotted model of 30 times the original size. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Technische Universität Darmstadt. Germany. Germany. analyze and transfer an entire three-dimensional spider web electronically? This question was raised by a team of an art studio in Frankfurt. Siedlce. It should be investigated whether a higher or lesser degree of freedom in building a spider web in microgravity will result in different structural diversity. University of Basel. samuel. Another aspect for the future work will be a photogrammetric procedure of a web built in the space lab. Driving force were ideas of Tomas Saraceno to build fragile artistic web-structures inspired by architecture as well as philosophy. Peter Jäger3 & Samuel Zschokke4 1 Studio Saraceno. on the other hand. A multidisciplinary team of scientists. The comb footed spider species Latrodectus mactans was chosen. Christof Wulff2. Frankfurt am Main. The proposal passed the first evaluation by the NASA ISS (International Space Station) within the Call “Research Opportunities for Flight Experiments in Space Life Sciences on the ISS (ILSRA-2009)”.tu-darmstadt.

Kondulkar Sunil2 & Milind Shirbhate3 1 Department of Zoology. srakarte@rediffmail. 1757 (Araneae: Araneidae) from University Campus. Distt. Siedlce. India Akarte Satish1. m_shirbhate@rediffmail. New species of Araneus. Keywords: new species.com 2 MF Mahavidyalaya. India. taxonomy. 395 . Araneus. The genus has more than 650 species. Distt. both male and female from a single orb web is recorded from Amravati University Campus. Amravati. Vidyabharati Mahavidyalaya. Araneidae includes 168 genera with 2992 species. India. India.Book of Abstracts. Warud. Akola.com Araneus is a genus of orb-weaving spiders including the European garden spider and the barn spider. Poland A new species of Araneus Clerck.com 3 Shankarlal Khandelwal College. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Akola. Amravati. India. Amravati. India. Sunil_kondulkar@rediffmail.

bordered dorsally by an integumental fold. exhibit some characteristic features of typical opilionid defensive glands. Scent gland openings.raspotnig@uni-graz. data concerning scent gland morphology of Palpatores are scarce and incomplete. large-scale reservoirs internally covered by an (extensively folded) intima. The external morphology of glandular openings (ozopores) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. In Trogulidae two types could be described. Schaider & Raspotnig 2009. Styria and Carinthia. guenther. are also characterized by an external secretion-atrium with a massive lateral layer of cuticular papillae and by the presence of solid secretion balls in the scent gland reservoirs. but less developed in the third classical opilionid suborder. These glands are most conspicuously developed in the suborders Laniatores and Cyphophthalmi. the Palpatores. Material and methods Representatives of the two major Austrian families of Dyspnoi. 2010). Poland Scent gland morphology in dyspnoid harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) Miriam Schaider & Günther Raspotnig Institute of Zoology. Especially the Dyspnoi seem to exhibit aberrant scent gland constructions and obviously complex.at Introduction Harvestmen are characterized by a pair of large prosomal scent glands. So far. ventrally by the coxa of leg I and laterally by a loose layer of cuticular papillae. Results Several different glandular types in the dyspnoid species herein studied could be distinguished: Scent glands of Nemastomatidae. are strikingly hidden and can hardly be detected from the outside. such as found in Paranemastoma quadripunctatum or Nemastoma lugubre. Scent glands of the Trogulus-type. Raspotnig et al. Specimens of the eupnoid species Amilenus aurantiacus were studied for comparison. such as found in Trogulus tricarinatus. were collected from soil samples at different locations in Upper Austria. so far largely unknown secretion modes (Juberthie et al. The internal anatomy of scent glands was studied by semithin-histological sectioning and subsequent 3dmodelling of the scent glands with the help of reconstruction-software. Austria. scent 396 . Ozopores are completely covered and cannot be seen from the outside. leading to the ventral side of the body. 1991.com. Siedlce. By contrast.Book of Abstracts.g. The glands open into a kind of external secretion atrium. e. Nemastomatidae and Trogulidae. Karl-Franzens University Graz. This study aims to shed light on the scent gland morphology of some selected dyspnoid species. miriamschaider@hotmail. Scent glands in Anelasmocephalus hadzii are filled with cobweb-like projections of the glandular epithelium. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.

a representative of Palpatores-Eupnoi. Mass. Journal of Morphology..Book of Abstracts. The biology of Opiliones. Morphology of defence glands of the opilionids (Daddy Longlegs) Leiobunum vittatum and L. and has not been reported from the sister group Ischyropsalidoidea (Juberthie et al. 2007. & Stoev P. a trend to hide ozopores – instead of exposing them – can be observed: In particular the development of a secondary atrium covering the ozopores may even be unique within the Troguloidea. Scent gland features like the cobweb-like structures in the internal. Acknowledgements This study was supported by a DOC-fFORTE-fellowship of the Austrian Academy of Sciences at the Institute of Zoology. Discussion Scent gland constructions of dyspnoid Troguloidea conspicuously differ from the so far described defensive glands of other Opiliones as reported from some Laniatores (Juberthie 1976). glandular cavities of Anelasmocephalus or solid boli in the reservoirs of Trogulus are not known from the latter groups and may represent characteristics of the Dyspnoi. Juberthie C. Siedlce. Karl-Franzens-University Graz (project number 22852). Schuster R. 2005) and palpatorid Eupnoi (Clawson 1988). 1868 (Opiliones: Sironidae). 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 397 . Pp 62-87. Ultrastructure of dermal and defence glands in Cyphophthalmus duricorius Joseph.B. European Arachnology 2005 Acta Zoologica Bulgarica. 1991. Harvard University Press. With respect to external features. & Alberti G. Cyphophthalmi (Gutjahr et al. 13: 155-160. the slit-shaped scent gland openings of Amilenus aurantiacus are embedded in a pore that is exposed on a cuticular protrusion dorsal to legs I. Suppl. Poland glands of Amilenus aurantiacus. Machado G. In: Deltshev C. Cambridge.). 1980). Giribet G. Phylogeny and biogeography. (eds). flavum (Clawson 1988). This assumption is underlined by the fact that a similar situation with solid glandular contents in scent gland reservoirs has also been described in ischyropsalids (Dyspnoi) (Juberthie et al..L. (eds. In: Pintoda-Rocha R. 2005. & Giribet G. 196:363-381. Revue d Ecologie et de Biologie du Sol. Gutjahr M. Unlike the hidden ozopores of all soildwelling Dyspnoi herein investigated. 1: 41-48. Chemical defence in soil Opiliones. References Clawson R. 1988. The presence of distinct scent gland types especially in soil-dwelling Dyspnoi may be indicative of multiple evolutionary traits that possibly resulted in scent gland functions apart from typical chemical defence. flavum (Arachnida: Opiliones: Palpatores: Phalangiidae). Harvestmen. & Kury A. Lopez et al. 1976. 1991). show similar features as previously described for the eupnoid species Leiobunum vittatum and L.

Les glandes odorants des Ischyropsalidae souterrains (Opilions): ultrastructure et role. Palpatores.Vé. Leutgeb V. 147-161. & Komposch C. & Rambla M. Ischyropsalididae). pp. 2009. C. Unusual morphology of scent glands in Trogulus tricarinatus (Opiliones. particularites électromicroscopiques du prosoma et de ses appendices.Book of Abstracts. Mémoires de Biospéologie. Raspotnig G. Naphthoquinones and anthraquinones from scent glands of a dyspnoid harvestman. 1979 Barcelone. 18: 39-46. & Raspotnig G. Trogulidae): evidence for a nondefensive role... 37: 78-83. Lopez A.. 398 . Emerit M.. Schaider M. Poland Juberthie C. Paranemastoma quadripunctatum. Station nouvelles. Lopez A.R. Schaider M. Journal of Arachnology. Siedlce. 1991. IX. 1879 (Opiliones. & Juberthie-Jupeau L. 1980. Contribution a l´étude de Sabacon paradoxum Simon. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 2010. 36: 158-162. Colloque Arach.

Mesobolivar. This stage however was the richest in Cachoeira (111.564).362 individuals of which 40% were adults (4. Poland Monitoring spider diversity to assess the potential of secondary forests for biodiversity conservation in the southern Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil Ludger Scheuermann. hubert. We used three collection methods following widely recognized standard protocols adapted to our needs: time-based “beating” of spiders from lower vegetation during daytime. Each stage was represented by three replicate plots. Sampling of spiders was carried out in three succession stages of secondary forests (H .inbioveritas.arboreal.5). Linyphiidae). followed by A stage. In total we collected 11. Spider genera of the Ctenidae family as typical forest 399 . In Cachoeira the M stage showed the highest genera number. Siedlce.raub@smnk. orb weavers (Araneidae) and jumping spiders (Salticidae).de Spider assemblages in forests of the southern Mata Atlântica were studied to enhance knowledge of the diversity of these forests and as part of a larger project (www. The aim of the study was the assessment of the potential of secondary forests for the conservation of biodiversity in a situation where altered forests dominate a fragmented landscape.herbaceous. Here for the A stage only 82.1+/-16. which were identified to 37 families and 170 genera.net).median stage) and old growth forest (F .de. followed by zorid wandering spiders (Zoridae).de. The study was realized between 2005 and 2008 in forests inside two private protection areas of the Brazilian NGO SPVS “Reserva do Rio Cachoeira” and “Reserva Serra do Itaqui” situated within the Environmental Protection Area Guaraquecaba in Paraná.7+/-21. Karlsruhe.g.forest) serving as a reference. Pholcidae).43 genera were estimated. Germany. ludger.Book of Abstracts.5). other genera we found only in older forests (e. The forest stages showed an inconsistent image concerning genera richness. M . For the M stage 90+/-10. An ordination analysis of the genera composition by PCA revealed a distinct differentiation of the two younger stages from the old secondary stage and the old growth. Most individuals belonged to the cob-weavers (Theridiidae). whereas in Itaqui a younger stage (A) was richest in genera.5 genera were estimated. Some genera only appeared in the two younger forest types (e. To compare the stages in their genera richness the rarefaction method was used. Anodoration.scheuermann@smnk.1+/-8. Florian Raub & Hubert Höfer State Museum of Natural History.g. We used Chao 2 to estimate the genera richness of each stage: in Itaqui the highest genera number was estimated for the old growth (119. We analysed which portion of the spider assemblage observed in “old growth” forests can exist in younger. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.hoefer@smnk. naturally re-grown secondary forests and if these forests can be classified by means of their spider species composition. florian. time-based nocturnal hand sampling and pitfall trapping with an exposition time of 1 week. so that in total 2x12 sites were sampled. A .

Book of Abstracts. We conclude that secondary forests older than 50 years can serve as a surrogate habitat for some but not all genera (species) of the old growth. This is an important contribution to the multi-taxon approach to develop a biological classification system for secondary forests in the Mata Atlântica as a knowledge basis for future land management decision. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 400 . Some genera (species) can serve as indicator taxa for forest age stages. Poland dwellers increased in abundance from young to old forest. Siedlce. Typical open-land spiders like the Lycosidae were decreasing along the forest succession. Lycosidae occurring in old growth forests belong to different genera.

the definition of a species naturally remains as variable as diversity itself and is a constant issue of debate. species descriptions that meet the demand of more than one concept appear more acceptable to satisfy modern needs.Schoenhofer@gmx. as well as in most other animals described in the last centuries. as known for many other groups of arthropods. But how do we identify diversity? And which characters for species delineation are useful within a set of variables? This speech will give an overview on species concepts and methods used in harvestmen systematic to deal with this central problem in biology. Despite these difficulties in definition. it can be identified by anyone without involving expensive or difficult-to-access laboratory techniques. C.F. Poland Species concepts and cryptic diversity in harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) . So we can distinguish between variability and “true” characters to delineate species. Albeit the size and colouration of the species varied. Roewer. based on morphological characters. the “species” is the basis for any political debate concerning diversity or conservation management. the typological species concept. Axel. Schönhofer Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz. genital morphology appeared constant. Only now. For species described upon morphological characters alone the importance of discriminating characters underwent a remarkable change when Silhavy described several Opilio-species in Central Europe upon male genital morphology. And while the framework of species definitions in general deals with the human need to classify diversity. Diversity is defined within a given frame. Within arthropods. Germany. A morphospecies has the great advantage that.net The "species" is the basic unit of systematic and taxonomy and thereby one of the most important units in the science of biology. most of his species have or will face a revalidation of 401 . for example a group of organisms or an ecosystem.a short overview on methods and perspectives Axel L. But unlike in other natural sciences. They enable to define species in a variety of organisms that do not match other species concepts or do extend species definition from present-day to future and past. On the other hand a lot of experience and knowledge is needed to identify intraspecific variation compared to species delineating characters and it is often reasonable to investigate other traits to discriminate the two. prevailed. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. At present about 26 definitions of “species” do exist. once a good discriminating character is recognised. The delineation of cryptic diversity and species demands thorough knowledge of the system and its underlying mechanisms. Siedlce.Book of Abstracts. the next step of validation of diversity upon an appropriate species concept is possible. Although this dogmatic change first remained unacknowledged by the dominating scientist in this field. like physics or chemistry where units demand a clear definition. suggesting its high usage for species identification.

Poland their genital morphology. the method can have many drawbacks and needs careful investigation of the study system. The biospecies concept is not applicable to a range of species for example fossils or parthenogenetic organisms. Speaking of allopatric populations. There are many other possibilities to delineate species. assuming reproductive isolation of a species. Martens showed these glands to play an important role in the mating process and their form and position on the chelicerae to be species specific. The phylogenetic species concept comes within the limit of this topic. The biological species concept. methods investigating genetic markers have strong influence on many parts of biological science. The comparison of homologous strands of DNA is a powerful tool to investigate and quantify diversity in organisms beforehand showing no discriminating characters. Siedlce. allopatry is known as one of the main processes to induce speciation. Direct confirmation is only possible upon breeding experiments or indirectly by sympatric occurrence of species that thereby obviously do not interbreed. Nevertheless. by ethological or morphological traits. a mere genetic species definition needs further support to be applicable and accepted in everyday life. While the field of molecular systematic answers important and sophisticated questions on diversity. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. subsequently asking what is to be considered as “independent”. This species concept is somehow difficult to handle as it allows a very subjective view on species. As in many Dyspnoi Ischyropsalis exhibits special glands on the first cheliceral segment. Reviews strongly suggest validation of species defined by barcoding upon other lines of evidence. to include biogeographical information in the description and delineation of species. A negative example is Roewer. It assumes any independent genetic lineage as species. as behaviour or chromosomes. purely genetically defined species are unconvincing when not supported by other independent lines of evidence such as morphology or geographical traits. Allopatric populations have to be supported. But all need to be validated upon other traits to proof their 402 . who frequently misused geographic information to describe species upon “remarkable” new records. that can cost a lot of time and money. Consequently. properly interpreted. It is common sense. speciation and evolution. Today. is currently the most widely accepted species hypothesis. This was the case in the European genus Ischyropsalis thoroughly revised by Martens. despite being a “true” definition. biogeographic information is important considering the isolation of populations that caused speciation as we can show in several groups of the genus Trogulus. Albeit. He thereby showed mating behaviour to isolate species and validated the connected morphological characters as useful to identify biospecies. Molecular analyses yield comparable and quantifiable data that enable statistically evaluable results. Nevertheless it is upon the most difficult to substantiate.Book of Abstracts. for example. European Ischyropsalis showed an interesting distribution until Martens revised the genus. Martens not only supported male genital morphology as key character in many groups of Opiliones but showed combination with other morphological features in Ischyropsalis.

403 . In view of a modern approach the definition of species should not be based upon a single character but should be carefully checked for concordance with other characters and species concepts to increase the reliability of the species description. require most careful validation upon other lines of evidence. Poland reliability for species identification. do not represent the Holy Grail to systematic and taxonomy. as barcoding. Nevertheless all these methods are an important basis to delineate diversity and subsequently investigate for the possibility of cryptic species. Siedlce. but.Book of Abstracts. in the light of accumulating experience in genetics. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. This is especially true as new methods.

capitata). 76o34'E). 76o34'E). 77o44'E). play an important role in the regulation of the number of insects. Coimbatore. var. India Introduction: Spiders are an integral part of global biodiversity. There is increasing evidence that polyphagic predators. Walp. Kothamangalam (9o58'N. Mathew2. drpothalil@rediffmail. guild structure.). a pioneering study was undertaken to study the spider fauna in various agroecosystems in the state of Kerala in India. cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Apart from documenting spiders. 77o4'E) of Idukki district. Altitude in these districts ranges from seaboard to 2695 m above MSL. 1999). seasonality.) and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. etc in the various ecosystems. ecology. The crops selected for the study were coconut (Cocos nucifera L. India. the study also envisaged to examine the qualitative and quantitative aspects of their diversity.Book of Abstracts. Kochi. India. a survey of the araneid population along with the study of their biology and ecology is necessary.). Trichur and Palghat districts in central Kerala. Being insectivores. their occurrence throughout the growing season and their abundance are important and inevitable components of biological control and pest management in any agroecosystem. Against this backdrop. full investigation of the means by which spiders influence pest abundance is long overdue. Murugesan3 & John Joseph1 1 2 Sacred Heart College. ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis (L. Mundackatharappel J. most would agree that agricultural arachnology is still in its infancy compared with the breadth and depth of entomological research on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and biological control (Uetz et al. 404 . Poland Spiders in agroecosystems of Kerala. Piravom (9o58'N.com IT@School Project. Kochi. to which spiders belong. S. spiders are of economic value to human beings because of their ability to suppress pest abundance in agroecosystems. Sampling sites selected were Adimali (10o5'N. To form a basis for research into the role of spiders to determine the economic importance of them in different agroecosystems. Faced with the need to reduce pesticide usage on crops and optimize natural biological control. They play many important roles in ecosystems as predators and sources of food for other creatures. Material and methods The study area consisted of Ernakulam. India Pothalil A. snake gourd (Trichosanthes cucumerina L.) and vegetables including bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) Voigt. Idukki. Siedlce. While arachnologists and others working in agroecosystems have been encouraged by results of recent studies suggesting that spiders can impact pest populations and reduce crop damage. Information of the spider species present. Sebastian1. India 3 Institute of Forest Genetics and Tree Breeding. 77o6'E) and Kanthalloor (10o5'N. Murikkasseri (9o45'N. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.

Results and discussion In coconut. 76o16'E) and Parakkadavu (11o15'N. pseudoannulata was the most abundant species. Araneidae was the taxonomically dominant family. In ivy gourd. Murikasseri in Idukki district recorded the highest diversity indices and species richness. The numerically dominant species was P. Barrion & Litsinger 1995. Poland Manjapra (9o58'N. 29 genera and 11 families. Araneidae was the taxonomically dominant family. Ground runners constituted the abundant spider guild in bitter gourd ecosystem. 405 . The numerically dominant species was P. Olympus SZ112). Ground runners formed the abundant spider guild in this ecosystem. In bitter gourd. The numerically dominant family was Lycosidae. Ground runners constituted the dominant guild. and Alathur (10o39'N. pseudoannulata. a total of 3504 individuals belonging to 66 species. followed by premonsoon months (February to May) and the least occurrence in the monsoon period (June to August). surveys yielded 1276 individuals belonging to 41 species. 76o13'E) and Chuvannamannu (10o31'N. Analysis of seasonality revealed the highest species occurrence in the post-monsoon months (October to January). Ground runners were the abundant spider guild in snake gourd ecosystem. In vegetable ecosystems. Thekkumbagham (10o31'N. The collected spiders were identified with the help of literature (Tikader 1987. 76o13'E). Parakkadavu recorded the highest diversity indices and species richness. Alathur in Palghat district recorded the highest diversity indices and species richness. Population growth showed a sharp increase as the crop advanced in growth and reached the peak at early flowering and early fruiting seasons. Population growth showed a steady increase as the crop advanced and reached a peak at early flowering and early fruiting seasons. The taxonomically dominant family was Salticidae while the numerically dominant family was Lycosidae. In snake gourd. Random transect method using the technique adopted by Aiken and Coyle (2000) was used for spider sampling in coconut plantations. 23 genera and 10 families were sampled. 472 individuals belonging to 33 species. Siedlce. 38 genera and 14 families were sampled. Among the sites. followed by a decline during the late fruiting season. 76o31'E) and Pathanapuram (10o39'N. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Deeleman-Reinhold 2000) using stereoscopic microscopes (Leica MS5. The numerically dominant family was Lycosidae. followed by a decline towards the end of the vegetative growth of the crop. 75o49'E) of Ernakulam district. Vellanikkara (13o31'N. Dippenaar-Shoeman & Jocque 1997. The numerically dominant species was P. Manjapra in Ernakulam district recorded the highest diversity indices. samplings were done using quadrate method. P. 41 genera and 14 families were sampled. a total of 2120 individuals belonging to 55 species. Family Araneidae was the taxonomically dominant family. sumatrana. sumatrana. Population growth showed a steady increase as the crop advanced and reached a peak at early flowering and early fruiting seasons. 76o13'E) of Trichur district. The numerically dominant family was Lycosidae. 76o55'E) of Palghat district.Book of Abstracts.

predatory potential and sensitivity to chemical and botanical pesticides in order to fully utilize them as successful biological control agents in these ecosystems. 700 pp. Ground runners constituted the abundant spider guild in cowpea ecosystem. and Trochanterriidae. Deeleman-Reinhold C.L. Gnaphosidae. African Spiders. 15 genera and 6 families were sampled. Habitat distribution. References Aiken M. The results substantiate the fact that population densities and species abundance of spider communities in agricultural fields can be as high as in natural ecosystems. 9. as well as the logistics of their conservation. Studies worldwide indicate that spiders play a role in the suppression of insect pests and that generalist predators such as spiders can limit exponential increases in pest populations and need to form a part of integrated pest management strategies in agro-ecosystems. & Litsinger J. 28: 97-106. Dippenaar-Schoeman A. life history and behavior of Tetragnatha spider species in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 1997. Journal of Arachnology. Hence it is of utmost importance to undertake elaborate studies on the ecology and biology of agrobiont spiders. However. Philippines. Riceland spiders of South and South-East Asia.Book of Abstracts. Liocranidae.A. & Coyle F.S. 1995. 591 pp. The numerically dominant species was P.A. Plant Protection Research Institute. 392 pp. An Identification Manual. & Jocqué R. Barrion A. Ground runners formed the abundant spider guild in the cabbage ecosystem. CAB International. The population growth curve revealed a gradual increase as the crop advanced in growth and reached the peak at the mid to late fruiting seasons. sumatrana. Poland In cowpea. UK and IRRI. 406 . 23 genera and 8 families. 2000. Siedlce. Brill Academic Publishers. Pretoria. The main reason for this can be attributed to limited number of studies along these lines. The numerically dominant family was Lycosidae. prey preference. sampling yielded a total of 862 individuals belonging to 33 species. despite their ubiquity and high densities. Prodidomidae. Plant Protection Institute Handbook No. The population then showed a slight decline towards the harvest period. pseudoannulata. The numerically dominant family was Lycosidae. This peak was then followed by slight decline towards the end of the vegetative growth of the crop. Population growth showed steady increase as the crop grew and reached the peak at head formation stage. Family Araneidae was the taxonomically dominant family. The numerically dominant species was P. Kothamangalam in Ernakulam district recorded the highest diversity indices and species richness. Family Araneidae was the taxonomically dominant family. spiders have not received the due recognition in this enterprise. ARC. further investigations are warranted to study their interaction with the environment. However. breeding behaviour. 2000.T. a total of 266 individuals belonging to 21 species. Forest Spiders of South East Asia: With a Revision of the Sac and Ground Spiders (Araneae: Clubionidae. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Corinnidae. In cabbage.

