You are on page 1of 161



Whatever you do,
do it heartily, as for the Lord
and not for the Man

I would like to appreciate all those who provided me with enlightening

suggestions by reading the manuscript.

I would like to thank Mr. Ashkzari who helped me immeasurably to publish

this book.

Finally I would like to extend my heartfelt appreciation to my wife without

whose patience and support writing this book would have been impossible.

Abazar Alizadeh

Tehran, December 2009

About the Author
Abazar Alizadeh specialized in ELT (English Language Teaching) from the University of Allameh
Tabatabaee, and started his professional teaching career as a TOEFL (Pbt) instructor in 1998
and in 2000, he began to teach IELTS, GRE and GMAT preparation courses.

In 2002, he was awarded a prize by the University of Allameh Tabatabaee for wining third place
in Iran's nationwide MA examination.

He also has taught "Contrastive Analysis", "Language Teaching Methodology", "Advanced Essay
Writing" and many other courses at various universities in Tehran.

He published his first book entitled "New IELTS Strategies" in 2004 and from 2004 to 2007 he
worked as an IELTS supervisor and syllabus designer for various IELTS Centers in Iran.

In 2008, he published his speaking book entitled "New IELTS Interview Samples" which is widely
used by candidates in Iran and many other countries in the world including Georgia, Armenia,
the UAE and Turkey.

In 2009, he published his writing book "IELTS Essays" to give a chance to IELTS candidates to
read as many samples as they wish to prepare themselves for the writing test.
Author's Guide to the Book
IELTS Writing Tasks
For the first task of the Academic Module, you need to describe a graph; a diagram or a map
and you are required to write at least 150 words in 20 minutes. The second task requires you to
write an essay with at least 250 words within 40 minutes.

For the first task of the General Module, you need to write a letter and you are required to
write at least 150 words in 20 minutes. The second task requires you to write an essay with at
least 250 words within 40 minutes.

Essay Samples
IELTS Essays provides numerous essay samples in both the academic and the general modules
of the test. There are precisely 30 academic essays and 30 general essays.

There are five essay question types in the IELTS writing test and the book provides essay
samples on all question types. Candidates should note that even though academic essay
questions need you to discuss more complicated issues than the general essay questions, there
is no difference in the essay formats. As a result candidates can benefit from all sixty essays
regardless of the module they intend to take.

In addition to practicing the essay formats by analysing the sample essays, you can have access
to a plethora of ideas on various issues along with topical words used to discuss the idea.

After each essay sample, a question is provided to let you practice writing an essay on your
own. Hence in total the book provides 60 different essay questions for the candidates.

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

Graphs are far more frequent than diagrams; accordingly, the book contains 20 graph
descriptions and 6 diagram descriptions.

Maps are rarely given in IELTS task 1; hence, only two map descriptions are provided in order to
give you the chance to familiarize yourself with such tasks and not to deviate your attention
away from the main task which is the graph.
The graph, diagram and the map samples not only let you get familiarized with various task
types but also provide many of the words needed to pull off each task.

Letter Samples
There are formal letter questions, semi-formal letter questions and informal letter questions in
IELTS writing task 1 and so the book contains letter samples of all types. The letters are written
according to standard letter formats and include all the various parts of a standard letter.

The letter samples give you enough ideas, expressions and words to handle sample questions
provided after each letter sample.

To ace your writing test, you need to know numerous expressions and structures for different
purposes. I have included useful connectives, words and structures for 27 different functions.
Learning these useful words and structures can help you with various language functions.
Table of Contentss                                                 

Table of Co

Genneral Moddule
Letter Samplles ........................................................................................ 1 
hey broke thee front window
w of your car ............................................................................................... 2 
Yo ur grade ....................................................................................................... 3 
ou are dissatissfied with you
Yo n employee ................................................................................................. 4 
ou were disreespected by an
Yo ntly moved to a new compaany  ....................................................................................... 5 
ou have recen
Yo of your colleague’s father  ................................................... 6 
ou recently heeard about the pass‐away o
In ompany  ............................................................................... 7 
n response to a job advertissement of a co
A letter to som
meone you meet  ................................................................................................................. 8 
A resignation leetter to your m
manager  .................................................................................................... 9 
Yo ur furniture  .............................................................................................. 10 
ou want to seell some of you
ou borrowed some books ffrom a library  .......................................................................................... 11 
W aint letter to aa bank  ....................................................................................................... 12 
Write a compla
ou have just b
been qualified n  ........................................................................................ 13 
d for a position
Write a compla ompany  ............................................................................. 14 
aint letter to aa telephone co
Write a letter t blem .................................................................................... 15 
to a magazine about a prob
ou saw a job aadvertisement on a websitee  ........................................................................................ 16 
Write a letter t
to a friend you me ................................................................... 17 
u haven't mett for some tim
Ask someone to act as a refeerence  ...................................................................................................... 18 
Write a farewe
ell letter to one of your colleeagues  ............................................................................... 19 
Write a letter t
to a colleague who is hospittalized  ................................................................................ 20 
ou cannot attend the class for some reassons  ................................................................................... 21 

neral Essaays ....................................................................................... 22 
o animals havve rights? ......................................................................................................................... 23 
What are the a nd disadvantagges of being rich? ............................................................... 24 
advantages an
Are comic bookks trash? .......................................................................................................................... 25 
Why are teenagers becomin
ng addicted? .............................................................................................. 26 
healthy foods from school ccanteens? ...................................................... 27 
Caan they remove all the unh
uggest some ssolutions in orrder to preven m getting obeese ........................................... 28 
nt people from
Does playing gaames teach uss about life? .......................
. ...................................................................... 29 
What are the a
advantages an
nd disadvantagges of studyin
ng abroad? ..................................................... 30 
nment set a hiigher driving aage? .................................................................................... 31 
Caan the govern

TTable of Contents 

What are the b
benefits of exeercise? ....................................................................................................... 32 
overnment heelp reduce thee number of car accidents?  .............................................. 33 
How can the go
Why are schoo ng and uselesss? ........................................................................................ 34 
ol classes borin
hould huntingg animals as a sport be illeggalized? ............................................................................... 35 
How can recycling save the eenvironment and help the people on Earrth? ......................................... 36 
Why do you th or university?  ..................................................................... 37 
ink people atttend college o
What are the m
most importan
nt reasons forr getting divorrced? .............................................................. 38 
Iss people’s cho ons ................................................................ 39 
oice of leisure activities affeected by fashio
hould studentts spend theirr free time leaarning their school lessons?? ............................................... 40 
hould police fforces use security camerass in public placces?  .............................................................. 41 
What are the a
advantages of attending sch
hool before th
he age of 7?  .................................................. 42 
Su o obtain inforrmation for a rresearch. ....................................................... 43 
uggest some ggood places to
What are the m of getting exeercise?  ................................................................................ 44 
major effects o
What are the reasons for sch
hool drop‐outt and what are
e the solution
ns?  ........................................... 45 
What are the n
negative effects of television? how can w hem?   ..................................... 46 
we minimize th
What are the p
problems asso
ociated with TV nd what soluttions can you offer?  .............. 47 
V addiction an
nity. .................. 48 
Discuss the advvantages and disadvantagees of building aa company in your commun
What are the a
advantages an n a big city? ................................................... 49 
nd disadvantagges of living in
uses of longevvity? ........................................................................................................... 50 
Discuss the cau
W causes of stresss and how caan we solve it??  .................................................................... 51 
What are the c
Discuss the advvantages and disadvantagees of studying abroad? ........................................................ 52 

Acaademic M Module 
Graaphs, Diaggrams & m
maps ...................................................................... 53 
he different leevels of post‐sschool qualificcations in Australia  ............................................................ 54 
Th n of different ccategories of families livingg in poverty  ................................................... 55 
he proportion
he amount off money per w
week spent on
n fast foods in Britain  ......................................................... 56 
he rate of fish he USA and Caanada  ................................................................................. 57 
h catches in th
he trends in the Australian immigration from 1992 to 2002 ............................................................. 58 
he causes of d ed countries  .................................................. 59 
diseases in developing and the develope
Th o generate eleectricity in the USA  ............................................................. 60 
he forms of energy used to
he average monthly tempeeratures in thrree African countries  ......................................................... 61 
Fo untries  .......................................................... 62 
our different ccars manufacttured in threee different cou
Th when choosing a universityy  .............................................. 63 
he factors affeecting students' decisions w
How much coal it would takee to make all the energy  ......................................................................... 64 

Table of Contentss                                                 

he incidence o
of injuries cau
used in differeent sports  ........................................................................... 65 
Th ng patterns in two differentt years  ............................................................................... 66 
he US spendin
Th net users  .................................................................................................. 67 
he percentagee of the intern
he literacy rattes of six diffeerent countriees  ........................................................................................ 68 
he percentagee of obese people in 12 diffferent countriies ................................................................. 69 
he amount off meat consum A  ........................................................................................ 70 
med in the USA
he number off London Undeerground stattion passengers  .................................................................. 71 
he oil producttion capacity iin six different Persian Gulff countries  .................................................... 72 
he number off children killeed in road acciidents  ................................................................................. 73 
he typical stagges of consum
mer goods manufacturing  ....................................................................... 74 
he process byy which bricks are manufacttured  .................................................................................. 75 
he process byy which examss are taken in a computer room  ............................................................. 76 
Th ured  .............................................................. 77 
he process byy which plasticc paper clips aare manufactu
How a central h
heating system
m in a house w
works  ................................................................................. 78 
How olive oil iss produced  ...................................................................................................................... 79 
Th nter  .................................................................................... 80 
he map showss the site of a shopping cen
Th New Townsville   ....................................................................................... 81 
he map showss the city of N

Acaademic Esssays .................................................................................... 82 
hould the sociiety ban violent and pornoggraphic scene
es from being broadcast?  ............................. 83 
M unishment bee banned? .................................................................................................. 84 
Must capital pu
Must capital pu
unishment bee banned? .................................................................................................. 85 
Why are the main reasons fo
or advertisem
ment? ................................................................................... 86 
what are the harmful effectss of body pierrcing on our health? ............................................................ 87 
Would they like multicultural ssociety?  .............................................................................. 88 
e to live in a m
Why should we
e avoid racism
m and how can
n we solve it? ...................................................................... 89 
Will violence on Television u
ultimately resu
ult in more vio
olence?  ......................................................... 90 
Will internet us d to the net?  ...................................................................... 91 
sers finally end up addicted
Must the gover
rnment ban hand guns?  ................................................................................................ 92 
Why is it hard t
to define happiness? and h
how can we acchieve it?  ...................................................... 93 
Discuss views ffor and againsst human cloning and give yyour opinion  ................................................. 94 
Does space exp
ploration makke any sense? ........................................................................................... 95 
What are the m of environmental pollution? .................................................................... 96 
main sources o
mes? ..................................................................................... 97 
How can peoplle save energyy in their hom
What are some
e of the factorrs affecting seelf‐esteem? ......................................................................... 98 
Iss children’s miisbehaviour in
n life due to th
heir genetic ch
haracteristics??  ............................................. 99 

TTable of Contents 

Must violent an
nd pornograp
phic scenes bee censored?  ...................................................................... 100 
How can techn ducation?  ................................................................................................ 101 
nology help ed
Are welfare payments a wasste of the society's financial resources?  ............................................... 102 
Discuss the advvantages and disadvantagees of forced re
etirement and give your opiinion. .............. 103 
Must the gover orts?  ................................................................................. 104 
rnment ban dangerous spo
Do patients havve the right to ween life and death?  ....................................................... 105 
o choose betw
Iss spanking chilldren cruel?  .......................
. .......................................................................................... 106 
W effects of alcoholism?  .................................................................................................. 107 
What are the e
What are the reasons for thee increasing d
W what are the ssolutions?. ............................. 108 
drug use and w
Why do people
e produce more trash thesee days? and ho
ow can we red
duce it? ................................. 109 
What are the p
problems caussed by drug ab
buse and what are some so
olutions?   .............................. 110 
Are there betteer ways of enccouraging employees to wo
ork hard?  .................................................... 111 
pressions and give your opinion? .................................... 112 
Discuss the views for and aggainst first imp

pendix .............................................................................................. 113 
Ap nnectives ...................................................................................................................... 114 
ppendix 1  con
Addition ............................................................................................................................................... 114 
Trransition ............................................................................................................................................. 114 
ummation ........................................................................................................................................... 115 
Apposition ............................................................................................................................................ 115 
Result ................................................................................................................................................... 116 
nference .............................................................................................................................................. 116 
Reformulation ...................................................................................................................................... 116 
Replacement ........................................................................................................................................ 116 
ontrast ............................................................................................................................................... 117 
oncession   ......................................................................................................................................... 117 
ocabulary Aid ......................................................................................... 118 
Appendix 2 Structure and Vo
ocation ............................................................................................................................................... 118 
omposition ......................................................................................................................................... 119 
n  .................................................................................................................................... 119 
Q ......................................................................................................................................... 119 
Definition ............................................................................................................................................. 119 
n .................................................................................................................................... 120 
Classification  ....................................................................................................................................... 120 
omparison  ......................................................................................................................................... 121 
Caause and Effeect. ................................................................................................................................. 121 

Table of Contentss                                                 

Sccale ..................................................................................................................................................... 123 
Caaution  ................................................................................................................................................ 123 
diagram, charrt etc.   ..................................................................................................... 124 
Referring to a d
Describing change  ............................................................................................................................... 125 
ntroducing a p
In point of view. ......................
. .......................................................................................... 126 
ummarizing and concludingg .............................................................................................................. 126 
Useful words ........................................................................................................................................ 127 
Reporting  ............................................................................................................................................ 127 
Appendix 3 How to Express Essential Worrds  .................................................................................... 128 
Reason  ................................................................................................................................................. 129 
Advantage  ........................................................................................................................................... 131 
Disadvantage  ....................................................................................................................................... 132 
Result  .................................................................................................................................................. 133 
Because  ............................................................................................................................................... 137 
Caause  ................................................................................................................................................... 138 
Sttop  ..................................................................................................................................................... 142 
Disagreement  ...................................................................................................................................... 143 
Agreement  .......................................................................................................................................... 145 
Allow  ................................................................................................................................................... 146 
orbid  .................................................................................................................................................. 147 
ontrast ............................................................................................................................................... 148 
Siimilarity  ............................................................................................................................................. 150 

Letter Samples

writing task 1 (letter)

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 1

Letter Samples

1- One of your neighbor’s children has accidentally broken the front

window of your car.

You should write a letter to his/her parents and in your letter you should
• introduce yourself
• explain how it happened
• and what they should do.

Dear Ms. Grimes,

I am your next door neighbor and I am writing to inform you that your
daughter, Sarah, broke the front passenger window of my Chevrolet Caprice
while playing softball yesterday afternoon. The car is brand new. As you know
it is winter now and this also aggravates the situation since I am not able to
use the car. Hopefully, your homeowner's insurance will cover this kind of
damage. Please check with them to see if it is covered. If they do not pay for
it, I will get two repair estimates for you so that you can determine how you
will pay for the repair.

Perhaps we could meet this Saturday afternoon to discuss our options. In

case you are not available at that time please let me know so that we would
be able to make an appointment for some other time.

Thank you in advance for your kind and considerate attention towards the

Yours sincerely,

Ms. Green

(163 words)

Letter Practice

You recently had your car repaired and now it is not working properly. Write a
letter to your mechanic and in your letter,

• Introduce yourself
• Explain the problem
• And say what you need him to do

2 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Letter Samples

2- You recently received your grade from your instructor and you are
dissatisfied with your score.

Write a letter to your instructor and

• introduce yourself.
• let him know that you are dissatisfied with your grade.
• mention the reasons to convince him that you deserve a better

Dear Mr. Sockman,

This letter is to express my dissatisfaction with the grade that I received for my
class project. I know you made it clear that individuals in each group would all
receive the same grade; but I would like to ask you to reconsider your
decision about my grade.

I put a lot of effort into this project. I spent numerous hours in the library and at
the computer working on my research. My project partner, Jack, apparently
did not approach the project with the same dedication as I. Enclosed, you will
find copies of my notes and sources that I used in my research.

You encouraged us to speak with you if we encountered any problems within

our groups, and I made two appointments with you to discuss the situation.
Unfortunately, you were unable to attend either one. Considering that I did
attempt to contact you, and that I put a lot of effort into this project, I hope that
you will be generous enough to raise my project grade.

I would like to thank you for your considerate attention in advance.

Yours sincerely,

S. Dent

(189 words)

Letter Practice

One of your friends has just had a twin and for some reason you cannot go visit
them in their town.

You should write a letter to your friend and in your letter you should
• congratulate them on the new-born babies
• explain why you cannot go visit them
• offer to help in case they need help

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 3

Letter Samples

3- You recently went shopping at a department store and you were

disrespected by one of the employees.

Write a complaint letter to the sales manager of the department store In

your letter you should

• let him/her know about the rude behavior of the clerk

• clearly state how it happened
• and tell the manager about the bad behaviour.

Dear Sales Manager,

This letter is a complaint concerning the actions of one of your salespersons.

On Tuesday, May 1, 2009, around 3 PM. I went to your store to look for an
outfit. When I asked an available salesperson, Ms. Maria Johnson, for help in
finding my size, she informed me that she was busy and that I would have to
find it myself. I explained that the reason I came to her was because I couldn't
find it. She then said in a rude tone that if I couldn't find it, it means that your
store did not have it, and that I needed to look somewhere else.

I felt that Ms. Johnson was rude and unnecessarily curt with me. If she was
busy, she could have simply and politely told me that she would be able to
help me in a moment. I hope that you will confront Ms. Johnson about her
behavior. I shop frequently at your store and I look forward to a more
pleasurable shopping experience next time.

I appreciate your wholehearted concern with regard to this issue in advance.


Mrs. Betty Arthur

(190 words)

Letter Practice

Write a letter to one of your colleagues has recently been appointed as the new
manager of the company. In your letter you should,

• introduce yourself
• congratulate him/her on the promotion
• and ask for an appointment to discuss the problems in your section

4 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Letter Samples

4- You have recently moved to a new company and you want to write to
the manager. In your letter,

• introduce yourself,
• mention what you have done since you moved to the company
• and ask to meet the manager to discuss your needs and

Dear Mr. Stevenson,

The purpose of this letter is to briefly introduce myself as Dynatek's new Sales
Representative, Business Accounts. I very recently joined the company and
am taking over your account from Jack Winters who has moved on to other
challenges in this industry.

I have just completed Dynatek's management orientation program and am

now keen to meet face-to-face with all of my key customers.

Accordingly, as the first step in my customer familiarization process, I would

like to meet with you personally, for about an hour or so, to discuss Office-
Tech's needs and concerns.

To set up a meeting at your convenience, I propose to call your office by the

end of this week. It is my hope that we will be able to arrange to meet at your
office before the end of the month.

I look forward to meeting with you and learning more about your company in
the near future.


Jim O'Malley

(158 words)

Letter Practice

You just used a website to gain some information about an issue; write an email
to the institute and in your letter,

• appreciate the institute for the informative website

• ask if they can help you with your problem in other ways
• make some recommendations in order to improve the website

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 5

Letter Samples

5- You recently heard about the pass-away of your colleague’s father.

Write to your colleague and in your letter

• offer your condolences,

• mention how honorable his father was
• mention the reasons to let your friend know that you understand
the situation.

Dear Robert,

I would like to express my sincere condolences on the recent passing of your

father. Pamela and the children also send their thoughts and prayers to you
and your family at this difficult time.

