# TORSION EM 327: MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY

EXPERIMENT: TORSION TEST OBJECTIVES: (1) Develop (shear) stress-strain diagram for three materials in the elastic range. (2) Determine the Modulus of Rigidity for the tested materials. INTRODUCTION: In this experiment, three solid cylindrical specimens of steel, aluminum, and brass will be subjected to a torsional load. From the applied torque, the student will calculate the shear stresses at the specimen surface. From strain gages mounted on the specimens, the student will calculate the shear strain present at given torque levels. Based on these determinations, the modulus of rigidity will be calculated for the three materials and compared to reference values. BACKGROUND: Torsional loads are created by propellers on aircraft, transmissions in cars, or by highway signs that are twisted by wind. Torque is a couple that results from the product of a force applied at a distance. The Modulus of Rigidity (or shear modulus), G, is a measure of the stiffness of a material under shear loading. The modulus of rigidity is defined as: G = τ/γ (1) Where: τ is the applied shear stress γ is the resulting shear strain. In this experiment, a torque, T, is applied to the specimen as shown in Figure 1. Thus, a relationship between the applied torque and the shear stress, τ, is required. In addition, strain gages, placed at 45o relative to the specimen axis, are used to measure normal strain in this direction (not the shear strain). Thus, a relation between the normal strain at 45o and the shear strain, γ, is required. To relate the applied torque, T, to the resulting shear stress, τ, the elastic torsion formula is used. This formula, developed in EM324, assumes that: 1.) The shaft is straight and of constant cross-section. 2.) Plane sections remain plane and diameter line remains straight during twisting. The elastic torsion formula is: τ = Tρ/J Where: (2) a

T τ τ T FIGURE 1

ρ is the distance from the axis of the shaft to where the stress is acting J is the polar moment of inertia with respect to the longitudinal axis

For a solid circular shaft, J = πr4/2 Where: r is the radius of the shaft. (3)