W.B.Book of Abstracts. Poland Tikader B. 1999. & Cady A. Journal of Arachnology. Zoological Survey of India. 1987. Uetz G. 27: 270-280.K. Halaj J. Siedlce. 407 . Guild structure of spiders in major crops. Calcutta. Handbook of Indian Spiders. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 251 pp..

primarily from the Mesozoic era. as evidenced by fossils. In particular.edu Over the last few years. I first discuss new methods for studying spider fossils. Siedlce. Poland The latest on the oldest: recent advances in spider palaeontology Paul A. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. and since the oldest amber with inclusions is early Cretaceous. with particular emphasis on how our perception of spider diversity through geological time has changed as a result of these finds (see figure). Lawrence. Finally. USA. Selden The Paleontological Institute. including imaging techniques such as synchrotron x-ray CT scanning. Some of the fossils in rock matrix preservation can be quite remarkably preserved. formerly almost barren of fossil spider records. Department of Geology. rock matrix preservation fossils extend our knowledge of fossil spider diversity much further back in time. In this review of fossil spiders. there have been many changes to our perception of the evolutionary history of spiders. Then recent finds of spider fossils. are discussed. the Mesozoic era. formerly the oldest known spider. from the Devonian period. University of Kansas. the reinterpretation of Attercopus.Book of Abstracts. KS. is discussed. 408 . is now much better known. selden@ku.

uniba. sturmi is difficult to see. triguttatus). After 50 years Almquist (2005) compared these species being based on a shape of embolus. triguttatus (Fabricius.com. sturmi (Hahn. elongated terminal apophysis. Comparing male palps of both species we have found the more reliable characters. triguttatus.sk Archer (1951) brought into science a lot of synonyms. which is very small and weakly sclerotized. Another less interesting character lies in comparison between button-shaped paracymbium of A. broken terminal spines and other deformations. triguttatus. saddle-shaped conductor and relative big cochleariform distended subterminal apophysis. 409 . On the other hand palp of A. This character. because it isn’t covered with subterminal apophysis. fingered. is explicit and comprehensible enough only with additional information on morphology and position of other sclerites. however. Siedlce.Book of Abstracts. because his description of males was based on median apophysis. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Locket & Millidge (1953) compared two different “x” – marked sclerites. Terminal apophysis has smaller but more markedly separated fingered elongation. sturmi and embolus of A. krumpal@fns. Despite the Levi´s note (1971) on insufficient value of median apophysis in identification due to its function as a supporting sclerite during copulation. most of determination keys still use it to distinguish males of A. 1793). which put emphasis on general appearance of palp (they are believed to be subterminal apophysis of A. sturmi and paracymbium without enlarging A. Poland Comparison of male palps of orb-weavers between Araneus sturmi and A. In the examined collections many specimens of A. These three sclerites completely cover small short embolus. sturmi has wider. Palp of A. with notes on identification characters 9 Anna Šestáková & Miroslav Krumpál asestakova@gmail. Our study follows up Locket & Millidge´s work. sturmi were misidentified as A. During revision of Araneus species we noticed that the same specimen could has different median apophysis on left and right palp. 1831) and A. It is based on general appearance of palpal organ. triguttatus. because a small embolus of A. triguttatus has clearly visible long pointed embolus. 9 The project is partly supported by grant VEGA 1/0176/09.

In some of them the identity of individually fogged trees was noted. Lomonosov Moscow State University.Book of Abstracts. cold temperate areas. 1 locality). the Linyphiidae are three times less diverse in tropical Africa than in the adjacent zoogeographical region roughly equal to it in size. Moscow. Spiders were sampled with the pyrethrum knockdown method following the protocol outlined by Stork (1987). For comparison. Is such a pronounced difference due mostly to the shortage of taxonomic studies or does it indeed reflect true biogeographical situation? In the attempt to answer this interesting question. Poland How many linyphiids (Araneae: Linyphiidae) are there in tropical Africa? Rimma R. In total. we estimated the total number of linyphiid spices in the Afrotropical region using the unknown/known species ratio in samples collected from several sites across tropical Africa by forest canopy fogging. this family is outpaced for its diversity only by the Salticidae and Lycosidae from the Afrotropical region. Material and methods Samples were collected in 12 sites of the montane forest : Congo DR (1993. Seyfulina Department of Invertebrate Zoology. r-seyfulina@yandex. the species richness of Linyphiidae in tropical Africa was underestimated for a long time. It is not surprising that most studies of Linyphiidae have been focused on the Holarctic. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. mostly with novel descriptions. 1 locality). leaving the fauna of other regions rather understudied. where they constitute the largest portion of the spider species richness (e. the number of reported species quintupled. Berland (1955) believed they are very rare in Africa and absent from the western part of the continent because the linyphiid fauna of the region was poorly known at that time. more than 1350 linyphiid species are reported from the Western Palaearctic (Europe and Northern Africa) bordering with the Afrotropic and including. With more than 400 species described to date. among others. Spiders were identified during one year collaboration with the Royal Museum for Central Africa.g. 3 localities). 410 . So. This number is probably close to the real species richness in the region. as at least European linyphiid fauna is fairly well known and new species are rarely described. Faculty of Biology. 2001-2003. 5 localities). Belgium (under the financial support of the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office). Thus. 3 localities) and one site with lowland rainforest: Ghana (2005.ru Introduction Linyphiidae are considered to be typical spiders for the northern temperate zone. 15 species of trees were processed. Siedlce. Kenya (1999. Uganda (1997. All sampling sites are located in tropical rainforest. During the ensuing years. Rwanda (1993. Russia. Miller & Hormiga 2004).

The Coleopterists Bulletin. 2004. Poland The species number of Afrotropical Linyphiidae was estimated as follows: N=D*(100/(100-P)). 1992. in temperate regions their fraction is much higher due to a sharp decrease in the diversity of other spider groups. Arthropod faunal similarity of Bornean rain forest trees. Another calculation with using the data obtained by pitfall traps in one of the studied localities (although not very representative. Cladistics. more generally. 1982. I. 12: 219-226. P – the percentage of morpho-species. does not differ drastically between the temperate zone and the tropics. Erwin T. Conclusions The minimal estimated number of linyphiid spider species in tropical Africa is 1000.A. Les Arachnides De L’Afrique Noire Française.N. This formula was used by Hodkinson (1992) for estimation of the total insect species number. The Hodkinson’s formula produces the estimate of 1335 species. a suggestion being in agreement with the hygrophilous ecology of the Linyphiidae. only fifty specimens of 5 species were collected) yielded the same number. D – the number of currently described species. 8: 505–508. 20: 385-442. Global insect diversity revisited. Probably the rain forests of tropical Africa harbour as many linyphiids as boreal forests. Ecological Entomology.L. Stork N. 1987. However. where N is the projected number of species.E. Journal of Tropical Ecology. Taking into account that the arthropod fauna in canopy is twice as rich in species as in the forest floor (Erwin. References Berland L. Siedlce. Tropical forests: their richness in Coleoptera and other arthropod species.Book of Abstracts. 36(1): 74-75. Miller J. Dakar.F. 1982) we reduced the estimated number to 1000 species. 411 . about 3350 specimens belonging to 84 species were examined. Erigoninae). Results In this study. Clade stability and the addition of data: A case study from erigonine spiders (Araneae: Linyphiidae. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. The linyphiid species richness is similar between tropical Africa and the Western Palaearctic or. the weighted mean is 69 per site. The percentage of unknown species varies from 25% to 100% between the localities. The total percentage of new species is 76. & Hormiga G. 1955. Hodkinson I.D.

. MA. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Gonyleptoidea). the latter harbouring most of the order’s striking examples of morphological and behavioural diversity. under dynamic homology using POY v. Siedlce. the largely tropical Laniatores encompasses almost two-thirds (over 4000 species) of described opilionid diversity.2. 4.edu. Harvard University. Laniatores is presently divided into two tenuous infraorders. Approximately half of all known Opiliones species (and 22 of the 45 families) are within Grassatores. The morphology of this clade and the potential for a new family of Laniatores is discussed. ggiribet@oeb. The evolution of key morphological traits is discussed in the context of the phylogeny. but has received far less than commensurate phylogenetic study.harvard. Cambridge. Parsimony analyses strongly support the monophyly of Grassatores and some constituent superfamilies (e. One group of genera does not cluster with any described families. Insidiatores and Grassatores.1. the phylogeny of Grassatores is reassessed with increased taxonomic sampling and ten molecular loci.g. such as Samooidea.Book of Abstracts. psharma@fas. Previous assessments of Grassatores relationships have recovered few stable clades and fewer supported nodes.harvard.edu Of the four suborders of Opiliones. In the present study. 412 . Other superfamilies. Poland Grassatores phylogeny based on ten molecular markers: the evolution of a hyperdiverse arachnid infraorder (Arachnida: Opiliones: Laniatores) Prashant Sharma & Gonzalo Giribet Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology. are polyphyletic and require revision. USA.

Southeast Asia). the phylogeny of the circum-Pacific arachnid family Zalmoxidae was investigated using a multilocus dataset (six molecular loci.edu.edu The species richness and endemism of the Southwest Pacific are traditionally held to result from dispersal from Australasian continental landmasses (e. Harvard University. 5800 bp).. New Guinea. ggiribet@oeb.harvard. Siedlce. 413 . Neotropical lineages within Zalmoxidae form a paraphyletic grade at the base of a derived. Cambridge. USA. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.harvard. This highly uncommon biogeographical signal is contrasted with traditional views of Southwest Pacific biogeography. Poland Upstream colonization of Australasia by Neotropical arachnids: phylogenetic relationships of the Zalmoxidae (Arachnida: Opiliones: Laniatores) Prashant Sharma & Gonzalo Giribet Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology. under dynamic homology using POY v. Australia.1. monophyletic Indo-Pacific clade. psharma@fas. in concert with prolonged isolation. MA. totaling ca.Book of Abstracts.g. In the present study. This topology and the relative phylogenetic placement of New Guinean and Southeast Asian lineages suggest upstream colonization of Australasia by a Neotropical radiation. 4. Parsimony analyses support the monophyly of Zalmoxidae and a Neotropical origin of this clade.2.

414 . evenness. Sheikhupura Punjab. guild structure of spiders and pest populations. Significant positive correlation was observed between active density of agrobiont spiders and prey populations.com 2 Department of Zoology University of the Punjab.Book of Abstracts. All sampled habitats had similar family and species composition. Sheikupura. Pakistan. Punjab. diversity. Lahore. Siedlce. however activity density and richness of spiders was significantly different. Tahir2 1 District Officer Agriculture.com The study was aimed at to describe the effects of five wheat habitats (which differed in adjacent crops and agronomic practices) on the activity density. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. hafiztahirpk1@yahoo. Pakistan. sherawat25@hotmail. Extension Malik Anwar Road. richness. Overall diversity and evenness of spiders did not differ among different habitats. A total of 23097 specimens of spiders belonging to 47 species. Abida Butt & Hafiz M. 31 genera and 12 families were collected from five different habitats. Poland Effect of adjacent crops and agronomic practices on the active density and diversity of spiders in wheat ecosystems Sher Muhammad Sherawat1. The study was conducted in district. Pakistan during 2005-6 and 2006-7.

Deepa Kadu2 & Ujjwala Deshmukh4 1 2 Shankarlal Khandelwal College. Amravati.21°45'N. Siedlce. We have reported 87 species from 11 genera. Gasteracantha 2 8. Araneus 11 2. 2007-2009. Mahesh Chikhale3. Government Vidarbha Institute of Science & Humanities. SGB Amravati University. India 3 Indian Society of Arachnology.Book of Abstracts. Genus Number of species 1. Araneid genera and species recorded from Melghat Tiger Reserve. Neoscona 28 10. India 4 Department of Zoology. 312 m 1178 m a. Akola. 76°57’E . Chorizopes 3 4. The maximum species diversity was noted from August to January. Zygiella 6 415 .l. The area constitutes forests which are part of world’s fifth biologically richest heritage country and the Reserve forms an important corridor between forest areas of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra ensuring contiguity of forests in Satpuras.) is situated in the Satpura hill ranges of Central India (Melghat forests. Cyrtarachne 2 6.in Department of Zoology. out of 5 surviving tiger subspecies.2. It is a typical representative of Central Indian Highland forming a part of the biogeographic zone “6 E-Deccan Peninsula”. Cyrtophora 7 7. It beholds one of the viable populations the Royal Bengal Tiger. Out of 237 240 Tigers in Maharashtra in 2002. Among the collected species 28 are males and 59 are females. Cyclosa 16 5. Amravati district.77°30'E. Observations A survey of araneids was carried out in Melghat Tiger Reserve during 20072009. Vidarbha region of Maharashtra) and is bordered with Madhya Pradesh in the North and East. including all the Tiger range countries. Poltys 2 11. Table 1. Amravati. m_shirbhate@yahoo. Amit Vairale B. Out of 87 species 25 are new.s. Amravati. 75 . Larinia 6 9. India Introduction Melghat Tiger Reserve (21°15'N . India. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Poland Diversity of spiders from the family Araneidae inhabiting dry deciduous forest of Melghat Tiger Reserve (India) Milind Shirbhate1.80 (about 30%) were reported from Melghat Tiger Reserve.co. Argiope 4 3.

nov. Female 10. nov. Cyclosa sp. Araneus sp. Cyrtophora citricola (Forskal) Female 40. Male 44. Gasteracantha sp. Male 16. Cyclosa neilensis Tikader. Araneus pachganiensis Tikader and Bal Female 6.Book of Abstracts. Female 416 . Chorizopes calciope (Simon) Female 18. Cyrtarachne sp. Poland Species 1. Cyclosa moonduensis Male 27. Cyrtophora sp. nov. Cyclosa insulana (Costa) Male 25. Cyclosa sp. Female 29. nov. nov. Male 17. Cyrtophora cicatrosa (Stoliczka) Female 39. Cyclosa sp. Argione aemula (Walckenaer) Male 14. nov. Chorizopes khanjanes Tikader. Female 32. Female 15. Cyclosa bifida (Doleschall) Male 21. Argiope sp. Cyclosa bifida (Doleschall) Female 20. Female 33. Araneus mitifica (Simon) Male 5. Cyrtophora sp. Cyrtophora moluccensis (Doleschall) Female 41. nov. Female 11. nov. nov. Araneus sp. Cyclosa sp. Chorizopes anjanes Tikader. nov. Cyclosa fissicauda Simon Female 23. Female 42. Argiope sp. Araneus mitifica (Simon) Female 4. Female 37. nov. Cyrtophora sp. Female 9. Araneus bilunifera Pocock Female 2. Araneus pahalgaonensis Tikader and Bal Male 8. Araneus sp. Female 43. Female 35. Cyclosa hexatuberculata Female 24. nov. nov. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Cyclosa confraga (Thorell) Female 22. Siedlce. Male 34. nov. Male 12. Araneus cucurbitinus Clerck Female 3. Araneus sp. Argiope aemula (Walckenaer) Male 13. Cyclosa simoni Female 30. Cyrtophora bidenta Tikader Female 38. Female 19. Cyclosa mulmeinensis (Thorell) Female 28. Cyrtarachne bengalensis Tikader Female 36. nov. Araneus pahalgaonensis Tikader and Bal Female 7. Female 31. Cyclosa moonduensis Tikader Female 26. Cyclosa spirifera Simon.

Neoscona bengalensis Tikader and Bal Male 56. Neoscona theis (Walckenaer) Female 79. Zygeilla indica Tikader and Bal Male 84. Neoscona rumpfi (Thorell) Male 70. Zygiella sp. Neoscona shillongensis Tikader and Bal Male 71. Zygeilla melanocrania (Thorell) Female 85. Poltys nagpurensis Female 81. Female 417 . nov. Neoscona pavida (Simon) Female 68. Siedlce. Neoscona odites (Simon) Female 66. Zygiella sp. Female 87. Male 52. nov Female 82. Larinia chloris (Audouin) Male 48. Neoscona molemensis Tikader and Bal Female 61. Zygiella indica Tikader and Bal Female 83. nov. Larinia phtisica (L. Koch) Male 65. Male 76. Zygeilla melanocrania (Thorell) Male 86.Book of Abstracts. Female 75. Neoscona shillongensis Tikader and Bal Female 78. Neoscona sp. Poltys sp. nov. nov. nov. Neoscona lugubris (Walckenaer) Female 60. Neoscona nautica (L. Neoscona achine (Simon) Male 54. Koch) Female 50. Neoscona sp. Neoscona sinhagadensis (Tikader) Male 73. Neoscona theis (Walchenaer) Male 80. Larinia sp. Neoscona bengalensis Tikader and Bal Female 55. Neoscona achine (Simon) Female 53. Neoscona mukerjei Tikader Male 63. Neoscona chrysanthusi Tikader and Bal Female 57. nov. Neoscona laglaizei (Simon) Female 59. Neoscona rumpfi (Thorell) Female 69. Poland 45. Neoscona excelsus (Simon) Female 58. Male 77. Female 51. Koch) Male 49. Neoscona mukerjei Tikader Female 62. Koch) Female 64. nov. Female 74. Neoscona sinhagadensis (Tikader) Female 72. Neoscona sp. Larinia sp. Larinia chloris (Audouin) Female 47. Neoscona sp. nov. nov. Neoscona odites (Simon) Male 67. Neoscona nautica (L. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Female 46. Larinia phtisica (L. Gasteracantha sp.

using for example Clustal. Using computers makes much easier the analysis of the large quantitative data sets. and inserting them in open-access databases too.Book of Abstracts. Bioinformatics possesses many research areas. Poland Application of bioinformatic tools in the analysis of spider venom Paweł Siuda Adam Mickiewicz University. Based on the amino-acid sequences. It can be useful for spiders systematic. mainly from the biochemical point of view. This procedure will allow to detect the protein active center and to learn about its biological functions. kainael. among other peptides and proteins. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. bioinformatics allows gathering more accurate knowledge about spiders.ps@gmail. we can create tertiary structure models. with the use of bioinformatics tools such as SwissPDBViewer or PyMOL. Multiple sequence alignments of proteins. Poznan. Poland. Other major research areas are the protein structure prediction and the computational evolutionary biology. for example the analysis of the genes expression.com Bioinformatics is a discipline dealing with the use of Information Technology and computer science to solve a wide variety of biological problems. Siedlce. 418 . which requires complicated mathematical calculations. which will show the inferred evolutionary relationships among various species of spiders. To sum up. the proteins expression and the genomes annotations. allow us to create a phylogenetic tree. Spider venoms are mixtures of different compounds.

