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INTRODUCTION Electricity supply is a basic need of the modern world , since all appliances from lights , fans … etc. work on electricity . The licensed person , in charge of the electrical work, should be given right instructions and layout plans for completing the electrical work satisfactory and safely. It is necessary to study how the various types of loads are connected to the supply. This helps in planning the requirement of materials , tools , equipments etc. before starting any work TOOLS REQUIRED FOR ELECTRICAL WORK • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Screw driver set Wire cutting pliers set Hack – saw frame/ blade Drill machine with drill bits or bit punch holder Chisel Hammer Knife Tester / test lamp Plumb bob Level tube Spirit level Line dort Measuring tape Wire stripper
Following points will act as guideline… • • • • • • Fan points should be diagonally in the centre of the room . This results in economy of electrification work (1) POSITION AND REQUIREMENTS OF ELECTRICAL POINTS Position of the points depends on the requirements of individual flats . chances of mistakes by an engineer are reduced considerably .• • • Set of files Hand drill machine Die/ vice set PLANNING OF INTERNAL ELECTRICAL WORK Planning is the most important factor before commencing any electrical work Design and planning should take into consideration the prevailing conditions at the site and the requirements of the consumer Before starting the project . specification of materials . excluding the loft Width Switch boards should be nearest to the entrance . electrical drawings should be prepared along with all the drawings Planning at the initial stages will help to decide the locations of each point in each room . opposite the door opening Switches for the bathroom should be outside the door Consider the probable furniture arrangement before deciding the switch board and light points in the rooms Power point in the kitchen should be nearest to the kitchen platform REQUIREMENTS OF ELECTRICAL POINTS . required load for each flat and each building By planning in the initial stages and preparing the drawings accordingly .
IT WILL PROVE INCONVINIENT TO THE USERS . v / telephone and 5amp point Bell push DB (distribution box) POWER POINT IN BATH RECOMMENDED POSITIONS 2.SN O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 LOCATIO N Living room bedroom Kitchen room Balcony Water closet Bathroom Passage LIGH T POIN T 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 FAN POIN T 1 1 1 -- POWE R POINT 1 1 - PLUG ON BOAR D 1 1 1 - PLUG POIN T 1 - BELL POIN T 1 - TV POIN T 1 - TEL POIN T 1 - (2) HEIGHTS OF ELECTRICAL POINTS IF THE ELECTRICIANS FIX THE ELECTRCAL POINTS AND BOARDS ARBITARILY. centrally ay diagnols crossing of rooms 1.35m (4’6”) From FFL Above the entrance door or in passage 2.6m (2’0”) from FFL 1. After practical studies of their requirements .35m (4’6”) from FFL 0.4m (8’0”) from FFL 1. some standards have been recommended for fixing the heights of various electrical points TANDARD HEIGHTS OF ELECTRICAL POINTS FROM FINISHED FLOOR LEVEL SN O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 NAME OF POINT Angle holder (bracket point ) Fan point Switch board t.5m (5’5”) from FFL .25m (7’6”) from FFL On celing .
.v electrical point SIZE IN MM 350mm * 305mm 200mm * 250mm 180mm * 100mm 155mm * 100mm 100mm * 100mm 100mm diameter 100mm * 100 mm 100mm * 100mm SIZE IN INCH 14” *12” 8” * 10” 7” * 4” 6” * 5” 4” *4” 4” 4” *4” 4” * 4” (4) GAUGES OF WIRE S Electrical wires directly carry the electrical current.v / telephone socket t.(3) SIZES OF BOARDS Wooden switch boards for sur face mounting are usually available in standard sizes SN O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 TYPE OF BOARD Distribution board Switch board in living / kitchen/bedroom Switch board outside WC /bath Switch board refrigerator in kitchen Bell push Bracket light point and fan point t.