Although I didn't know your dad that well, on the half dozen or so occasions
that I spent time in his company over the years, I did come to realize his great
kindness and compassion towards those less fortunate than him. And I do
know that he was very highly respected throughout this community and
profession, and his good works changed the lives of many. You were truly
fortunate to have such a man as a model in your life.

As you know, it was not that long ago that my own father passed away, so I
have some idea of what you and your family are going through. No comfort is
quite enough to replace the loss.

Please pass my deepest sympathies on to your mother, and brother, and

sister, and to all of your father's grandchildren.

Yours sincerely,

Gord Henderson

(178 words)

Letter Practice

Last night you attended a party thrown by your manager. Write a letter to him
and in your letter

• appreciate for the party

• say that you particularly enjoyed the party
• and apologize for arriving late at the party

6 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Letter Samples

6- Write a letter in response to a job advertisement of a company, in your


• let them know that their advertisement has interested you,

• tell them about your qualifications
• and try to convince them that you fit in the position.

Dear Sir/Madam,

I am writing to apply for the position you advertised in today’s newspaper. I

found the wording of your advertisement with emphasis on leadership,
innovation and change quite intriguing. It is in response to such challenges
that I have excelled during my career.

Most recently, I was the President of a troubled company which I turned

around and led to the best performance in its history. Before that, I had
worked successfully in a variety of unusual situations, including the startup of
a significant division of a large insurance company in London. In each of these
situations, the problems (or opportunities) differed widely. They had in
common, though, a requirement of an ability to size up the situation, assess
the reasonable alternatives and execute a plan of action. I have also worked
14 years in mining and milling operations, where I obtained an in-depth
exposure to production problems.

I am free to travel and open to relocation. I would welcome the opportunity to

meet you and to further discuss your requirements. Thank you for you


Robert S. Rosenthal

(182 words)

Letter Practice

You just saw the advertisement of a course in a newspaper and you are willing to
attend the course. Write a letter to the institute; in your letter you should

• introduce yourself
• say why you are interested in the course
• and ask for some more information about the course

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 7

Letter Samples

7- Write a letter to someone you met at your company’s meeting. In your

letter you should

• thank him for taking part in the company's meeting.

• try to elaborate on the importance of his role in the meeting
• and let him know about another meeting to be held next month.

Dear David,

I would like to take this opportunity to express my heartfelt thanks to you for
your very active and influential participation in our recent meeting in Montreal.

Your skill in chairing the controversial panel was very much appreciated by
those representing all sides of that extremely sensitive topic. As well, we have
received numerous post-conference requests for the paper that you delivered
in the beginning of the conference.

On both a professional and a personal level, I really appreciated the time that
the two of us were able to spend together for fun and reflection during
conference down times. I certainly learned a lot about the unique aspects of
your profession (not to mention the things you taught me about the backhand
on the squash court!).

I would also like to let you know that another meeting is going to be held next
month in New York and I would be glad to see you at the meeting.

I am looking forward to hearing from you as soon as possible.

Very Sincerely,

Peter Smithfield

(176 words)

Letter Practice

You just received a product you had ordered a few days ago. You just found out
the product does not work properly. Write a letter to the company and in your

• introduce yourself
• say what the problem is
• and mention what action you need the company to take

8 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Letter Samples

8- Write a resignation letter to your manager to let him know that you
have started to cooperate with another company. In your letter,

• Let him know the exact time that you are leaving
• the actions you took in order not to cause the company any
• and also let him know that you appreciate the time you
cooperated with the company.

Dear Mr. Hopkins,

This is to advise you that I have accepted the position of Marketing Manager,
with an oil company, based in Buffalo New York. Accordingly, please regard
this as my official letter of resignation.

My last day of work here will be June 28, 2008. This will give me three full
weeks from next Monday to complete the current marketing program design
that I have recently been putting the finishing touches on. In addition, during
this period I will be able to bring you all of the operations and outstanding
issues in the department.

In closing, I would like to express my sincere appreciation to you as my

manager, as well as to my many friends and colleagues. I have truly enjoyed
my years working with all of you, and am grateful for the many learning and
growth opportunities I was given over the years.

I wish all of you success.


Ryan Alexander

(156 words)

Letter Practice

You are going to throw a birthday party for your new-born son and you are
writing to invite your friends. Write a letter to an old friend of yours and in your

• have a warm greeting

• invite him to the party
• give him the direction so as to find your new house

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 9

Letter Samples

9- You want to sell some of your furniture. You think a friend of yours
might like to buy it from you.

Write a letter to your friend, In your letter

• explain why you are selling

• describe the furniture
• and suggest a date when your friend can come and see the

Dear Jane,

As you know, we’ll be moving to a new house soon and there are a few things
that I won’t be able to take with me. The new house is a bit smaller so I have
to sell some furniture and I was wondering if you might be interested.

In particular I want to sell my big dining table. Do you remember it- the one in
the living room? It has wooden legs and a grey glass top and it’s big enough
for six people. There are six matching chairs to go with it. I know you’ve
always liked this furniture so I could let you have it at a good price. I’d rather
sell it to you than a stranger!

Why don’t you come around and take another look at them on Saturday? We’ll
be here all day, so maybe we could have some lunch together?

Give me a ring and let me know,



(159 words)

Letter Practice

You are going to take a tour of a historic place. Write an email to a travel agency
you usually travel with and in your letter

• introduce yourself as an regular customer

• ask for more information about the city
• ask them for more information about the tour (e.g. price, dates etc.)

10 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Letter Samples

10- You borrowed some books from your school or college library.
Unfortunately you have to go away to visit a sick relative and cannot
return the books in time.

Write a letter to the library.

• introduce yourself
• explain what has happened
• and tell them what you want to do about it.

Dear Sir or Madam,

I am writing this letter to explain why I have been unable to return the three
books I have out on a three-day loan, which are now overdue.

After taking the books out on 16th March, I had an urgent call from my elderly
aunt’s neighbor to say that my aunt had had a fall and had been taken into
hospital. I am her only surviving relative in this country, so I felt I had to go
and see her immediately. I traveled down to Dallas the following morning,
thinking I would stay for only two or three days. Unfortunately my aunt’s
condition has only improved very slowly, so I have had to stay here longer
than I expected. However, the hospital says that if all goes well, she should be
able to go home in two or three days’ time, in which case I will be back at the
beginning of the next week.

Bearing in mind the circumstances, I trust you will kindly waive any fines that
may have accumulated.

I would like to apologize for the inconvenience that I have caused you. And I
trust that you understand.

Yours sincerely,

Thomas Anderson

(199 words)

Letter Practice

You have already booked a tour of London and for some reason you are not able
to take the tour. Write an email to the travel agency and in your letter

• introduce yourself
• say why you cannot take the tour
• apologize for the inconvenience caused.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 11

Letter Samples

11- You have had a bank account for a few years. Recently you received
a letter from your bank stating that your account is $240 overdrawn and
that you will be charged $70 which will be taken directly from your bank
account. You know that this information is incorrect.

Write a letter to the bank. In your letter

• introduce yourself
• explain what has happened
• and say what you would like them to do about it.

Dear Sir or Madam,

I am your bank customer and I am writing in reply to a letter I received from

you a few days ago. In your letter you state that I am $240 overdrawn and that
you will be charging me $70.

I would like to point out that the reason I am overdrawn is because of a

mistake made by your bank. If you look through your records you will see that
I wrote several weeks ago explaining the situation. For the last twelve months,
I have been paying $300 a month for a car I bought last summer. The monthly
payments were taken directly from my bank account. However, two months
ago I sold the car and I wrote to you instructing you to stop paying the monthly
installments. I received a letter from you acknowledging my request, but for
some reason, nothing was done about it. Another $300 installment has been
paid this month and this is the reason why I am overdrawn.

I would like you to contact the garage where I bought the car explaining your
error. I would also like you to ask them to return the money.

I am looking forward to hearing from you as soon as possible.

Yours Faithfully,

P. Stoft
(212 words)

Letter Practice

You recently travelled to New York and you were completely dissatisfied with
the hotel service you stayed at. Write a letter to the hotel manager, in your letter

• introduce yourself
• mention the problems you had at the hotel during your stay
• say what action you need the hotel manager to take

12 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Letter Samples

12- You have just been qualified for a position in a company. Write a
letter to the manager, in your letter you should

• show your willingness to accept the job

• mention when you can start the new job
• ask for an opportunity to discuss your employment terms.

Dear Mr. Happy,

I am pleased to inform you that I will accept the graphic designer position you
have offered. Thank you for choosing me.

I will follow up with a phone call to discuss other issues related to the job,
including when you will need me to start, salary, and accommodations while I
am relocating. Please keep in mind that I will need adequate time to resign
from my current job. As I said before I have been working there for quite a
long time and I definitely have to take care of a few issues before leaving.

I am excited about starting at your company and I look forward to talking to

you again. If you need to contact me for any reason, please feel free to call
me, fax me, or send me an email.

I would like to thank you again for your offer and I hope to have great
cooperation with your company.

Yours sincerely,

Marisa Bookman

(162 words)

Letter Practice

As a public relations manager of your company trying do a public survey on

your company’s public image, write a letter to your customers. In your letter.

• introduce yourself
• say what you are trying to do
• and ask what your customers suggest the company should do to better
satisfy the customers

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 13

Letter Samples

13- Write a complaint letter to a telephone company and let them know
how their services failed to fulfill your expectations.

In your letter you should

• introduce yourself
• mention what the main problem is
• and say what you want them to do

Dear Sir or Madam,

I am writing this letter to complain in the strongest terms about the poor
service that I have received from your company.

We signed up to your telephone and internet service package two months ago
because your advertising suggests that you are better than Telco. In addition,
you promised to deal with problems quickly and efficiently, something that
Telco was unable or unwilling to do. However, in the first month of service you
managed to cause me to lose two days worth of business because of poor
administration. The main problem was that you failed to provide me with the
correct telephone number, 9818 8747, that you had promised when I
completed the contract. This phone number was an established business line
which I had been using for the last three years. Obviously this meant that my
clients were unable to contact me and it cost me many hours of phone calls to
resolve the matter with your support centre.

I would appreciate it if this situation could be resolved and a substantial rebate

offered on my first three month's account.

I look forward to hearing from you soon.

Yours Faithfully,

Charlie Williams

(197 words)
Letter Practice

Your father underwent a medical operation and now he has completely

recovered. Write a letter to your father’s surgeon and in your letter

• appreciate the surgeon

• and explain some of the post-operation complications your father has
been facing
• ask the surgeon what action you should take

14 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Letter Samples

14- Write a letter to a magazine and express your opinion about a

problem you are faced with in your neighborhood. In your letter

• introduce yourself
• say what the problem is
• and recommend a solution to the problem

Dear Sir or Madam,

I am one of the senior citizens and I have lived in the city of Pertshire since I
was born. I would like to give my opinion on the environmental impact of
tourism as someone who has traveled throughout Asia on business and
holiday. Having visited Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia I understand that
tourism can bring money to developing countries. However, I cannot ignore
the environmental problems that are affecting my hometown’s ecosystem.
Unfortunately the department of tourism has not taken any effective measures
to counteract the adverse effects of tourism in our town.

I would like to warn the local people of the possible dangers and I want to
urge them to check that any tours or excursions we offer have minimal effect
on the natural surroundings. Besides, we even need to attempt to change the
behavior of tourists by sharing our environment-friendly opinions with them. If
we follow these simple steps we can be sure that our business is not causing
any harm to our town’s ecosystem.

I would like to appreciate your concern in this regard.

Yours faithfully,

Charlie Williams

(187 words)

Letter Practice

You have been working for a company for some time, and other rival companies
are willing to employ you with a higher salary for all the practical experience you
have gained. Write a letter to your company manager and in your letter

• Explain the situation

• Say what you would like the manager to do (increase the salary etc)
• say what action you would take in case the manager fails to meet your

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 15

Letter Samples

15- You saw a job advertisement on a website. Write a letter and apply
for the job;

• let them know your qualifications for the job.

• also mention the places you have worked for
• and try to convince them that you are the one they are looking for.

Dear Sir/Madam,

I am writing this letter to apply for the position of student assistant that I saw
advertised on your website. I am interested in working in the teachers'
resource library, or in the accommodation department.

I have recently graduated from the WSB Business School in Warsaw and
received high grades in both my English and Business Courses. In addition,
we had to use all of the Microsoft Office programs in the preparation of our
finished assignments, so I am able to do most things with computers.

Since I was 15 years old I have helped my father to run his small import-
export business. I have been involved in helping a variety of clients and also
the general administration of the business. In the past 2 years I have worked
in the WSB library, helping teachers and students to find and use the
resources there. This experience has given me the ability to deal with the
needs of all types of people.

I look forward to hearing from you.

Yours faithfully,

Powel Herbert

(174 words)

Letter Practice

You are faced with an increasing workload in your company due to a growth in
the number of orders placed daily. Write a letter to the company manager and in
your letter

• introduce yourself
• explain the problem you are facing
• and ask if the company could hire a new employee to help you with the

16 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Letter Samples

16- Write a letter to a friend whom you haven’t met for some time.

• let your friend know what is going on to you.

• also ask your friend to tell you about himself/herself
• and ask him the questions you want to know.

Dear Leo,

It's been a while since we wrote, so I thought I'd drop you a line to bring you
up to date with what's been happening here.

I suppose the most important thing is that Jane's job is more secure than we
thought. At the beginning of the year, when she got the job, we thought it
might only be for one semester, but we just found that she has a permanent
contract. Obviously this is great, as it means we can relax a little. I still don't
have the job I really want, but it will happen soon. You have to stay positive,
don't you?

So, what about you these days? Are you still stuck in that old job? Since I've
been having so much trouble getting a job I understand your reluctance to
change. There's nothing worse than filling in endless application forms, with
no idea of what it will lead to.

Anyway, I've got another form to fill in so I'll love you and leave you.

Best wishes,


(173 words)

Letter Practice

You have been faced with an increasing number of wild animals in your
neighborhood. Write a letter to the editor of your local newspaper and in your

• introduce yourself
• say what the problem is
• and mention what you would like the city authorities to do

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 17

Letter Samples

17- There is an institution that is offering a free journalism course and

you have applied for it. They want to talk to one of your friends who
knows you well as a reference.

Write a letter to your friend in your letter,

• explain the situation
• say why you chose him as a reference
• ask him if you can give them his/her name as a reference

Dear mark,

I'm writing this letter because I really need your help. You're the only person
who knows me well enough to give me a reference for a course I want to do.

I saw an advertisement in a paper recently offering a free journalism course to

successful applicants. I sent in an article I wrote for the student newspaper,
you know, the one about legalizing drugs? Anyway, they really liked it, but as
there are only five places they want a reference as well. I haven’t given them
your name yet, as I expect this would be the first reference you've been asked
to give. Is it OK if I send them your phone number? I think they want to phone
you so they can have a proper conversation with you and really check me out.

I know it's been a while but if you could do it, it'd really help me out. I've got a
new phone number, 09957 234 563, so you can get me on that, and my
address is still the same.

Hope to hear from you soon.



(185 words)

Letter Practice

As a teacher, you would like to take your students on a field trip to a museum.
Write a letter to the museum manager and in your letter

• introduce yourself
• say what you are planning to do and why
• and finally ask for a discount

18 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Letter Samples

18- You are about to leave your company. Write a farewell letter to one of
your colleagues, in your letter, you should write

• let him know that you are leaving

• also let him know how much you appreciate the time you have
been working together
• let him/her how he/she can contact you at your new place

Dear John,

I wanted to take a moment to let you know that I am leaving my position at

Simpson's Corporation. I will be starting a new position at Newville Company
next month.

I have enjoyed my tenure here and I appreciate having had the opportunity to
work with you. Thank you for the support, guidance and encouragement you
have provided me during my time at Simpson's Corporation. Even though I
will miss my colleagues and the company, I am looking forward to this new
challenge and to starting a new phase of my career. I think the position they
are offering at this new Company is what I have been looking for since the
beginning of my career.

Please keep in touch; I can be reached at my personal email address

( or at my new place, 555-121-2222.

I would like to hear from you and once again I would like to thank you.

Yours truly,


(158 words)

Letter Practice

You have recently opened up a shop in your area and as an advertisement

campaign you would like to send a letter to all potential customers

• introduce your shop

• introduce your services
• and offer a special discount for the new customers

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 19

Letter Samples

19- Write a letter to a colleague who is hospitalized at the moment.

In your letter you should

• ask about his/her health

• let him/her know what changes occurred since he/she has been
• also try to make him/her happy in some ways

Dear Jane,

I hope you are feeling better. Are you able to sit in the garden and enjoy the

We all miss you in the office and look forward to your return. There have been
a few changes since you went into hospital. Eric Johnson has now retired
(lucky man) and Matthew has taken over Eric's job. He is struggling at the
moment. As you know he is not as experienced as Mathew was. He hopes
you will return soon to rescue him from the muddle.

I thought you would like the book I'm sending you with this letter I saw it in the
bookshop and thought it would make you laugh. I know you’ve always wanted
to live in Greece. Anyway, I hope you enjoy it and find time to read it before
you return to work

Take it easy and look after yourself I'll write again soon.

Best regards,


(153 words)

Letter Practice

You live on the fourth floor of a five-storey building which is not equipped with
an elevator (lift). Write a letter to your neighbors and in your letter

• introduce yourself
• say what the problem is
• ask the neighbors to agree on the installation of an elevator.

20 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Letter Samples

20- You recently registered for a course, and you cannot attend the class
for some reasons.

Write a letter to your course instructor and in your letter

• introduce yourself
• explain the situation
• and say what action you would like to take.

Dear professor Moss,

I am Sandy Lee, an undergraduate student of the department of Electrical and

Computer Engineering. At the beginning of this semester, I registered for one
of your courses, African Literature and Culture. It is a two-hour course held on
every Thursday afternoon. Yesterday, I received a notice from my department
that a major course, Computer Principle, would be changed to Thursday
afternoon. This major course conspicuously influences my credits and it is
very important to me. Unfortunately, I can not study your course this

Because of your reputation and my enthusiasm in literature, I hope I could

study this course in the next semester. I also heard that another course of
yours, China Literature, is held every Friday afternoon. If the registration of
this course has not closed yet, I will be so glad to participate in your class.

Sorry to bother you, your help will be greatly appreciated.

Sincerely yours,

Sandy Lee

(157 words)

Letter Practice

You and classmates have been trying to find a book for a while and the book is
out of stock. Write a letter to the publisher. Write a letter and in your letter

• say why you need the book

• mention what the problem is
• and ask the publisher to republish the book or provide you with copies of
the book

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 21

General Essay Samples

writing task 2 (essay)

22 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

General Essay Samples

1- Some people believe that we can use animals the way we want while
others believe animals have rights and we must respect their rights.

What is your opinion?

Use specific reasons o support your point of view.

Animal rights is a topic that is very important to me. I simply think that everyone
should have the decency to treat animals with kindness and respect, and not
make them suffer in any way. I believe that animals deserve to live according to
their own natures, without harm, abuse or exploitation.

It has been shown that animals are capable of feeling pain, hunger, thirst,
loneliness, and kinship. It breaks my heart when I see people wearing fur. Fur
belongs to its original owner. Some fur comes from animals caught in horrific
traps called leg holds. Leg holds are spring-loaded steel jaws that clamp shut on
an animal’s foot once it is sprung. It causes injuries and blood loss. Animals are
stuck in these traps for hours and even days before the trapper comes to pick
them up. Some animals try to chew and bite their own limbs off just to get out of

Fur also comes from ‘fur farms’. Millions of animals are killed each year in these
farms. The farms force them to live in extremely close contact with the other
animals, which is completely against their instincts. This lifestyle causes severe
stress that can lead to cannibalism and self-mutilation. They are killed by
poisonous gasses, electrocution, suffocation, and neck breaking.