Rilaena azerbaijanica Snegovaya. On the North it is bordered by the Mugan steppe. Azerbaijan Natalya Yu. Platybessobius caucasicus Šilhavý. 1878. giljarovi).com The Talysh is a part of Azerbaijan territory (38°24'N . nov. 2005. 1911. Koch. nigrum Martens. R. Mediostoma variabile Martens. lepidus L. 2007) comb. As a result of current research. pallens Kulczyński. Staręga 1966. 1919). 2007. 2006. Ph. 1912). zuvandicum Snegovaya. only 12 species of Opiliones were known from there (Morin 1937. 419 . 1778). 2004. Paranemastoma filipes (Roewer. 2008) described as new for science (Snegovaya 1999. lederi Roewer. 47°58'E 48°52'E). 2007. Ph. Ph. two species listed above have been confirmed (P. M. Azerbaijan.Book of Abstracts. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. however it is impossible to check all his identifications. O. Dicranolasma ponticum Gruber. Poland Harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) from Talysh. 1978. 1911) and six species (Phalangium armatum Snegovaya. Zacheus bispinifrons Roewer. Snegovaya Institute of Zoology. 1895). O. consputus (Simon.39°22'N. caucasicus. 2006. M. O. Siedlce. Most of Morin's determinations were incorrect. 2005. Opilio coxipunctus (Sorensen. Before the current research. Homolophus azerbaijanicus Snegovaya. 1998 (earlier incorrectly determined as D. 1878). 1950. 1937. variabile). Staręga. 1876. talyshica (Snegovaya. 1901. staregai Snegovaya. 1923. snegovaya@yahoo. Roewer 1917. because the materials were lost during the World War II. ejuncidus Thorell. Baku. punctipes. with an area of 5370 km2. on the East by the Caspian Sea and on the South and West by Iran. 2005. filipes. Phalangium punctipes (L. Snegovaya & Staręga 2008). Koch. O. two species have been reported as new for this territory (Opilio parietinus (De Geer.. 1966. O. 1936. 2005. two species recorded as new for the Azerbaijan (Zachaeus birulai Redikorzev. Martens 2006): Acropsolilio talischensis Morin. P.

In the present study we particularly aim at analyzing changes of body sizes along environmental gradients (warm . Material was collected from April to November 2007 with pitfall traps. Preliminary results show the decrease in body size from warm and dry to cool and moist habitats. Siedlce. ulrichw@umk. We used Ellenberg indicator values (modified after Zarzycki 2002) for habitat classification.cool) that might indicate changes in prey size and availability. Institute of Biology. and preserved in 75% alcohol. psammophilous grassland and mesoxerophilous grassland. From each of the 12 analyzed spider assemblages. We trapped spiders within four differed habitats: a riparian forest. Izabela Hajdamowicz1 & Ulrich Werner2 1 Department of Zoology. The Bug valley represents well preserved European rivers.pl.Book of Abstracts.siedlce. we assessed total length and cephalothorax width for both sexes of each species. Poland. 420 . We studied spider communities at the Bug river valley in the eastern Poland. hajdamo@ap. fresh meadow.dry to moist . 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Poland. Nicolaus Copernicus University of Toruń. Poland Body size distributions of epigeic spider communities along an environmental gradient Marzena Stańska1.pl 2 Department of Animal Ecology.pl Body size distributions of spiders in natural habitats are still not well understood. University of Podlasie. Institute of Ecology and Environmental Protection.siedlce. Siedlce. stanska@ap.

2008). Stoltz & Maydianne C. then there can be selection on females to shape paternity (Jennions & Petrie 2000) independent of mating decisions. There are two natural windows of opportunity for mating by female redbacks. University of Toronto Scarborough. Genetic diversity may be a particularly important indirect benefit of polyandry if offspring disperse to unpredictable habitats (Garant et al. Siedlce. 421 . Material and methods Each female was mated to a total of two males. 2007). since physical separation removes the possibility of direct sperm competition. active sex pheromones on the web may lead to the attraction of rival males and possible re-mating (Stoltz et al. Canada Introduction Conflict between the sexes can lead to traits that bias the outcome of reproduction in favour of one sex while imposing costs on the other. during and shortly after a female’s first copulation. females re-advertise their receptivity by resuming pheromone production. whereas in a delayed mating treatment rivals mated approximately 60 days after the first copulation. 1995). 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Andrade Department of Biological Sciences. and the silk females use to rebuild them no longer contains pheromones (Stoltz et al. however. We staged matings between females and pairs of males of the Australian redback spider (Latrodectus hasselti Thorell). Eberhard 1996). these costs appear to be offset in some taxa by benefits that elevate the fitness of females that mate multiply compared to those that do not. Second. each of which was allowed a single copulation. The two independent sperm storage organs of females in many spider species allows laboratory manipulations that segregate sperm of competitors in different spermathecae. If variation in the paternity of offspring affects females’ fitness. but such effects could determine female and male fitness in nature. This provides a rare opportunity to test for evidence of biases in sperm use by females (Eberhard 2005). Poland Female cryptic choice and a cost of simultaneous polyandry Jeffrey A. Webs are largely dismantled by males during courtship however. with re-mating intervals mimicking those expected in nature. Paternity was assessed using a standard sterile male technique (Boorman & Parker 1976). later in the reproductive season. the rival was allowed to mate within 24 hours of the first copulation.B. providing a second window of opportunity for mating (Peramalpadas et al. In a simultaneous mating treatment. leading to post-copulatory sexual selection (cryptic choice. First.Book of Abstracts. It is not known how the interval between copulations affects paternity or potential costs and benefits of polyandry. 2007). This can isolate effects of cryptic choice on variation in sperm use. 2005). There are numerous costs associated with polyandry for females (Chapman et al.

after the second copulation the second male fathered most offspring (mean P2=71%. p=0. p=0. Discussion Our results show that. Thus. and the mechanism is selective sperm use of sperm stored in different spermathecae. in the delayed treatment. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. ANCOVA F1.f. Seventy-six females were placed in the delayed treatment as we anticipated that mortality would reduce our sample size prior to the second mating. To see whether the cost of polyandry depended on the mating interval. p<0. we compared survivorship of females in each treatment in the 60 days following the first mating trial (prior to the second mating in the delayed treatment). Females with a delayed second mating lived significantly longer (145+10 days) than those that mated with two males in quick succession (simultaneous longevity: 104±15 days.37. There was a significant effect of timing of insemination (F1. Results Paternity. Poland Twenty females were mated in the simultaneous treatment. Moreover. 95% CI: 62-82%) with P2 values over 80% in 45% (10/22) of our trials.71).82. Delayed females (which had only mated once) had significantly higher survivorship than simultaneous females (Wald=4. we also compared longevity of only those females that survived through the first 60 days of the experiment (in this test. 95% CI: 37-61%) with P2 (paternity of second male) values between 20-80% in 79% (15/19) of the trials. Our paternity data show that the overall effect of sperm use is that females roughly equalize average paternity of the two males across the total number of offspring produced in both simultaneous and delayed trials. see Snow & Andrade 2005). fathered by the normal male) or undeveloped (fathered by the irradiated male..001) on paternity. Females that had simultaneous inseminations by two males had significantly 422 .Book of Abstracts.53.37=9. In the delayed treatment. which is not significantly different from the 50% paternity seen in the simultaneous treatment (t22=-0. (2) polyandry decreases longevity of females and (3) longevity costs of polyandry depend on the mating interval. This entails a shift from sperm mixing to last-male sperm precedence when re-mating is delayed. Siedlce. and noted female post-mating longevity. n=75. This suggests cryptic female choice for novel males. To see whether there was a longevity cost of polyandry compared to monandry.32=10.=1. the eggs counted and classified as developed (spiderlings visible.53. delayed females had also mated a second time). Longevity. In the simultaneous treatment. We collected egg sacs as they were made throughout the female’s lifetime. Egg sacs were opened after 15 days.003).03). d. the 71% paternity of second males after this time reduced the overall first male paternity to 47%. p=0. our results show the timing of female multiple mating has serious implications for female longevity and fitness. although the first male fathers all offspring produced in the first 2 months (prior to the second mating). After mortality. average paternity was mixed in most cases (mean P 2=49%. our data set included twenty-two delayed females in which the treatment was completed. in redback spiders (1) females bias paternity to favour genetic diversity of offspring.

423 . & Bernatchez L. 2004. Liddle L. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Offspring genetic diversity increases fitness of female Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Interactions between the dosage of seminal products and female fitness have only recently been investigated directly (Radhakrishnan & Taylor 2007). Chapman T. 1976. Strong support for the genetic diversity hypothesis is provided by our results in the delayed re-mating treatment where females produced a number of offspring with one male before mating with a new male.J. In comparison a delay in re-mating may allow time to recover from the harmful effects of substances transferred during copulation. & Parker G. Eberhard W. Females that mated simultaneously with two rival males had a significant reduction in lifespan relative to that of females that mated with each after a two month delay. and the reproductive value of females to males in relation to female age and mating status. Why study spider sex: special traits of spiders facilitate studies of sperm competition and cryptic female choice. but longevity costs depended on the timing of a rival males’ copulation. Garant D. Thus. & Partridge L. The shift to 71% paternity of the second male at this point functionally equalized paternity across the two males. 32: 545-556. References Boorman E. Cost of mating in Drosophila melanogaster females is mediated by male accessory gland products.F. 1995. In redbacks copulation typically lasts approximately 20 minutes but all of the sperm is transferred within the first 5 minutes (Snow & Andrade 2005) suggesting ample time for the transfer of accessory ejaculatory substances (Eberhard 1996).. 57: 240-244. 373: 241-244. Poland reduced longevity compared to females that had a two-month delay between rival male inseminations. across the female’s lifetime production of offspring paternity is equal for both males. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. but not after two copulations in rapid succession.G. Siedlce. they should attempt to delay secondary matings. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology.A. Kalb J.F. 1: 145-155.. Princeton.. Here. Such considerations have important implications for female mating strategies dictating the timing of mate attraction that optimizes fitness.G. This may be caused by cumulative effects of deleterious substances passed in the ejaculate.M. we provide evidence that females exercise control over the outcome of paternity by selectively using the sperm of novel males. while genetic diversity may benefit females. 1996. Wolfner M. Thus. Sperm (ejaculate) competition in Drosophila melanogaster. Female control: sexual selection by cryptic female choice.. However polyandry can have costs in the form of reduced longevity when multiple mating occurs in rapid succession. Polyandry was clearly costly. We propose females may be able to negate effects after a single copulation. Journal of Arachnology. Here. 2005.Book of Abstracts. Dodson J. Eberhard W. Females’ ability to neutralize harmful chemicals contained within the ejaculate may depend on dose. Nature. balanced paternity from both males would require an increase in sperm use favouring the novel male. Ecological Entomology.

74: 1669-1674.D. 75: 21-64. Radhakrishnan P. M. Mated redback spider females re-advertise receptivity months after mating.N. Stoltz J.B. 7: 741-745.B. & Andrade M. Animal Behaviour. Ethology. Seminal fluids mediate sexual inhibition and short copula duration in mated female Queensland fruit flies. & Andrade M. 2008. Perampaladas K. 2005. Stoltz J.E.W. Snow L.A.S. Siedlce. 424 . 2007.. Why do females mate multiply? A review of the genetic benefits. Poland Jennions M. Biological Reviews. & Taylor P. Multiple sperm storage organs facilitate female control of paternity. & Andrade M.C..A.C. McNeil J. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.B. 272: 1139-1144. Journal of Insect Physiology.C. & Petrie. Males assess chemical signals to discriminate just-mated females from virgins in redback spiders. 2007.Book of Abstracts. 114: 589598. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Biological Sciences. 2000.

Department of Biology. Spiders are an especially diverse and ecologically important group whose ecological dominance has been a subject of intense study. is one of the world's ten "Hottest biodiversity hotspots" and at least 325 globally threatened species occur here. about 30 to 50 kilometres inland between the latitudes 8ºN to 20ºN and longitudes 73ºE to 77ºE. India Ambalaparambil Vasu Sudhikumar1. Nelliampathy hill ranges (1033'45"-1032'34"N. A more complete inventory of spiders is essential to advance understanding of their ecology. evolution. Poland Diversity patterns of spiders along an elevational gradient in Nelliyampathy hill ranges of the Western Ghats. During the course of this study. The principal reason for selecting this as the study site is that this protected biota 425 . Department of Zoology. and behaviour. Luc Lens1 & Pothalil Antony Sebastian2 1 Terrestrial Ecology Unit. Material and methods The Western Ghats. Hence there is an urgent need to provide taxonomic resources for groups from tropical ecosystems in view of current global biodiversity crisis. 7638'27"-7646'39"E) are a part of Peechi-Vazhani wild life sanctuary of the Western Ghats. Spiders generally have humidity and temperature preferences that limit them to areas within the range of their physiological tolerances. Ambalaparambil.Book of Abstracts. Cochin. conserving. Due to its fascinating plate tectonic history. a quantitative survey of spiders in the Nelliyampathy hill ranges of the Western Ghats was attempted along an elevation gradient. running parallel to India's western coast. and using biodiversity. Frederik Hendrickx1. Yet for many groups of organisms we lack even basic information as the identity and numbers of species found in the Western Ghats. Kerala. spreading over 82 km2. and to take full advantage of their demonstrated value in conservation priority setting. drpothalil@rediffmail. which in turn makes them ideal candidates for land conservation studies. one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. Sacred Heart College.Sudhikumar@UGent. located at an altitude of 467 m to 1572 m above sea level. India. Kerala. Thevara. Belgium. Siedlce. with an aim to investigate the patterns of spider species richness along the elevation gradient. Characteristic biota of the Western Ghats has attracted the attention of researchers for more than a century. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.be 2 Division of Arachnology. Ghent University. the Western Ghats is considered as an “exchange spot” of biotic elements between Africa and Southeast Asia. biomonitoring and biological control.com Introduction Systematics provides an essential foundation for understanding.

3.s. s2=the total number of species recorded in the second community. Elevation zone 515-575 m a. Beta-diversity (species overlap between elevations) was calculated by Sørensen's similarity index. ranging from a value of 0 where there is no species overlap between two communities. Results Taxonomic survey of the spider fauna in three different locations in the Nelliyampathy ranges of the Western Ghats resulted in the documentation of a total of 515 individuals of spiders belonging to 210 species. to a value of 1 when there is high distinctness between the communities. 7643'02. Theridiidae (14).l. Elevation zone 1325-1375 m a.7"E.s. Siedlce. Time was used as a measure of sampling effort to make the methods comparable. to a value of 1 when exactly the same species are found in both communities. moist deciduous forests. beating and sweeping.s. (1032'01. a=number of species at elevation A.2"N. Thomisidae (20). Poland represents different forest types viz. The inventories were conducted at the following sites and habitats: 1. Sparassidae (13) and Tetragnathidae (10) were the other dominant families. (1033'36.. The random transect method was used for spider sampling. 7644'15. s1=the total number of species recorded in the first community. Complementarity was calculated using the Marczewski-Steinhaus (M-S) distance index: CMS=(a+b – 2j)/(a+b – j) where j=number of species found at both elevations. tropical evergreen forest. Cyclosa mulmeinensis of family Araneidae was the numerically dominant species (11 individuals) and the second dominant species was Leucauge celebesiana (10 individuals) of family Tetragnathidae. CMS was chosen because of its simple and statistically valid approach to comparing two biota. 7640'51. evergreen forest). (1032'28. The collected specimens were preserved in 75% alcohol in separate flat bottomed tubes with labels containing information regarding the collection. The most dominant family was Araneidae with 32 species and second dominant family was Salticidae with 27 species.8"N. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 153 genera and 37 families. shola forest and thorny scrub forest as their primary vegetation type. Lycosidae (14). The number of species unique to an elevation and the number of species shared between elevations were also compared.l. β=2c/s1+s2 where.8"E. This technique involves a combination of four collection methods . 2. aerial hand collection. evergreen forest).1"E. ranging from a value of 0 where there is less distinctness between the communities. One sample unit equalled continuous one hour during which all spiders encountered were collected.ground hand collection. Spiders were collected at a weekly interval for one month from 5th December 2009 to 10th January 2010 at three principal localities along an elevation gradient. Complementarity and overlap of the spider assemblages at different elevations were assessed using distinctness and beta-diversity indices. Elevation zone 900-960 m a. The Sørensen’s index is a very simple measure of beta diversity.Book of Abstracts. and b=number of species at elevation B. moist deciduous forest).l.4"N. and c=the number of species common to both communities. 426 .

and a total of 51 species were collected from 1325-1375 m a. Analysis of the diversity pattern revealed that diversity varied between elevation gradient.l. Siedlce. The number of species unique to lowest elevation was 77 while that of mid elevation and high elevation was 40 and 20 respectively.s.l. Measures of distinctness (CMS) and species overlap (β) between elevations were significantly different especially between low elevation and high elevation samples. with the number of species at three elevations being different.l. Among the three elevations studied. and another 17 species were shared with 1325-1375 m a.l.s.Book of Abstracts.l. which is the highest number of species reported from an area in India. Discussion This study revealed the qualitative and quantitative richness of the spider fauna in these ranges. indicating unique species compositions at each elevation.s. This analysis revealed that the greatest species distinctness (CMS) and the lowest species overlap (beta) was between low elevation and high elevation compared to low elevation – mid elevation and mid elevation – high elevation. 2-3 and 1-3. Compared to low elevation and mid elevation. 0.55 species and Andaman and Nicobar Islands .l. This study revealed that elevation had measurable effect on species richness. A total of 101 species were collected from 900-960 m a..s. which is more complex in nature compared to other vegetation types. CMS value was 0. The 37 spider families recorded from this region represent 62% of the total families reported from India. Because of the complex interaction of various climatic factors like high rainfall and humidity. The higher elevation recorded lower diversity and species richness. which supports less spider diversity than evergreen forest.091 respectively between elevation 1-2.l. 38 species were shared with 900-960 m a.302 and 0.951 respectively between elevation 1-2. The number of species reported is higher than the number recorded from any other regions surveyed in India.s. 2-3 and 1-3. Out of the 123 species collected from 515-575 m a. and 2 species were shared with 1325-1375 m a. From these results.s. this region possesses many smaller but diverse environmental niches that can support a diverse spider fauna.l. Gujarat where recorded 116 species and the study conducted at Parambikulam Wildlife sanctuary of the Western Ghats where reported 147 species.65 species. The species richness is very high when compared to some other regions such as Sikkim . this area is occupied by moist deciduous forest. with diverse topographical features.l. The present investigation is comparable to the study conducted at Purna Wildlife Sanctuary.s.s. 23 species shared with mid elevation and 8 species with lowest elevation were studied. 123 species were collected from an altitude of 515-575 m a. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. it can be summarized that the spider fauna of Western Ghats of Kerala is rich and diverse when compared to any other region in India. This 427 . 6 species were collected both from 515-575 m a.795. and 1325-1375 m a. the lower elevation recorded the highest value of diversity.821 and 0. Poland Among the 210 species collected. Out of the 101 species collected from 900-960 m MSL altitude. In this elevation. tropical evergreen forests form the chief vegetation type. Among the 51 species collected from the topmost elevation. 0.s. Value of β was 0.339.

Elevation gradients create varied climates. A fundamental characteristic of mountain ecosystems is the drastic change in vegetation as well as in climate from the base to the summit. Despite being one of the most diverse groups of organisms. arguably due to fear and ignorance.Book of Abstracts. such as plant productivity. and human activity. land use managers and conservationists about the importance of bringing these fascinating creatures onto the conservation radar screen. regional species dynamics. The major obstacle for spider conservation is an absence of public support. including habitat loss and degradation due to deforestation. scientists. historical or evolutional development. competition. along with resultant soil differentiation that ultimately promotes diversification of both flora and fauna. 428 . geographical area. Siedlce. regional species pool. The elevation patterns of species richness are a consequence of many interacting factors. agriculture. Poland supports the correlation that exists between spider species diversity and habitat types. grazing and urbanisation. Conservation of spiders thus necessitates a greater understanding by the general public. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. spiders have largely been ignored by the conservation community and taxonomists alike. environmental variables. Many threats to spider diversity have been documented.

debris and crevices of rocks.80"E. It is a tiger land and has a good herbivore population. showing cephalothorax yellowish red to reddish brown. From the same habitat we have also collected females (5) with yellow band only on the anterior tip of tarsus and not on metatarsus. dry deciduous forest. The tarsus of fourth leg also showed yellow band at its anterior tip. India. mixed forest with tall trees and shrubs. Dinesh Joshi2. The spiders are recorded from different selected habitats which include riparian habitat.08"N and 78°20'05. Amravati. It represents mixed flora with dominance of tall trees and streams. Grazing is the threat for the existing flora and fauna. In females the metatarsus of first and fourth legs showed colour variations. Most of them (32) had black legs. sunil_kondulkar@rediffmail. spiders from decaying barks of trees. India Introduction Mahendri is a dry deciduous forest in Satpuda (India). SGB Amravati University. Oxyopidae. 429 . 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Amravati District. India.. Within the rich spider diversity we have noted some morphological variation in both sexes of Nephila pilipes occurring in small isolated habitats of Mahendri. 4 JDPS Mahavidyalaya. 1). abdomen faint yellowish with single longitudinal black line . Thomisidae.F.to yellow with three longitudinal black colour stripes. Dinesh Vankhede3 & Atul Bodkhe4 1 2 M. Results The study included 238 species from 24 families and 77 genera (Tab. India. Mahendri village. Amravati. Amravati. Daryapur (Distt. It lies on 21°29'33. Araneidae. Warud. These colour morphs seem to be discontinuous from riparian to dry deciduous ecosystems. dry deciduous to riparian) three colour morphs were observed. Survey was also carried out for ground spiders and spiders from slow flowing shallow streams. 3 Indian Society of Arachnology.Book of Abstracts.M.com. Gnaphosidae. suggesting distinctive phenotypical variation in Nephila pilipes living in the same habitat. In males (India: Maharashtra State. grasslands. The spider diversity was in the order of Lycosidae. Some of the females (11) showed a bunch of bushy hairs on the metatarsus. 6 specimens (same population) had distinctive yellow band on the anterior one-third portion of metatarsus of first legs and two yellow bands on the fourth legs. Siedlce. Poland Spider fauna from proposed Mahendri Wild Life Sanctuary Kondulkar Sunil1.