C (FOR C.120 2.V.4kg 2.7kg 2.V. SNO 1 2 3 4 TYPE AND GAUGE OF WIRE 1/18 1/18 1/18 1/18 special SIZE OF WIRE AVAILABLE IN MARKET 1/036 1/038 1/042 1/044 SIZE OF WIRE IN mm 1/0.016 7/1.8kg .813 3/0.067 2. it is essential to know the current carrying capacity of the wire for safe working.T.864 3/0.0kg 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 3/22 3/20 3/20 3/20special 7/22 7/20 7/20 7/20 special 7/18 7/18 special 3/029 3/032 3/034 3/036 7/029 7/032 7/034 7/036 7/040 7/044 3/0.0kg 5.914 7/1.So.864 7/0.737 3/0.813 7/0.965 1/1.0kg 10.2Kg 2.4kg 5.4kg 1.914 7/0.067 1/1.5kg 1.120 TWISTED COPPER WEIGHT OF WIRE PER 100M 1.0kg P.5kg 9.S WIRING) 15 16 1/18 1/18 1/036 1/042 1/0.1kg 4.914 1/0.2kg 2.737 7/0.5kg 6.C TO P.7kg 3.914 1/1.
EARTHING GREEN. NEUTRA BLACK 5.5 MMSQUARE 2. RECOMMENDED RATING OF SWITCH SOCKETS AND CABLE SIZE ARE AS FOLLOWS 1.IRON ETC IS SWICH /SOCKET OUTLET IS 2. LIGHT ELECTRIC LOADS LESS THAN 250W SUCH AS LAMPS TUBES RADIO SWITCH / SOCKETS OUTLETS CAPACITY IS 5 AMPS SUGGESTED CORE SIZE OF COPPER CABLE IS 1. YELLOW 3 BLUE 4. TELECOMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT LIKE TELEPHONE FAX ETC IS SWITCH SOCKET OUTLETS IS TELEPHONE WIRE AND SUGGESTED CORE SIZE OF COPPER CABLE IS 4 OR 6 CORE 7.PHASEWIRE RED.5 MMSQUARE 5. MEDIUM ELECTRIC LOAD BETWEEN 250W TO 1000W SUCH AS WASHING MACHING REFRIGERATOR . HEAVY ELECTRIC LOADS BETWEEN 1000W TO 3000W SUCH AS GEYSOR. AIR CONDITIONERS ETC ALSO SUB DISTRIBUTION BOARD IS 15 AMPS SWITCH / SOCKET OUTLET AND SUGGESTED CORE SIZE OF COPPER CABLE4 MMSQUARE 4. NEUTRAL BLACK 3 EARTHING GREEN IN THREE PHASE 1.RED 2.17 3/20 3/034 3/0.0 MMSQUARE 6. SAFETY AND PROTECTION EQUIPMENT LIKE ALARMS ETC IS 5 AMPS AND SUGGESTD CORE SIZE OF COPPER CABLE IS 1.864 3.5 MMSQUARE. 2.5 MMSQUARE AND SUGGESTED CORE SIZE OF COPPER CABLE IS 2.8kg (5) SIZES OF WIRES FOR VARIOUS PURPOSES (6) COLOR CODES OF WIRES IN SINGLE PHASE 1. SPECIFIC EQUIPMENTS WORKING ON BATTERIESON MAIN POWER FAILURE SUCH AS FAX / ANSWERING MACHINE IS 15 AMPS AND SUGGESTED CORE SIZE OF COPPER CABLE IS 4. FLOW CHART FOR ELECTRIC SUPPLY FROM ELECTRICITY BOARD TO CONSUMER ELECTRICITY BOARD . SOPHISTICATED EQUIPMENT SUCH AS COMPUTER IS 5AMPS AND SUGGESTED CORE SIZE OF COPPER CABLE IS 1. PLANNING FOR EXTERNAL ELECTRICAL WORK 1.5MMSQUARE 3.
