TORSION EM 327: MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY

EXPERIMENT: TORSION TEST OBJECTIVES: (1) Develop (shear) stress-strain diagram for three materials in the elastic range. (2) Determine the Modulus of Rigidity for the tested materials. INTRODUCTION: In this experiment, three solid cylindrical specimens of steel, aluminum, and brass will be subjected to a torsional load. From the applied torque, the student will calculate the shear stresses at the specimen surface. From strain gages mounted on the specimens, the student will calculate the shear strain present at given torque levels. Based on these determinations, the modulus of rigidity will be calculated for the three materials and compared to reference values. BACKGROUND: Torsional loads are created by propellers on aircraft, transmissions in cars, or by highway signs that are twisted by wind. Torque is a couple that results from the product of a force applied at a distance. The Modulus of Rigidity (or shear modulus), G, is a measure of the stiffness of a material under shear loading. The modulus of rigidity is defined as: G = τ/γ (1) Where: τ is the applied shear stress γ is the resulting shear strain. In this experiment, a torque, T, is applied to the specimen as shown in Figure 1. Thus, a relationship between the applied torque and the shear stress, τ, is required. In addition, strain gages, placed at 45o relative to the specimen axis, are used to measure normal strain in this direction (not the shear strain). Thus, a relation between the normal strain at 45o and the shear strain, γ, is required. To relate the applied torque, T, to the resulting shear stress, τ, the elastic torsion formula is used. This formula, developed in EM324, assumes that: 1.) The shaft is straight and of constant cross-section. 2.) Plane sections remain plane and diameter line remains straight during twisting. The elastic torsion formula is: τ = Tρ/J Where: (2) a

T τ τ T FIGURE 1

ρ is the distance from the axis of the shaft to where the stress is acting J is the polar moment of inertia with respect to the longitudinal axis

For a solid circular shaft, J = πr4/2 Where: r is the radius of the shaft. (3)

For more information on the elastic torsion formula, consult your EM324 textbook.

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may be determined from either ε45. (7) T τ τ T FIGURE 2 = σmax For the case where normal strain εx and εy. then equation (7) may be used. This is a result of the inability of strain gages to measure shear strains. the shear strain. Thus by using equation (6). there is no shearing stress on the planes at 45 degrees from the maximum normal stresses. MATERIALS TO BE TESTED: Steel (SAE 1020) Aluminum (6061-T6) Brass (5) A 1-inch diameter specimen of each material has been machined and instrumented for testing. Thus. γxy = -2ε−45 (8) Therefore. are known. we have developed a relation between the shear strain. γxy.TORSION EM 327: MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY Next. a relationship between the normal strains and the shearing strain is required. γxy. and the shear strain. the relationship becomes: ε 45 ε x + ε y γ xy = + 2 2 Solving for γxy: γxy = 2ε45 . a pure shear stress state should exist such that σx = σy = 0. ε−45 . Likewise. there will be no normal stress on either the longitudinal or transverse plane on which the maximum shearing stress acts.ε−45 (9) This result may also be obtained using the method of Mohr's circle. For the case of pure torsion. along a line oriented with respect to the X-axis by and angle θ (Figure 3) is: εθ = εx +εy εx −εy γ + (cos 2θ ) + xy (sin 2θ ) (4) 2 2 2 For the case where θ = 45o: cos2θ = 0. Since for pure torsion. Strain gages can only measure normal strains from gages in the proper orientations. Figure 2 illustrates this concept. and the normal strains. and therefore εx = εy = 0 for this case. A three-strain gage rosette has been bonded onto each of the three specimens. the maximum tensile stress and the maximum compressive are equal in magnitude to the shear stress. and +450 with respect to the longitudinal axis of the specimen. and sin2θ = 1 Therefore. εθ. γxy.(εx+εy ) (6) 60 . If the strains in the 00 and 900 directions are zero (as is expected for the case of pure torsion). or as a combination of the two strain readings using equations (7) and (8) γxy = ε45 . The rosette is oriented such that the three gages measure strains at 00. 450. the shear strain may be determined. a topic presented later in EM324. the normal strain. γxy = 2ε45 Similarly.

You will add more data to this table as you complete the report requirements. 2. Add these results to your table from (1).) Place specimen in grips.) Repeat procedure for each specimen. Comment on the correlation between experiment and reference values and discuss ε−45 FIGURE 3 EQUIPMENT TO BE USED: Riehle torsion testing machine Strain indicator Switch and balance unit SAFETY: Be careful to avoid pinching fingers in grips during installation of parts. the results of the testing. Also calculate the %error between the Modulus of Rigidity calculation based on the Poisson’s Ratio results and those measured in this lab using the results from this lab as the reference. strain.) Turn crank clockwise to apply load. Using the Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson’s Ratio you found for each material in that experiment predict a Modulus of Rigidity for each material. PROCEDURE: PRELIMINARY CALCULA TIONS: Preliminary calculations are not required. y x 4. 7.) Zero the strain indicator as described in the equipment section.TORSION EM 327: MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY 3. (2) A shear stress (y-axis) vs.) Unload specimen and remove from grips. 61 .) Take torque and strain measurements at increments of approximately 200 in-lb up to 2000 in-lb. shear strain (x-axis) curve is to be produced for each specimen tested. (5) Summarize. Care should be taken to avoid damage to strain gages mounted on each specimen. TESTING PROCEDURES: 1. and stress data. 5.) Turn strain indicator power ‘OFF’. Fit a straight line through each set of data. (3) Recall your results from the Poisson’s Ratio test you conducted previously. in words. This may be done by hand or using a computer. SPECIMEN PREPARATION: The diameters of each sample must be measured. The slope of each line is the Modulus of Rigidity for each material. ε45 θ = 45ο θ = −45 ο REPORT: ε0 The report outline found in Appendix A should be used. REPORT REQUIREMENTS: (1) Convert torque readings to stress using the elastic torsion formula. Use either linear regression or an eyeball fit to find the slope of each fitted line. Tabulate torque. Plot the data from each of the specimens on one graph using proper plotting procedures. (4) Calculate the %error between the measured and reference values and include this information in your table. 6.

QUESTIONS: (1) Could this same procedure be used with a hollow shaft? Explain. where h is the height of the rectangle and b is the width ) Does a shearing stress ever occur in one plane only? Large shafts for ocean liners are often made hollow. (6) Answer any questions assigned by your instructor. Where do the maximum and the minimum stress occur on a circular cross section subjected to pure torsion? Why does the 0-degree strain gage measure a very low strain magnitude? What are the assumptions upon which the elastic torsion formula is based? What are the limits to the application of the elastic torsion formula? (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) 62 . Explain the reason for this. use the equation τmax = (15h + 9b)T/ 5b2h2 .TORSION EM 327: MECHANICS OF MATERIALS LABORATORY the sources of discrepancies and possible errors.a round bar or a square bar of the same material and cross-sectional area? ( Hint. Could the true value of the ultimate shearing strength of a brittle material be obtained from a torsion test? Explain. (2) Can the relation τ = Tρ/J be used to determine shearing stresses in a member having a rectangular cross-section and subjected to pure torsion? (3) Which should be able to resist more torque .