Spider families. Poland Table 1. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.Book of Abstracts. Family 1 Araneidae 2 Clubionidae 3 Corinnidae 4 Dictynidae 5 Eresidae 6 Gnaphosidae 7 Hersiliidae 8 Lycosidae 9 Miturgidae 10 Nephilidae 11 Oecobiidae 12 Oonopidae 13 Oxyopidae 14 Palpimanidae 15 Philodromidae 16 Pholcidae 17 Pisauridae 18 Salticidae 19 Scytodidae 20 Sparassidae 21 Tetragnathidae 22 Theridiidae 23 Thomisidae 24 Uloboridae Total Genus 10 2 1 1 1 12 1 5 2 1 1 2 1 3 3 3 8 1 1 3 2 11 1 77 Species 34 7 3 1 3 25 2 40 5 2 2 1 23 1 6 5 3 18 3 1 6 9 35 3 238 430 . genera and species recorded from Proposed Mahendri Wild Life Sanctuary (2006-09). Siedlce.

To study the short-term effect of different levels of grazing. which had been originally forested. Agrobiont and disturbancetolerant species turned up. too. increase in vegetation height and the occurrence of forest specialist spider species. in contrast. such as desertification. Without grazing the area would be reforested and several protected grassland species would loose their habitat. Our results show that overgrazing will not only change the physiognomy of the habitat. 3) massively overgrazed area. In this system grazing is the primary factor which keeps up the grassland. Savaria University Center. The least changes occurred in the sparsely grazed area. has been used for pastoral farming for hundreds of years. Even during these 3 years we could observe a quick succession in the enclosed area with litter accumulation. we established three treatment levels: 1) enclosed area by fencing. Szombathely. However. Budapest. but its arthropod assemblages. Zoological Department. szcsaba@bdf. Hungary. Hungary. and may in the longer term lead to irreversible changes.hu 2 Plant Protection Institute. samu@julia-nki. finding the right balance in grazing intensity is vital if pastoral landscapes with their exceedingly high biodiversity are to be preserved. These changes could be detected in the pitfall as well as in the suction apparatus samples. which indicate a decrease in the conservation value of the assemblage. Poland The occurrence of agrobiont spiders indicates overgrazing Csaba Szinetár1 & Ferenc Samu2 1 University of West Hungary. In the overgrazed area.hu In a 3-year project we have studied the effect of different grazing regimes on the cursorial spider fauna of a dry pasture in a hilly region of Hungary. In all three areas spiders were collected by pitfall trapping and suction sampling during an early summer and an autumn period in each year. The secondary grassland area. 431 . Hungarian Academy of Sciences.Book of Abstracts. no grazing occurred. Siedlce. the spider assemblage showed a significant change. 2) sparsely grazed area. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Therefore. the lack of grazing lead to a rapid succession  another type of habitat alteration.

and haplogyne outgroup taxa including representatives of the Tetrablemmidae and Caponiidae. Siedlce. CA. USA 2 University of California.2.*. We present a multigene phylogeny for multiple orsolobid genera from Australia. USA * Corresponding author: tszuts@calacademy. representatives of the other dysderoid families Dysderidae. Extensive recent fieldwork suggests that they do not occur in Madagascar. CA. common in Chile. Poland A preliminary global phylogeny of the giant goblin spiders (Araneae: Orsolobidae) Tamas Szuts1. San Francisco. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. San Francisco State University.3 1 Arachnology Lab. Orsolobids are diverse in New Zealand. A global phylogeny for this family may allow us to test alternative historical biogeographic scenarios in the southern hemisphere including vicariance generated though the effects of continental drift on the former Gondwanaland and austral transoceanic dispersal. Oonopidae and Segestriidae. New Zealand. The dysderoid spider family Orsolobidae presents a strikingly disjunct distribution at the southern end of the world. CA. USA 3 Department of Biology. Entomology Department. Policy and Management. California Academy of Sciences.3 & Charles Griswold1. Anthea Carmichael1.Book of Abstracts. Alma Saucedo1. Berkeley. and South Africa. 432 . Environmental Science. Chile.org. San Francisco. and scattered among afromontane forests in southern Africa. Berkeley. widespread in the moister parts of Australia.

or visibly elongated opistosoma. adusta). Institute of Environmental Biology. Diaea rosea L. as is the case in D. Diaea xanthogaster (L. dimidiata. Koch. Diaea haematodactyla L. 1876. pawel. Diaea cruentata (L. Poland The variation of some morphological structures within Diaea s. the proportions are just the opposite. 1867). Diaea pulleinei Rainbow. There are two types of ocular arrangements within Diaea: either narrow or wide in proportion to the width of the prosoma. 1874. Many species that were described in the past were classified according to such features as external similarity. ocular structures and reproductive structures. 1881 (may be a synonym of D. Diaea velata L. Koch. Among the species which belong to Diaea s. Koch. Diaea jucunda Thorell.edu. The largest number of species have organs of two types: a) simple and pale reproductive structures. There are also a few species with lateral eyes arranged very wide. A prevailing number of species are characterized by the trapezium of ocular area (MOA) shaped in such a way that its width exceeds its length. Poland. Poznań. only in the latter group of species the length of the prosoma slightly exceeds its width (length/width ratio > 1). Koch. prasina. 1876. 1777) encountered in Palaearctic.g. D. Some species are equipped with small cheliceral teeth: D.szymkowiak@amu. Diaea socialis Main. 1875. Diaea inornata (L. Koch. rubropunctata. Diaea dimidiata (L. 1875. the species within the genus are very diversified as far as their morphological features are concerned.Book of Abstracts. Diaea pilula (L. Koch. Diaea blanda L. Koch. 1988. Koch. 1876. 1874). 1995.pl The genus Diaea encountered in Australia presently includes 31 species. velata. lato (Araneae: Thomisidae) of Australia Paweł Szymkowiak Department of Animal Taxonomy and Ecology. 1867). Diaea tenuis L. Siedlce. Within the discussed genus there can be found females with a nearly spherical opisthosoma. 2008. Diaea caecutiens L.g. 1867). Koch. Diaea circumlita L.g. Diaea ergandros Evans. Koch. Koch. Diaea punctata L. Koch. According to contemporary studies. 1995. Diaea rubropunctata Rainbow. Koch. 1920. The most striking differences can be observed with reference to body conformation. Diaea multopunctata L. e. 1876). Diaea kangarooblaszaki Szymkowiak. Koch. Moreover. lato there can be differentiated several dozen types of these organs. e. Diaea prasina L. 1875)). 1915. colouring and habitat. Diaea megagyna Evans. The construction of reproductive organs is the best indicator of relationships within the genus. oval or pear-shaped opisthosoma.Diaea dorsata (Fabricius. A. 1875. being compared against the type species . which can be found in Diaea evanida (L. sitting on big tubercles stretching out of the outlines of the prosoma: Diaea tristania (Rainbow. 1900). Koch. Koch. 433 . 1875. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 1876. 1875. Mickiewicz University. D. e. In other species.

Siedlce. 1908 and Xysticus walesianus Karsch. and there are also some species which ought to be transferred to other genera in the future. The latter two species ought to be transferred to Diaea as they evidently belong to this genus. 1874=Diaea varians Kulczyński. D. b) complicated. massive VTA in males. D. Koch. punctata. as was the case with Diaea cimicina (Thorell. inornata. 1875). 1867) (=Diaea tumefacta L. 434 . Many other species within the genus in question turn out to be synonyms of others. 1911). distinctive reproductive structures with a broad central hood in females and a long. D. cruentata. Koch. Poland D. socialis. 1881) and Diaea adusta (L. kangarooblaszaki. D. megagyna. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Diaea punctipes L. pilula. which can be found in (D.Book of Abstracts. ergandros. D. 1878. Koch. which were transferred to Mastira. Xysticus periscelis Simon. D.

inornata belong to a different. Koch. Poland. it circles the tegulum 1. Faculty of Biology.szymkowiak@amu.edu. Germany) revealed that D. lighter than prosoma. the abdomen is oval or round-shaped. A. sometimes oblate and sometimes pointed at the end. green. Canada). inornata is a senior synonym of Diaea megagyna Evans. Diaea inornata) and while studying new material from ACT (Australian Capital Territory) he completed the description of an unknown male of Diaea inornata. In 1966 Dondale transferred Xisticus inornatus to Diaea (new comb. Australia). The embolus starts in a lower position and leaves the tegulum in 170º. inornatus and other material from the Australian Museum (Sydney. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Diaea inornata has several characters which allow to distinguish it from other similar species. Their bodies are small (below 1 cm). orange. Queensland Museum (Brisbane. Siedlce. often with red. The recent studies are the first step in establishing the taxonomic position of several species of “pilula group”. Tibial apophysis (VTA) is small and simple with a long seta. Females have bean shaped spermatchecae with short reproductive ducts which are wide in the proximal part. Detailed studies of the holotype of X. Diaea inornata was described as Xysticus inornatus by Ludwig Koch in 1876 on the basis of one female individual encountered in Sydney.Book of Abstracts. The species has a sandy-coloured abdomen. Poland Diaea inornata L. Mickiewicz University. Pedipalps are small. tiny spots encircled by white rings and with a dark broad stripe situated posteriorly on the ventral side of opistosoma.pl Spiders of the genus Diaea belong to the family Thomisidae which includes 2055 species within 171 genera worldwide (Platnick 2009). 435 . Our revision has revealed that the specimens studied by Dondale (1966) and redescribed by him under the name of D. green or yellow while the abdomen remains whitish. Australia) and the Zoological Museum (Hamburg.5 times.solving the taxonomy riddle Paweł Szymkowiak & Agnieszka Dymek Department of Animal Taxonomy and Ecology. It has a big body (especially in adult females). pawel. with a slightly projecting cymbium. RTA is characterised by a noticeably pointed tip and protruding transparent short fold in the lower position. pink. probably unknown species of Diaea. dark cephalothorax and a wide clypeus. a high. 1876 . Invertebrate Institute. brown or orange spots or stripes. There are 125 species of thomisids in Australia. Canadian National Collection of Insects (Ottawa. Diaea spiders inhabit flowers and leaves of herbaceous plants. Body colour is usually white. with no pattern but with numerous grey. Poznań. 1995.

Pakistan. hafiztahirpk1@yahoo. 436 . Poland Can competing orb web spiders co-exist in the same habitat? Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1. Lahore. Results of our study showed that orb web spiders consumed same prey orders but in different proportions. Four orb web spiders also differed in their habitat and in the prey size selection. Present study was designed to investigate how studied species segregate the available resources to minimize competition and make their coexistence possible. Neoscona theisi and Argeope pradhani are common orb web spiders of rice ecosystems of central Punjab.Book of Abstracts. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Siedlce. Leucauge decorata. Abida Butt2 & Muhammad Bilal2 1 2 Department of Zoology University of the Punjab. Lahore.com Department of Zoology University of the Punjab. In spite of apparent competition among these spiders for resources they co-exist in the same habitat. It is concluded that utilization of microhabitat and prey resources differently reduces the competition among these spiders and make their coexistence possible. Pakistan Tetragnatha javana. Discriminant function analysis also clearly separated the four species in three-dimensional space. Assemblage of predator species in the same habitat enhances their biocontrol potential. Pakistan.

For this purpose a rice field (800 m2) in village Kirka located in Lahore district was selected. Time required to complete a web was 1.. 437 . Lahore.e.e. Prey types and their number collected from the webs of different heights varied significantly. Capture area of L. number of radii.8 cm. Abida Butt2 & Imtiaz Alam3 1 Department of Zoology University of the Punjab. number of radii. Pakistan. hafiztahirpk1@yahoo. Siedlce. decorata constructed inclined webs at the height that ranged from 40 cm to 123 cm above ground. For prey capture L. total length and wet weight). Most of the prey items recorded from the webs belonged to Diptera. carapace width. Web characteristics (i. The data of spider’s webs and prey was collected in September 2007 and 2008. decorata construct webs of different sizes and at different heights but always maintain the basic web architecture (i. number of spirals and mesh height).e. Homoptera and Lepidoptera. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Poland Relationship of web characteristics and body measures of Leucauge decorate (Araneae: Tetragnathidae) Hafiz Muhammad Tahir1.com 2 Department of Zoology University of the Punjab Lahore. Spiders recorded from the higher webs (81-120 cm) were larger and heavier than the spiders recorded from the lower webs (40-80 cm).21 hour.. Most of the L.Book of Abstracts. The average diameter of the web was 25±6. Pakistan 3 Department of Zoology University of the Punjab Lahore.. decorata web showed a positive correlation with carapace width and body weight.00±0. Pakistan The study was conducted to investigate the relationships between web characteristics and body measures of Leucauge decorata (Araneae: Tetragnathidae). number of spirals and mesh height) were not correlated with any of the body measures (i. Principal component analysis (PCA) did not separate the collected spiders on the basis of capture area (web character) and carapace width (body measure).

The posterior midgut tube can be bladder-like dilated and its epithelium has glandular character in defined areas. Poland Do Ricinulei possess a chemical defence mechanism? Giovanni Talarico Max-Planck-Institut für Chemische Ökologie. which are formed by apical extensions of the epithelial cells. According to a single report from the available literature.Book of Abstracts. 438 .talarico@gmx. The products of this rectal gland are stored in large compartments. Jena. However. aided by contractions of a well developed muscularis. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. electron microscopy and X-ray micro computer tomography revealed that the posterior part of the ricinuleid midgut tube shows peculiar modifications. Evolutionäre Neuroethologie. Investigations of the ricinuleid alimentary system by means of light microscopy. the rectal gland and its products may have a physiological and/or defensive function. g. ricinuleids shall be capable of spraying a clear liquid out of their anal opening over a distance of several centimetres. Germany. Arachnida). It is supposed that the glandular products are released into a central passage and then.net Little is known about the behaviour and morphology of the enigmatic tropical hooded tick-spiders (Ricinulei. are pressed through the cuticlelined hindgut towards the anal opening. Siedlce. which may explain the behaviour mentioned above.

sexual polymorphisms and phenetic plasticity. Laura-Marie Y. using 711 species/2235 sequences from Genbank and 257 new sequences. Poland DNA barcoding in spiders: exuviae for species identification and matching male-female of dimorphic species Trina V. the debate on the accuracy of DNA barcoding is still ongoing and studies on various animal taxa yielded conflicting results. National University of Singapore. we intended to fill in the knowledge gap for South-east Asian spiders as well. and is said to be a valuable tool in a time of the taxonomic crisis. this study attempted to test DNA barcoding with morphologically characterized 782 species.edu. These are tedious. Youguang Yi1.sg DNA barcoding as a tool for species identification works by analyzing sequence similarity in a 648-bp region of the mitochondrial gene. Department of Biological Sciences. Singapore The Raffles Museum for Biodiversity Research. subjective and can be difficult to use de to complex genitalia. Secondly. This study used the species-rich arthropod group of spiders. effective only across homologous semaphorants and sex. matching malefemale dimorphic species and identifying materials derived from endangered species. identifying species using DNA sequences may also be faster than waiting for experts and it requires less expertise compared to using traditional taxonomic techniques. we examined the effectiveness of DNA barcoding in spider species identification. Besides the inclusion of a wider sampling of spiders. Siedlce. Fourthly. David Court2. Sujatha Narayanan1.3. Thirdly. Tan1. which were generated from 71 species of spiders collected in SE Asia.4 1 2 Department of Biological Sciences. cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI). In addition to its main function in species identification. Firstly. we evaluated the practicality of implementing DNA taxonomy. Singapore 3 trinatan@nus. the identification of a species requires the use of morphological keys. However. which also serves as a DNA barcode. Rudolf Meier1 & Daiqin Li1.Y. DNA barcoding can also facilitate species discovery. we assessed the 439 . The intraspecific and interspecific genetic distances were checked to determine if a clear separation existed between the two.sg 4 dbslidq@nus. we tested the variability of the COI gene for DNA barcoding. serving as a useful framework to test the validity of DNA barcoding and address five main issues. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. associating morphological disparate life stages of a species. DNA barcoding has shown its usefulness in highlighting cryptic species. For many species. National University of Singapore. Through this study.edu.L.Z.Book of Abstracts. Yap1. In traditional taxonomy.

e. The logistical challenge of extracting DNA from exuviae and ensuring no degradation or contamination can be met. Considering only those species with multiple sequences. Finally. About 8% of all species shared identical barcodes and the variability between species overlapped with the differences within species. eight exuviae were correctly identified. The DNA barcoding of exuviae is shown to be a nonlethal. this study shows that DNA barcoding is of limited use when sampling is weak. DNA barcodes together with somatic morphological characters and ecological data provided an initial hypothesis about the crab spider species pair. Siedlce. Poland feasibility of using juvenile spider exuviae (i. non-invasive method for juvenile spider identification and is especially useful when the species is rare and endangered or adults are needed for behavioural research. We found that distinguishing spider species was not as unambiguous or straightforward as has been proposed. DNA barcoding is useful because many routine identifications can be done by non-experts. Of nine exuviae from eight species representing three families (Araneidae. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.. However these did not translate to an overall low identification success. 440 . All together. Nephilidae and Salticidae). but it can nevertheless be useful as long as one is aware of the strengths and weaknesses. 92% of the sequences were correctly identified using “best match”. we generated preliminary hypotheses for a crab spider species (Thomisidae) using techniques involving DNA sequences.Book of Abstracts. DNA barcoding as a tool to match male-female of dimorphic species were tested using a pair of sexually dimorphic crab spiders whose species is currently unknown. cuticular moults) for species identification in DNA barcoding. We also demonstrated that spider exuviae (moults) can be used to identify juvenile spiders.

Thelacantha brevispina. The presence of barrier webs and the colour signal of silk tuft decorations were manipulated by painting tuft decorations so they are indistinguishable to the background. Taiwan Most studies on spider web decorations have focused on the cruciate decorations of Argiope spiders. Therefore there are two treatments: (1) decorations painted. silk tuft decoration. Interception of prey was higher in webs without barriers than the control webs. brevispina. Poland Attention please! Tuft decorations and barrier webs of the spiny spider Thelacantha brevispina may function to warn off avian predators Huei-Jen Tseng Department of Life Sciences. In this study. bird predation occurred on spiders in webs with painted decorations. and removing the barrier web with burning incense. 441 . Relevant studies on silk tuft web decorations built by spiny spiders are few. Silk tuft decorations on barrier webs. but interception of prey in painted decorations was similar to control webs. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. National Chung-Hsing University. For all treatment groups wasps approached but never attacked the spiny spiders. The field experiments were conducted in a tropical island in southern Taiwan. Siedlce. therefore. The interaction between Thelacantha brevispina and its prey and predators were recorded by video cameras. The E Asian spiny spiders Thelacantha brevispina place silk tuft decorations on a 3D barrier web. brevipina function to warn off avian predators. we investigated how barrier webs and silk tuft decorations are involved in prey capture and predator defence of T. (3) control. come at a foraging cost. Keywords: barrier web. (2) no barrier.Book of Abstracts. These results suggest that wasps are not the major predator of spiny spiders and silk tuft decorations and barrier webs of T. However.

indicating that chromatic signal alone is sufficient in attracting nocturnal prey. their prey attraction rate did not significantly from that of standard dummies. punctigera is a very effective visual lure. signal intensity and signal form of dummies were manipulated to evaluate these treatments’ effects on nocturnal insect attractiveness. Necoscona punctigera. These results show that current body colouration pattern of N. We first measured reflectance spectra of various kinds of collared cardboard papers and used them to make dummies. Siedlce. Results of previous studies on diurnal spiders show that the bright body colouration of some orb weaving spiders are attractive to insects. Poland Factors shaping the lure signal design of a nocturnal orb web spider I-Min Tso* & Cheng-Hui Lai Department of Life Science. the current body colouration pattern of numerous diurnal orb-weaving spiders might reflect a trade-off between pressures of attracting prey and avoiding predators. When the signal arrangement pattern or intensity of dummies was changed. However. Tunghai University. Many orb-weaving spiders hunt exclusively nocturnally and previous studies showed that some also use visual signal to lure prey. However. The chromatic property.Book of Abstracts. the prey attraction rate of dummies with signal chromatic properties changed was significantly lower than that of standard dummies. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. The results of field experiments showed that webs containing dummies with standard signal form attracted significantly more prey than webs without dummies. 442 . Why this nocturnal orb spiders’ luring signal is so attractive and what important attributes of prey’s resources does this signal mimic awaits further study. Currently. Therefore.tw Some predators use deceptive visual signals to lure prey and therefore the design of visual signal is very important. we evaluated factors influencing nocturnal visual signal design by studying a nocturnal orb weaving spider. the factors determining the visual lure signal design of nocturnal spiders are still not clear? In this study. the bright colour signals of spiders were also found to be attractive to predators.edu. Taiwan * Corresponding author: spider@thu.