T ROOM FEEDER PILL BUS BAR OF EACH BUILDIN INDIVIUAL METRE OF FLAT CUT OUT / FUSES MAIN SWITCH OF EACH FLAT IN METRE CABINET MAINS DISTRIBUTION BOX IN FLAT CIRCUITS ROOM INTERNAL WIRING INDIVIUAL ELECTRIC POINT SWITCH BOARDS .TRANSFORMER L .
should be at the nearest convenient place on the ground floor. T room . the cable from the main supply board (L. The floor level of the transformer / low tension room shall be above the highest flood level of the locality The availability of nearby power lines may also be kept in view while deciding the location of the transformer / low tension room In the L. 600 and 1000amp capacity • • • (4) BUS – BAR . for passing cables from the transformer room should be provided Plinth for the transformer should be constructed in rubble masonry . provision for cable trench . for a group of buildings .T (LOW TENSION) ROOM Loads above 50 kw require a transformer and L.T room) comes in the feeder pillar and is distributed to various outgoing and other points of supply Feeder pillar should be fixed on a firm concrete platform Feeder pillar should be painted in red and marking of the building number for feeder pillar should always be intact Feeder pillars are available in 200 .T room. It is generally fixed in common convenient place .T room • Location of an electrical transformer / L.(2) TRANSFORMER AND L. The capacity of the transformer depends upon the load of the building The load should be calculated from the electrical points in each flat and each building • • • • • • (3) FEEDER PILLAR • Feeder pillar is a distribution box. 400 .T room . the following points should be considered while planning the location of the transformer place and L. at the required height and side.
m (3sft) space is required to accommodate fuse . this also allows easy access for the readings. Meter box should be fixed above 45 cm( 1’6”) from the floor level Size of the meter box should be decided as per the number of metres to be fixed For one meter about 0.28sq. with the required size and colour codes of the wires Building number should be painted on the bus bar in the meter box M.B should be provided for every electrical meter Meter cabinet should be painted with primer and oil paint to avoid decay and termite attack Load and cable size calculation for one building of 14 flats (SPECIMEN) • • • • • • • • • • • . for proper ventilation . covered with wooden shutters and weld mesh . meter cabinet should be located near the entrance of the building . for easy maintenance Wiring in the meter box should be safe and done properly . meter cabinet is made of a wooden frame .C. 400 amp capacity ELECTRICALMETER CABINET • (5) • Meter cabinet is required to contain the meters of each building Generally . main switch and the meter Meter cabinet should always be locked to prevent any mishaps All the meters in the cabinet should display the correct name and the flat number . 200 .• • Bus – bar is a distribution box which provides tappings to different electrical metres The main supply to bus bar is provided from the feeder pillar by suitable cable Bus bars are available in 100 .
5 AMPS TOTAL NET CURRENT REQUIRED IS 106.8 AS POWER FACTORS) NET CURRENT-----------------------------------= 142*0.5 AMPS FOR BUILDING ON 3 PHASE.75 (DIVERSITY FACTOR) = 106.84 AMPS/KW = 142 AMPS (2.5 106. 31/2 CORE CABLE.SR NO DESCRIPTIO N LIGHT POINT FAN POIN T 3 60W 180 W POWE R POINT BATH 1 500W 500W POWE R POINT PLUG 1 PLUG ON BOAR D 3 IND POIN T 1 100 W 100 W BELLPOIN T 01 ELECTRICAL POINTS 02 LOAD ON EACH POINT 03 TOTAL LOAD IN WATT(W) 04 GRAND TOTAL LOAD 9 40W 360W 1 100W 100W 1500W 100W 1500W 300W 3040 SAY 3000W=3K W NOTE. GEYSER OF 1500WATT IS CONSIDERED WHILE WORKING OUT LOAD. THERFORE CURRENT IN EACH PHASE 106.84 AMPS /KW CONSIDERING 0. FOR 14 FLATS ---------------------3KW * 14 = 42KW FOR COMMON LIGHTS--------2KW*1 FOR PUMPS------------------------6KW*1 = 2KW = 6KW __________ 50KW CURRENT CARRYING CAPACITY = 50*2.5 .