Then there is also the subject of animal testing. Humans are important, but that
does not give anyone the right to inflict endless pain and suffering on the animal,
especially for stupid reasons like makeup testing. If animal testing were to stop
now, the progress of medical progress would speed up, because the
alternatives such as in-vitro techniques are less time-consuming, more accurate,
and less expensive than using animals

In conclusion, I believe that we are not allowed to make animals suffer. Animals
have rights and we must protect them under any circumstances.
(307 words)

Essay Practice

Some people think that human needs for farmland, housing, and industry are more
important than saving land for endangered animals. Do you agree or disagree with this
point of view? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 23

General Essay Samples

2- Nowadays many people are trying to earn more and more and to get

In your opinion what are the advantages and disadvantages of being rich
and what’s your opinion?

Everybody wants to be rich; that is a fact. People try hard to earn as much
money as they can in order to be affluent and powerful; and they believe wealth
can benefit them in many different ways.

First of all, you can enjoy a lot of things that money can buy; you do not have to
worry about matters related to money such as controlling your expenses, etc.
Also, you do not have to worry about your living, for example: you will neither
experience the fear of losing your job, nor do you need to save money to raise
your children. In addition, you can choose to study where you want, get a
bachelor’s or master’s degree without having to worry about the tuition fees and

However, being rich does have some disadvantages, perhaps when you are
rich, you and your family members are always in danger. I mean there are
people who may plan to kidnap your relatives in order to earn some money.
Clearly, the accounting system in your head tells you that you should save some
money for some future purposes, but the temptation to spend money
immediately is so overwhelming that you can’t resist and actually you go on a
shopping spree and possibly, you will become materialistic. As a matter of fact,
things will get boring, since you can afford everything that money can buy, so
you will take up activities that can entertain you, for example, risky activities
such as gambling. That’s why there are people who get addicted to gambling.

In conclusion, I prefer to live a poor but a happy life, because money does not
create happiness. Money does not buy you love. Money does not solve your
problems. The more money you have, the more things you have to worry about,
so, just treasure what you have.
(308 words)

Essay Practice

People work because they need money to live. What are some other reasons that people
work? Discuss one or more of these reasons. Use specific examples and details to
support your answer.

24 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

General Essay Samples

3- Some people believe that comic books are trash and they waste our
children’s time and energy.

What is your opinion? Use specific reasons to support your opinion.

Comic books are cheap entertainments that trash the minds of our children. I
have seen this many times and each time I have disagreed with it. If people
were willing to go beyond that old stereotype, they would see that comic books
are not that much different from other books.

First, let us all remember that the authors, regardless of what type of writing they
do, can always influence the minds of their young readers. So if it is true that
some comic books are sexist or violent, it is also true that some of them are, to
put it simply, fine. It would be wrong to accuse all comic books of prejudice and
violence, as it would be wrong to do the same with novels.

In the same line of thought, one of the great things about books is that they can
teach you a lot of things, they teach you facts that you did not know; they
broaden your horizon. Well, that is also true of some comic books. And it is not
so surprising, when you think about it. For example, I had never heard of the
country of Tanzania before I read a comic book in which it was the birth place of
one of the main characters. Even you can find more complicated and
philosophical concepts being taught in some comic books, even though it is less
obvious. For instance I read a particular comic book titled “understanding those
who are born different from us”; It can easily be related to racism and its
disadvantages. Thus, comic books, like books, can teach us great lessons.

On a different note, it has often been said that literature is a form of art and that
the writer is an artist and should be looked upon as such. What about comic
books? Shouldn’t the writers of comic books also be praised for their work? At
least because it demands a lot of talent and hard work. After all, how many of us
could write good dialogues and scripts to keep the reader hanging month after
month or pencil the characters so well?

In the end, comic books can help us learn things in their own way; and they as
well require hard work and talent. So, if you could forget the old stereotype for a
minute, you might want to try and read one.

(396 words)

Essay Practice

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People should read only those
books that are about real events, real people, and established facts. Use specific reasons
and details to support your opinion.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 25

General Essay Samples

4- Nowadays more and more teenagers are becoming addicted to drugs or


In your opinion what are the reasons?

And how can we prevent them from becoming addicted?

Everyday more and more teens are turning to drugs and there is no simple
answer to why a teen might begin using drugs or alcohol. Many times, it is a
combination of several things.

They may turn to drugs to escape stress or loneliness or to overcome shyness

in social situations. They may want to be seen as grown up, or they may simply
be curious. Teens often want to be like their role models as well; so, if their
favorite music group or a "cool" friend at school uses drugs or alcohol, they may
also use drugs or alcohol to be like them. Adolescence is often a time of low
self-esteem, which can develop as a result of not being able to grow and change
as quickly as desired. A young person with low self-esteem may feel they are
not as smart, attractive, talented or popular as their friends. They may also feel
pressured by parents, teachers or others to achieve goals. To help deal with the
pressure, a young person with low self-esteem may be more likely to put aside
his/her good judgment and turn to drugs or alcohol to escape.

If some parents suspect that their teen is using drugs they may feel the need to
catch them. So, they search their room, or control their activities and friends.
These are all normal feelings, after all parents want their kids to be safe.
However, it might be more helpful to talk with them and let them know about the
changes they have observed and what the cause is. Preventing teen drug use is
possible; parents and guardians need to learn the warning signs and dangers;
therefore, parents must be aware of its symptoms.

In conclusion, I think that every single individual must try to avoid drugs for the
simple reason that it ruins our lives and society.

(309 words)

Essay Practice

In some countries, teenagers have jobs while they are still students. Do you think this is
a good idea? Support your opinion by using specific reasons and details.

26 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

General Essay Samples

5- As the first step to combat obesity among students, Health authorities

intend to remove all the unhealthy foods from school canteens and
introduce new kinds.

To what extent do you agree with this scheme?

Nowadays the number of students suffering from obesity and obesity-related

diseases is increasing at an astonishing rate and I think it is a good idea to
promote healthy living and eating habits among students today, but in my
opinion removing the food most children love from school canteens is not going
to work.

Would children want to buy something they have never heard of? Most of the
items that may be introduced are strange to students. If the government forces
schools to provide this kind of food, most children will definitely not buy them. It
is not the government’s business what students eat. Education is the best way
to promote healthy living, not prohibition. Therefore, instead of starting with
schools and banning the school canteens from selling the unhealthy foods,
authorities must inform the students of the harmful effects of such foods.

Furthermore, the ill-conceived plan could wipe out a great deal of money a year
from school revenues and force schools to close canteens. Therefore, school
communities and parents should as well choose what is best for their students.
Hence, abandoning the foods most children are fond of is not an alternative.

However I do believe that canteens should gradually try to provide foods suited
to students’ ethnic and religious backgrounds and try to improve their health and
reduce alarming rates of obesity among the students.

In conclusion, serving nutritious food might improve children’s health and reduce
obesity. But the move to ban such foods from canteens will have a negative

(253 words)

Essay Practice

People do many different things to stay healthy. What do you do for good health? Use
specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 27

General Essay Samples

6- Obesity is turning into a serious national program.

Suggest some solutions in order to prevent people from getting obese?

Obesity is on the rise, and it is becoming more and more of a national health
concern. It affects more than 1/3 of the population, and an additional 1/3 is
overweight. With obesity becoming more and more of a problem each year, the
people in Iran are going to suffer from a catastrophic health problem.

I believe that the Iranian Government should take action to manage its people’s
diets because they will not do it on their own. If the Iranian government stepped
up its campaign on obesity, many of the country’s obese people could stop
getting heavier and will shed pounds.

I think that the problem with people in our country is the lack of motivation to diet
and exercise. I believe that the public policy for people would be such that
people who exercise regularly should be rewarded. I believe that people who put
forth effort in an exercise program should be rewarded with tax deductions. This
would bring a lot more people into the world of exercise.

The next most-important solution is education. Education is the key if lowering of

the people’s weight is wanted. Providing them with the knowledge of what foods
do what, how, and why would allow the public to be more educated on how to
lose weight properly. Habits are established at a young age, and if healthy
habits can be established, then the country can be much better off.

And the final step is to pass laws requiring fast food and chain restaurants to
post nutrition information such as caloric, fat and sugar content on menus. After
being thoroughly educated about dieting, Iranians must have access to the
information to be able to know what foods are good or bad and why. Knowing
how to read is not relevant if there is nothing to read.

(303 words)

Essay Practice

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Universities should give the
same amount of money to their students' sports activities as they give to their university
libraries. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

28 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

General Essay Samples

7- Many people believe that playing games teaches us about life while
others believe that children waste their time by playing games.

What’s your opinion?

Use specific reasons to support your opinion.

No one can deny the importance of playing games in our lives. Some people
argue that playing games teaches us many valuable things about life, while
others believe that playing games teaches us nothing about life. I strongly
support the idea that playing games is beneficial in our life for the following

One reason why I believe so is that playing games teaches us teamwork

especially in team games. In team games, the individual team members should
not only play for personal achievements but for the sake of the team as well.
Moreover, playing games teaches us cooperation, organization and loyalty to
our team, which in turn affects positively our relationships with other people.

Another reason that can make playing games valuable is that it teaches
participants to have goals and to work very hard to accomplish these goals. In
life, everyone has many goals and he/she puts them in front of his/her eyes and
tries day and night to achieve them. Thus, there is a strong relationship between
playing games and learning about life. In addition, when people practice team
sports they come into contact with people who have different characteristics and

However, I much acknowledge that children must not spend all their time playing
games. They must not ignore their school lessons and their responsibilities in
life; they must certainly have a program and try to abide by their programs in
order to succeed in life.

To sum up, I still believe that playing games teaches us many useful things
about life such as cooperation, loyalty, organization, and achievement of goals
in life.

(267 words)

Essay Practice

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Games are as important for
adults as they are for children. Use specific reasons and examples to support your

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 29

General Essay Samples

8- Nowadays an increasing number of students prefer to extend their

studies abroad.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of studying abroad? Use

specific reasons to support your opinion.

Education is essential in order to secure as good an employment position as

possible. Studying abroad is a popular choice among students today; however,
is it the best choice? Studying abroad has both its advantages and

There are several advantages to studying abroad. Firstly, one can have more
knowledge about different cultures. It is also the best way to learn foreign
languages since one has the chance to speak with the native speakers. In
addition, one can learn about various traditions and customs. And all these can
help one to have better employment positions, because foreign language skills
and knowledge of foreign traditions are important when working with foreigners.
Besides, it can help one become more organized and self-confident. There are
many good and bad things in every society. Living abroad is like learning what
the big world is like. And finally Students learn to take good care of themselves
and learn what they should do for a living in different situations.

On the other hand, one of the main disadvantages of studying abroad is living in
a different place and culture. When students go to study abroad they are living
somewhere very different and it is not easy to do so. They may come across
many problems e.g. strange food, bad weather and no friends. Also when they
go back to their countries they need to get used to the culture again. It can
become a big problem if they cannot, because they might not be able to work
with others. Another disadvantage of studying abroad is selfishness. Self-
confidence could be self-destructive. Almost all students that study abroad are
very confident. It is good to be self-confident but at times it may become self-
destructive, since these students will not hear the ideas of others and believe in
only what they think which might make working with other people hard.

In conclusion, studying abroad is a good opportunity, but the advantages and

disadvantages must first be considered very carefully before deciding whether
or not to enter foreign universities.
(340 words)

Essay Practice

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Teachers should be paid
according to how much their students learn. Give specific reasons and examples to
support your opinion.

30 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

General Essay Samples

9- The government is planning to set a higher driving age. The law will not
allow young people below 21 to drive.

Do you agree or disagree with this scheme? Use specific reasons to

support your opinion.

The media seem to have developed a grudge against teenage drivers recently.
They claim that these young people should not be allowed on the road because
they cause accidents, while teens cause no more accidents than adults do.
Incredibly the government seems to share this blind prejudice and is going to set
an unacceptably high driving age. Even if teens cause as much mayhem as the
government claims they do, they should be given a chance to improve on
themselves, not wait for themselves to become safer.

An extremely obvious fact that both the government and the media have
overlooked is that age does not make a person safe. This is why adults cause
just as many accidents as teenagers do. However, the government refuses to
see what is plainly under its nose and is going to set an unjust driving age in the
hope that it will reduce the country’s number of road accidents. Bear in mind that
adults, who have the exact same rate of accidents, are allowed to roam freely
on the road. This shows how biased the government is.

The high driving age also creates problems for all the young people who will not
be allowed to drive on their own, especially university students. They are usually
forced to take the highly unreliable and mismanaged public transport. As the
services are usually delayed or overloaded, it causes the young people to be
late for their daily commitments. They also have to pay more and suffer the
added frustration.

In conclusion, I believe instead of taking the easy way out, the government
should tackle the problem at its roots. Young people usually cause accidents
because of the lack of experience or awareness, or both. So the government
should provide education of some sort to help young people build these things.

(303 words)

Essay Practice

A friend of yours has received some money and plans to use all of it either o to go on
vacation or to buy a car. Your friend has asked you for advice. Compare your friend's
two choices and explain which one you think your friend should choose. Use specific
reasons and details to support your choice.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 31

General Essay Samples

10- Some people say that physical exercise should be a required part of
every school day. Other people believe that students should spend the
whole school day on academic studies.

What are the benefits of exercise? Use specific reasons to support your

Most people need some motivation to get off the couch and begin exercising.
They have started to work out and then stopped their workout routine so many
times that they cannot keep track of the number of programs they have tried. In
fact, by statistics these people are among the average Iranians. There are many
benefits that arrive from the presence of exercise in our daily routine. Improved
strength, improved cardiovascular fitness, and an improved immune system are
just three of the many benefits that come from exercise.

First, strength is the power to resist strain or stress. Strength training, also
known as resistance training, has many benefits. By training over a regular
period of time your muscle tone will increase the muscle's readiness for work.
Increased muscle tone improves posture, which can help lead to a better-
developed physique. Following a resistance-training program you can expect to
find changes in your body shape.

Another benefit might also be the cardiovascular fitness. The heart is a muscle
that responds to exercise by becoming stronger and more efficient. The muscles
demand more energy and oxygen due to the increased workload that comes
from exercise. This causes the heart rate and respiratory rate to increase in
order to provide the required additional fuel to the muscles. In addition, the
entire circulatory system works more efficiently due to vascular dilation and
cholesterol reduction. By improving the condition of your cardiovascular fitness
you are also helping yourself live longer, decrease the risk of heart diseases,
lower the blood pressure, strengthen your cardiovascular system, and the list
goes on.

Regular physical activity appears to improve the functioning of the immune

system. Recent research suggests that people who exercise regularly come
down with fewer colds and flues than their sedentary friends. Regular physical
activity seems to strengthen the immune system so that it is better able to fight
the foreign germs that make our bodies sick.

In conclusion, exercise can be very beneficial if performed correctly and

(331 words)
Essay Practice

Why do you think some people are attracted to dangerous sports or other dangerous
activities? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

32 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

General Essay Samples

11- Despite all the government’s efforts to decrease the number of car
accidents, this number is still on the rise.

In your opinion, how can the government help reduce the number of car

Use specific reasons to support your opinion.

The number of vehicles on freeways and streets is increasing at an alarming

rate. This influx of motor vehicles is creating hazardous conditions. Moreover,
drivers are in such a rush to get to their destinations that many become angry or
impatient with other motorists who are too slow and although law enforcement
authorities warn motorists against aggressive driving, the number of drivers who
act out their angry impulses has not declined.

The first reason indeed is not legislating serious punishments for aggressive
driving. Legislating punishments for foolish behaviors is very crucial in order to
decrease the number of such accidents. At the same time police officers, who
have the right to arrest any driver who is drunk, should also have the right to
capture aggressive drivers as both drunk and foolishly behaving drivers threaten
the safety of motorways. In my opinion, the government should play its role in
controlling this phenomenon.

Besides, ignoring the traffic laws and regulations leads to more road accidents
and to decrease the number of road accidents, our drivers should be more
accurate in obeying these rules. For instance, they should look and signal
before overtaking other cars. They should also stop when they come to a
junction. This, consequently, would reduce the number of accidents which take
place daily on our motorways.

To conclude, careless and irresponsible drivers are endangering everyone

because they create hazardous conditions by acting and driving foolishly, the
drivers should control their anger and learn to drive safely. After all, the lives
they save could be their own.

(258 words)

Essay Practice

Should governments spend more money on improving roads and highways, or should
governments spend more money on improving public transportation (buses, trains,
subways)? Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 33

General Essay Samples

12- Many students think school classes are boring and useless.

What are the factors leading to this problem?

Use specific reasons to support your opinion.

Students often remark that school is boring. This remark could be fueled by a
lackadaisical and truly inappropriate set of mandatory credits, lack of interest
towards subjects and an extremely boring method of teaching.

The main problem, Mandatory Credits, starts right at the top of the ladder.
Students are forced into classes they will not need and are taught skills that will
never be used. If a child is to become a mathematician why is he/she forced to
sit through classes where a teacher rambles on and breaks down a story that
will never be picked up in life again? Once this problem is figured out, students
will be more interested and encouraged in classes.

The second problem, lack of interest, is fueled by the same

mandatory credits. Why should a student be forced into taking a class where
they will simply be caught "snoozing" due to lack of interest. By this time a
student has given up and starts to hate school in general.

The third problem, drilling students, is found with the teachers themselves. A
student has to sit in class with his books open rewriting the same words being
said by the teachers. Why cannot they make it more hands-on, keep the
students into it? If teachers want results they should involve their students in the
learning process and avoid promoting passive leaning by using more practical
and interesting teaching methods.

In conclusion, I think in order to interest the students in school, the school

principles need to make significant changes in their education programs.

(258 words)

Essay Practice

It has recently been announced that a new high school may be built in your community.
Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details in your

34 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

General Essay Samples

13- Some people believe hunting animals as a sport should not be

illegalized while others disagree.

What’s your opinion? Use specific reasons to support your opinion.

How many animals will be slaughtered before it is decided too many are dead?
Will species die out and fade into obscurity? With the large prevalence of
hunters in today's world, it is time to define what hunting is. Hunting is not a
sport due to its inability to follow the definition of a sport, the waste of precious
animal lives, and moral ethics.

Many people think that a sport should be fair to both sides. There should always
be a chance for the other team to win; otherwise there would not be a point.
Also, a sport should be fun for both sides. If it is not, then the sport stops being
recreational. A third reason is the fact that people participate in sports by choice.
An animal does not choose to be hunted, it is chosen by the hunter. It would
seem that hunting is no longer a sport: it is unfair to the animal, the animal is
definitely not having fun and the animal has absolutely no choice about

In addition, when People in the past hunted an animal, they would honour its
spirit. This was done because they believed that all creatures, including
humans, were equal in life. One of the ways they honoured the animal's spirit
was to use every portion of the body. They would use the skin for clothing or
shelter, the stomach for cooking, the meat for eating and many other portions for
various uses. This practice continued for hundreds of years. It still exists today.
Many modern day sport hunters do not follow this ideal. A lot of hunters stuff
and mount their kills as trophies, or decorations. This is a waste of the animal.

And finally if people believe that killing humans is wrong, why do they not
believe the same about wild animals? If a person walked into a gun store and
told the clerk that he/she was going to go hunting, the clerk would start setting
up the license. If the same person told the clerk that he/she was going to hunt
humans, the clerk would immediately set off the alarm and summon the police.
Then If it is wrong to kill humans in this manner, then it must be wrong to kill
animals in the same way.