This species is univoltine and overwinters as eggs and adults can be abundantly found from July to October on herbs. or on tree trunks. Japan. Faculty of Regional Sciences. These cases of ring species show that geographic variation within a species can be extensive enough to produce a new species. However. the number of chromosomes varies from 2n=14 to 20 only within the distributional range of the Kinki race defined by colouration that occupies northern Kinki District of Honshu. The results obtained from the survey were as follows: 1) The number of chromosomes varies from a mountain mass to next in NW Shikoku (Ehime Prefecture) where the species usually occurs only in the upper parts of mountains higher than ca. and Kyushu) of Japan. shrubs. The species shows enormous geographic differentiation in both external morphology and chromosomes. Gagrellula ferruginea is a common species of harvestmen widely distributed in the main three islands (Honshu. and a total of 11 major geographic races have been recognized on the basis of colouration and markings of the body and the diploid chromosome number varies enormously from 10 to 22. We will report a possible case of circular overlap involving a cascade of numerical change in chromosomes in a Japanese harvestman Gagrellula ferruginea (Loman. Examples of such ring species include Greenish Warbler complex Phylloscopus trochiloides in Continental Asia. ring species that involves chromosomal changes has not been known at least in animals. circular overlap has not been so extensively reported in invertebrates. 2) The diploid number of chromosomes increases from 2n=16 to 20 in NW Shikoku (Kagawa Prefecture).). 2007). For example. Poland A circular overlap resulting from a cascade of numerical changes of chromosomes in the harvestman Gagrellula ferruginea (Scelerosomatidae: Gagrellinae) Nobuo Tsurusaki & Minako Kawaguchi Laboratory of Biology. Fukumi 2n=12/13/14. Geographic variation of external morphology (colouration) and that of chromosomes in this species do not coincide one another in general. ntsuru@rstu. Takanawa and Mt. etc. Ridley 1996. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Mt.Book of Abstracts. Moreover. Kamegamori 2n=18.jp When two populations representing both ends of a series of populations along an extensive cline somehow meet in a restricted area without any indication of interbreeding. Coyne & Orr 2004. 1902) (Opiliones: Sclerosomatidae: Gagrellinae). Nakajima 2n=14. Ônogahara Highland 2n=16. through intermediate populations polymorphic 443 . Ishizuchi and Mt. Herring Gull Larus argentatus in the North Atlantic. Barton et al. 700 m: Is. Tengu Highland 2n=14. We surveyed chromosomes of the species for a total of 18 populations in northern Shikoku (Ehime and Kagawa prefectures). Siedlce. and salamander Ensatina in western United States (Mayr 1969. Tottori University. where colouration is rather uniform. we call the phenomenon “circular overlap” and the series of interbreeding populations “ring species”. Mt. Shikoku.

Speciation. making narrow zones of contact in the areas where two neighbouring populations with different chromosome numbers abut in San-yô side of Chugoku District (Okayama and Hyogo Prefectures). Mass. References Barton N.. both the forms intergrade one another through populations with intermediate numbers (2n=14. Briggs D. without any indication of hybridization (Eight of 10 males from a site near the summit of the mountain showed 2n=12.B. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Sinauer Associates. 719 pp. Eisen J. Honshu. 2004. Cold Spring Harbor.. 18). 833 pp. while the other two were of 2n=20). Animal Species and Evolution. MA. Poland for the number. 16. Blackwell Science. distributional range of the 2n=12 populations in western part of Kagawa Prefecture overlaps that of the 2n=20 populations which represent westernmost end of the series of successive changes in chromosome number from 2n=16 in easternmost part of Kagawa Prefecture. & Patel N.H. 1996. at Mt. 545 pp. Goldstein D. 2007. This means that the 2n=12 population is reproductively fully isolated from the 2n=20 population. although populations in the easternmost part of the prefecture including Is.. Coyne J. 797 pp. Mass. 2nd ed. 444 . Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. Sunderland. 1963.G. Cambridge. Siedlce. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Ryûô. However. Shôdo invariably show 2n=16. Evolution. Ridley M.E. & Orr H.. the overlap of the distributional ranges of 2n=12 and 2n=20 populations with a series of intermediate populations connecting both ends can be safely considered a case of circular overlap that arose from successive increase (or decrease) of chromosome numbers. Inc.A. Thus.Book of Abstracts. Cambridge. Evolution...A.A. Interestingly. 3) Populations in the western part of Kagawa Prefecture are polymorphic (2n=12/13/14) or monomorphic (2n=12).H. New York. Mayr E.

where timothy grass. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. ntsuru@rstu. Furthermore. Martens 1978). Probably due to this anthropophilous habit of the species. found numerous specimens of this species from following two sites in Hokkaido: the campground of the Taisetsu Lakeside Park in central Hokkaido and the Wattsu Service Area of the Dô-ô Expressway in Kita-Hiroshima City.Book of Abstracts. and southern Kurils (Tsurusaki unpubl. 1 female. and etc. and North America.. or gardens around human habitation (Spoek 1963. this species has also been recorded from New Zealand as introduced species (Forster 1962. Sapporo City. opilio from 12 sites in Kita-Hiroshima City. Clingenpeel & Edgar 1966). we newly found P. roadside. Tottori University. Poland Recent expansion of distributional range of Phalangium opilio. and Iwamizawa City. were planted for the protection of the roadside slope (Suzuki & Tsurusaki 1981). Faculty of Regional Sciences. Vink et al. However. Occurrence of this species in Japan was first confirmed in 1980 on the basis of a few specimens (1 male. especially in Europe. Phalangium opilio is known also from Siberia. As a result. there is even a doubt whether North American populations of the species are of native (Gruber & Hunt 1973.). Kentucky blue grass. which are adjacent to Hokkaido. and two juveniles) found from a site along roadside of expressway (Dô-ô Expressway) under construction in the Experiment Forest Station of Hokkaido University at Tomakomai. except for a juvenile found in the Engaru Station of Japan Railroad in the NW Hokkaido in 1985. In summer of 2003.jp Phalangium opilio (Phalangiidae) is a common species of harvestman occurring in temperate to cool-temperate zones of Eurasia. indicating that populations of the species in these areas as well as those in Hokkaido may have been established with the help of human agency. Moneron Island (Crawford & Marusik 2006). a presumably introduced harvestman in Hokkaido. 2004). Sakhalin (Tsurusaki unpubl. with notes on the chromosomes and male dimorphism Nobuo Tsurusaki & Koji Takenaka Laboratory of Biology. To confirm whether this species became more widespread than in the 1980s. red clovers. Gruber & Hunt 1973. no additional records of the species had been reported after the first finding. Siedlce. we surveyed 40 sites in and around Sapporo and Kita-Hiroshima City along expressway or urban parks for the occurrence of the species in 2006. This species favours open habitats such as meadows. one of the authors. Hokkaido. Tsurusaki. Far East (Gritzenko 1979). Japan.). 445 . Japan. also seem to be limited to urban areas along Trans-Siberian Railway and islands suitable for residence. including two sites from which no specimens of the species were found in the former collectings in 1980s by Tsurusaki. known ranges of the species in these areas. However.

References Clingenpeel L. However.S. (ed. Records of the Australian Museum.L. Academia Nauk SSSR. 464 pp. 10: 129-137. 28: 383-392.W.Book of Abstracts. This species is well known for its conspicuous sexual dimorphism in size and shape of chelicerae and palpi (Spoek 1963. Martens 1978). Gustav Fischer. we conducted field observation and some experiments in laboratory. & Hunt G. Siedlce. Germany. Nelima doriae (Canestrini). Phalangiidae (Opiliones). 1956. pp. whereas the number is 32 in Petersburg. 242: 2860-2862 Martens J. Juberthie C. 1978. Vladivostok. Phalangiidae). Trogulidae. Materials on the Opiliones fauna from Primorye region. Die Tierwelt Deutschlands. Opiliones. Nombres chromosomiques chez les Sironidae. unfortunately. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Jena. Arts and Letters.. pp.A. 1966. Tsurusaki 2007). Distal segment of male chelicera is well developed and usually bears hornlike protuberance dorsally at its basal end and male palpi is elongated in response to development of the chelicerae. Ischyropsalidae. 64 Teil. & Marusik Y. Tuatara. Terrestrial Arthropoda of the Far East. 124-132. The result indicates that these Japanese populations of the species have originated from Europe. Weberknechte. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science. 1973. 1979. 2006. Gritzenko N. Opiliones. Crawford R. 1962. no conclusion was available for the subject due to scarcity of data.R. Gruber J. Les Comptes rendus de l'Académie des sciences. and New Zealand (Arachnida. Certain ecological aspects of Phalangium opilio (Arthropoda: Opiliones).M.L. Russia (Sokolow 1930) and Idaho in the United States of America (Tsurusaki and Cokendolpher 1990. Measurements of 10 characters for a total of 112 specimens (102 males and 10 females) collected from a single population in Sapporo revealed that males of this species are clearly dimorphic in size and shape of chelicerae and palpi. In: Ler P. To confirm whether this male dimorphism in the species relates to alternative mating strategies of males such as territorial males versus sneakers. Martens 1978. A key to the New Zealand harvestmen Part 1. Poland It has been known that Phalangium opilio shows geographic variation in the number of chromosomes. In: Flora and fauna of Moneron Islands of Moneron Island (Materials of International Sakhalin Island Project). & Edgar A. Examination of chromosomes of this species from two populations (Lake Taisetsu and Wattsu Service Area) in Hokkaido showed invariably 2n=24. Forster R. 196-201.I. It has also been reported that size and shape of male chelicerae are extremely variable and those of some males are rather normal in shape (Spoek 1963. Diploid number of chromosomes of the species is 24 in France (Juberthie 1956) or 24/26 in Mainz. 446 . 51: 119-126. Willmart et al 2006). Vladivostok: Dalnauka. a south European harvestman in Australia.). Harvestmen (Arachnida: Phalangida or Opiliones) of Moneron Island.

Cytogenetics. Siedlce.. 1963. The opilionida (Arachnida). Tsurusaki N. Willemart R.A. McLachlan A. pl. Cambridge. The Harvestmen: The Biology of Opiliones. 10: 164-194. Zoologische Verhandelingen (Leiden). 1983. Opiliones. Hokkaido University. Spoek G. Tsurusaki N. & Stufkens M. 23: 195-243. New Zealand.Book of Abstracts. 1930. Caddidae and Phalangiidae). IV. 447 .H. Teulon D.. 63: 1-70. & Cokendolpher J. Journal of Arachnology.C.). Untersuchungen über die Spermatogenese bei den Arachniden.J.W..J. 2004.. Harvard University Press. Zeitschrift für Zellforschung und Mikroskopische Anatomie. Peretti A. 6-8. Über die Spermatogenese von Phalangiden (Opiliones). 84: 1763-1774. Behavioral roles of the sexually dimorphic structures in the male harvestman. Poland Sokolow I. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 597 pp. Massachusetts. Zool. Farine J-O. Journal of the Faculty of Scence. 18: 151-166. New Zealand Journal of Zoology. Canadian Journal of Zoology. & Tsurusaki N. of the Netherlands. Vink C. Suzuki S. 31: 149-159. Spiders (Araneae) and harvestmen (Opiliones) in arable crops and grasses in Canterbury.G.A.. 2006.L. Opilionid fauna of Hokkaido and its adjacent areas. & Gnaspini P.V. (eds. et al. Chapter 6. (1990) Chromosomes of sixteen species of harvestmen (Arachnida. Phalangiidae). Phalangium opilio (Opiliones. 2007. In: Pinto da Rocha R.R.

Siedlce. In the present study. we have expanded our earlier micronetine taxonomic sampling to include representatives of 35 genera (with each genus represented by its type species and. do not support the monophyly of Micronetinae. based on morphological and nucleotide sequence data.. More than 260 morphological characters were scored for our study taxa for phylogenetic reconstruction. 1920 is one of the largest and most diverse linyphiid subfamilies. Poland Higher level phylogenetic study of micronetine spiders (Araneae: Linyphiidae: Micronetinae) Lihong Tu1. USA. Beijing. as well as representative species of Tetragnathidae and Theridiidae. Washington DC.edu.edu Micronesian Hull. tulh@mail. P. Lepthyphantes Menge 1866). The George Washington University. Outgroup taxa were represented by 25 species from other linyphiid subfamilies. in most cases. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Capital Normal University. hormiga@gwu.cn 2 Department of Biological Sciences.cnu. R. and their members have some of the most morphologically complex genitalia. one or more additional representatives) to further test the monophyly of Micronetinae and of many of its genera. we discussed the evolution of micronetine genitalia based on the resulting phylogeny. 448 . In addition to those characters used in recent analyses of linyphiid phylogenetics. Furthermore. 50 new characters from epigynal morphology were included in this study.g. We also study the internal relationships as well as the placement of micronetines within Linyphiidae. China. The results of a recently published phylogenetic analysis of Linyphiidae. and Pimoidae (the sister group of Linyphiidae).Book of Abstracts.2 & Gustavo Hormiga2 1 College of Life Sciences. Micronetinae includes several highly heterogeneous and polyphyletic genera (e.

Ondřej Machač. the knowledge on their biology is relatively high and the sampling methods are well developed. On the other hand. herbs. Data were analysed by Canoco for Windows 4. have positive influence on diversity of the soil invertebrates. Spiders are used as the ecological model frequently because they play an important role as predators.tuf@upol.000 specimens of ground-dwelling spiders. The most dominant species were lycosid Pardosa lugubris (40%). Tuf. Czech Republic. which can lead to small species diversity and even to the local extinctions (Siitonen & Martikainen 1994. presence of shrubs. Poland Distribution of epigeic spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in the forest mosaic Ivan H. (4) 127. Jana Mišurcová & Marea Grinvald Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Suitable interferences with the natural forest. liocranid Agroeca brunnea and lycosid Trochosa terricola (both 9%). resulting in higher habitat diversity. This study is focused on the distribution of epigeic spiders (Arachnida: Araneae) in the different age floodplain forests.5 (ter Braak & Šmilauer 1998) for the following environmental factors: age of the growth which responds to the position of the trap in the forest mosaic. near the city of Olomouc. Results Of almost 3. a lot of forests have been split into small isolated forest areas and clearings due to over cutting. Magura et al. the Czech Republic. Spiders were caught using the pitfall traps (plastic pots with metal cover) with 4% solution of formaldehyde. 1998.Book of Abstracts. trees. littercoverage and litter thickness which was semi quantified at scale of 25%.cz Introduction The type of the forest growth includes many factors influencing the species diversity and the number of soil invertebrates.years-old floodplain forest. Material and methods The research has been done in Litovelske Pomoravi Protected Landscape Area from March 2004 to March 2006 in the floodplain forest (association QuercoUlmetum). 2002). 1997). 39 species were identified. Clearings are also the invincible barrier for the most of the forest soil invertebrates (Esseen et al. Two lines of 17 traps crossed four types of forest environment: (1) 87-years-old growth (Querco-Ulmetum). Siedlce. Niemelä 1997). (2) 10-years-old Quercus monoculture. amaurobiid Coelotes terrestris (16%). 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Traps were controlled each 14 days and close surroundings of traps (2 meters diameter around each trap) were characterised according to the coverage of the plant layers. Palacký University. (3) 3-years-old afforested clear-cut. The amount of spiders caught in traps during the study period was the highest in the ecotone zone between afforested 2 years old site and 10 years old oaks 449 . The edge effect is one of the most important factors (Jokimäki et al. ivan. Olomouc.

2B 06101) for support this work. Magura T. Distribution of arthropods in relation to forest patch size. on the contrary of other 11 species (e. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Acknowledgement We would like thanks to the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic (No. Diplostyla concolor. 11: 601-610. 1997. but the presence of shrubs and the litter coverage can be considered as the most significant ones. & Sjöberg K. 28: 1068-1072. 1998. are highly dependent on the amount of leaf litter and on the presence of shrubs. Poland monoculture.. 1997. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. Boreal forests. & Martikainen P. Pardosa lugubris and Diplostyla concolor preferred ground densely covered by leaf litter. Nevertheless. Ehnström E. as well as abundance of spider species. Ozyptila pratensis and Cicurina cicur were more abundant in the areas distant to shrubs. Niemelä J. The communities sampled by traps inside 10 years old oaks monoculture had higher diversity than in the other sites. Siitonen J.. 9: 185-191.A. 24: 55-72. Itämies J. Acta Biologica Debrecina. Pardosa pullata.. Siedlce. 2002. Carabids in an oak-hornbeam forest: testing the edge effect hypothesis. Jokimäki J. The highest diversity was found in traps placed in the ecotone zone between 2 years old site and 127 years old floodplain forest. Invertebrates and boreal forest management. Conservation Biology. Species Coelotes terrestris. Ecological Bulletin. Huhta E.Book of Abstracts.. SP/2D3/155/08) and Czech National Research Programme II (No. Abundance of 14 species of spiders had a significant response to the coverage of shrubs and 3 species of spiders to the litter-coverage. diversity indices in these positions were among the lowest. References Esseen P.g. The whole CCA model explained 48. All of the environmental factors were significant for the prediction of spider catches. Conclusions According to the results. we can conclude that the structure of the spider communities. 450 . It appears that spiders are really sensitive to the landscape structure and therefore the structure of spider communities can be highly influenced by the forest management. ecotone zone has a positive effect on overall number of spiders caught during the research and as such presents precious environment. Agroeca brunnea. Ericson L. & Rahko P. Tóthmérész B. 46: 16-47. as well as in the ecotone between 10 years old oaks monoculture and 87 years old floodplain forest. Occurrence of rare and threatened insects living on decaying Populus tremula: a comparison between Finnish and Russian Karelia. Pirata hygrophilus and Zelotes subterraneus). Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research. 1994.3% of species variability and was significant after Monte Carlo test.. edge. Also. & Bordán Z. and stand characteristics.

the potential for acquiring outbreeding benefits or other types of genetic benefit are low and unlikely to compensate high direct costs of polyandry. Ecology and Genetics. relatedness estimates suggest co-ancestry among neighbouring spiders. lineatus using microsatellite markers.tuni@biology.Book of Abstracts. Given the high costs of re-mating in this system polyandry is likely to be driven by sexual conflict over mating rate.e. Denmark. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. cryptic choice for good or compatible genes. If females are nevertheless polyandrous. they may evolve counter-adaptations to reduce the cost of mating. We investigated the degree of polyandry in two natural populations of S. Siedlce. Experimental studies show that females of the spider Stegodyphus lineatus suffer direct costs of polyandry through increased risk of reproductive failure. Our data reveal evidence for paternity bias and hence potential for cryptic processes which may confer genetic benefits. cristina. and together with low genetic variability among sires and relatively low re-mating frequency. Poland Natural mating rates and potential for genetic benefits in a polyandrous spider with high risks of inbreeding Cristina Tuni & Trine Bilde Department of Biological Sciences. i. However. 451 .dk Direct benefits to females or indirect genetic benefits derived via enhanced offspring quality are considered selective forces underlying the evolution of polyandry. or loss of the brood to infanticidal males coercing a second and smaller replacement clutch. Aarhus University.au. production of fewer offspring. Results from genetic parentage analysis reveal presence of multiple sires in up to 50% of the clutches.

Behavioural observations showed that females contact the male head structures during mating. biochemical. Poland The secret lives of dwarf spiders Gabriele Uhl University of Greifswald. Dwarf spiders (also called money spiders. we are surrounded by a wealth of tiny species that display equally extravagant traits. physiology and morphology. bulges. 452 . release saliva onto the male head to imbibe the fluid shortly after. lobes. Siedlce. We investigated the anatomy of head structures and found that they are always connected with extensive glandular tissue. whose secretions are stored in large reservoirs. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Erigoninae: Linyphiidae) are minute and most of them are strongly sexually dimorphic. tube-like depressions. However. pits. Zoological Institute and Museum. Gabriele. Eye catching extravagant traits such as the antlers of deer or the train of male peacocks have attracted much attention. Studies are presented that investigate this phenomenon on ultrastructural. These findings strongly suggest that these modifications and their secretions evolved in the context of sexual selection.Book of Abstracts. behavioural and phylogenetic levels. Only males possess cephalic regions that are modified into deep grooves.uhl@uni-greifswald. or even turrets.de Ever since Darwin we have been increasingly aware of the important role that sexual selection plays in shaping animal behaviour. Greifswald. Department of General Zoology and Systematics.

We presented 15 gray scale pictures of each arthropod group in random order.W. The picture ratings demonstrate that spiders elicit significantly more fear and disgust than any other arthropod and they are rated as more dangerous. Spiders are special: fear and disgust evoked by pictures of arthropods. However. whether other arthropods similarly elicit fear or disgust.M. References Gerdes A. In addition. Siedlce. 75 students viewed pictures and rated them individually. it has not been sufficiently examined. Zoological Institute and Museum. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Our aim was to test whether all arthropods rate similarly or whether only a subset elicits comparable responses. it has been suggested that fear of spiders is an evolutionary adaptation. Poland Spiders are special: fear and disgust evoked by pictures of arthropods Gabriele Uhl1. The extent of fear of spiders is highly correlated with the ratings of spiders but not with the ratings of other arthropods. Evolution and Human Behavior. Antje Gerdes2 & Georg Alpers2 1 University of Greifswald. & Pauli P. 2009. disgust. Department of General Zoology and Systematics. beetles.. 30: 66-73. gabriele. Alpers G.B. We conclude that harmfulness itself cannot explain why spiders are feared so often. hymenoptera (bees and wasps) and lepidoptera (butterflies and moths).uhl@uni-greifswald. 453 .de 2 Department of Psychology. Participants rated anxiety. We thus compared ratings derived from the visual perception of spiders. and how dangerous they thought the animal was and categorized each animal into one of the four animal groups. Germany Because all spiders are predators and most subdue their prey by applying poison.Book of Abstracts. We predicted that based on an evolutionary adaptation to potential harmfulness spiders and hymenoptera should rate similarly. we assessed a screening for fear of spiders. University of Würzburg.