30mm • Earthing plate should be placed vertically on its edge • The top edge of the plate should not be less than 1.________ ROOT 3 = AMPS) = _________ 1. (7)EARTHING • Earthing is the term used for the electrical connection to the general mass of earth There are various methods of earthing but the most common method is earthing by plate electrodes • • Plate electrodes are made of copper or galvanized iron • The size of copper plate shall not be less than 600mm * 600mm* 3.5cm below the ground Put a 15 cm layer of charcoal and salt to reduce the resistance of the soil Tie the copper wire / galvanized iron wire to the earthing plate and put the plate In the pit .732 61. 1.5m below the surface of the` ground • Resistance of the earth electrodes depends upon the resistance of the soil PROCEDURE OF EARTHING • • • Dig a pit of size 90cm * 90cm * 90cm .15mm and the thickness of the iron plate should not be less than 6.56 AMPS (SAY 62 P= VI COS & THREE PHASE SUPPLY P= ROOT 3 VI COS&.
The earth resistance value should not exceed 0. in case of G. which cover definitions and general requirements design and construction.5 cm .• Size of the wire should not be less than 3sqmm in case of copper wire and 6sqmm . • (8) CONSTRUCTION QUALITY IN ELECTRICAL WORKS. to prevent mud and water from entering. code of practice for electrical wiring installation.3.T room feeder pillar . to maintain a safe value of earth resistance. 40kg each. ensure a brick layer and sand cushion.5 amps ) cable size 2 to 2.I pipes of 25mm diameter to pass the earth wire upto and above ground level Fill the pit (90cm*90cm*90cm) with charcoal and salt . L. lay it carefully . fix a funnel from the pit to the ground level to pour water . PVC insulated cables for working voltages upto including1100 volts (9)ELECTRICAL LOADING OF FITTINGS ½ HP to 1HP . having part 1. it should be covered properly about 15cm (6”) from the ground level . Refill the balance pit with soil and compact it properly • • (7)CABLING AND DUCTING • • • Once the location of the transformer . meter cabinets etc. are finalized .I wire .2.7ohms Provide another G. 240 volts single phase (3. with an excavation of minimum 1m depth A chamber should be provided at each junction and turning . inspection and testing of installations IS4648 guide lines for layouts in residential buildings IS 694. To follow IS specifications to cover various items internal electrification fittings and code of practice for execution IE rules 1956 IS732 . decide on the cabling ducting Most of the cables are laid under ground in conduits In case of a cable without conduits .
32.44. chapter6 rules 61.light.. 60 Watt .41.33..220.127.116.11.48.fluorescent 40W kitchen fan ceiling fan 100W refrigerator 100W geyser 1500W Mixer 200W washing Machine 200W electric iron 500W 10) INSULATION RESISTANCE OF COMPLETE INSTALLATION WITH EARTHING To ensure that the wires used are correct size quite sound now to avoid leakage the insulation resistance has to be checked keeping the main switch in off position with all fuses in distribution board and all lamps put in position and test is done with 500V megger .58. the measure resistance live conductor and neutral at the out going terminal of the main switch earth should not be less than 50 Mega ohms divided by no of points (fan .5 ton AC 240 V single phase (10 Amps) cable size 3 core 4 mm2 light incandes cent 50W 40.42.3HP to 5 HP 416 volts 3 phase ( 8 amps ) cable size 3 core 4 mm2 ton to 1.36.40. chapter7 .31.38. sockets) it should be more than 1 Mega ohm insulation resistance between conductors keeping the main switch in off position with all fuses in distribution board in position with all lamps removed from holder the insulation resistance between phase and neutral conductor checked by 500V meggar should not be less than 1 Mega ohm extract s of IE rules the following IE rules 1956 which are given at the end are to be read thoroughly and follow while executing and operating the installations chapter1B rules 18.104.22.168.44A chapter5 rules 47.43.
75.93.86. the material and apparatus used must conform to relevant specifications of BIS rules 30 service lines and apparatus on consumers premises Thank You . operation and maintenance of electric supply lines and application 22.214.171.124. installation.126.96.36.199.88.92.65. chapter 8 rules 188.8.131.52.80.rules 63.78.66. all electric supply lines and apparatus has to be of sufficient ratings for power insulation and estimated fault current and of sufficient mechanical strength for duty which they may require to perform under the environmental conditions of installation and shall be constructed.83.89. animal s and property 2. and protected.90.84. installed .64. worked and maintained in such a manner as to ensure safety of human being . some high lights of rules rule 29 construction.81.
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