In conclusion I believe to kill an animal out of necessity is understandable, but to

kill an animal for sport! That is unjust and should never occur.
(408 words)

Essay Practice

Many parts of the world are losing important natural resources, such as forests, animals,
or clean water. Choose one resource that is disappearing and explain why it needs to be
saved. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 35

General Essay Samples

14. Humans are producing an increasing amount of trash everyday and the
world is becoming full of the landfills we use to get rid of our trash.

In your opinion, how can recycling save the environment and help the
people on Earth?

Use specific reasons to support your opinion.

Recycling means to use again and again. Recycling helps the world because we
are reusing things instead of using energy to make more things. Paper, tin,
metals, plastic, glass & miscellaneous items can be recycled.

Paper is cellulose, which is in plant fibers. The cellulose is made by cutting down
trees, grinding them up, and dumping the wood pulp in acid. Paper can also be
recycled from other paper. Old paper is sent to factories, where it is shredded
and mashed into pulp, which is then turned back into paper. Recycling uses
cellulose over and over again, this saves trees from being cut down. Recycling
can also save energy because making recycled paper uses 30% to 40% less
energy than producing paper from new wood pulp.

Tin is a metal and is mostly in the form of cans and tin foil. Tin cans are actually
99% steel, with a thin layer of tin added to prevent rusting. In Iran, they throw
away enough metals (including tin) to build new cars. Aluminum can recycling
saves 95% of the energy needed to make aluminum. Also it will save our
mineral resources from depletion. And finally Plastic is the material that makes
up many things. Bottles, Cups, cell phones and many other items are made of
plastic. Plastic is used so much, and recycling it can save our oil resources as
well as the energy used to produce plastic.

There are many more things which can be recycled. Recycling is good for us
because we reuse products and we do not waste energy which we can use in
the future. Recycling is good and you should recycle as much as you can.

(279 words)

Essay Practice

A company is going to give some money either to support the arts or to protect the
environment. Which do you think the company should choose? Use specific reasons and
examples to support your answer.

36 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

General Essay Samples

15- Nowadays almost every student who graduates from high school tries
to attend college or university.

Why do you think people attend college or university?

Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

Entering higher education is nowadays regarded as one of the most important

aims of most teenagers in Iran, it is indeed considered so essential that most
teenagers, upon graduation from high school, take the university entrance
examination which is administered annually in the hope that they can pass it and
enter university. Of course they have many different reasons for sitting the test
many of which are not educational purposes.

I believe most students struggle for success for occupational purposes. I mean
they would like to have better employment opportunities with a higher salary;
consequently, their favorite field of study is usually based on market demand.
They are fond of the specialties that are in higher demand in society. Another
reason for entering college and university is achieving a higher social status.
Holding a university degree is these days associated with a relatively superior

There are also some teenagers who try to keep up with the Joneses; they do not
have any justifiable reason for their decisions; however, they do so since they
do not want to fall behind others. Some other teenagers study their lessons hard
to pass the university entrance exam since they are forced to. It is an obligation
imposed on them by their parents to which they have to conform.

On the other hand, there are many others who prefer to extend their education
for some better reasons. There are teenagers who continue their studies in
order to broaden their knowledge; they try to obtain academic, professional
knowledge in their favorite fields, they love their major and try to obtain as much
information in the field as possible.

In conclusion, I believe each single teenager may have his or her reason for
entering college or university, and a reason that may or may not seem
convincing for others.
(303 words)

Essay Practice

You have been told that dormitory rooms at your university must be shared by two
students. Would you rather have the university assign a student to share a room with
you, or would you rather choose your own roommate? Use specific reasons and details
to explain your answer.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 37

General Essay Samples

16- In the modern world today the rate of divorce is rising dramatically in
most societies.

In your opinion what are the most important reasons for getting divorced?
Use specific reasons to support your opinion.

Marriage is known to be a lifetime commitment towards love and caring among

people. However, most marriages these days seem to be failing due to the
increasing number of problems with the modern world.

Why do people get married? Well it is a known tradition in humanity that a

woman and man will come together and live their lives as one. The most
important element that seems to have disappeared is love not just any love, but
true, deep-feeling love. To keep a relationship clear, the love itself should be
clear, not artificially placed. If there is no well-defined understanding of love,
then it should obviously not be a marriage. In some traditions, they have what is
known as an arranged marriage. This is the process where love is somewhat
“forced” to exist between two people.

Disloyalty is another reason leading to divorce. Nowadays adultery is one of the

most popular reasons for most divorces and it usually has the worst outcome as
well. These include physical and verbal fights, splitting of a family including
children, lawsuits, and much more.

Financial problems can also end a good marriage. This cause leads to fights on
spending too much money, making a bad investment, and purchasing useless
things. Being stingy can also be another bad reason. No matter what the reason
is, the causes of failing marriages are practically endless,

Unexpected health deterioration is still another problem. In the Modern world

women or men would rather get a new life than stay with a husband that will
sooner or later die. Physical illness is pretty bad as well. If a man is impotent or
a woman is infertile, this means that they cannot conceive a child. Some people
believe that the main reason for marriage is to have children, and if there is no
potential of having children, then why should they stay together?

Finally, I believe that the young people must change their attitudes towards
many things such as love, life, loyalty and so on before they end up in divorce

(341 words)

Essay Practice

Some people think that the family is the most important influence on young adults.
Other people think that friends are the most important influence on young adults. Which
view do you agree with? Use examples to support your position.

38 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

General Essay Samples

17- Some people believe that people’s choice of leisure activities is to a

great extent affected by fashions, while others believe that people still
choose their favorite leisure activities regardless of fashions.

With which opinion do you agree? Use specific reasons to support your

By comparison with even the recent past, the choice of leisure activities on offer
today is vast, but while it may seem reasonable to argue that some of these
activities reflect the trends and fads of the day, I believe the majority still choose
to take up their hobbies out of interest.

While some may fall victim to fashion in the modern world, many people of all
ages and backgrounds take up hobbies for social reasons. Traditional hobbies
range from participation in active sports like tennis to old favorites such as chess
and stamp collecting, and these continue to be popular. There are still people
who collect shells as a hobby and they eagerly pursue their hobbies irrespective
of the fashions that catch on and fall out day in day out.

Where sports is concerned, most people know what they like and participate out
of love of the game, rather than because it is currently fashionable. People have
been interested in a particular sport during their whole life and changes in
fashion have rarely affected their interests. It is worth mentioning that children’s
games such as hide and seek and tag are still widely appreciated by most
children all around the world regardless of the new games that are being
introduced on a daily basis.

However, for some people as new hobbies and activities are introduced, other
hobbies are history. For example, sports such as rollerblading lose their
fascination after a few months. Current trends are always overshadowed by the
new ones being promoted through massive advertisement. Electronic games go
out of date almost as soon as you have bought them and this is so because
manufacturers promote the fact that only the latest version is worth having, and
so ensure continued sales.

Therefore, I feel that while fashions have an influence, particularly among the
young, the majority of people enjoy their hobbies for their own sake.

(317 words)

Essay Practice

Some people prefer to plan activities for their free time very carefully. Others choose not
to make any plans at all for their free time. Compare the benefits of planning free-time
activities with the benefits of not making plans. Which do you prefer-planning or not
planning for your leisure time? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 39

General Essay Samples

18- Some parents believe that students must work hard at school and
spend their free time learning their school lessons, while others believe
that students need to spend their free time playing and developing other

With which opinion do you agree? Use specific reasons to support your

Today education has become a priority for many parents seeking to secure a
good future for their children in this rapidly changing world. Most parents believe
that if their children work hard at school, then they will increase their
opportunities for going to higher education and eventually getting a good job. Of
course they are right. However, they must know that there are other things to
learn except the academic skills at schools.

The parents, who do not allow their children sufficient free time for leisure
activities outside school hours, are misguided. Such activities are far from being
a waste of time for the children for the simple reason that they are not academic.
It is important to remember that children need to develop skills other than
intellectual ones, and the best way to do this is through activities such as sports,
games and playing with other kids.

Moreover children must develop their imagination; make-believe games can

help children to inspire their imagination. Besides, they must learn physical
coordination through the games they play with their peers. They must taste
victory and failure, how can they learn important social lessons about winning
and losing if they do not practice any sports? Many children form strong,
personal relationships with their friends they play with, and without the
opportunity to do this, they could grow up emotionally immature and unformed.

However, In the world today, students need to be educated in order to survive in

this world; they must be skilled and knowledgeable; therefore, allowing children
to ignore these fundamental needs and waste their time will not help them, so as
access to the best education and best jobs is becoming more competitive, then
it is true that children have to make the best of their study time when they are

Finally I think it is important to remember that children need to relax as well as

work. If everything they do must have educational or academic relevance, then
they will soon get tired of studying altogether, which is the last thing parents
would want.
(344 words)

Essay Practice

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? All students should be required
to study art and music in secondary school. Use specific reasons to support your answer.

40 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

General Essay Samples

19- In the fight against crime, police forces and governments are
increasingly using security cameras in public places. Some people are
opposed to this, saying that it invades our privacy.

Discuss both these views and finally give your opinion.

Security cameras have become ubiquitous in many countries. Whereas before

they appeared only in banks and at high-security areas, they are now entering
public places such as malls, streets, stadiums and transport. Many people feel
they intrude on citizens’ privacy while others believe they may help increase
social security.

Some people believe security cameras are far from being a perfect solution. The
biggest objection they can lodge concerns privacy. Many people feel that they
should be free to travel or move around a shop, mall, street or country without
being photographed or recorded. They feel that being watched constantly is like
being in a jail, and that ordinary people are losing their freedom because of
these security devices. Another point is that although the police say that only
criminals have something to fear from the cameras, many people do not trust
governments with too much information. Corrupt authorities could use the
information in the wrong way or twist it to victimize some groups, and finally I
think cameras and computers can make mistakes.

However, others believe that surveillance cameras have several benefits. An

obvious benefit is that the police can catch criminals in the act, and reduce
crime. This will make the streets safer for ordinary people. Catching a criminal
red handed will also greatly reduce the police costs as the police do not need to
conduct large scale investigation to prove a criminal guilty. A more important
point is that criminals, particularly young offenders or petty criminals will be
deterred. They will not be tempted to carry out crimes, and thus society will be a
lot safer. Cameras are also cost-effective and unobtrusive. Authorities do not
need to spend large amounts of money on police.

In conclusion, although there are definite disadvantages to using surveillance

devices such as cameras, but considering the rapidly increasing crime rate in
our society and the critical need for enhancing our social security, I think the
merits way outweigh its demerits.

(327 words)

Essay Practice

Some people believe citizens should be allowed to carry handguns in order to protect
themselves, while others think this can lead to many social security problems in the
society. What’s your opinion? Use specific reasons to support your answer.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 41

General Essay Samples

20- Some people believe that starting school at an earlier age is very
beneficial for children, while others believe that children must stay home
and attend school at the age of 7.

In your opinion, what are the advantages of attending school before the
age of 7?

In many places today, children start primary school at around the age of six or
seven; however, because it is more likely now that both parents work, there is
little opportunity for children to stay home up to that age. Instead they will
probably go to a nursery school when they are much younger. While some
people think this may be damaging to a child's development or to a child's
relationship with his or her parents, in fact there are many advantages to having
school experience at a young age.

Firstly, a child will learn to interact with a lot of different people and some
children learn to communicate very early because of this. They are generally
more confident and independent than children who stay at home with their
parents and who are not used to strangers or new situations. Such children find
their first day at school at the age of six very frightening and this may have a
negative effect on how they learn.

Another advantage of going to school at an early age is that children socially

develop faster. They make friends and learn how to get on with other children of
a similar age. This is often not possible at home because they are the only
children, or because their brothers or sisters are older or younger.

So overall, I believe that attending school from a young age can benefit children
in many different ways. Moreover , they still have plenty time to spend at home
with their parents, so they can benefit from both environments.

(260 words)

Essay Practice

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Self-confidence is the most
important factor for success in school or at work. Use specific reasons and examples to
support your opinion.

42 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

General Essay Samples

21- Research is an essential part of completing assignments.

Write a report for a course tutor suggesting some good places to obtain
useful information. Give reasons for your choices.

The most important step in the completion of a class assignment is researching

the topic. Some assignments require you to give written answer, and others
require spoken presentation. However, finding useful information is only
possible if you know where to look.

To begin with, there is the reading list that the tutor gives students in class.
Reading lists show the essential book titles you should read to complete a
written task, and are useful because they contain the books that the tutor

Secondly, there is the library in the school where you are studying. Most good
colleges have libraries containing a wide range of books, newspapers,
magazines and reference material. These days, modern well-equipped libraries
have banks of computers with CD- ROM disks on a variety of subjects.
Alternatively, if you are researching information for a spoken presentation, you
might borrow a video to show your class. If you cannot find the books you need
in the school or college library, you can go to the local library and ask the
librarian there to help you.

Additionally, the internet allows us to obtain information from a huge number of

sources all over the world. It might take a long time to search for what you want,
but once you find it you can print out only the pages you require.

Finally, people can be good sources of information, too. By interviewing people

with particular knowledge, or conducting surveys, you can obtain information
that is the most current and suitable for your needs.

(253 words)

Essay Practice

A university plans to develop a new research center in your country. Some people want
a center for business research. Other people want a center for research in agriculture
(farming). Which of these two kinds of research centers do you recommend for your
country? Use specific reasons in your recommendation.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 43

General Essay Samples

22- Nowadays more and more research results show the positive effects of
sports in our life, and people are strongly advised to take up a sport as
soon as possible.

What are the major effects of getting exercise?

Practicing a sport is much more than the sole act of pushing your body through
exhaustion or using your skills to reach your goal. There are many effects that
show after you get involved in a sport.

The first major effect of practicing a sport is that you will develop physical
abilities. Your body will be in better shape, and you will be able to achieve things
that physically you could not accomplish before. For instance your speed,
muscular mass, stamina, lung capacity, and elasticity will all increase
enormously. By exercising on a regular basis your body will be healthier, which
means fewer diseases and fewer injuries. People with a healthy life tend to live
longer and more happily.

The second effect has to do with your personal life. Yes, sports will get very
deep into your life. Practicing a sport requires some time, so you will be
entertained for a while everyday instead of watching television or surfing on the
internet. By practicing a sport you will get the chance to travel to new places
where competitions are held. And that’s not all because once you enter a better
level of competition; you may compete in national or international tournaments,
attract sponsors, and even make a profit out of it!

Practicing a sport affects you as a person as well as your social life. You will
meet a lot of people in the business, from beginners to professionals; however,
only a small group of individuals will become your friends to the point of turning
into your second family. That is having a team. As an athlete you will develop a
strong character and a competitive spirit. Besides you will become more
disciplined and responsible, which will certainly help you in your professional

In conclusion, sports can shape your body, your life, and your mind in good
ways. Practicing a sport keeps you entertained and far away from boredom. In
addition you will have the chance to experience the amazing feeling of beating
all your opponents down from the quarterfinals or crossing the finish line ahead
of everyone else.

(350 words)
Essay Practice

People have different ways of escaping the stress and difficulties of modern life. Some
read; some exercise; others work in their gardens. What do you think are the best ways
of reducing stress? Use specific details and examples in your answer.

44 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

General Essay Samples

23- Unfortunately nowadays many school students drop out of school

before they graduate.

In your opinion what are the reasons for school drop-out?

And what ways can you suggest in order to solve the problem?

Today, although most students in Iran complete their education, a large number
still drop out because of family, social and work pressures. This problem
requires serious action from both individuals and the government.

Most students who do not complete school do so because of family problems.

Girls, especially, want to get married and start a family. Some parents are not
interested in education and do not support their children in studying. Social
problems are also a contributing factor. Education is compulsory but, despite
this, some people do not take it seriously. Furthermore, jobs are available even
if students do not have a good education. The third reason is work pressure.
Some families are poor and need their children to work in order to increase the
income. All these problems will create young people who do not have any skills
and who will not be able to improve their lives for the family and the country.

There are several things that can be done about these problems. Parents
should be encouraged to send their children to school. Schools with baby-
minding facilities should be opened specially for married students. The
government needs to stress the importance of education and even offer financial
support to students to continue. This will encourage students to stay at school
rather than start working.

In conclusion, there are several things that the government can do to allow more
people to finish school. However, a number of society attitudes also have to
change if the country’s young people are to achieve their full potential.

(256 words)

Essay Practice

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is more important for students
to study history and literature than it is for them to study science and mathematics. Use
specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 45

General Essay Samples

24- Television is now widespread in all communities. Almost everyone has

access to this medium on a daily basis. However, the effects of television
are not always positive.

What are some of the negative effects of television?

What can be done to minimize these bad effects? Give reasons for your

One can say that television is one of the most important technological
developments and nowadays almost everyone in the world has access to TV.
Television has caused significant changes in family life and education some of
which have been negative.

Certainly TV can be a powerful educational tool which can benefit the people;
however, the effect that TV has had on our lives have not all been positive.
Before television was widely available, families spent more time together talking
and playing games. They seemed much closer to each other than modern
families. Now many children even have their own TV in the bedroom so they
spend very little time with their parents or brothers and sisters. Some people
might argue that this helps young people to be independent, but I think this is a
negative effect because they will be unable to communicate effectively or relate
to others emotionally. Also the fact is that many people waste a lot of time
watching poor quality programs which do not have a positive influence.
Advertising, too, can have very negative effects. Furthermore TV is sometimes
used to deliberately misinform people, for example when it is used as a
propaganda tool by governments.

I am sure there are some very practical ways in order to reduce the negative
effects of TV in society. First off, I think the government must legislate rules
according to the religious beliefs of the nation preventing the people in charge
from broadcasting poor quality programs. Another thing the government can do
is to provide education programs for parents and children instructing them about
the negative effects of TV. And finally I think every single individual must
understand that it is time to kick the habit of watching TV and take up a more
beneficial and active hobby.

In conclusion even though it can benefit the members of the society, I believe
the one-eyed monster is doing a great harm which we must not ignore.

(326 words)

Essay Practice

In the future, students may have the choice of studying at home by using technology
such as computers or television or of studying at traditional schools. Which would you
prefer? Use reasons and specific details to explain your choice.

46 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

General Essay Samples

25- Addiction to TV is becoming more and more common worldwide. What

are some of the problems associated with this and what recommendations
can you offer?

The word television comes from Greek and means "seeing far away". However,
the more we watch it, the more short-sighted and narrow-minded we become.
Unfortunately, TV is fast becoming as popular and dangerous as drugs. In this
essay, I will outline some problems linked to TV addiction and suggest some
viable solutions.

Starting with the dangers, health is one of the biggest. To clarify, people who
watch too much TV frequently develop problems with their eyes and back and,
too, many become obese. A further negative effect is that a lot of time is wasted.
In fact, statistics show that frequent viewers watch TV for an average of three or
more hours daily. A final issue is that TV addicts may become antisocial,
spending little quality time with family and friends. Indeed, this is particularly
detrimental to children who need to learn good social skills.

Fortunately, there are remedies for this dangerous addiction. One answer is to
budget the amount of time spent watching TV For example, people can set
aside one hour a day and schedule other activities, such as sports or reading, in
their leisure time. Yet another alternative is to limit the number of televisions in
the household, even covering screens with a sheet or blanket when they are not
in use. Last, the best solution of all could be to kill the contraption! If you don't
have a TV, you won't watch one!

To conclude, addiction to TV is a widespread disease, but with the right

medicine, it can be cured. Individuals must take a long view towards the future,
recognizing that short-term actions have long-term consequences.