Spider specimens were collected by five semi quantitative techniques viz. Other families were rare and were represented by 60 species (42. (11. India Virendra Prasad Uniyal* & Shazia Quasin Wildlife Institute of India. Spiders were divided into three functional groups: the plant wanderers (Thomisidae. 28. 63 genera. 17 sp. ground hand collection. It also emphasized the need for conservation of spider diversity by characterizing species diversity and highlighting rare and endemic species in NDBR. The study has been proposed to describe the spider community structure and composition in Western Himalayas. 8 sp. Philodromidae and Sparassidae).1%) altogether.4%) and ground wanderers (19. Overall the number of web building spiders was greater than that of the ground and plant wanderers.9% of the total 1303 individuals. A total of 1303 individuals (142 species/morphospecies.gov. the high percentage of web builders was attributed with the rich floral diversity. 10 sp. 10 sp. Further investigation of spider fauna may provide interesting results on new. Stratified random sampling was employed in select sites to collect the spider samples from June .6%) for Gnaphosidae.1% of them identified to species or genus level.7% of the total families in India.6%). Oxyopidae. 454 . Chandrabani. (15. Araneidae was found to be most diverse in terms of species richness and diversity. Theridiidae. aerial hand collection. This result suggests that the Himalayan region has a rich diversity of spiders. respectively. Siedlce. rare and range restricted species of these areas. the web builders (Araneidae. are important regulators of the ecosystem.8%) for Lycosidae. leading to improvised long term ecological monitoring of the environment. Lycosidae. India * Corresponding author: uniyalvp@wii. (5. (13. 25 families) were reported. Dehradun. Linyphiidae. Salticidae. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.8%) for Thomisidae. Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR) and to estimate the species diversity in different sites of altitudinal and vegetation gradient. aerial hand collection and litter sampling. Poland Community structure and composition of spiders (Araneae) in Western Himalayas. Uloboridae and Pholicidae). This systematic approach will help to pave way for better understanding of the Himalayan spider biodiversity. Furthermore.in Spiders are amongst the highly species-rich group of invertebrates and.Book of Abstracts.3% of the total species) for Araneidae. Species richness within families varied: 22 sp. endemic. Selenopidae and Agelenidae). as general predators.July 2009. The web builders comprised of 57. 16 sp.. followed by plant wanderers (22. and the ground wanderers (Gnaphosidae. (11. The 25 families recorded in the area represent 41. pitfall trapping.8%) for Linyphiidae.9% and 71. (13. sweep netting.2%) for Salticidae.

Preliminary DNA analysis conducted on samples from twenty sites in the southern half of South Africa showed that species are geographically confined. Siedlce. asper Beier from two localities. the more distant their relationship. modestus Chamberlin have been recorded from one site only.za Horus Chamberlin is represented by nine species in Southern Africa and one from the Côte d’Ivoire. The distribution of the identified specimens from Southern Africa were plotted on a map of the region and revealed a rather disjunct distribution of seven of the nine Southern African species10. Field observations led to the conclusion that the species do not employ phoresy (at least not as a rule) and therefore their dispersal rate is slow. transvaalensis Beier have been recorded from six sites each and H. 10 The two most abudant species are H.ac. H. The other seven Southern African species are less common: H.vanheerden@univen. montanus Beier and H. obscurus widely distributed in the eastern section.Book of Abstracts. It is evident that the current definitions of the species of Horus need to be revised because the taxonomic characters originally nominated by Chamberlin (1931) are of limited value. Limpopo. 455 . This is incompatible with the reported distribution of the species. zonatus Beier from seven. gracilis Beier from three localities. Jacques. the two species also overlap in the centre. Poland The distribution of Horus Chamberlin (Arachnida: Pseudoscorpiones: Olpiidae) Jacques van Heerden University of Venda. with the former more common in the drier. Thohoyandou. western part of the region and H. the farther away the localities are from one another. H. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. obscurus (Tullgren). and H. granulatus (Ellingsen) and H. This may also apply to other pseudoscorpion species. Horus species are usually found in rock crevices (such as thin cracks in mudstone) – in only two cases have they been reported from under the loose bark of trees. brevipes Beier and H. in general. however. South Africa.

Book of Abstracts. Do we know everything? Peter J. helsdingen@nnm. Netherlands. Poland Mating behaviour in spiders. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. 456 . Siedlce. van Helsdingen European Invetebrate Survey – Netherlands.nl In spiders sperm induction is an essential phase in the reproductive sequence. A correlation with the presence or absence of epiandrous glands is discussed. the construction of the sperm web. Leiden. the position of the male when the palps are charged. An overview of what is known in different families is presented: the moment of the sperm induction. A literature survey shows that sperm induction remained unobserved in many observations of spider mating behaviour.

India. Key words: new species.com 2 Indian Society of Arachnology India has been represented by 4 genera and 69 species from Oxyopidae family. Koha and Bori in Melghat. Siedlce. vganeshan2001@rediffmail. India. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Oxyopes.Book of Abstracts. 457 . Poland On three new species of the genus Oxyopes Latreille from central India (Arachnida: Araneae: Oxyopidae) Ganesh Vankhede1 & Shivaji Deshmukh2 1 Department of Zoology Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University. Three new species of the spiders from Oxyopidae family are described from central India from meadows after resettlement of forest villages Kund. Amravati – 444602. Development of grassland in the undisturbed forest has made favourable conditions for predators like spiders. taxonomy.

Specific breeding designs show that the sex ratio distortion is primarily maternally inherited and correlates with the presence of the endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia. 458 .be According to the sex-allocation theory of Fisher. hence increasing in the population. This is also the case in the male dimorphic and solitary dwarf spider Oedothorax gibbosus. many examples of distorted sex ratios can be found in nature. This first direct evidence of a female biasing effect of this bacterium in spiders was further confirmed by antibiotic curing of females.be 2 Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. Despite this theory. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. frederik. This ultimately leads to the evolution of a stable 50:50 sex ratio. for which populations are female biased. which restored the sex ratio to an equal proportion of males and females.hendrickx@naturalsciences. a 50:50 sex ratio is considered to be an evolutionary stable strategy.vanthournout@ugent. the underrepresented sex will have a fitness advantage at the time of mating. Therefore. Siedlce. the potential interaction of maternally inherited bacteria on the effect of the morph specific reproductive strategies are discussed within the framework of the apparently stable dimorphism observed in this spider species. bram. Endosymbiotic bacteria can potentially have profound effects on its host ecology and evolution by altering sexual selection pressures. Poland Wolbachia-induced sex ratio distortion in the solitary spider Oedothorax gibbosus and its potential implications on sexual selection Bram Vanthournout1 & Frederik Hendrickx2 1 University of Ghent. In a population with uneven numbers of males and females. Belgium.Book of Abstracts.

25 families were represented. France. roads) to the detriment of natural or farming areas. In this study.200 meters long. At the same time. The experimental design encompass two types of urban forms. For each sample point. under-investigated habitat: residential areas. hygrometry …) and landscape (composition and density of hedge network. including one on spiders (Shochat et al. Rennes. They promote public green spaces (where the use of pesticides is very low or null) and reduce private green spaces. France). 5. University of Antwerp. Sites were selected for presenting the same age and similar surface. Poland Spider assemblages in urban habitats from Rennes (Brittany. University of Rennes 1. buildings. Antwerpen. continuously between April 20 and June 17. Additionally.).varet@sfr. Urbanization can be defined as the installation process of anthropogenic structures (e. local (vegetation cover. each spatially replicated three times: new urban form and housing estate (old form). Within a PhD project. The trapping has been conducted by pitfall traps. we focus on a particular. between 40 and 45 sampling points were randomly set up in public hedges. 2004). Siedlce. to satisfy human population requirements (Croci et al. 2008). nature of the litter. Since few years. Weber 2003). We studied the effect of different local and landscape factors on spider assemblages. of which Lycosidae was dominant (42% of 459 . butterflies and birds) compared to those of classical residential types (mainly housing estate). were sampled. a new type of residential form has been developed in France. temperature. creating intensive urban areas (Douglas 1992. These two statements lead to the development of studies about « biodiversity and urbanization ».g. 50% of the urbanized area is dedicated to green space (private garden. Clergeau 2007). three urban-rural transects of 1. ground beetles and plants. These studies mainly focused on three biological models: birds. marion. Julien Pétillon2 & Françoise Burel1 1 2 ECOBIO. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. but also for ground beetles. At each site. Fenger 1999. We are also interested in studying biodiversity at the edge between urban and rural habitats. social demands for nature and biodiversity within the city (at individual or local authority levels) are increasing (Chiesura 2004. urban population has strongly increased. Sites were located in peri-urban cities around Rennes (Brittany. 2009. public green space. Studies on other models are more marginal.063 individuals belonging to 137 species were collected. neighbourhood structure…) variables were estimated and integrated in a GIS.fr Evolutionary Ecology Group. France) Marion Varet1. Belgium During the last decades. located in the peri-urban zone.Book of Abstracts. we will test if this new type of residential areas are characterized by higher animal species richness (notably for spiders. A large part of studies on this topic are based upon the analysis of assemblages along urbanrural gradients. In total. and including seven sampling points (established in hedgerows).

Thomisidae (7. 1) revealed that the choices of planners and gardeners are equally important but there is little interaction between these different choices.g. Fig. This study finally showed that. 460 .0%). followed by Linyphiidae (21.5335 * housing/ha. 1. Pardosa saltans). Gnaphosidae (4. Dysderidae (4.6135+0. residences) in each hectare (richness=72. we are investigating and testing the effect of hedgerow connectivity on spider populations.2).5%). in particular for forest-living species (e.38. The neighbourhood design could be one factor. This is mainly due to changes in abundance of individuals belonging to the family of Lycosidae.1. notably.2697+0. Liocranidae (4.002). Zelotes pedestris is as such rather associated with rural habitats whereas Pardosa hortensis is more associated with urban (residential) areas (CA analysis). Currently. r²=0. Three categories of local variables are distinguished: variables dependent on choices of planners during the establishment of hedgerows.Book of Abstracts. in city.1%).9) and Zodariidae (2.4%). p=0.3%).6%). The regression displayed a decrease in the number of individuals with the proximity of urbanized area (log spider abundance=1. Clubionidae (2.0004 * Distance of edge. r²=0. Diagram representing the variance partitioning using partial canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). p=0. Poland individuals). It is notable that the number of individuals belonging to species considered as forest-inhabiting did not change along the urban-rural transect. Population density is estimated by the number of houses (dwellings. The partition of variance (Fig. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. We did not neither observe a decrease in species richness but instead a replacement of species. spider species' richness is not dependent on population density. variables dependent on choices of gardeners and variables independent of man. Siedlce.

Douglas I. 14: 268-280.Book of Abstracts. body size. Small urban woodlands as biodiversity conservation hot-spot: a multi-taxon approach. Urban air quality. Clergeau P.. Urban Nature Magazine. 2004. Apogée. and fluctuating asymmetry along an urban-rural gradient. Poland References Chiesura A. 461 .E. Buter A. Stefanov W. Urbanization and spider diversity: influences of human modification of habitat structure and productivity. Atmospheric Environment 33: 4877-4900 Shochat E. The case for urban ecology. Fenger O.L.U. 1992. Siedlce. 68: 129-138... Ecological Applications. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. The role of urban parks for the sustainable city. Basic and Applied Ecology.H. 2008. 5: 193-201. 2003.A. 2004. Croci S. Une écologie du paysage urbain. 142 pp. Carabid beetle community composition.. Georges A. & Ganzhorn J. Whitehouse M. 2004. & Clergeau P. Interaction model application for urban planning. & Faeth S. 1999. Rennes. Landscape and Urban Planning 63: 49-60 Weller B. Weber C. 2007. Landscape and Urban Planning. 1: 15-17. 23: 1171-1186. Aguejdad R. Landscape Ecology.

Andrade. Peres. The objective of this study was to verify the leaf litter structural influence on the richness and abundance of spiders in an Atlantic Forest remnant in the municipality of Salvador. Stevenson and Dindal (1982) found that the space inside the deposited leaves. The leaf litter was then sieved and passing material was classified as large leaves (> 5 cm) that could be large flat or curved and small leaves (≤ 5): small flat and little curved. guilds and body size by creating foraging conditions.br Introduction Organic plant and animal matter in different degradation stages constitutes the leaf litter structure. They were sampled twice: in dry and wet seasons. Alessandra R. Poland The influence of leaf litter structure on spiders in an Atlantic Forest remnant in north-eastern Brazil Sheila Luzia de S. composition and habitat use and may contribute to management in natural biota. Material and methods The study was conducted in 2008. Wagner et al. During surveys. Kátia R. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Tércio S.com. Siedlce. Bahia. Understanding the structural patterns of leaf litter composition may help in understanding its influence on spider biology. providing a range of microhabitats. The sticks and trunk pieces were quantified and classified in slightly straight and slightly curved. breeding. varjaoecoa@yahoo. the lower surface of twisted leaves and the gaps between the leaves may serve as microhabitat for smaller species. Spiders may use the environment structure as refugia from predators. it is still unclear the way in which spiders respond to leaf litter structural changes in tropical forests. Marcos Vinicius A. 1987). Melo. Vallejo et al. each 50 x 50 cm. shelter or web building (Uetz 1976. we measured the litter depth and the litter samples were placed into the Winkler´s extractor (48 hours) to get spiders. (2003) found that the leaf litter depth and stratification influence families. However. foraging. Dias Catholic University of Salvador. 1987). Benati. The survey included 15 randomly arranged spots.Book of Abstracts. To test the influence of the leaf litter structure on the abundance 462 . influencing temperature and light conditions (Barbosa & Faria 2006) and supporting variety of animals (Vallejo et al. Guimarães & Marcelo A. Centro de Ecologia e Conservação Animal. Uetz (1976) showed also that spider abundance and diversity was affected by the flooding regime. Brazil. Marcelo Cesar L. S. The studies in temperate forest provided data on influence of leaf litter on spider composition. Brazil. Varjão.

Book of Abstracts, 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010, Siedlce, Poland

of spiders, we applied the Multiple Regression test (Graphpad InStat © 3.0), since all the structural covariates passed the normality test (KolmogorovSmirnov). Results We collected 90 spider species, representing 11 families. The most frequent were Theridiidae (n=33), Oonopidae (n=14), Salticidae (n=14) and Scytodidae (n=14), making 83.33% of all species. The most abundant was Coleosoma floridana Banks, 1900 (n=14). The leaf litter structure influenced the spiders abundance during the first sampling season (p <0.0001, r ² 1.0000). Small flat leaves, large flat leaves, large curved leaves and litter depth were the covariates positively influencing the spider abundance. Small curved leaves, slightly straight and slightly curved influenced negatively. There also was leaf litter structural significant influence during second sample season on spiders abundance (p <0. 0001; r² 1.000). The covariates slightly straight and slightly curved influenced positively and small flat leaves, small curved leaves, large flat leaves, large curved leaves and litter depth influenced negatively. Discussion Our results agree with the literature data. Several studies in a variety of ecosystems suggest that spiders are susceptible to various environmental variables and structural complexity (Uetz 1976, Wagner et al. 2003, Stevenson & Dindal 1982. The negative influence of the leaves in the second sample season may be as a result of more intense rainfall (average 149.1 mm, Inmet 2008), generating a lower production and increasing leaf litter degradation (Souto 2006). The negative influence of the leaf litter depth was not expected. Uetz (1976) showed that the growing leaf litter depth increases the abundance of spiders. We found a relationship between the depth of the leaf litter and the amount of leaves. In temperate forests Uetz (1976) found that during the rainy season the availability of prey is more important than the complexity of the habitat, which may be expressed here. The study demonstrated the importance of analyzing the leaf litter structure in analysing spider faunas and assemblages and provides the useful data for microhabitat management. References Banks N. 1900. Some new North American spiders. Canadian Entomologist. 32: 96-102. Barbosa J.H.C. & Faria S.M. 2006. Aporte de serrapilheira ao solo em estágios sucessionais florestais na Reserva Biológica de Poço das Antas, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Rodriguésia, 3: 461-476.
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Souto P.C. 2008. Acumulação e decomposição da serapilheira e distribuição de organismos edáficos em área de caatinga na Paraíba, Brasil. Centro de Ciências Agrárias da UFP, 146 pp. Stevenson B.G. & Dindal D.L. 1982. Effect of leaf shape on forest floor spiders: Community organization and microhabitat selection of immature Enoplognatha ovata (Clerck) (Theridiidae). The Journal of Arachnology, 10:165-178. Uetz G.W. 1976. The Influence of variation in litter habitat on spider communities. Revista Oecologia, 40: 29-42. Vallejo L.R., Fonseca C.L. & Gonçalves D.R.P. 1987. Estudo comparativo da mesofauna do solo entre áreas de Eucaliptus citriodora e mata secundaria heterogênea. Revista Brasil Biologia, 47: 363-370. Wagner J.D., Toft S. & Wise D.H. 2003. Spatial stratification in litter depth by forest- floor spiders. Revista The Journal of Arachnology, 31: 28-39.

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The subsocial spider Anelosimus cf. studiosus can adopt juveniles recently emerged
Carmen Viera & Maria de Fatima da Rocha Dias
Lab. Entomología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la República, Montevideo, Uruguay Lab. Ecología del Comportamiento, Instituto de Investigaciones Biológicas Clemente Estable, Montevideo, Uruguay, anelosimus@gmail.com, faldias@yahoo.com.br

Anelosimus cf. studiosus (Theridiidae) is a sub-social species from Uruguay (36ºS). Spiders live in low branches of perennial trees, building nests with dry leaves. When the individuals reach adulthood, they leave the communal nest, but sometimes adult females can share a big nest, but maintaining their own territory (Viera et al. 2007). There are two kinds of nests: uni-female and multifemale nests. The uni-female one is composed by the mother and one or two broods (30-60 individuals), and the multi-female ones are composed by many females with their broods. In spite of living together, adult females show territoriality, being intolerant among them, limiting the degree of sociality. In multi-female nests the females are located in separate retreats and they do not cooperate in prey capture and do not show cooperative maternal care, either. The social species have originated from sub-social ancestors through prolongation of tolerance and cooperation to adulthood. One of the limits to reach the sociality is the intolerance among adult females forcing the dispersion. In spite of the intolerance among adult females, the cannibalism is inhibited and the sub social spiders show high tolerance and individual maternal investment. In this species, the maternal effort is high, due to the cost of egg-sac building, they are bigger than their mother’s abdomen size, and the permanent care is to avoid parasitism affecting mother’s feeding during this period. When the time of development inside of the egg-sacs is finished, each mother makes a big hole to allow the exit of spiderlings. The process of opening the egg-sac is synchronized by fine endogenous mechanism that was activated at the moment of the oviposition and the alarm clock strikes approximately 21 days later (Viera et al. 2008). The mother feeds the juveniles, capturing prey by wrapping, cutting in pieces, and regurgitating. Usually mothers die when the juveniles reach the 4th instars and are cannibalized by them. The female territorialism and asynchrony among oviposition of different females makes the cooperative maternal care apparently impossible. Although the adult females with egg-sacs show tolerance to the foreign juveniles, the cannibalism is inhibited. This distinguishes this species from other more social because the mother´s presence is absolutely necessary to allow the exit of juveniles and to feed at the early instars of development. The aggression among adult females increases when they become mothers, defending actively their egg-sacs against other females. In spite of this
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aggression, we have already observed adoption of egg-sacs in the laboratory conditions. Even though the mothers do not recognize their own egg-sac, the delicate mechanism of opening egg-sac make the cooperative care difficult. In reference to the importance of the first meals by mother regurgitations to the juveniles, we tested if the young ones could obtain the regurgitation substances from other adult females, which would act like stepmothers. We used two experimental groups: 20 adult virgin females and 20 adult females copulated. We maintained both groups under the same laboratory conditions at the average temperature of 25ºC and 70% humidity. The individuals were fed with Drosophila spp. and small Tenebrio molitor larvae. Each adult female was raised isolated, like in a uni-female nest, in small Petri dish. The data of the copula and laying the egg-sacs were registered. We put a group of recently emerged juveniles with virgin adult females and other group with female mothers but not their own mothers. We used only juveniles because we had previously found under experimental conditions that they were able to capture small prey by themselves since the second instars (Ghione et al. 2004), but until then, they needed the presence of the mother for supplementary feeding by regurgitation. We observed that all the juveniles showed a solicitation behaviour consisting of many beats on the mothers’ mouth, very closely to the chelicerae and being exposed to possible aggression. The group of virgin females showed high tolerance behaviour toward spiderlings, they did not cannibalize, but were unable to feed. In the second group with we observed a total adoption mechanism. In two cases the real mother was dead and the substitute mother was able to feed juveniles with parts of prey and regurgitation like a “real mother”. They did not recognize their own brood and could replace the dead mother. Other care behaviour observed was the repair of the communal web, cleaning of prey’s rest, protection of egg-sacs and early juveniles against parasitism of Ficus and bacteria. When the prey arrived to the communal web, the adult females captured it and made forelegs display on the threads and the juveniles responded and approached to be fed. The mothers stayed calm to avoid causing any injury to the spiderlings. During the feeding process the mothers watched if all the juveniles were fed, helping them carefully all the time. The mothers did not feed themselves until the juveniles finished eating. The high mother´s investment was prolonged and continuous, and our findings suggest that even though the real mother was dead, other females sharing the same nest can substitute the mother and take care of their relatives, making the entire colony survive. The substances transferred to the juveniles by regurgitation could be very important, since this procedure occurs among sub-adults individuals and the males fed by their sisters acquire bigger size and they would be more reproductive successful than the small ones (Viera et al 2007). Further research about adoption must be done, together with future investigations of the importance of the substances transferred by regurgitations for the healthy development of the juveniles.
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References Ghione S., Viera C. & Costa F.G. 2004. Ability to capture prey in early instars of the subsocial spider Anelosimus cf. studiosus (Henz, 1850) from Uruguay (Araneae, Theridiidae). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society, 13(2): 60-62. Viera C., Costa F.G., Ghione S. & Benamú-Pino M.A. 2007. Progeny, development and phenology of the sub-social spider Anelosimus cf. studiosus (Araneae, Theridiidae) from Uruguay. Studies on Neotropical Fauna and Environment, 42(2): 145-153. Viera C., Ghione S. & Costa F.G. 2006. Regurgitation among juveniles in the subsocial spider Anelosimus cf. studiosus (Araneae, Theridiidae). Journal of Arachnology, 34(1): 258-260. Viera C., Ghione S. & Costa F.G. 2007. Mechanisms underlying egg-sac opening in the subsocial spider Anelosimus cf. studiosus (Araneae, Theridiidae. Ethology, Ecology & Evolution, 19(1): 61-67. Viera C., Ghione S. & Costa F.G. 2007. Post-embryonic development of the sub-social spider Anelosimus cf. studiosus (Araneae, Theridiidae). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society, 14(1): 30-32.