(271 words)

Essay Practice

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television, newspapers,

magazines, and other media pay too much attention to the personal lives of famous
people such as public figures and celebrities. Use specific reasons and details to explain
your opinion.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 47

General Essay Samples

26- A company has announced that it wishes to build a large factory near
your community.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new influence on your

community. Do you support or oppose the factory?
Use specific reasons to support your opinion.

These days I hear news about a big company which intends to build a large
factory in the proximity of my neighborhood. I think living close to a large
manufacturing firm certainly has a lot of considerable merits, even though it
might cause some problems for the residents of the neighboring communities.

The factory can help decrease the rate of unemployment in this area.
Unfortunately recently there have been few employment opportunities in my
community and most people go downtown in search of employment; therefore,
the construction of a large factory can save people from commuting to and from
work in the city center. The factory will also place more importance on our town.
I mean more people will be traveling to our neighborhood and therefore the local
businesses will flourish as well.

However, there will be some problems for the residents too; For example, if
accurate measures to combat pollution are not taken the area may be
threatened by pollution. Chemical wastes produced by the factory will
contaminate the water resources and may endanger the lives of people as well
as the ecosystem. The people may as well face more traffic jams in the
neighborhood as more people rush into the town in the morning.

On the whole, I believe we need this factory; people have been suffering from
financial problems in recent years, and the low unemployment has led to an
increasing rate of crime and violence among the youth. Many people spend
several hours commuting to and from work and many people have emigrated to
other cities and have settled down there. Our town is disappearing and we need
this factory to save it.

(277 words)

Essay Practice

Some people like doing work by hand. Others prefer using machines. Which do you
prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

48 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

General Essay Samples

27- Some people prefer to live in a small town. Others prefer to live in a big

What are the advantages and disadvantages of living in a big city? Which
place would you prefer to live in?

Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.

Most people live in places where they can enjoy their lives; even though some
people like living in small rural areas, some people prefer to live in large modern
cities and while the wide range of facilities available in a large modern city can
benefit its inhabitants in so many different ways, it certainly causes some
problems for them.

Most people prefer to live in a large modern city since there is a wide range of
facilities in a large modern city including transport facilities, social and
recreational facilities, educational facilities and a lot more, such as medical
facilities; there are large up-to-date hospitals and schools and other community
facilities most of which are not available in a small town. Public facilities existing
in a large modern city also include disabled facilities and sports facilities which a
small town lacks.

Nevertheless one can’t ignore the disadvantages either, consider the hustle and
bustle of a large modern city for instance, most large cities are crowded, noisy
and at times polluted, and you can never find the peace and quiet of a small
town in a large city. There is also usually a higher crime rate in large modern
cities. Living expenses are also much higher in large cities and this forces the
residents to work harder in order to earn a living.

In conclusion, I do prefer to live in a large modern city; of course I realize the

fact that there are some disadvantages in living in a large modern city. However,
you cannot compare the facilities available in small towns and modern cities, the
existing facilities in a modern city are far more extensive that those in a small
town. There are enough employment opportunities in a small town and finally I
cannot extend my education in a small town since there are not enough
universities and colleges.

(309 words)

Essay Practice

It is better for children to grow up in the countryside than in a big city. Discuss both
views and give your opinion. Use specific reasons and examples to develop your essay.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 49

General Essay Samples

28- In general, people these days live longer in most countries of the

Discuss the causes of this phenomenon. Use specific reasons and details
to develop your essay.

Living longer has always been a dream for most human beings, and they have
tried throughout history to find ways to achieve longevity; luckily their efforts
have led to some good results and now according to official figures, average life
expectancy in many countries of the world has increased. In my opinion the
most important reason for this phenomenon is adequate healthcare and better

In the past most people who contracted the formerly fatal diseases would die in
no time. There were no remedies for such diseases and only a very small
proportion of the people afflicted with a fatal disease would survive. Infant
mortality rate was, therefore, extremely high since children were more
vulnerable and their immune system was the weakest. But these days most
children are vaccinated against most fatal diseases and their immune system is
stronger. Nowadays there are treatments for most diseases or at least people
can take preventive measures against most of them.

Furthermore, nowadays the food that we eat and the water that we drink are
hygienic. Most people in the past did not have access to clean water recourses.
In areas where people were not close to mountainous areas, they had to
consume even dirty water. Nowadays people carry their foods in sterilized
packages and keep them in their fridges; hence the chances of contamination
are low. People nowadays can use fruits and vegetables from far-away places
transported in refrigerated containers and can take in a range of vitamins and
minerals therefore they are healthier.

In conclusion, I think the technological advances in different fields have helped

people live longer than before and they will certainly pave the way for still a
higher average life expectancy, and people will live a longer life providing they
pay attention to their lifestyles, healthcare and hygiene.

(301 words)

Essay Practice

Some people believe that the Earth is being harmed by human activity. Others feel that
human activity makes the Earth a better place to live. Discuss both views and give your
opinion. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

50 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

General Essay Samples

29- It is said that people’s life now is becoming more and more stressful.

What are the causes and how can we solve it?

The acceleration of industrialization and the prosperity of economy benefit our

society a great deal. But with the speeding up of economic development, people
are facing more and more pressure from various aspects of their lives. This
essay will explore the causes for the heavy pressure and put forward some
feasible solutions.

One of the major causes is that people’s living rhythm has been promoted
immensely with the upgrading of neo-knowledge and hi-tech. To keep abreast
with the society, people have to work intensively on the one hand and improve
their knowledge on the other. The economic globalization strengthened
international cooperation and expanded people’s scope of activity. The fierce
social competition deprives people of their spare time and makes their life more

Another factor comes from the pressure of people’s family. People in the current
society have to shoulder the responsibility of family maintenance. On the one
hand, people have to care for their parents, creating for them a happy and
comfortable life. On the other hand, they have to provide a good education for
their children. To earn more money, people have to work very hard to finance
their family.

If people live in heavy pressure, they will have problems both physically and
psychologically. To relieve the pressure, I think the following suggestions are
feasible and practical. Firstly, people are suggested to go in for some sports
games in their spare time or at the weekend. Sports can build up people’s
physique and make them vigorous. Secondly, people should communicate with
others frequently and confess their trouble and difficulty to others, which is a
very magic way to release ones pressure. Finally, people have to find a balance
between money and health. Otherwise, one’s health will be overdrawn and
spoiled by earning money.

In brief, good life should not be obtained at the price of the deterioration of one’s
health. People should improve their lifestyles and lead a life of high quality.

(324 words)

Essay Practice

Some people believe that success in life comes from taking risks or chances. Others
believe that success results from careful planning. In your opinion, what does success
come from? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 51

General Essay Samples

30- Most students upon graduation from high school choose to study

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of studying abroad for a

period of time and give your own opinion.

With the rapid development of societies, we have entered an era of information

explosion. In order to acquire more knowledge, more and more people decide to
further their study abroad. Studying abroad brings about many advantages. It
widens students' knowledge and horizons, and meanwhile cultivates their
independence and personalities.

Students can learn advanced knowledge and experience abroad. Since the
reform and the policy of opening to the outside world, China has strengthened
cooperation with many countries. As a result, the scientific and technological
level has been improved very rapidly. However, compared with the developed
countries in the world, we still have a very long way to go. Studying abroad
provides opportunities to students, who can learn advanced knowledge and
management experience so as to enhance the scientific level in our country.
Besides, studying abroad can enhance students' ability to live independently.
Students have to deal with many problems when they study abroad. They have
to learn how to be accustomed to a new environment and how to get along with
the teachers and classmates. During their study, they can acquire some
interpersonal skills.

However, "Every coin has its two sides". Studying abroad also brings about
many disadvantages. Firstly, students will be confronted with so many
psychological problems and most students get homesick after a short time. They
often feel lonely and helpless in a new environment. Furthermore, the tuition fee
is very high, which is a very heavy financial burden to the average people.
Finally most students are faced with crippling communication problems since
there are not proficient enough at the target language.

To sum up, the advantages of studying abroad outweigh the disadvantages

greatly. I encourage students to study abroad. In spite of all the problems one
may face, studying abroad can pave the way for future progress and when
students complete their curriculum, they can make more contributions to the
construction of our society.
(316 words)

Essay Practice

Some people believe that a college or university education should be available to all
students. Others believe that higher education should be available only to good students.
Discuss these views. Which view do you agree with? Explain why.

52 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

First Then Next Afterward Finally

writing task 1
(graph, diagram & map description)

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 53

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

1- The bar graph below shows the different levels of post-school

qualifications in Australia and the proportion of men and women who
held them in 1999.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,

and make comparisons where relevant.

Post-school qualification in Australia according to gender 1999

Skilled vocational diploma

undergraduate diploma
Bachelor's degree
Postgraduate diploma

Master's degree

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Percentage of Males and F emales

The chart gives information about post-school qualifications in terms of the

different levels of further education reached by men and women in Australia in
1999. We can see immediately that there were substantial differences in the
proportion of men and women at different levels.

The biggest gender difference is at the lowest post-school level, where 90% of
those who held a skilled vocational diploma were men, compared with only
10% of women. By contrast, more women held undergraduate diplomas
(70%) and marginally more women reached degree level (55%).

At the higher levels of education, men with postgraduate diplomas clearly

outnumbered their female counterparts (70% and 30% respectively), and also
constituted 60% of master's degree.

Thus we can see that more men than women hold qualifications at the lower
and the higher levels of education, while more women reach undergraduate
diploma level than men. The gender difference is smallest at the level of
Bachelor’s degree, however.

(155 words)

54 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

2- The table below shows the proportion of different categories of

families living in poverty in Australia in 1999.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,

and make comparisons where relevant.

Family Type Proportion of people from each

household type living in poverty
Single aged person 6% (54,000)
Aged couple 4% (48,000)
Single, no children 19% (359,000)
Couple, no children 7% (211,000)
Sole parent 21% (232,000)
Couple with children 12% (933,000)
All households 11% (1,837,000)

The table gives a breakdown of the different types of family who were living in
poverty in Australia in 1999. As it can be seen from the graph, the rate of
poverty among couples is lower than singles.

On average, 11% of all households, comprising almost two million people,

were in the state of poverty. However, those consisting of only one parent or a
single adult had almost double this proportion of poor people, with 21% and
19% respectively.

Couples generally tended to be better off, with lower poverty levels of couples
without children (7%) than those with children (12%). It is noticeable that for
both types of household with children, a higher than average proportion were
living in poverty at this time.

Older people were generally less likely to be poor, though once again the
trend favoured elderly couples (only 4%) rather than single elderly people

Overall the table suggests that households of single adults and those with
children were more likely to be living in poverty than those consisting of

(174 words)

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 55

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

3- The chart below shows the amount of money per week spent on fast
foods in Britain. The graph shows the trends in consumption of fast

Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown

Expenditure on fast food by income groups


Fish and Chips

High Income Average Income Low Income

Consumption of fast foods 1970-1990

400 Fish and Chips

300 Hamburgers
0 1970 1975 1980

The charts show the sum of money spent on fast foods among three income
groups as well as the consumption rate of fast foods in Britain from 1970 to

The first chart shows that high income earners consumed considerably more
fast foods than the other income groups, spending more than twice as much
on hamburgers (43 pence per person per week) than on fish and chips or
pizza (both under 20 pence). Average income earners also favoured
hamburgers, spending 33 pence per person per week, followed by fish and
chips at 24 pence, then pizza at 11 pence. Low income earners spent less
than other income groups on fast foods, though fish and chips remains their
most popular fast food, followed by hamburgers and then pizza.

From the graph we can see that in 1970, fish and chips were twice as popular
as burgers, pizza was at that time the least popular fast food. The
consumption of hamburgers and pizza has risen steadily over the 20-year
period to 1990 while the consumption of fish and chips has been in decline
over the same period with a slight increase in popularity since 1985.

(193 words)

56 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

4- The graph shows the rate of fish catches in the USA and Canada over
a period of 30 years.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,

and make comparisons where relevant.

Annual Fish Catch: North America

Millions of tonnes

4 US

3 Canada














The graph shows changes in fish catches for the US and Canada over the last
30 years. The most significant feature is that fish catches have declined
drastically in both the US and Canada since the mid-1980s. Although
Canadian production is much lower, it echoes US figures, declining or
increasing at the same rate.

Between 1972 and 1977, US fish catches averaged between 2.5 and 2.75
million tonnes per year, while Canadian landings fluctuated between 800,000
and 1.1 million tonnes. In 1997, however, there was a big increase in fish
caught in the US, and this rise continued up to a peak of 5.5 million tonnes in
1987. During the same period, Canada's catch increased from 1 million
tonnes to 1.5 million tonnes, an increase of 50%.

From 1987 onwards, there was a sudden decline in both countries. US figures
tumbled to 4 million tonnes in 1995, a drop of 28%, and Canadian catches
plunged to 0.5 million tonnes, a drop of 66%. In the following four years, US
catches fluctuated around the 4 million tonne mark, while Canadian catches
rose very slightly.

In general, both Canadian and the much larger US catch have declined
dramatically since their peak in the mid-1980s.

(202 words)

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 57

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

5- The pie charts show the trends in the Australian immigration from 1992 to

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and
make comparisons where relevant.

Africa (excl. Nth North America

South & Africa) 2%
Central America 3% Europe & former
Middle East & USSR
North Africa 24%
7% Oceania
10% 1992
India, Sri Lanka,
Southeast Asia
Northeast Asia

North America
Africa (excl.
South & Nth Africa)
Europe &
Central 10%
former USSR
America 20%

Middle East &

North Africa Southeast Asia
7% 16%

Northeast Asia
India, Sri

The pie charts show changes in Australian immigration between 1992 and 2002.
Overall, immigration dropped, and the number of immigrants from Europe and Asia

The biggest single group of immigrants in both years is from Europe. In 1992, almost
27,000 Europeans moved to Australia. This represented 25 of all immigrants to
Australia, but this figure dropped to just 17,000, or 20% in 2002. Immigrants from
Northeast and Southeast Asia accounted for 41% of new citizens in 1992, but this
figure plunged to just 28% in 2002, with just 25,000 people. There was also a drop in
the number and proportion of immigrants from North and South America and from the
Middle East.

However, the number of immigrants from Africa went up sharply. In 1992, only 3% of
immigrants to Australia were African. By 2002, this figure had shot up to 9300, or
10%. Another large increase was in immigration from Oceania, the islands
neighbouring Australia. By 2002 they made up the largest single group, at 19,000, or

In conclusion, although Europe is still an important source of people seeking to live in

Australia, immigration dropped overall, and applicants from regions such as Africa
and Oceania became more numerous.

(200 words)

58 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

6- The pie charts show the causes of diseases in developing and the developed

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and
make comparisons where relevant.

Developing Countries

Infectious &

Heart Disease

Infectious &
Diseases Developed Countries
Heart Disease



The two pie charts show differences in the causes of diseases in rich
countries and in the developing world. The biggest difference is that infectious
diseases still kill millions of people in poorer countries, whereas in the wealthy
nations, they account for only 1% of the deaths.

In both rich and poor countries heart disease is the biggest single killer. It
accounts for almost a quarter of deaths in the affluent countries, at 24%, but
almost double that in the poorer countries, at 43%. Cancer is also a major
cause of death. In the industrial countries, 21% of deaths are due to cancer.
However, in third world countries, it only makes up 9% of fatalities. The
greatest difference however, is infectious diseases. These make up almost
half of all deaths in poorer countries, but only 1% of diseases in developed
countries. In contrast, over half of deaths in the developed world are the result
of other diseases. This compares to just 2% of deaths in poorer countries.

In summary, most people in poorer countries die because of simpler, more

treatable infectious and parasitic diseases. They also suffer because of a lack
of resources to treat heart disease, whereas people in richer countries die due
to cancer, heart disease, and a wider range of other illnesses.

(215 words)

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 59

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

7- The pie charts below show the forms of energy used to generate
electricity in the USA in two years.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,

and make comparisons where relevant.

Natural Gas 1970



Oil 1.4%

Natural Gas




The two pie charts illustrate the production of electricity in the US by source in
1970 and 1984. In general, it can be said that coal was the most important
source of electrical power in both years, although nuclear power grew in

In 1970, coal-powered stations were the main source of electricity in the US,
producing 46% of electricity, and this figure increased to 55% in 1984. The
second most important source of power in 1970 was the natural gas, with
almost 25%. However, by 1984, this had declined to just 12.3%. Hydroelectric
power also declined over the same period, from 16% to less than 14%. In
contrast, nuclear energy gained in importance. It rose from just 1.4% of
production in 1970 to almost 14% in 1984, showing a ten-fold increase.

In summary, more electricity was produced from coal and nuclear energy,
while natural gas, hydroelectric power, and oil declined in importance.

(153 words)

60 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

8- The graph shows the average monthly temperatures in three African


Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,

and make comparisons where relevant.

The line graph gives information about the average monthly temperatures in
three African cities - Mombasa, Cairo, and Cape Town. Overall, each city has
its own different climate, with very different characteristics.

The hottest place shown on the graph is Cairo. In July and August, average
temperatures rise to over 80º Fahrenheit. However, Cairo also has the biggest
variation in climate, being both the hottest and coldest place shown in the
graph. Temperatures drop to as low as 55 degrees in Cairo’s winter, during
January and February. This is equal to Cape-Town’s lowest temperature in

In fact Cairo and Cape Town are almost opposites in temperature. Cairo is
hottest when Cape Town is coldest. Cape Town does not have the range that
Cairo has. Its maximum temperature is 70º F from November to February,
after which it drops gradually to about 55 degrees in its winter

In contrast to Cairo or Cape Town, Mombasa is warm all year round. Its
temperature fluctuates very little, ranging from a low of 75 to a maximum of 83
in March.

In conclusion, location is very important in deciding climate. When it is winter

in Cairo, it is summer in Cape Town, but Mombasa is warm all year round.

(206 words)

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 61

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

9- The table below shows four different cars manufactured in three

different countries.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,

and make comparisons where relevant.

Make Price Country of Engine size Miles per

origin gallon
Toyota $15,550 Japan 1400cc 48
Volkswagen $18,250 Germany 1600cc 40
Ford $15,800 USA 1400cc 50
Nissan $15,500 Japan 1200cc 52

The table compares the price, the power and the fuel consumption of four
different models of cars produced in three different countries.

The Toyota Corolla and the Nissan Micra are both made in Japan, and have
almost similar prices. The former costs $15,550 while the latter is $50
cheaper. The Corolla has a bigger engine but the Micra does more miles to
the gallon. The Volkswagen Golf is made in Germany and is the most
expensive of the four cars as it is priced at $18,250. The Golf has the biggest
engine size at 1600cc and is the least economical as it only does 40 miles to
the gallon. The Ford Focus is in the same price range as the Corolla and the
Focus at $15,800, although it does more miles to the gallon than either of

In conclusion, the table shows that as the engine of the cars get bigger, they
are more expensive and also consume more fuel.

(161 words)

62 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

10- The bar graph below shows some information gathered from a 1,000
first year overseas students about the factors affecting their decisions
when choosing a university.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,

and make comparisons where relevant.

Reasons for Choosing a University


Cost of tuition


Language of tuition

Up-to-date teaching facilities

Good language support

Modern teaching methods

Cost of accommodation etc

Quality of teachers

Good preparation for w ork


0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

The chart shows 11 reasons why first-year students from overseas chose a
particular university. The survey of 1,000 first year overseas students was
carried out at universities in the UK.

The top three reasons are language of tuition, up-to-date teaching facilities,
and the quality of teachers respectively. Language of tuition comes top of the
survey at 95%. Another important reason is teaching facilities. About 90% of
students mentioned this as a reason. The third top reason was the quality of
the staff. This also accounted for 90% of student choices. The reputation of
the university was also a crucial factor. About 70% of the respondents picked
this as a reason for their choice of school.

Non-teaching related reasons were also important. Cost was a major factor.
More than three quarters of the students said that cost of tuition was an
important reason for choosing a college. A similar number picked a college
based on accommodation costs. The friendliness of a university was given as
a reason by two-thirds of students.
Some factors were relatively unimportant. These included good language
support, at only 20% of students, and modern teaching methods, at 30%.

In conclusion, the reasons for choosing a particular university can be divided

into teaching related reasons and non-teaching reasons, but the most
important factors are language, the quality of the staff and facilities, and cost.

(226 words)

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 63

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

11- The following table shows how much coal it would take to make all
the energy that people use in different countries.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,

and make comparisons where relevant.

The table gives us information regarding the amount of coal which is required
to meet the energy demands of fifteen selected countries. The figures
mentioned are in kilograms.

The countries with the highest energy requirements are the USA, Germany,
the UK, Russia and France. Of these the USA has by far the highest rate of
energy consumption with 11,485 kilograms. This is twice as high as the other
countries in this group. The next group of five countries has energy needs
ranging from 3,839 kg in Japan to 646 in Brazil. In the last group Turkey is at
the top with 628 kg. Egypt, the Philippines and Thailand have similar
requirements ranging from 322 down to 33.

In conclusion, the table shows that the energy requirements of the USA are
much higher than any of the other 14 countries. The energy needed for the
top group is higher than the other two groups combined.

(154 words)

64 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

12- The table below shows the incidence of injuries caused in different

Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown


Sport Number of sports % of sports % admitted to % of injuries during

injuries injuries Hospital competition or practice

Australian football 10,122 24.5 7.5 83

Soccer 3777 9.2 7.1 84

Rugby 3636 8.8 10.9 95

Cricket 3408 8.3 5.4 83

Basketball 3228 7.8 4.1 83

Netball 3098 7.5 2.5 95

Hockey 1219 3.0 3.2 95

Martial Arts 882 2.1 5.6 71

Squash 787 1.9 6.4 91

Volleyball 776 1.9 2.2 79

This table presents some information regarding the number of sporting injuries
which leads to emergency hospital treatment. It is obvious that while
Australian football causes more injuries than all the other sports, Rugby
seems to be the most dangerous sport.

The highest number of injuries occurs in Australian football with over 10,000
reported cases. This is a quarter of all the injuries reported. Soccer, rugby,
cricket, basketball and netball have similar numbers ranging from 3,777 in
soccer to 3098 in netball. Rugby has the highest number amongst all the other
sports in the number of people admitted to hospital with almost 11%
Basketball, by comparison, only has 4% hospital cases and netball 2.5%..

Hockey, martial arts, squash and volleyball all had significantly lower numbers
of injuries compared to the other sports mentioned. The vast majority of all
sports injuries happened during practice or competition with the lowest figure
being just over 70% for martial arts up to over 95% for hockey.

In conclusion, the table shows that Australian football had the most injuries
with rugby having the highest percentage of injuries ending up in hospital.

(185 words)

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 65

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

13- The pie charts below show the US spending patterns in two different
years. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information
shown below.



The pie charts show changes in American spending patterns between 1966
and 1996. As it can be seen clearly from the charts, spending habits of US
families changed remarkably over the 30-year period.

Food and cars made up the two biggest items of expenditure in both years.
Together they comprised over half of household spending. Food accounted
for 44% of spending in 1966, but this dropped by two thirds to 14% in 1996.
However, the outlay on cars doubled, rising from 23% in 1966 to 45% in 1996.

Other areas changed significantly. Spending on eating out doubled, climbing

from 7% to 14%. The proportion of salary spent on computers increased
dramatically, up from 1% in 1996 to 10% in 1996. However, as computer
expenditure rose, the percentage of outlay on books plunged from 6% to 1%.

Some areas remained relatively unchanged. Americans spent approximately

the same amount of salary on petrol and furniture in both years.

In conclusion, money spent on cars, computers, and eating out accounted for
most of the expenditure of the American people.

(176 words)

66 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

14- The table below gives information about the percentage of the
internet users according to age?

Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown


Who Uses the Internet?

60 53
45 44
50 41 39 37 Less than 15

16 - 30 years
31 to 50 years
20 8 10 50 or more
8 9
10 2 4
1998 1999 2000

The graph shows changes in the age profile of Internet users in Taiwan
between 1998 and 2000.

The main users of the Internet in Taiwan are young adults between 16 and 30
years old. In 1998, they accounted for more than half of all users. In 1999 the
number dropped slightly to 45%, but even in 2000 they were the biggest

The second biggest group of users is aged between 31 and 50. They made up
41% in 1998, falling slightly to 37% in 2000. When combined with the 16-30
age group, over 94% of users in 1998 were between 16 and 50.

However, this number dropped steadily as more children and older users log
on. In 1999, the number of children online quadrupled from 2% to 8%, and it
continued to increase in 2000. There were similar increases for older users,
rising from 4% in 1998 to 10% in 2000.

In summary, while adults between 16 and 50 represented the great majority

of Internet users in Taiwan, their share declined as more children and older
users joined the web.

(181 words)

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 67

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

15- The chart below shows the literacy rates of six different countries in
1990 and 2000.
Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown
Literacy Rates, by Country, 1990 and 2000

Male 1990
Male 2000
Female 1990
Female 2000
Bangladesh Brazil China Egypt Kuwait Pakistan

The graph shows changes in literacy rates in different countries between 1990
and 2000, for men and women. Overall more and more people are able to
read, and there have been significant improvements for women, although they
lag behind men in literacy.

The most obvious trend in the graph is that women have lower illiteracy rates
in most of the countries in the graph. For example, in Bangladesh in 1990,
45% of men could read and write, but only 25% of women. The difference was
even bigger in Pakistan, with 50% of men being literate but only 20% of
women. Even in Kuwait and China, slightly more men than women could read
and write.

The second biggest trend in the graph is the improvement in literacy between
1990 and 2000. In all countries shown, figures for both men and women
improved. The biggest change was in Pakistan, from 49% of men in 1990 to
57% over the ten year period. Even in countries with relatively high literacy
rates, such as China or Brazil, there were significant increases for men.

However, the increases in literacy rates for women were much higher. In
Egypt, the percentage of non-illiterate women jumped from 35% to 44% and in
Pakistan from 20% to 28% over the decade.

In conclusion, almost all the countries in the graph have a long way to go
before achieving 100% literacy rates, and women in particular need support in
order to increase their reading ability. However, all countries improved over
the ten years, and women appear to be catching up even in the lowest

(265 words)

68 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

16- The chart below shows the percentage of obese people in 12

different countries.

Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown

Obesity: Percentage of Population



% of obese people






Czech Republic



USA - Mexican

USA - Black

USA - White


The graph shows the percentage of obese men and women in different
countries. There are two trends in the graph. First of all, rates vary greatly
between countries. Secondly, the obesity rate among women tends to be
much higher.

The USA, Australia, and the Czech Republic, have the highest rates of
obesity, at an average 23%. The lowest rates of obesity are found in France,
Netherlands and Finland, at less than 15% of the population. America is the
country with the highest rate of obesity. However, the rate differs for different
groups inside each population. White males, at 20% have a lower rate of
obesity than Mexican-American males, at 24%.

There are also huge differences between the sexes. Although the figure for
men is only 10%, the rate of obesity for Russian women is over 25%. Black
American women, at 37%, are the most obese, but the black males are only
slightly fatter than white US males, at 24%.

In other countries, however, the difference can hardly be noticed. In France,

the percentage of obese men is about 9%, which is only 1% higher than the
figure for women. The figures for Canadian males and females, at 15%, are
identical. In Finland, France and the Netherlands, there are slightly more
obese men than women.

In conclusion, there are significant differences between countries, but females

are more obese than males in most countries.

(232 words)

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 69

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

17- The graph below shows the amount of meat consumed in the USA
between 1950 and 2000.

Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown


Meat Consumption, USA, 1950-2000,

per person per year in kilograms


1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000

The graph shows changes in the amount of chicken and beef eaten in the
USA over the last 50 years. Overall, beef consumption is declining, while
Americans are eating more and more chicken.

The biggest change in the graph is the increase in poultry consumption. This
soared from just 12 kilograms per person per year in 1950 to almost 50
kilograms in 2000, increasing four times. The biggest increase was between
1990 and 2000, when it jumped almost by half, from just 35 kilos to almost
50kg. That was the period when poultry consumption overtook beef for the
first time.

The other trend in the graph is the decline in beef consumption. Although
more beef was eaten in 2000 than in 1950, at 40 kilos per person per year
compared to 32 kilos in 1950, there has been a big drop since 1970. Sales of
beef peaked in 1970 at almost 50kg and have declined steadily since then.

In conclusion, Americans are eating much more meat overall than they were
in 1950, but the proportion of chicken and turkey products has increased
sharply, while beef consumption is declining in importance.

(190 words)

70 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

18- The graph below shows the number of London Underground station
passengers from 6 am to 22 pm.

Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown


London Underground station passengers

Number of people


















The graph shows the fluctuation in the number of people at a London

underground station over the course of a day from 6 am to 22 pm.

The busiest time of the day is in the morning. There is a sharp increase
between 06:00 and 08:00, with 400 people using the station at 8 o'clock. After
this the numbers drop quickly to less than 200 at 10 o'clock. Between 11 am
and 3 pm the number rises, with a plateau of just under 300 people using the

In the afternoon, numbers decline, with less than 100 using the station at 4
pm. There is then a rapid rise to a peak of 380 at 6pm. After 7 pm, numbers
fall significantly, with only a slight increase again at 8pm, tailing off after 9 pm.

Overall, the graph shows that the station is most crowded in the early morning
and early evening periods.

(153 words)

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 71

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

19- The graph below shows the oil production capacity in six different
Persian Gulf countries.

Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown


Oil Production Capacity

(estim ated)

Millions of VBarrels per Day

Iran Iraq Kuwait Qatar Saudi UAE

The graph shows Oil Production Capacity in millions of barrels per day for
selected Gulf countries. There are several features in this graph.

The most significant feature is that oil production will increase sharply in
almost all the countries shown. Kuwait and Iraq are both expected to double
their output between 1990 and 2010, with Kuwait's production rising from 1.8
million barrels per day (bpd) in 1990 to 3.8 in 2010. Iran will also increase its
output by a slightly smaller amount. After remaining steady at 2.5 million bpd
from 1990 to 2000, the UAE's output is expected to approach 4.0 million bpd
in 2010. Only Qatar's production is predicted to fall, back to 0.8 million bpd
after a slight rise in 2000.

However, the greatest increase will be from Saudi Arabia. In 1990, its output
capacity at 8.5 million bpd exceeded the combined production of Iran, Iraq
and Kuwait. This lead is expected to continue with a 75% increase in
production to 14.5 million bpd 2010.

In summary, while most of the countries are expected to show increases,

Saudi Arabia will maintain and strengthen its position as the major producer.

(191 words)

72 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

20- The table below gives information about the number of children
killed in road accidents in a 3-month period in 2004 in USA

Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown

Where Age Age Age Age Age
accidents Total
occurred 2-4 5-7 8 - 11 12 - 14 15 - 16
Going to school 2 12 8 2 1 25

Returning from
2 17 10 3 2 34
Playing in the
98 81 28 5 2 214
Cycling in the
1 10 25 8 1 45
Shopping for
5 32 12 2 1 52
their parents

TOTAL 108 152 83 20 7 370

The table shows the number of road accidents which involved children in
1995. Five age groups were mentioned.

The highest number of accidents involved children playing in the street with
214 out of a total of 370. The vast majority of these involved children between
2 and 7. The number dropped in each age group and there were only 2 of this
type of accident amongst 14 to 16 year olds. Shopping for parents accounted
for 52 accidents, with the highest figure being in the 5 to 7 group. Cycling in
the street came next with the most accidents amongst children aged between
5 and 13. Journeys to and from school were the least number of accidents
although younger school children were more likely to be involved.

The table shows that the highest number of accidents involved younger
children. Children aged between 2 and 7 accounted for 260 accidents which is
around two thirds of the total.

(157 words)

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 73

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

The diagram below shows the typical stages of consumer goods

manufacturing, including the process by which information is fed back to
earlier stages to enable adjustment.

Write a report for a university lecturer describing the process shown.

Most consumer goods go through a series of stages before they emerge as finished products
ready for sale.

Raw materials and manufactured components comprise the initial physical input in the
manufacturing process. Once obtained, these are stored for later assembly. But assembly
first depends upon the production planning stage, where it is decided how and in what
quantities the stored materials will be processed to create sufficient quantities of finished
goods. The production planning stage itself follows the requirements of the goods' design
stage that proceeds from extensive research. After assembly, the products are inspected and
tested to maintain quality control. Those units that pass the inspection and testing stages are
then packaged, dispatched and offered for sale in retail outlets. The level of sales, which is
the end point of the manufacturing process, helps determine production planning.

A product's design is not only the result of product research, but is also influenced by testing
and market research. If the testing stage (after assembly and inspection) reveals
unacceptable problems in the finished product, then adjustments will have to be made to the
product's design. Similarly, market research, which examines the extent and nature of the
demand for products, has the role of guiding product design to suit consumer demands which
may change with time. Market research, while influenced by product sales, also serves to
foster future sales by devising suitable advertising for the goods.

Thus the reality of consumer goods manufacturing goes well beyond a simple linear
production process.
(249 words)

74 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

The diagram below shows the process by which bricks are

manufactured for the building industry.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,

and make comparisons where relevant.

The process by which bricks are manufactured for the building industry can be
outlined in seven consecutive steps.

First the raw material, clay, which was just below the surface of soil in certain
clay-rich areas, has to be dug up by a digger. Then the lumps of clay are
placed on a metal grid in order to break up the big chunks of clay into much
smaller areas, which fall through the metal grid onto a roller, whose motion
further segregates the bits of clay. Sand and water are added to make a
homogenous mixture, which is then either formed in moulds or cut into brick-
shaped pieces by means of a wire cutter.

Those fresh bricks are then kept in a drying oven for at least 24 and a
maximum of 48 hours, several dozens if not hundreds of bricks at a time. The
dried bricks are then transferred to a so-called kiln, another type of high
temperature oven. First they are kept at a moderate temperature of 200
degrees Celsius which is then raised to the maximum temperature of1300
degrees Celsius. This process is followed by cooling down the finished bricks
for 48 to 72 hours in a cooling chamber.

Once the bricks have cooled down and have become hard, they get packaged
and delivered to their final destination, be it a building site or storage.

(228 words)

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 75

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

The diagram below shows the process by which exams are taken in a
computer room.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features.


Grouping and

The diagram shows the various stages of an exam administration. As we can

the exam is taken in a computer room.

The test consists of three sections, namely the self-corrected test, the written
composition and the oral test. The student has to complete two sections
devoted to use of language: the computer corrected test and the written
composition. As shown in the diagram, after completing these two sections,
the student will take the third section of the test that is the oral test.
Afterwards, the data is stored and transferred to the raters section in the back
office. The first section of the test is corrected by both the computer and the
rater. The raters will be able to retrieve the information and play the students'
recordings as many times as necessary. Then the scores are transferred to
the database and then grouped and analysed accordingly. Finally if the results
are verified by the exam committee, they are announced to the test takers.

(163 words)

76 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

The diagram below shows the process by which plastic paper clips are

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,

and make comparisons where relevant.

The diagram illustrates the manufacturing process of plastic paper clips.

There are four main stages in the production of plastic paper clips from this
small factory. Two of these stages involve actual preparation of the clips,
while the other two consist of quality control before the clips are sent out from
the factory to the retailers to be sold to the public.

To begin with, molten plastic is poured into three different moulds depending
on the colour required; the colours are red, blue and yellow. Once these clips
emerge from the moulds, a quality control machine checks them for strength.
Unsatisfactory clips are rejected. In the third stage in the process the clips are
stored by hand into two groups, mixed and single colours. When this stage is
complete the groups are checked a second time to ensure that the colour
mixtures are divided correctly into single colours and mixed colour batches.
Finally, the clips are packed and dispatched to the markets.

(162 words)

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 77

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

The diagram below shows how a central heating system in a house


Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,

and make comparisons where relevant.

This diagram provides an overview of a domestic central heating system. It

shows how the tank, boiler and pipes ensure a constant flow of hot water to
both the radiators and the taps.

The cold water enters the house and is stored in a water storage tank in the
roof. From there it flows down to the boiler, located on the ground floor of the

The boiler, which is fuelled by gas or oil, heats up the water as it passes
through it. The hot water is then pumped round the house through a system of
pipes and flows into the radiators, located in different rooms. The water
circulates through the radiators, which have small tubes inside them to help
distribute the heat, and this warms each of the rooms. Some of the water is
directed to the taps to provide hot water for the house.

Once the water has been through the pipes and radiators, it is returned to the
boiler to be re-heated and circulated round the house again.

(172 words)

78 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

The diagram below shows how olive oil is produced.

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,

and make comparisons where relevant.

The diagram provides a step-by-step overview of olive oil production process.

At first olives are collected and then they are milled in a milling machine. The
milled olives are then pressed and the oil is extracted. The extracted oil is
then either prepared to be refined or is cold-pressed to produce cold-pressed
olive oil.

Having been prepared, the oil is then refined and finally the product is
combined with virgin olive oil to produce a type of olive oil with less than 1.5%

Still, the cold-pressed olive oil may undergo some other stages. The process
may result in either extra virgin olive oil with 1% or less acidity or virgin olive
oil with more than 1% or less than 3% acidity. As described before, cold-
pressed olive oil may be combined with refined olive oil to produce a third type
of olive oil with less than 1.5% acidity.

Finally, as shown in the diagram, there are various types of olive oil
depending on the acidity level.
(166 words)

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 79

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

The map below shows three possible sites for the construction of a
shopping center (A,B and C)

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,

and make comparisons where relevant.

The map shows the potential sites where a new shopping center may be
constructed in the city of Pellington.

Site A is located in the residential area near the traffic-free zone which may
make it difficult for people to drive to the shopping center. Yet, people can
easily commute from and to the shopping center via the railway. As it is
located in the residential area, parking space may be still another problem and
the area on which the shopping center is going to be built may be limited.

Unlike site A, site B is located in the countryside to the northeast of the city
and people can easily drive to the shopping center as it is close to the
motorway. Parking space will not be a problem in site B as the countryside is
quite empty.

Site C is also located is the countryside to the south of the city; however since
it is surrounded by the residential and industrial areas, driving to the shopping
center is still a problem. But you can use the railway to get to the shopping

In conclusion, I think site B is the best as it is close to the motorway and away
from the residential and the industrial areas.

(208 words)

80 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Graph, Diagram & Map Samples

The map below shows three different residential areas in the city of New

Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features,

and make comparisons where relevant.

New Townsville

80 C: population
70 160,000
50 East
West Residential
30 North
20 Traffic-free Zone
10 B: population Countryside
0 80,000 Highway
1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr
A: population Subway

The map shows the various residential areas in the city of New Townsville

According to the map, residential area A is located to the southeast of the city
and it has a population of 90,000 people. It is not a crowded city in
comparison with its area; however, as there is no access to the subway,
commuting from and to the city center which is a traffic-free zone is not easy.
Moreover, it is far away from the airport and the park.