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The invasive Australian redback spider, Latrodectus hasseltii Thorell, 1870 (Araneae: Theridiidae): current and potential distributions
Cor J. Vink1, Craig B. Phillips2, José G.B. Derraik3 & Phil J. Sirvid4
1

Biosecurity Group, AgResearch, Lincoln, New Zealand & Entomology Research Museum, Ecology Department, Lincoln University, New Zealand, cor.vink@agresearch.co.nz 2 Biosecurity Group, AgResearch, Lincoln, New Zealand 3 Disease and Vector Research Group, Institute for Natural Sciences, Massey University, Auckland, New Zealand 4 Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, Wellington, New Zealand

Populations of the Australian redback spider, Latrodectus hasseltii Thorell 1870, were first recorded in New Zealand in the early 1980s and in Osaka, Japan in 1995. Reliable records suggest that naturalised populations of L. hasseltii in New Zealand are present only in Central Otago and New Plymouth. In Central Otago, L. hasseltii feeds on endangered invertebrates. Latrodectus hasseltii is also a hazard to the New Zealand endemic L. katipo through interbreeding and competitive displacement. The computer programme CLIMEX was used to model the potential global distribution of L. hasseltii based on current climate, and using ArcGIS 9.2, areas of suitable climate in New Zealand were overlaid with suitable habitats to identify areas most suitable for L. hasseltii establishment. The shelter that urban areas offer L. hasseltii were modelled in CLIMEX and incorporated into ArcGIS to produce maps indicating cities and built up areas where the species could establish. The presence of L. hasseltii in New Zealand and Japan, and its possible spread to other parts of the world, is of human health significance, and it may also impact on native biodiversity.

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Book of Abstracts, 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010, Siedlce, Poland

Using real-time remote diagnostics to examine valuable specimens
Cor J. Vink1, John Marris2, John M. Kean3 & Trevor K. Crosby4
1

Biosecurity Group, AgResearch, Lincoln, New Zealand & Entomology Research Museum, Ecology Department, Lincoln University, New Zealand, cor.vink@agresearch.co.nz 2 Entomology Research Museum, Ecology Department, Lincoln University, New Zealand 3 Biosecurity Group, AgResearch, Lincoln, New Zealand 4 New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, Auckland, New Zealand

Real-time remote diagnostic tools have the potential to change the way arachnological specimens are examined and identified. We selected and trialled four internet-based video conferencing software systems for their applicability to real-time remote diagnostics. Trials were conducted using standardised tests for image resolution and latency, and real diagnostic challenges were set using spider specimens. The tests were conducted within and between research organizations in New Zealand, and with an international collaborator in Western Australia. The most important features of a good remote microscopy system were identified as cost, ease of set-up and use, image quality, the ability to capitalise on high-speed research networks, vocal communication capability, and a remote pointer. The greatest impediment was obtaining access through institutional firewalls. More generic solutions to this problem are required if the full potential of remote communication technologies is to be realised. Real-time remote diagnostic tools have particular potential for use in taxonomic studies, to avoid time delays and possible damage to valuable specimens during transportation. A study of the costs and benefits of remote diagnostics for accessing spider and insect specimens in the New Zealand Arthropod Collection with be discussed.

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Book of Abstracts, 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010, Siedlce, Poland

Sperm storage and sperm activation in the orb-weaving spider Argiope bruennichi (Araneidae, Araneae)
Oliver Vöcking, Peter Michalik & Gabriele Uhl
Zoologisches Institut und Museum Greifswald, Germany, Oliver.Voecking@gmx.de, Michalik@uni-greifswald.de, Gabriele.Uhl@uni-greifswald.de

In spiders, spermatozoa are transferred to the female in a coiled and encysted state and stored in the spermathecae until oviposition. Little is known of the processes involved in sperm activation in spiders (Brown 1985, Berendonck & Greven 2005). This study focuses on sperm activation in the genital system of the sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi in which male genital mutilation serves to plug the insemination duct after mating. Most males are cannibalized during their first insertion and are thus able to monopolize one spermatheca only. Post-mating female mate choice may thus occur by selective activation of the sperm from rival males that are stored in different spermathecae. Virgin females were raised in captivity and double-mated under controlled conditions. By amputating one pedipalp each, both males were restricted to one insemination into opposite spermathecae. Post-mating, the spermathecae were dissected out after different time periods to study morphological changes in the stored spermatozoa by means of light microscopy and electron microscopy. Shortly after copulation, the spermatozoa show the typical secretion sheath known from spiders and other Araneidae. Stages before oviposition show coiled spermatozoa without the secretion sheath or almost fully uncoiled spermatozoa, however, in a few specimens we found spermatozoa with and without secretion sheath, the latter mainly occurring close to the spermathecal wall. Hence, we assume that the activation is triggered by a female signal released from the glands that surround the spermathecae. After oviposition, spermatozoa remaining in the spermatheca were always decapsulated which might suggest that females are able to hold back sperm for a subsequent oviposition bout. Our data suggest that sperm activation takes place in the female´s spermathecae by means of an activation trigger produced by the female. Whether females are able to selectively activate different sperm stores remains to be investigated.

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Taxonomic and ecological data on spiders from Saranda, Albania (Arachnida: Araneae)
Blerina Vrenosi1 & Christo Deltshev2
1 2

Museum of Natural Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Tirana University, Albania Institute of Zoology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria

Spiders play significant role as ecological bioindicators and are important part of the food chain. Geographic position, sea influence, high biodiversity of relieves, the elevation from the sea level and diversity of specific climate and microclimates conditions influence the species richness. In six different habitat types (Saranda Hills, Mirror Beach, Butrinti Hills, Ksamil Beach, Blue Eye Hills and Kakome Beach), 27 species representing 21 genera and 8 families have been recorded. Most of the species have a low ecological valence, but a few of them are more widespread and have higher ecological valence. The calculation of the similarity coefficient between hilly habitats of Saranda showed a similarity of araneofauna (K=20%) between city’s hills and protected area’s hills (Blue Eye and Butrinti). Further and extended studies will be undertaken at Saranda in the future.

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Spider fauna in paddy fields in Thailand
Wipada Vungsilabutr & Wimolwan Chotiwong*
Entomology and Zoology Division, Department of Agriculture, BangKhen, Bangkok, Thailand, * yuri_socool@hotmail.com

A survey of spiders in paddy fields was carried out from October 1994 to September 1996 at Pathumthani, Suphanburi, Chachengchao, Nontaburi, Nakhonsawan, Chiang-Mai, Ratchaburi, Songkhla and Nakonrachasima provinces. The collected fauna included 14 families, 36 genera and 50 species, 21 species newly recorded for Thailand. The species were general predators, feeding on green rice leafhoppers, rice brown plant hoppers, rice cutworms, stem borers and stink bugs.

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Siedlce.cn. Poland The origin and speciation of Solenysa spiders on the Japan Archipelago Fang Wang & Lihong Tu College of Life Sciences. In present study we reconstructed a species level phylogeny of the Japanese species based on the molecular sequences data (mitochondrial COI. In combination with historical geographical information. The four species occurring on the Japan Archipelago have unique genitalia. morphological variations of genitalia are often used to identify species. Furthermore. Capital Normal University. which only differ in fine details. However. 16S. how much difference would lead to reproductive isolation and speciation is highly debatable. histone H3) and morphological data. nuclear 28S.Book of Abstracts. China.R. The most parsimonious trees and Bayesian trees revealed four monophyletic clades that is congruent with the previous interpretation based on morphological data. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. P. the phylogenetic relationships suggest that the Japanese species were derived from the species occurring on mainland China and dispersed from south to north on the Japan Archipelago. tulh@ioz. The spider genus Solenysa. Furthermore. we discussed the origin and speciation of the Solenysa species on the Japan Archipelago and the historical caused that produced the current distribution patterns. they share similar habitat and distribute along the islands with little range overlap.ac. has many exclusive features of both genitalic and somatic morphology and endemic distribution. The advent of relatively inexpensive and rapid DNA sequencing has made it possible for biologist to detect and differentiate morphologically similar species.com.cn According to the biological species concept (BSC). 473 . a group of highly specialized Linyphiidae. 18S. wycgbiochemical@yahoo. Beijing.

A. By the end of the 1990s ca. Nowadays it is distributed over a considerable part of the Palearctic. Particularly strong competitive interactions can. 100 sites were known in many regions. I suppose that A. The wasp spider is of Mediterranean-Pontian origin. Warsaw. Poland A comparison of Argiope bruennichi and Araneus quadratus population density in different habitats and regions of Poland Wioletta Wawer Museum and Institute of Zoology. A conspicuous expansion in western Poland has been taking place since the 1940s. except NE Poland. I would like to test this hypothesis through research on the competition of the two species. because of the harsh climate. the abundance of the four spot orb weaver is higher than the numbers of the more thermophilous wasp spider. The purpose of my investigations is to compare the densities of different web spiders in similar habitats but in different regions and geographical conditions within the distribution range of web-building spiders. The life cycle of A.waw. with young individuals appearing in May and females forming sacks on September (Kajak 1965). The four spot orb weaver has a one-year life cycle. bruennichi is very similar.wawer@miiz.Book of Abstracts. w. it has been gradually spreading to the north. The impact of the wasp spider on other spider species is not yet clear. In the Holocene. 474 .pl The spectacular expansion of Argiope bruennichi (Scopoli. 1772) gives an opportunity to study the dispersal conditions and adaptability of species. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Over the next decades an increasing number of wasp spider stations were observed but only single sites were discovered in the 1960s and 1970s in the South-East regions of the country. Siedlce. Some arachnologists (Kajak & Łuczak 2003) have emphasized the substantial biocoenotic role of A. It is possible that in the vicinity of the 'Polish cold pole'. bruennichi limits the abundance of orb weaver spiders. An expansive species is frequently identified as an invasive species. Currently the wasp spider is distributed over the whole territory of Poland and it has become a very common species. Both species occupy the same habitats and have similar food preferences. 1754). Polish Academy of Sciences. Poland. for instance. bruennichi in terms of changes in number of other spiders (mainly web spiders) occupying the same area. bruennichi spreads relatively fast and the character of its expansion is not well recognised. where the climate is harsh. In Poland A. bruennichi was first noted in the second half of the 19th century. The wasp spider controls the abundance of other spiders. wins competition with other species or seizes free niches. occur between Argiope bruennichi and Araneus quadratus (Clerk.

The available information indicates a tendency of spatial passing of A. The study was conducted in August 2009 in several areas characterised by different climate conditions: Pojezierze Mazurskie (Mazury Lake District) (53°41'N. quadratus. north-eastern Poland) this species dominated in many communities. quadratus abundance in the 1950s (Biebrza basin. bruennichi in north-eastern and south-eastern Poland did not differ significantly (Student's t-distribution). A. Kampinoski Park Narodowy. (ed). structure. quadratus density in north-eastern Poland (Pojezierze Mazurskie) was significantly higher than its abundance in Kotlina Sandomierska. 9: 199-228. quantity. and Kotlina Sandomierska (Sandomierz Valley) (50°10'N. However. quadratus density in selected habitats and regions. bruennichi considerably predominated in 32 squares. quadratus density are available from several dozen years ago. Kajak A. Within the Pojezierze Mazurskie in 5 squares A. Wydawnictwo Kampinoski Park Narodowy. Izabelin. 475 . vol. Basing on information provided by Kajak (1960) about A. Within Kotlina Sandomierska A. quadratus. Siedlce. Kajak A. bruennichi and A. 21°43'E). The early results suggest a higher abundance of A. bruennichi and A. & Łuczak J. References Kajak A. The method of direct counting in 25 m2-squares was used. where the wasp spider has been observed since 2000. 2003. with 36 squares selected in Kotlina Sandomierska and 32 in Pojezierze Mazurskie. Six locations were selected in each region (e. 21°54'E).g. Changes in the abundance of spiders in several meadows. Subsequent studies should verify the assumptions concerning the wasp spider potential for dislodging the four spot orb weaver from its natural habitats. In: Andrzejewski R. spatial localization. The abundance of A. but the pattern of change during each season was similar. 539-563. pp.Book of Abstracts. An analysis of food relations between the spiders – Araneus cornutus Clerk and Araneus quadratus Clerk – and their prey in meadows. natural meadows. quadratus was slightly more numerous than A. 1965. bruennichi than A. Moreover. 1960. since the wasp spider was not present in many regions of the country at that time. bruennichi. arable meadows and wastelands). 32: 717-764. where the wasp spider has been present since the 1970s. Ekologia Polska. Ekologia Polska. abundance fluctuations were observed over the years. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Spiders – meaning. Little data concerning A. Poland In my presentation I show the results of the first season of my investigation of A.

The capacity of web-building spiders to contribute to the biological control of insect pests can be mediated or facilitated by the availability of alternative prey or the density of competing predators. This suggests that these spiders can fill an augmentative role in biological control programs. before such programs can be designed. foxi. In order to character web-placement patterns. formicum. Siedlce. and rarely utilized the ground as an attachment point. Springtails (Hexapoda: Collembola) constitute a majority of the potential prey for linyphiid and other web-building spiders. narrow ranges of heights for web placement.Book of Abstracts. USA. placed its orb-webs approximately 10 mm off the ground. To draw correlations between consumption of prey and web placement. web-building spiders whose ecology is of central importance to the function of arthropod communities in agroecosystems. autumnalis. Eric G. Although not typically considered pests. Spider species were shown to make differential usage of available structures for web attachment points. Welch. indicating that web height may be a means of trophic niche partitioning among web-building spiders. which is known to include economically important pest species. and to elucidate the effects of web placement on trophic and community ecology of linyphiids. University of Kentucky. A common tetragnathid spider. Chapman & James D.edu The Linyphiidae are a numerically dominant family of small. Poland The role of web placement in structuring linyphiid spider communities and food webs Kelton D. However. Harwood Department of Entomology. This makes the selection of microhabitats for the placement of webs a particularly influential ecological variable. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Erigone autumnalis Emerton build webs on open ground at heights 1-2 mm off the ground. KY. Tennesseellum formicum (Emerton) most commonly inhabited web-sites at the base of plant stems at heights averaging 3-4 mm off the ground. However. both of which will be impacted by the placement of spider webs. 40% of E. Sticky trap collections in the same two alfalfa fields revealed differential access to Collembola between epigeal and low-foliar web-sites. T. tested positive for Collembola. and consistently selected distinct. the most abundant 476 . an understanding of the factors that impact consumption of pests by linyphiid spiders must be investigated. and 14% of G. formicum. Glenognatha foxi (McCook). data on spider webs was collected in two alfalfa fields in central Kentucky using a quadratebased sampling protocol. Of particular interest is the diet of linyphiid spiders. such as aphids and leafhoppers. their importance within these communities has not translated into widespread or systematic attention in the ecological literature. springtails (and other alternative prey items) can serve to sustain spiders in the absence of prey. Significant levels of trophic specialization were observed: 74% of T. we used PCR to screen spider guts for traces of Collembola DNA. thus allowing spiders to maintain populations ahead of pest outbreaks and maximize their potential impact on these pests. kdwe222@uky.

Book of Abstracts. These data provide valuable insights into the partitioning of trophic and spatial niches among web-building spiders. and form a foundation of basic ecological knowledge that will contribute to the development of conservation biological control programs that incorporate these abundant spiders. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. and at web-sites at the base of plant stems than at epigeal or foliar web-sites. Poland spider (n=370). Siedlce. but the differences were not significant. showed greater consumption of Collembola at web heights between 2 and 5 mm than at higher or lower heights. 477 .

willemart@usp.harvard. Willemart1 & Gonzalo Giribet2 1 Escola de Artes Ciências e Humanidades. Poland A scanning electron microscopic survey of the cuticle in mite harvestmen (Arachnida.Book of Abstracts. MA. Opiliones. USA. as they are absent in all studied members of the other Opiliones suborders. Harvard University. Siedlce. São Paulo. the variation in shape of some of the structures examined may be of great taxonomic value.br. ggiribet@oeb. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Cambridge. Finally. covering a wide range of their taxonomic diversity. The prosomal paired hairs may constitute a novel synapomorphy for the suborder Cyphophthalmi. including a sexually dimorphic row of spines and glandular openings on leg I of Fangensis cavernarum. Previously unknown structures are described. Evidence for the multi-pored nature of the shaft of solenidia as well as the hollowed nature and absence of wall pores of sensilla chaetica are also shown for the first time using scanning electron microscopy. Cyphophthalmi) with the description of novel sensory and glandular structures Rodrigo H. Scanning electron micrographs of the prosomal paired hairs and the subapical process are provided for the first time. corresponding author 2 Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology & Museum of Comparative Zoology. Universidade de São Paulo.edu The cuticular surfaces of Cyphophthalmi (Opiliones) were studied in detail with scanning electron microscopy. 478 . Brazil. SP.

invalidus and we found that only one out of ten spiders did it. we observed details of the interaction by digitally recording 32 spiders divided in 2 treatments (harvestmen and crickets. and the spider Enoploctenus cyclothorax. a heavy bodied animal which bear a pair of scent glands.br The use of scent gland secretions against predators is a costly defense that has convergently evolved in several taxa. immediately after it captured a cricket (control: distilled water). A comparative fluxogram between the behaviour of spiders against crickets and harvestmen allowed us to clearly show how spiders behave differently when facing these two prey. n=16). Brazil. Poland Harvest-ironman: heavy armature and not its defensive secretions protects a harvestman (Opiliones) against a spider (Araneae) Rodrigo H. None of the spiders released their prey. invalidus or a cricket (control) for 5 days in a recipient (n=16). invisible to the human eye. We studied the interaction between the harvestman Discocyrtus invalidus. a generalist predator. we designed a fifth experiment to test whether E. 479 . mouth and tip of the legs are not covered by a hard integument in several harvestmen species. Since the role of chemicals in rejection were ruled out. We digitally recorded 52 spiders. In an attempt to explain why rejection occurred. Universidade de São Paulo. and that these would be responsible for the rejection by the spiders. Harvestmen were significantly less preyed than crickets. SP. we designed a third experiment where we tested the hypothesis that harvestmen would release little amounts of secretions. Willemart & Elene da Silva Souza Escola de Artes Ciências e Humanidades. divided into 4 treatments of 13 spiders each (harvestmen with gland obstructed with glue. the glue had no effect and blocking the glands did not interfere in the results. The survival rate of harvestmen was 100%. cyclothorax could pierce the integument of D. cyclothorax with either D.Book of Abstracts. In the second experiment. we left E. Our combined results have implications in the understanding of proximate mechanisms of preypredator interactions: this is the first experimental evidence that chemically defended harvestmen do not use their scent gland secretions to repel a much larger predator but rather rely on their heavily built body. In the first experiment. Most spiders rejected the prey but in none of the videos could we notice the release of scent gland secretions. chemicals have consistently been shown be the responsible for repelling the specific predators. willemart@usp. by applying harvestmen secretions between the chelicerae of a spider. harvestmen with glue on the dorsum. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. and that of crickets was below 25%. Siedlce. In detailed analyses of arthropod behaviour. We also tested the effect of the harvestmen secretion per se. crickets with glue on the dorsum and crickets with no glue). we provide SEM micrographs to show that only the articulations. São Paulo. Finally.

Gillespie2 & Damian O. Fossil archaeids are examined using X-ray Computed Tomography in order to understand phylogenetic placement of extinct lineages. Siedlce. 480 . Mecysmaucheniidae): phylogeny.edu The spider families Archaeidae and Mecysmaucheniidae are revised. Environmental Science. CA. San Francisco.2.3. Wood1. Molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses are performed for Malagasy. Entomology Department. Poland Archaeid and mecysmaucheniid spiders and their relatives (Araneae: Archaeidae. Rosemary G. USA 3 Corresponding author: hwood@berkeley. Charles E. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. biogeography and evolution of the carapace morphology Hannah M. Griswold1. and for outgroup taxa representing 20 different spider families. Elias2 1 Arachnology Lab. USA 2 University of California. for Chilean and New Zealand mecysmaucheniids. Berkeley. California Academy of Sciences. South African and Australian archaeid lineages.Book of Abstracts. Berkeley.2. Biogeographic findings within different continents as well as between continents are discussed. Policy and Management. Evolution of the carapace shape is examined in relation to predatory behaviours and biomechanical properties. CA.