The residential area B which is the least populated area is located in the
southwest of the city and it has access to the subway as well. It is also in the
proximity of the airport. Nevertheless, there is no access to the highway which
makes it difficult to commute from and to the neighboring residential areas as
well as the park in one's private car.

The residential area C which is located to the northwest of the city is the most
populated and the smallest area in the city of New Townsville. However, it is
close to the airport and the park and it has access to both the subway and the

On the whole, considering the public facilities in the residential area C, it is the
most convenient residential area in the city.
(218 words)

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 81

Academic Essay Samples

writing task 2 (essay)

82 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Academic Essay Samples

1- Some people believe that the society must ban violent and
pornographic scenes from being broadcast on TV, while others believe
in order to have an open society, the law of censorship must be totally

What is your opinion?

Use specific reasons o support your point of view.

Censorship is widely practiced all over the world, as it is supposed to protect

people against the harm caused by the violent and pornographic scenes
broadcast on TV; however, in my opinion probably the most obvious example
of intolerance in our society today is the existence of censorship.

First, I have yet to encounter a valid argument for any form of censorship.
Such arguments as are presented invariably take the form of concern for the
well-being of others, children frequently being the alleged victims quoted. The
arguments are specious and shallow and constitute nothing more than the
imposition of one group’s morality on another.

Furthermore, as it stands, the current position is farcical. A small group of

officials, comprising customs clerks, policemen and arbitrarily-appointed
members of various tribunals, are, to take one example, apparently deemed
by law to be invulnerable to those supposedly corrupting influences of
pornography and violence. However, should these people retire or change
their employment, they suddenly join the masses becoming corruptible like the
rest of us and must now be protected

However, I much acknowledge that the violence and pornography shown on

TV may inflict some harm on the youth and teenagers in our society. It may
increase the rate of sex crime or violence in our community. I believe the
harmful effects of these scenes can never be denied.

In conclusion, censorship is an all or nothing situation and even if proof can be

made of harm to some through the absence of censorship, it is a price well
worth paying to ensure an open society in which each of us determines our
own behaviour.
(270 words)

Essay Practice

How do movies or television influence people's behavior? Use reasons and specific
examples to support your answer.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 83

Academic Essay Samples

2- Some people believe capital punishment must be banned while others

think in order to protect individuals; criminals committing certain crimes
must be executed.

What is your opinion?

Use specific reasons to support your point of view.

The death penalty is the most severe form of punishment in the world today.
Once the jury has proved a criminal guilty, they go to the second part of the
trial – the punishment phase. Lethal injection is the most common form of
death. Capital Punishment is a difficult issue and there are as many different
opinions as there are people; nevertheless, I think that Capital Punishment
should be made illegal.

Firstly it is possible to execute someone who is innocent. If this does happen it

cannot be undone, whereas if they were put in jail they could be released and
given compensation. Secondly I think that the death penalty is almost not a
punishment because you are not around to be punished like if you were in jail
with the poor living conditions and no freedom.

Another reason I think that Capital Punishment should be made illegal is that
life imprisonment without parole serves the same purposes as capital
punishment at less cost. Right now, to execute a person in the U.S costs
approximately three times the amount it would to have them serve a life
sentence in prison. The money used to pay for the death row (including court
appeals) comes out of the taxpayers’ wallets. If Capital Punishment were
made illegal, this money could go to other projects in need of the funds like
building new prisons.

Nevertheless, I still believe that some criminals are just incorrigible and
insane; they also cause a lot of problems in jail and do not seem to be
lamenting the crime they have carried out against other individuals. Capital
punishment in this situation may seem to be the only solution.

In conclusion, I hope we understand that it is all too easy to take a person’s

life, however we must be very suspicious of the decision we make.
(306 words)

Essay Practice

Some people believe environmental factors are more important than a person’s free
will in determining whether or not he/she may turn to crime; however others think
free will is the most important factor in one’s life. Discuss both these views and give
your own opinion.

84 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Academic Essay Samples

3- Some people believe capital punishment must be banned while others

think in order to protect individuals; criminals committing certain crimes
must be executed.

What is your opinion?

Use specific reasons o support your point of view.

Hanging, firing squad, electrocution, gas, and lethal injection are all methods
of execution used all around the world to punish murderers. And most
countries around the world have the death penalty as a method of
punishment. The subject of capital punishment has been under debate for a
long time. Some believe it is a good way to punish murderers. Others call it
immoral and unethical. I personally believe that it should be used as a
punishment by our government.

I have many facts to support my opinion. Statistics say that over 60% of
people around the world believe in using the death penalty. That is almost a
two-to-one ratio. Also, it is legal in almost two-thirds of the countries including
our own country. Consequently as most nations agree with this method and I
think we should keep it. Furthermore, if a mother can have an abortion, killing
an unborn child, innocent of any crime, then why can the society not use the
death penalty to punish murderers who have been tried and convicted of their

In addition, the scripture clearly approves of the death penalty by saying that
"if he strikes him with an iron implement, so that he dies, he is a murderer; the
murderer shall surely be put to death”. In 1991, a young mother was rendered
helpless and made to watch as her baby was executed. The mother was then
mutilated and killed. The killer should not lie in some prison with three meals a
day, clean sheets, cable TV, family visits and endless appeals. In my opinion
for justice to prevail, some killers just need to die.

However, we must remember that not every killer is as brutal as the killer in
the above-mentioned case. There are certainly people who unintentionally kill
a person, in my opinion the jury before issuing its verdict must consider every
single aspect and then make a decision.

In conclusion, I believe a person who dares kill another human being with no
mercy must be executed.
(336 words)

Essay Practice

Some people believe drug addicts are patients and they should not be treated as
criminals; others believe drug addicts threaten the citizens’ social security just like
criminals and they need to be punished. Discuss both these views and finally give
your own opinion.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 85

Academic Essay Samples

4- Nowadays companies spend a lot of money on advertisement, what

are the main reasons for advertisement.

Use specific reasons to support your opinion.

Higher sales figures and production rate is one of the most important goals of
every company and in order to achieve this goal companies try to heavily
advertise their products. Therefore, the primary purpose of an advertisement
is to sell a certain product; but advertising has many other purposes too.
Therefore, I believe each advertising campaign is based on a particular
purpose, or to help meet specific goals.

First of all companies would like to increase their sales figures by advertising
their products on a daily basis. They always allocate a great percentage of
their annual income to press and TV advertisement. In addition through
advertising, a company or an individual tries to communicate the brand
personality. I mean they try to enhance the company’s image and make
people trust the brand when they want to purchase a product and finally
convey the type of company that is selling the product.

Another reason for advertising is indicating the brand’s place in the

community. It is important that the consumers see how they can fit these
products or services into their daily lives, and in what ways they can benefit
from those certain products.

The final reason why most firms spend such vast sums of money on
advertising campaigns is building up a brand name. It is decisive to make the
brand recognizable through a logo or reputation so that people can easily
recall them.

In conclusion, companies regard advertisement as one of the best ways to

introduce and promote their products and this is because nowadays people
are greatly influenced by the advertisement broadcast on TV and radio.

(268 words)

Essay Practice

Some people say that advertising encourages us to buy things we really do not need.
Others say that advertisements tell us about new products that may improve our lives.
Which viewpoint do you agree with? Use specific reasons and examples to support
your answer.

86 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Academic Essay Samples

5- Nowadays body piercing is turning into a popular method for makeup,

and more and more people pierce their body for beauty purposes. In
your opinion what are the harmful effects of body piercing on our

Body piercing is commonly done all over the world. Everything from ears,
nose, eyebrows, tongue, genitals, lips, naval, and nipples are being pierced.
People are mostly unaware of the dire consequences of body piercing and
they do not realize the complications that can occur.

Depending on where and who pierces a person's body, certain complications

can occur. If the piercer is not experienced, they may not know or understand
the necessary health and safety precautions needed to avoid infections.
Adolescents and young adults under the age of 18 are piercing each other
without this knowledge because most places will not pierce them without a
parental consent. If instruments are not properly sterilized or the environment
is not clean, infection may occur. Infections that can arise are HIV, hepatitis
and many others.

Another complication that can arise is scarring. Piercing a certain part of the
body for many times ultimately results in mutation of the skin cells which in
turn will lead to an ugly growth of skin cells distorting the shape of the skin.
Unfortunately such scars never get healed. Moreover, the quality of the
jewelry, such as brass-plated costume jewelry, can cause complications such
as an allergic reaction or infection. These reactions and infections can later
lead to severe skin problems resulting in skin cancer.

Besides there may be psychological complications. if a person has a negative

experience with body piercing they may also suffer from psychosocial
problems. In most cases as people grow older, they regret having pierced
their body; however, since removing a tattoo is costly and most people cannot
afford the medical operations, they have to put up with it forever.

In conclusion, I believe one can enhance one’s beauty using many other
methods which are less harmful. I think considering the complications which
can result from body piercing, teenagers must avoid such cruel methods.

(310 words)

Essay Practice

Nowadays teenagers try to improve their beauty by any means available to them.
What are some of the harmful beauty methods teenagers use these days?
Why do teenagers use such harsh methods to add to their beauty?

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 87

Academic Essay Samples

6- Multiculturalism is a recent phenomenon. While many people would

like to live in a multicultural society others prefer to live in a society with
their own culture and disrespect people from other nation.

With which opinion do you agree? Use specific reasons to support your

Racism is a certain kind of prejudice, based on faulty reasoning and inflexible

generalizations toward a specific group. Fortunately, through multiculturalism
people recognize the diversity of cultures and their bias against a certain race
is removed. In multicultural societies all those individuals have their own
culture, religion, morals and standards.

Humans are not perfect species; we all have our flaws. Human’s greatest flaw
is fear. Humans fear everything that is unfamiliar and strange to them such as
foreigners and their cultures. In multicultural societies that fear is automatically
eliminated as a result of familiarization with the “stranger”.

In addition, it provides people with the opportunity of understanding and

accepting one another. People usually try to change a culture or a religion to
fit their own views, instead of accepting it and its diversity. Accepting the
individuality and diversity of people and their customs indicates that they are
equal in your eyes and that forms respect. In many ways humans are equal
because they all have the same necessities and they all get hurt the same
way. Once we accept someone’s religion and nationality we accept them as
human beings.

Furthermore, there is an advantage in living in a country that contains a

variety of cultures. People get a “taste” of each culture, thus gain a greater
understanding of its customs and history. For that matter, people living in a
multicultural country are endowed with extraordinary powers of knowledge. As
a great man once said “Knowledge is Power”. Countries with multicultural
societies have the power to revolutionize the world and create unity and
diversity at the same time.

In summation, in order to reduce racism multiculturalism is a necessity. As a

result of multiculturalism fear of the unknown is eliminated and instead of it
respect and understanding for one another steps in.

(301 words)

Essay Practice

When people move to another country, some of them decide to follow the customs of
the new country. Others prefer to keep their own customs. Compare these two
choices. Which one do you prefer? Support your answer with specific details.

88 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Academic Essay Samples

7- Racism is becoming a widespread phenomenon and some people

take pride in their racist views.
Why should we avoid this problem?
How can we help solve the problem?

Racism denies human beings the basic equality and dignity which as children
of God we deserve. While there are people who think they are superior to
other human beings, I think racism is a sin and we must completely avoid it.

Racism is a sin. It is a sin because it divides our community, blots out the
image of God among the inhabitants of the planet and violates basic human
pride. Racism is the sin that says some human beings are innately superior
and others basically inferior because of the colour of their skin. Our holy book
clearly states that all human beings are equal in the eyes of God and that the
ones with a stronger faith are better valued; therefore, if we consider
ourselves as the followers of our holy prophet, we must not judge a person
based on his or her colour or race.

In order to solve the problem of racism, we must be aware of its numerous

forms. I have always viewed racism as being, whites against blacks, because
that is what I was taught by those in authority , the media and society overall,
even my history classes at school have caused me to have this narrow-
minded view. Research, however has caused me to think differently, I have
read stories, newspaper articles and watched interviews on television,
regarding racism, and I have discovered that racism is not a “white thing”,
instead, it is a “human thing. Therefore, to address racism, we need to
recognize two things: that it exists in a variety of forms, some more subtle and
others more obvious; and that there is something we can do about it even if
we realize that what we say and the steps we take will not result in an
immediate solution to a problem that spans generations.

In conclusion I believe that we must tackle this issue with certainty and our
small contributions will ultimately help eliminate the problem.

(325 words)

Essay Practice

Some people believe women and men should not have exactly the same rights since
they are different in many ways. What’s your opinion? Support your answer with
specific details.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 89

Academic Essay Samples

8- Many people believe that violence on Television will ultimately result

in more violence among the youth.

Do you agree with this opinion? Why?

What has our society come to these days? Everywhere we look, violence is
present; on the streets, back alleys, schools, and even at home. Even if one
might be a pacifist, violence will seep its way into our homes through the
television. Some children that see violence on television are pulled into its
harmful deceptions of problem solving and choose violent solutions to their

Scientists have tried to explain why children are so amused by a big glowing
box and the action that takes place within it. Research shows that television is
a major source of violence for children. This research shows us that violence
appeals to every audience, including children. The effects have been seen in
a number of cases. It must be pointed out that most children who commit a
crime are claimed to have seen a similar act on television. Even though we
should not hold television directly responsible for these acts, we need to admit
that it is television that plants a violent seed in the minds of these children.

Furthermore, some psychologists and psychiatrists feel that continued

exposure to such violence might unnaturally speed up the impact of the adult
world on the child. This can force the child into a kind of prematurity. As the
child matures into an adult, he can become bewildered, have a greater
distrust towards others, a superficial approach to adult problems, and even an
unwillingness to become an adult.

In conclusion, violence on television proves to be a root of violence among the

young people. There are many examples and proven research that shows
how violence viewed on television takes root all over our country. Only when
we decide to put an end to this problem as an individual will we begin to see a
more peaceful world.

(300 words)

Essay Practice

Films can tell us a lot about the country where they were made. What have you
learned about a country from watching its movies? Use specific examples and details
to support your response.

90 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Academic Essay Samples

9- Some people believe that internet users may finally end up addicted
to the net.

Do you agree with this opinion? Why?

Some time ago I heard that an "internet-crazed" woman was arrested for
neglecting her three young children. The woman reportedly spent 12 hours
straight online, while her hungry kids were locked away in one room so she
could be online without interruption. The three kids were placed in county
custody while the mother was tossed in jail.

The Internet is rapidly becoming an addictive source to a lot of its users.

Users of the Internet include students, housewives, and business
professionals. Some of these Internet users spend a minimum of thirty-eight
hours per week on the "net"; hence, losing touch with reality and reeking
havoc on their studies, family lives or careers. Individuals such as these are
classified as "Internet Addicts.

First they turn to users who try to convince themselves that they are not
addicted to the Internet. Next, they change into users who make convenient
excuses to use the Internet like mothers who claim they have to visit the
website of their children’s school in order to read the highlights of the last PTA
meeting. And finally they become the "Internet junkies". These users neither
sneak online nor make excuses to get online. They put their lives on hold to
get online. The mother I mentioned at the beginning of the essay is an
example of an Internet junky. These three stages all happen surreptitiously
without us sensing their occurrence and we only find out after we have
become addicted to the internet.

In conclusion, I believe we must be wary of the problems that the Internet can
cause; therefore, we must avoid indulging ourselves in browsing the World
Wide Web.
(273 words)

Essay Practice

The internet has recently turned into an inseparable part of our lives and we are
increasingly becoming dependent on it.
What are some of the reasons for the widespread use of the internet?
And do you think this dependence on the internet is acceptable?

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 91

Academic Essay Samples

10. Some people believe that the government must ban hand guns since
they are dangerous while others believe that hand guns have many
advantages if handled wisely.

What is your opinion?

Use specific reasons to support your opinion.

Hand guns; are they a good thing or a bad thing? It is still an issue of
controversy and most people still have mixed feelings about people owning
them. However, hand guns are a great thing when handled responsibly.

People seem to think that hand guns today are just weapons of destruction
used for harm, or to kill. On the contrary, guns have much more of a purpose
than to cause harm, they can provide great opportunities. Here are a few
reason to own a hand gun, if you are responsible. Firstly, it can be an
interesting item to collect, from old types used in the Civil War, to the modern
high-tech ones. They do not depreciate in value, unless mistreated and
scratched up.

Secondly, you can use it to defend yourself and your loved ones at home and
when you are out. There are criminals everywhere and to protect oneself
against them, one needs to be armed at times. Thirdly, it can make a good
recreational activity, for multiple reasons. It can be a great competitive sport,
and a good stress relief

There are many good and valid reasons for owning a hand gun; however, you
always have to remember to be responsible. If you abuse the right, it takes it
away for others who use it wisely.

In conclusion, I believe everything can cause harm, if handled irresponsibly,

and hand gun is no exception. So people need to be taught how and when to
use their hand guns.

(250 words)

Essay Practice

According to figures, the rate of crime is rising rapidly in most countries in the world
and many sociologists are worried about the future of human societies.
In your opinion, what are the many causes leading to the increasing crime rate?

92 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Academic Essay Samples

11- Happiness is certainly the most important element in one’s life.

Why is it hard to define happiness?

How can we achieve true happiness?

Though it is defined as the condition of being content, different people may

have their own ideas of happiness. It is commonly thought of as having a lot of
money, power, or fame. But can these things actually make people happy?

For some people happiness means money and fame, most would agree that
family and friends also bring great joy and happiness. Frequently, people have
the wrong idea of happiness. They believe it arises from just material,
ephemeral objects. However, for others, happiness may come from things as
simple as hanging out with friends or reading a good book. Therefore,
Happiness can come from many different sources but perhaps the most
ubiquitous ones are friends and family. Some believe Happiness resides not
in transient possessions or gold, but instead in the conviction that we are

Happiness is actually more than what most people think it is. It can be
mysterious and elusive, sought after by many, but not gained by all.
Happiness, which is often thought of as a fairly simple concept, is actually
more than what people assume it is. Although this natural mood or feeling is
desired by numerous people, it is very elusive and therefore, for some,
extremely difficult to obtain. True happiness arises from the enjoyment
experienced following divine satisfaction with who we are and what we have

In conclusion the majority of people are not truly happy. However, other
people assert that friends and family are the main sources that bring about
happiness. But, whatever the source, happiness is definitely an essentiality
and a necessity of life.

(264 words)

Essay Practice

"When people succeed, it is because of hard work. Luck has nothing to do with
success." Do you agree or disagree with the quotation above? Use specific reasons
and examples to explain your position.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 93

Academic Essay Samples

12- Human cloning is today turning into one of the hottest issues in the
world and while it has attracted many supporters, there are still people
who disapprove of this modern science.

Discuss both these views and give your opinion

Science fiction authors have for many years instilled in us the fantastic idea of
great armies of cloned men and women, fighting mindless battles for the
betterment of human kind. Perfect beings created under the microscope of
fantasy to accelerate the evolutionary process, a brave new world, of identical
people. But is there truly an application for human cloning in our 21st century

Some people’s answer to the question is a simple “NO”. Money and power
have played large roles in societal development and destruction throughout
history. The concerns that face society with the onslaught of cloned humans
lie in a similar vain. Those who can afford the perfect child, will have a perfect
child, and will still serve it caviar for breakfast. This could cause an ever
greater rift in the current class structure that the western world currently
adheres to. Furthermore, they maintain that there will be people who will
abuse the cloned human beings they own. They will use them to achieve their
goals and will try to dominate the world using the clones they have.

However, there are people in the business world who would much prefer an
employee that is never ill to an employee that might catch flue the week of the
first cricket world cup match. Clones could very well be better suited to the
working world, than the working class that drives the economy today. There
are also people who are suffering from a chronic lack of free time and they
would prefer to have their tiring daily chores done by a clone in order to save
up some time.