Preliminary tests carried out on Tegenaria web silk have shown that when isolated and placed in solution with E. the ability of the E. 481 . coli. plxsw5@nottingham. Spider webs often remain in the environment long after the spider has expired. showing levels of strength.ac. Siedlce. Another notable feature of spider silk is its longevity. coli to grow and reproduce is significantly diminished. The longevity of spider silk indicates that the material has some properties of resisting decomposing by microorganisms. torsionality. Poland The antimicrobial properties of spider silk Simon Wright University of Nottingham. lightness that are unmatched by man-made materials.uk Spider silk is a remarkable material in nature. Further tests to be carried out will include investigating if this antimicrobial activity is effective across a wide range of bacteria and fungi and also if a wide range of spiders are able to produce silk with these characteristics. United Kingdom. flexibility.Book of Abstracts. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Studies by Volrath et al have investigated the compounds present in spider silk and have found that spider silk contains molecules that are known to have antimicrobial properties.

it is difficult to identify these two species without comparison with type specimens because there are no drawings in these descriptions. shelfordii were loaned from The Museum of Comparative Zoology. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010.co. The redescriptions of M. Kagoshima University. borneensis and M. Only 4 species are mentioned as temporary results. Borneo. M. 482 .Book of Abstracts. The direct observation in the field is considered important in particular for the study of this group of spider. shelfordii were not included among these 22 species. and epigyne in females. Most Myrmarachne species have been described based on a few specimens in previous studies. Type specimens of M. borneensis and M. Siedlce. It is expected that a number of specific names in Southeast Asia may be junior synonyms. and wait for them becoming adults near their nests. shelfordii are described from Borneo in 1907. M. borneensis and M. Material and methods Spiders were collected from various sites in Sabah and Lambir Hills National Park in Sarawak.jp Introduction The members of the genus Myrmarachne (Salticidae) resemble ants morphologically and behaviourally. However. borneensis and M. The purpose of this study is to describe new species and to redescribe the known species from Borneo. Harvard University for redescription and comparison with collected specimens. spiders were kept in empty bottles for make them adults. Results and discussion Twenty-two species were collected from present study and 10 of them were identified to species. Around 250 species are recorded all over the world. When spiders were juveniles. Poland Taxonomic study of Myrmarachne (Araneae: Salticidae) from Borneo Takeshi Yamasaki Graduate school of Science and Engineering. of them around 80 from Southeast Asia and 10 from Borneo. This has resulted in the misunderstanding of male/female combination of a certain species because taxonomists have to guess the combination based only on morphological data. and to review the taxonomic system of Myrmarachne in Southeast Asia. Japan. howyadpincreep@yahoo. Specimens were sorted and identified mainly based on the structures of chelicerae and palpi in males. Commonly the males of Myrmarachne become the adults earlier than the conspecific females. Males and females of the same species have been described separately as different species. shelfordii are needed to facilitate to identify these species. Collected adult spiders were preserved in 75% ethanol. Manual collecting including beating and sweeping was conducted for specimens.

borneensis is a dark brown (in ethanol) and robust species. Poland M. topali. Siedlce. Chelicerae are slender with numerous teeth. M. 1985 and M.Book of Abstracts. hanoii Żabka. shelfordii Peckham & Peckham. 1907: M. topali are a single species. I observed a male of M. shelfordii is a light brown (in ethanol) species. Chelicerae are relatively short compared with the length of carapace. 1907: M. hanoii was described based on only male and M. hanoii and M. Tibial apophysis is well developed. 1985: M. borneensis Peckham & Peckham. suggesting that M. M. hanoii waited for a subadult female of M. 483 . topali Żabka. This character is unique among Myrmarachne species. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. This species has thick long hairs like spines under tibial apophysis on their palpal tibia. topali based on only female.

Instead of the commonlyobserved single-rowed serrula the new form is bi-cusped almost to the extent of being double rowed.edu. A cladistic analysis has been performed and we now consider it most parsimonious to treat this bi-cusped trait as being a unique apomorphic character which partially defines a clade within the Scytodidae.com.sg A new form of serrula in some large cave-dwelling scytodids (Araneae. Siedlce. Poland A new serrular structure and its implications for the phylogeny of the scytodids (Araneae: Scytodidae) Laura-Marie Y.sg * dbslidq@nus. Yap1. Mygalomorphae and non-haplogyne Araneomorphae.Book of Abstracts. araneus@singnet. Court2 & Daiqin Li1* 1 2 Department of Biological Sciences. It is speculated that the bi-cusped serrula functions as an instrument which ruptures a hard but brittle exoskeleton of an item of the spider’s prey. Scytodidae) from the south west of China is reported and figured. and with those of the much less closely related Mesothelae. The configuration of the serrula within the Araneae is reviewed and the new form is compared with the serrulae of other members of the Scytodidae. Although the serrula is nearly double-rowed we suggest that it is unlikely to be synonymous with the multi-rowed serrula of the Hypochilidae. 484 . with those of other scytodoids. Singapore.L. David J. National University of Singapore. Singapore Honorary Research Associate. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. National University of Singapore. Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research.

I collected and measured 2821 spiders from 102 colonies. 485 . using the deviation from the expected weight based on carapace width as an indication of “condition. particularly to young spiders that have a limited ability to capture large prey. while spiders share prey while inside the retreat. The social huntsman spider. Delena cancerides. Siedlce. other benefits of group living besides prey sharing must provide sufficient benefits to first cohort offspring to remain in the natal nest. ECY7@cornell. Research School of Biology. Ithaca. Laboratory and field data show that.” Young spiders (3rd-4th instar) had significantly greater condition when in the presence of older siblings than young spiders with siblings only of the same size. While prey sharing inside or outside the retreat is a rare event. To investigate the possibility that prey sharing.edu Cooperative foraging is an important benefit of group living for a variety of animals and for the social spiders in particular. Yip Department of Entomology. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. USA. might provide a measurable benefit to spiders. lives under tree bark. ACT. the vast majority of prey is captured outside the retreat when spiders forage solitarily. Australian National University. though rare. unlike most other social spiders that build capture webs. Australia. NY. Older spiders (7th instarsubadult) tended to do worse in the presence of younger siblings. I measured the condition of spiders at collection and related the condition of spiders to colony demographics. it might still be an important benefit. Conversely.Book of Abstracts. The data suggest that occasionally sharing prey with older siblings is an important benefit for second or third cohort young. Cornell University. Poland Brotherly love or sibling rivalry? The presence of older siblings influences body condition in the social spider Delena cancerides (Sparassidae) Eric C. Canberra.

486 . Actin) from species collected from the major distribution areas of this subfamily. its phylogeny is poorly studied. NADH1. BC.ubc. Vancouver. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. The result strongly supports the monophyly of euophryines and sheds some light on problems that have long existed in their systematics. University of British Columbia. nuclear: 28S rDNA. This finding is consistent with other analyses that suggest much of salticid diversification occurred after the separation of the continents of the Old World and New World. the taxonomic position of the South American Euophrys species. jxzhang@interchange. Siedlce. which makes its historical biogeography particularly interesting. and indicates dispersal in evolutionary history is the major mechanism to result in the current intercontinental distribution pattern of this subfamily. the Euophryinae currently contains at least 95 genera and more than 800 species. wmaddisn@interchange. for instance.ubc. To clarify the phylogeny of the subfamily and understand its historical biogeography. Poland Molecular phylogeny indicates intercontinental dispersal of euophryine spiders in evolutionary history (Araneae: Salticidae) Junxia Zhang & Wayne P. The result shows the Euophryinae likely originated in late Eocene or early Oligocene after the continents had moved into their current positions. 265 euophryine species (218 identified species of 69 genera and 47 unidentified species of 12 potentially new genera) and 30 outgroups are included in the phylogenetic analysis. In total. Maddison Department of Zoology.ca.Book of Abstracts.ca The Euophryinae has worldwide distribution and is the only major group of jumping spiders (Salticidae) to have diversified into many genera in both the Old and New World. Most jumping spiders known from these two areas are euophryines. However. Canada. The subfamily's divergence time is estimated by a Bayesian approach using fossil calibration. As one of the largest subfamilies of jumping spiders. we amplified and sequenced five genes (mitochondrial: COI. This study also finds two hotspots of euophryine species: Papua New Guinea and the Caribbean Islands. 16SrDNA.

14th.uran. cannot move over long distances by air like insects or spiders so they are convenient research subject. 22nd. The experiments have been executed on August. Poland Harvestmen (Opiliones) thermo-preference reactions under industrial pollution Maxim P. kia@ipae. 17th. on August. Kshnyasev Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology. ephippiatus. tridens from the background population and 5 О. Live individuals were delivered to a laboratory and placed inside experimental device with temperature gradient from+8ºС to+30ºС. Russia) near the Revda town during two summers (2007. Harvestmen have a short range of individual activity (approximately 200 m). Ekaterinburg city.uran. The preference reactions may be used as the indicator of ecological features of species or populations. ephippiatus. 25th. 23rd. Russia. At the same time much attention is focused on functional or taxonomic/population changes in communities. Zolotarev & Ivan A. For the temperature registration in litter top horizon (depth 1 cm) during the period of laboratory research in 2007 we installed the wireless sensors THERMOCHRON DS 1921 GF50. Our goal in this study is to test the assumption that harvestmen dwelling in close vicinity of the copper-smelting factory have specific thermo-preference reactions. Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences. lugubre and 5 О. 70 N. Oligolophus tridens and Lacinius ephippiatus. tridens from the impact population. Siedlce. Harvestmen were caught by soil traps (2 days exposition). 7th in 2007 (evaluation units (n) is individual): 25 L. Six rounds of measurements during day and night with 3 hours intervals were taken.ru. tridens from the impact population). 89 N. 3rd (47 L. 14th. Eleven rounds have been executed in 2008: on July.ru Introduction An ecosystem transformation under industrial pollution is one of classic issues in contemporary ecology. The long-term emissions of a copper-smelting factory changes plant cover and temperature conditions and should affect thermopreference reactions of epigeic invertebrates. aspen and pine. 13th. 21st. 26th and on September.Book of Abstracts. 17th. Two sites located at the different distances from the Sredneuralsk copper-smelting factory (SUMZ) were used: background zone (30 km) where pollution is at the average regional level and impact zone (2 km) where the amplitude of daily temperature fluctuations in forest litter is higher than on the unpolluted area. The most numerous three species of harvestmen has been chosen for study: Nemastoma lugubre. 21st. Methods The investigation was carried out in Pervouralsk district of Sverdlovsk region (Middle Urals. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. zmp@ipae. tridens from the background and 5 О. The native biotopes in this region are fir forests with admixture of birch. 28th. lugubre and 57 О. The physiological reactions are important basic components in population adaptation. 10th. 17th. The statistical 487 . 2008). 29th and on September.

18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. tridens – since 3 p. lugubre and О. 18.m. Harvestmen’s norm of reaction to temperature Thermal preference reactions allow characterized organism as eury. n=4) was observed (F(1. 648)=6.4.0±0.4ºC).2) but the variability of daily (time*zone F(23. 2001). ephippiatus is more thermophilic species (19. sd=2..1ºC). 648)=20. Results Litter temperature The temperature in forest litter where harvestmen spend many time at their early stages has considerable influence on their activity. tridens and N. with decrease air temperature it decrease too.0±0. lugubre showed similar reactions (18. 648)=0.4. The mean daily temperature (meteorological data). time within a day and a species (or pollution zone for two О. 2310)=8. tridens inhabiting impact and background zone was similar (18. F(1. О. tridens population) were used as continuous or categorical predictors for explanation of variability in harvestmen preference temperature. tridens inhabiting impact territory displayed maximum width daily range thermo-preference (5.m. Preference reactions The daily average air temperature during the capture set in 2007 was less by 1. The thermo-preference of all three species varied slightly among two years (F(1. 2422)=59. n=6) and in the impact zone (16. ephippiatus chose minimum temperatures within the period since 12 a.m.3ºC.4).0002. 2310)=4. It is remarkable that in 2007 the preference values of О.66).2±0.2309)=2. background population of N. On the contrary L.m.2±0. N.8±0.4. О.8) temperatures is higher in the impact zone. The thermo-preference circadian dynamics in both populations of О. time zone: F(7.7±0.9): the harvestmen chose high values at night but low values at day. till 3 p.28). Inc.7ºC. L.m.1±0.58).1). lugubre (17.9) and N. sd=1.5ºC) than in 2008 (18. 532)=0.3) and seasonal (season*zone: F(4. Circadian dynamics in harvestmen preference temperature All three species show similar circadian dynamics of preferred temperatures (time: F(7. Siedlce.0002).5ºC.or stenothermic and we used a standard deviation as evaluation for it. L.4±0. The similar average temperature of the litter top horizon (registration unit (n) is sensor) in the background zone (16.0±0. tridens (2. Contrary to expectations thermo-preference of O. till 6 p.m. impact population of О.2ºC accordingly).2±0. lugubre has a lowest standard deviation (2. 532)=0. Significant interspecies differences in thermo-preference were observed (F(2.2ºC in 2008 accordingly). ephippiatus in 2007 chose higher temperatures (20. tridens are similar (zone: F(1. such feature is peculiar to crepuscular and nocturnal invertebrates. Poland analyses were carried out using Generalized Regression Models in Statistica program (StatSoft. The influence of average daily air temperature on harvestmen thermo-preference is revealed (F(1.4ºC and 18. tridens (hereinafter М±se: 16.1±0.3ºC than that in 2008 (F(1.3ºС) were a little lower (18.3ºC).0ºC).3ºC) 488 . 532)=1.Book of Abstracts.2310)=16. and 6 a.8±0. There is only one coherent peak in all three species preference temperature dynamics within 3 a.

ephippiatus (2.004). background population of О. Siedlce. ephippiatus is larger than О. There is a point of view that the temperature mode in early ontogenesis.6ºC) characterized by intermediate value. it is possible to say about narrow/wide species norm of reaction only as a weak tendency.9). Because of the standard deviations of all three species are similar (Hartley statistic Fmax=1. tridens impact population may be partially explained by its low abundance and genetic diversity. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. tridens and its distribution possibly more depends on food supply and spatial restrictions (favourable places for oviposition and young development). lugubre has not been catch in the impact area while L.014) and interspecies differences (p=0. average summer temperature. Discussion and conclusions According to effects relative importance in explanation of thermopreference variability. the circadian rhythm (p=0. physiological condition. We are grateful to A. Poland and L. The relative narrow norm of reaction in О. Local microclimate differences in two habitats are not enough for induced strong harvestmen physiological response. gender etc affects on thermopreference. L. Thus the influence of daily average air temperature evidences the harvestmen acclimation to environmental temperature dynamics and it is similar to reactions in insects. ephippiatus and О. tridens has a largest standard deviation (2. Maklakov for manuscript translation improvement. Acknowledgements This work was supported by the program “Biological diversity”.Book of Abstracts. and it is possible that under more contrast environmental conditions the difference will be stronger. age. mean daily air temperatures and its seasonal dynamics has the greatest relevance (p=0. 489 . Nevertheless some weak tendency exists. Kohan for his help in experiment execution and to K.013) are significant too. tridens has been found in the odds 1:10.V.B. The distribution of the three species somehow corresponds to its presence in polluted zones: N.8ºC).

In addition.e. it suggested that prey tumbling also influences web asymmetry and that prey tumbling can explain why some Cyclosa spiders face upward and build webs with larger upper parts. the part below the hub is larger – it can be safely assumed that this asymmetry is somehow linked to gravity. In addition. Functional explanations for orb-web asymmetry and elongation Several reasons have been suggested for the vertical asymmetry and elongation of orb-webs. I propose two hypotheses. which are equally easy and possible in all directions. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Because this deviation is usually directed downwards – i. Vertical displacement is not equally easy in both directions. and in almost all orb webs. In my presentation. In contrast. Similarly.e. The latter study additionally suggested that the different upward and downward running speeds can also explain the almost universal downward orientation of orb-web spiders on the hub and that this downward orientation further increases the vertical asymmetry of orb-webs. samuel. Among the first explanations was one by a physicist. Switzerland. and that the distances from hub to top and hub to bottom of the web are directly proportional to the spider's running speeds in the two directions. University of Basel.ch Introduction Most studies on animal displacements focus on horizontal movements. because gravity causes climbing upwards to be more exerting than walking downwards. they are higher than wide. many webbuilding spiders also move up.Book of Abstracts.and downwards. Siedlce. I review the possible reasons for the vertical asymmetry and elongation of orb-webs. how the influences of gravity may have been a driving force behind the evolutionary transition from orb-webs to the derived three-dimensional webs of theridiid and linyphiid spiders. Masters & Moffat (1983) were the first to suggest that the vertical asymmetry of orb-webs is an adaptation to the different running speeds of spiders in upward and downward direction. spiders face downwards when waiting for prey on the hub. and I review the explanations why spiders face downwards. when the hub with the relatively heavy spider is above the geometric centre of the web (Langer 1969). Vertical orb-webs usually have a form that deviates from a perfectly round structure. almost all orb-webs are elongated. 490 . i. because their webs have a vertical expansion. especially for larger organisms. This view was supported by the study of ap Rhisiart & Vollrath (1994) and by the recent study of Zschokke & Nakata (2010). Poland Gravity and spider webs Samuel Zschokke Section of Conservation Biology.zschokke@unibas. who suggested that the stability of the web was improved.

and that it reflects the ability of the spider to run downwards faster than upwards. and that web asymmetry was a result of this physical constraint during web construction. in contrast.2 seconds to attach the sticky silk to a radius with glue from its piryform gland. and phylogenetic analyses suggest that among them. orb-web spiders are ancestral to linyphiid and theridiid spiders (Blackledge et al. With theses extreme requirements.Book of Abstracts. Most orb-webs show a moderate web elongation. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. Gravity and evolution of araneoid webs Orb-webs are the only spider webs where the two functions of intercepting and retaining flying prey are spatially very close together. that web building in the upper part of the web is more efficient than in the lower part. which. It is likely that other factors (like web building) also play a role. like the ability to produce sticky silk and the ability to produce extremely strong silk. some of which are an adaptation to capture moths (Eberhard 1975). together with the fact that glue droplets in ecribellate orb-webs become ineffective after some time. suggesting that their 491 . Instead. Coslovsky & Zschokke (2009) could not repeat these results and found. however. whereas others are adaptations to environments where only narrow webs can be built (Kuntner et al. 2008). Such a meshwork cannot easily be repaired without losing its properties. This approach requires the entire web to be invisible. which in turn requires a regular meshwork of very thin threads (Zschokke 2002). There are examples of extremely elongated orbwebs. Building orb-webs requires some special adaptation of the spider. it is not surprising that orb-web spiders hold the world record for the strongest natural material and. which is not the case. also hold the world record for the fastest hardening glue: Araneus diadematus requires less than 0. since orb-webs can contain several thousand connections. I conclude that orb-web asymmetry is primarily an adaptation to prey captures. suggest that orb webs should generally have larger upper parts. which is probably also an adaptation to prey capture. as far as I know. Herberstein & Heiling (1999) found that web asymmetry increases with spider weight (natural weight or experimentally added lead weights) and suggested without further tests that the added weight interfered with spiral placement in the upper web region. 2009). Nentwig found that more prey was caught in the upper part of the web. which is not the case. but they seem to be less important. Araneoid spiders date back to at least the early Cretaceous. orb-web spiders require the ability to fasten two silk strands together in a very short time. This would. requires regular re-building of the entire meshwork. Siedlce. In addition. Poland The view that web asymmetry is an adaptation to prey capture was challenged by Nentwig (1985) on the ground that Masters & Moffat had assumed an equal distribution of prey in the web.

5: 280-287. Asymmetry in orb-webs: an adaptation to web building costs? Journal of Insect Behaviour.M. I propose the hypothesis that linyphiid sheet webs were derived from horizontal orb-webs.. & Blejec A. In a second step. Eberhard W. Most linyphiid and some theridiid spiders build horizontal sheet-webs with knock-down threads above. with additional knock down threads above. Poland spatial webs have been derived from orb-webs. Langer R. Araneus diadematus. 36: 583-594. Nephilidae). which made regular rebuilding of the entire orb uneconomical. through the sheet. 58: 1241-1246. Asymmetry in spider orb webs: a result of physical constraints? Animal Behaviour. 2008. Journal of Natural History. the dense web at the bottom also lost its sticky silk. 2009. & Vollrath F. & Agnarsson I. Linyphiid spiders spend their time on the underside of their sheet. & Zschokke S.. Coddington J. American Zoologist. whereas theridiid spiders live in a retreat above the sheet. Siedlce.. 9: 8189. Scharff N. Blackledge T. Reconstructing web evolution and spider diversification in the molecular era.M.Book of Abstracts. 22: 29-38. Coslovsky M.W..Y.A. Aljancic G. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 1975.A. the strength of the horizontal web was increased..G. which in turn lead to a loss of the regularity of the orb. In a second step. 1994. 106: 5229-5234. Szuts T. While the sheet webs built by both groups are very similar. Araneae: Araneidae. Journal of Arachnology. Araneoidea. 18th International Congress of Arachnology 2010. The 'inverted ladder' orb web of Scoloderus sp.. Haddad C. 1969. the transition of the web structure during the evolution from orb web to spatial webs is unknown and no hypothesis has been suggested how this transition may have occurred. 492 . However. Kuntner M. Design features of the orb web of the spider. Elementary physics and spider webs. Ecology and web allometry of Clitaetra irenae. Herberstein M. and the intermediate orb of Eustala (?) sp. Since spiders of both groups overwhelm their prey from beneath. 9: 93-106. & Heiling A. an arboricolous African orb-weaving spider (Araneae.R. In a third step. I further propose the hypothesis that the theridiid s