In conclusion, considering the fact that the cloned humans are more likely to
be abused by the people in power in today’s world, I believe we’d better put
up with our daily chores and so before legalizing any form of cloning we must
give it a second thought.

(317 words)

Essay Practice

Genetically modified foods are becoming very widespread these days. While many
believe they can help feed the world’s growing population; others are skeptical of
their benefits.
Discuss both these views and give your opinion.

94 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Academic Essay Samples

13- Does space exploration make any sense in a world where so many
people live in abject poverty?

Use specific reasons to support your opinion?

Space exploration has advanced a lot especially during the Cold War, where
the United States and the Soviet Union competed against each other and
invested huge sums of money in this field. Since then, U.S.A. has kept on with
the project of sending ships into outer space and exploring the endless
universe waiting hopefully for something to appear. Millions of dollars are
spent on these projects, but are they really worth it? I mean, millions of people
are living in abject poverty, starving to death, and these imperialist countries
could not care less for them.

These countries should reconsider their policy. They only want to be the best
and if the rest is worse, even better. Maybe their country is fine, there is a low
rate of unemployment, people are happy and proud of being part of this
developed power of the first world, but, while they send spaceships to Jupiter,
there are other countries which cannot even have access to the Internet, and
there are millions of people who cannot take home a piece of bread to feed
their starving family. The capitalist world in which we live has made the gap
between the rich and the poor even wider, and it will continue to be like this as
long as the system remains the same. If only the people in developed
countries could experience the problems that millions of children face every
single day, they would think twice about space exploration.

Many people say that space exploration has advanced a lot and that soon
they will be having their vacations on the moon. This is because they only
take the opinion of people who have all what they need, so they have to give
sense to their lives with these types of things. Have you ever seen a poor
person talking about astronomy? Their only preoccupation in life is to survive,
to make the pain less harsh, and to try to avoid suffering.

In conclusion, I believe If the developed world spent less money on space

exploration and more on fighting poverty it would make a greater sense.

(350 words)

Essay Practice

Some people think governments should spend as much money as possible exploring
outer space (for example, traveling to the Moon and to other planets). Other people
disagree and think governments should spend this money for our basic needs on
Earth. Which of these two opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and
details to support your answer.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 95

Academic Essay Samples

14- What are the main sources of environmental pollution?

Use specific reasons to support your opinion.

Pollution is the introduction of harmful substances or products into the

environment. It is a major problem in the world. Pollution damages the
environment. I believe the most important sources of pollution are the
automobiles, the waste produced and dumped by people and businesses.

Automobiles are undeniably the greatest source of pollution. The noise

pollution created by cars is immense. Another polluting effect of cars is the
heat it creates. This heat makes it unpleasant to be near the car while it is
running. The toxic fumes given off as a byproduct of the combustion engine
are slowly deteriorating our lungs and our atmosphere. The exhaust is
extremely toxic to human beings.

Another popular source of pollution is the post-consumer market. People

around the world especially in developed countries throw away millions of tons
of garbage each year, and this trash has to go somewhere. While there are
projects underway to clean and reuse this refuse, most of it gets dumped into
huge landfills. These landfills are disgusting festering blisters on our country's

The last great source of pollution lies in the businesses. Although not
common, businesses have been known to dump their waste into streams,
lakes, and rivers. This may seem like a relatively small occurrence that really
is not your concern, but you are wrong. Each time one of these companies
pollutes the environment; there are horrible consequences to pay. Mutations,
destroyed ecosystems, and human death have all occurred as a direct result
of illegal dumping. It contaminates our drinking water and soil. It causes entire
communities of humans (not to mention animals) to move on to new places
and not to return for at least a century. The pollutants dumped by industry are
so concentrated that a single barrel can destroy an entire lake's ecosystem.

In conclusion, pollution like any other problem can be solved, but this is a long
process. Individuals can do their part to save the environment as well as

(328 words)

Essay Practice

Many parts of the world are losing important natural resources, such as forests,
animals, or clean water. Choose one resource that is disappearing and explain why it
needs to be saved. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.

96 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Academic Essay Samples

15- Considering our depleting energy resources, conservation of energy

is a necessity.

How can people save energy in their homes?

Use specific reasons to support your opinion.

Since the beginning of time, energy has pervaded our earth. These days we
rely on it to advance in our technological developments. We also need energy
for a variety of other things such as: to keep our bodies alive and healthy, to
run our machines and other technical devices, and also to keep warm in
winter and cool in summer. However, People and other things can run out of
energy in which case they can no longer have the ability to do work.
Therefore, energy conservation is of paramount importance.

Conservation of energy means to ‘save’ energy. As the natural energy

sources become increasingly scarce it is important to learn how to save
energy. One way of doing this is to create an energy efficient home. To create
an energy efficient home there are many measures that can be taken to save
energy including the installation of solar energy panels; as the sun is a
constant natural energy resource we can store that energy and use it to heat
out water.

We can also save energy by using the ‘Sleep mode’ on most modern
household appliances including computers. Computers are definitely
becoming more and more popular in homes, if and only if the computer needs
to be on at all times you should use the sleep mode which lets the computer
run on the minimum amount of energy needed.

Last but not least, energy can be conserved by doing the simple things around
the home to lessen the usage of the machines that do work: for example,
turning appliances off at the power point instead of just at the switch on the
appliance and shutting all windows and doors and closing all curtains to keep
the heat in the house instead of relying on the heater to do all the work, and
vise-versa in the summer, opening all the windows and doors to let the cool
air in instead of relying on the air conditioner.

In conclusion, it is important for all people to realize the need for conserving
energy. It is impossible for all the natural resources to keep up with our
forever advancing civilization, and supply us with the energy that we need.

(365 words)
Essay Practice

Massive consumption of fossil fuels is causing various types of environmental

pollution upsetting the ecosystem.
How can the governments and the people help to reduce the destructive effects of
fossil fuel consumption?

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 97

Academic Essay Samples

16- In order to achieve success, self-esteem is considered to be very


What are some of the factors affecting self-esteem?

Use specific reasons to support your opinion.

People’s motivations, goals, inspirations, loves, and health are profoundly

affected by an important machine inside themselves called self-esteem. This
machine enables the person to keep going in life and answers the question
“Why am I here?” Self-Esteem can be called “the motivator.” It’s a drive to do
well, succeed in life, and represent the “natural selected” group of society that
will survive and reproduce.

Self-Esteem is influenced primarily by social activity with others. If a group of

friends wanted to do things and one of the boys kept bringing up ideas but
was always put down by his cohorts, it would bring down his self-esteem from
ever saying anything again. This would have a harmful effect on children and
their progression towards high goals in life. The lack of self-esteem in early
childhood could lead them towards a swamp of depression, lack of motivation,
and loneliness. Instead of achieving a job or extending their education, they
might be stuck in jail for drugs or robbery.

However, self-esteem is not completely based on appraisals by others. The

person might have a family background or successful jobs and high positions.
This might turn on the machine towards higher self-esteem. It is true that
experiences with others will increase or decrease self-esteem; however, the
importance of staying strong and believing in oneself will also contribute to a
higher self-esteem.

In conclusion, without self-esteem inside the person, the road would have
dead-ends, bumps, and other obstacles. And parents and individual
themselves must care about the self-esteem issue so that they will achieve
happiness and success in life.

(263 words)

Essay Practice

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Self-confidence is the most
important factor for success in school or at work. Use specific reasons and examples
to support your opinion.

98 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Academic Essay Samples

17- Some people have come to believe that children’s misbehaviour in

life is due to their genetic characteristics, while others believe their
misbehaviour is the direct result of ineffective upbringing.

What’s your opinion?

Use specific reasons to support your opinion.

Children misbehave because something vital is missing in their nurturing.

Genetics is not the only valid excuse for a child’s misbehaviour. These
mothers and fathers allow young children to stray from moral equity, challenge
authority and use violence as a resolution for anger. Nurturing should include
deterrence from wickedness and inducement of morality.

When a child does something wrong it is the parents’ responsibility to

discourage the repetition of bad conduct and encourage the understanding
that the action committed was wrong. Parental guidance is necessary for a
child’s survival because children are born into the world knowing nothing, and
thus, adapt to the world’s surroundings with the help of these great leaders.
However, telling a child what is wrong is not enough. A young person needs
an explanation for the mistakes that he/she makes and must be given a
reason not to repeat it otherwise, he or she is prone to believe one can do
anything one wants.

A child misbehaves because he/she does not comprehend that certain actions
are wrong. As parents neglect to make children aware of these errors, elders
in turn become guilty of the child’s transgressions. Civilization trusts in parents
to raise the young to recognize lies, insubordination and aggression for what it
is: misbehaviour. Grown-ups must help kids see deceit as a form of
misbehaviour. Parents should reiterate that the right way to treat his/her
mother and father is with respect.

Ultimately I believe that genetic characteristics inherited from parents can not
be a good excuse for the misconduct of a child and the society should see
parents as the root of a child’s misbehavior.

(270 words)

Essay Practice

Some people think that children should begin their formal education at a very early
age and should spend most of their time on school studies. Others believe that young
children should spend most of their time playing. Compare these two views. Which
view do you agree with? Why?

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 99

Academic Essay Samples

18- Many people believe violent and pornographic scenes must be

censored, while others believe that people must be able to choose what
they view.

What’s your opinion? Use specific reasons to support your opinion.

In a world in which acts of heinous violence, murder, or crude and shocking

behavior seem to be a normal occurrence, it may lead one to wonder what has
put society onto this slippery slope. How did this type of behavior come to be so
acceptable and in some cases even glorifiable? A careful study of society may
lead to mass media as being the main cause. The modern world has become
desensitized to the acts shown on television, movies, and video games or printed
in newspapers and magazines. Censorship must be employed if morals and
decency are to be preserved.

One of the culprits of criminal behavior is T.V. violence. Violent programs may
have a negative influence on those individuals who are already violence-prone, or
children who are living through vulnerable periods of their development. Adult
violent offenders claim to have viewed violence on television. Furthermore, the
amount of violence on television continues to grow. A typical child watched eight
thousand murders and one hundred thousand acts of violence before finishing
elementary school. In such an environment, how can people not become
desensitized to criminal acts? By allowing this type of material to be openly
exposed to the public we are endangering our safety and the society’s values.
Without control of what material is delivered to the masses, we cannot expect
people to have a proper sense of right and wrong.

More evidence that shows censorship may be positive is explained when we

examine what leads to delinquent activity. To see this we must take a look at
what is inside the mind of a criminal. Eighty-one percent of criminals rate
pornography as their highest sexual interest. This means that a clear majority of
criminals like pornography and find it highly interesting. While normal people
probably rank their spouses as their highest sexual interest. Further evidence of
the relation between pornography and crime is seen when an adult bookstore is
closed; the crime rate in the surrounding areas falls significantly. Taking away
pornography from criminals may allow their minds to focus on other things and
could prove to be an important tool in the reform of hardened criminals.

To conclude, when these points are taken into account we can see that
censorship is a necessity in the society today. It will give our children a better
chance to develop in a healthy way. Without crime being pushed onto our society
everyday, deviant thoughts might not be so deeply set into impressionable
(413 words)
Essay Practice

Some people think that governments should spend as much money as possible on
developing or buying computer technology. Other people disagree and think that this
money should be spent on more basic needs. Which one of these opinions do you
agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.

100 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Academic Essay Samples

19- Technology is advancing at a rate faster than ever before and is

revolutionizing many fields. In your opinion how can technology help

What’s your opinion?

Use specific reasons to support your opinion.

The best method for improving educational standards is to utilize every tool
available, including state-of-the-art technology. Computers and the Internet have
expanded the way in which information can be delivered to the students of today.
Today's networking technologies provide a valuable opportunity to practice new
learning techniques. Educators are discovering that computers are facilitating
learning. Computer-based communications, or telecommunications, can offer
many educational opportunities; therefore, educators will need to adapt current
teaching methods to incorporate this new media into the classroom.

Computers have made a fundamental impact in most industries, providing a

competitive advantage that has come to be essential to many businesses.
Therefore, schools must also use technology to improve the educational process.
School systems often consider purchasing a computer network, and justify its
purchase by applying it to routine administrative tasks, such as attendance
records and grading. While these tasks are very important, they only show a
small part of what technology can do for a school. Technology must go further
than simply keeping attendance; it must focus on keeping students interested and

It is currently possible to engage in "distance education through the Internet.

Since computers and the Internet have expanded in such a way in which
education can be delivered to students living far away from education centers,
Distance education involves audio and video links between teachers and
students in remote areas. Video conferencing allows groups to communicate with
each other. Desktop video conferencing promises to bring students together from
geographic and cultural distances, face to face via computer. Not only will the
teacher talk to the students, but the students will be able to interact with each
other. This will make students more interested and fascinated with learning.

In conclusion I believe educational boards should be open to any new idea that
technology has to offer. It would not be fair for a student in a particular city to
receive a better education than another student in a different city. Technology is
not meant to replace teachers, but is there to serve students to make tedious
tasks easier.

(344 words)
Essay Practice

Many believe trying to preserve traditional customs and skills is unnecessary in the
modern technological world; others disagree and call for the preservation of such
customs and traditions.
Discuss both these views and give your opinion.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 101

Academic Essay Samples

20- Some people believe that welfare payments are a waste of the
society's financial resources, while others believe that welfare payments
are needed to support certain members of the society.

What is your opinion?

Social welfare is an essential element of an advanced society. Good systems

are always abused, but this does not mean they are faulty. In my opinion,
there are two main reasons why welfare payments are necessary to protect
the rights of citizens.

First of all, critics forget that there are many forms of welfare payments
besides payments to the unemployed. Their negative opinions harm those
who are not capable of earning a wage, such as single-parent mothers, the
disabled, and the sick. Moreover, the unemployed have the right to an
income, too. They are always at fault for not having a job, and in most cases
the tax they have paid in the past entitles them to assistance.

The second reason is that crime increases when people have no means of
support. The desperately poor inevitably turn to crime, which is not only
dangerous but costly. Policing the streets is more expensive that providing
welfare. A policeman’s wage is four or five times higher than a dole payment.

However, we must be careful while we let the jobless join the dole queue, I
mean this must not increase their dependency on others; the relief payments
in the case of the unemployed must be temporary. And the government must
try to create employment and help them to set up their small businesses and
go off the dole. It is surely the government’s fault if there are long-term
unemployed people.

To conclude, it is vital to understand the need for welfare in a modern

democratic society. Without welfare payments the poor are destined to
become poorer. The first duty of a government is to provide a financial safety
net for all disadvantaged persons, and that includes those without work.

(287 words)

Essay Practice

Should governments spend more money on improving roads and highways, or should
governments spend more money on improving public transportation (buses, trains,
subways)? Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay.

102 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Academic Essay Samples

21- Some people believe that old people must be forced to retire in their
60s, while others believe they must have the right to work until they
prefer to retire.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both views and give your
personal opinion.

Many old people are allowed to work well into their 70s and 80s, running
families, countries or corporations. Other people, however, despite being fit
and highly talented, are forced to retire in their 60s or even earlier because of
company or national regulations.

There are several arguments for allowing older people to continue working as
long as they are able. First of all, older employees have an immense amount
of knowledge and experience which can be lost to a business or organization
if they are made to retire. Older people are well-experienced, and their
experience can help companies reduce their expenses and increase their
efficiency. Another point is that older employees are often extremely loyal
employees and are more willing to implement company policies than younger
and less committed staff. Finally I think older employees are more
conservative in general; they are also more practical than ambitious young
employees who would not mind leading the company to failure in order to
assert their abilities.

Allowing older people to work indefinitely however is not always a good policy.
Age alone is no guarantee of ability. Some younger employees have more
experience or skills than older staff, who may have been stuck in one area or
unit for most of their working lives. Having compulsory retirement allows new
ideas in an organization. In addition, without age limits, however arbitrary,
many people would continue to work, merely because they did not have any
other plans or roles. Besides, old staff may not have enough motivation and
stamina to brush up on their technical knowledge and hence may not be able
to improve the company’s efficiency and competitiveness.

In conclusion, with many young people unemployed or frustrated in low-level

positions, there are often calls to compulsorily retire older workers. However,
this can affect the older individual’s freedom - and right - to work and can
deprive society of valuable experience and insights. I feel that giving workers
more flexibility and choice over their retirement age will benefit society and the
(337 words)

Essay Practice

Old people have always been important for the family in every culture. In your
opinion how can we respect the elderly in the best way?

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 103

Academic Essay Samples

22- Some people believe the government must ban dangerous sports
such as boxing or motor-racing, others believe people must have the
right to play these sports.

Discuss both views and give your opinion.

Millions of people play sports every day, and, inevitably, some suffer injury or
pain. Most players and spectators accept this risk. However, some people
would like to see dangerous sports such as boxing banned.

Some sports are nothing but an excuse for violence. Boxing is a perfect
example. The last thing an increasingly violent world needs is more violence
on our television. The sight of two men (or even women) bleeding, with faces
ripped open, trying to obliterate each other is barbaric. Other sports, such as
American football or rugby, are also barely-concealed violence. Some people
argue that the players can choose to participate. However this is not always
the case. Many boxers, for example, come from disadvantaged backgrounds.
They are lured by money or by social or peer pressure and then cannot
escape. Even in richer social groups, schools force unwilling students to play
aggressive team sports, claiming that playing will improve the students'
character (or the school's reputation).

However, many would not opt for the illegalization of violent sports. They
believe, being a couch potato and growing obese has certainly more risk for
the person than participating in some violent sport competitions. As many
people choose to turn into slothful people suffering from a wide range of
chronic diseases caused by obesity such as cardiovascular diseases and
diabetes; for justice to prevail, athletes must be given the freedom to choose
their favorite field of sport. As we never prevent the lazy from getting obese in
spite of the health risks involved, we should not boycott some sports for the
violence they may contain.

In conclusion, I believe banning a certain sport immediately after we discover

it is dangerous is not a practical solution. Some sports are really very
interesting and popular. I believe we can have a new version of some sports.
Most sports can be moderated by setting some new rules and regulations; for
instance, experts have already changed most of the rules and regulations in
boxing and now the new form is approved of by many countries.

(341 words)

Essay Practice

Why do you think some people are attracted to dangerous activities such as bungee
jumping and sky-diving? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

104 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Academic Essay Samples

23- Euthanasia means mercy-killing and recently has become an issue of

controversy. While some people believe that patients have the right to choose
between life and death. Others believe it is cruel to kill a person who has an
incurable disease.

What’s your opinion? Use specific reasons to support your opinion.

A doctor’s function has changed over time. In the past, the doctor was a person who
besides being your friend treated the diseases. Now a doctor is a stranger who
combats diseases, but he/she is not always your friend. What will never change is
their constant struggle against death. However, their job is not only to prevent death
but also to improve their patient’s quality of life. Many times there is nothing a doctor
can do to prevent a patient from dying if the patient has a terminal disease; all he/she
can do is to wait for death to arrive. This waiting time can be very painful for both the
patients and the people who surround them. Not practicing euthanasia at the request
of the dying person is violating a person’s rights, creating an economic burden,
interfering with a doctor’s job, and increasing suffering.

First of all, deciding if you want to be alive or not is a personal decision. Neither the
doctors nor the government has the power to decide if you should live or not. Since it
is not their life and they are not in your situation, they cannot make that kind of
decision for you. It might sound like suicide, but again, that is our problem, not theirs.
They give us the liberty to choose our job, our family, our religion, and even our sex
preference. Why should they not give us the right to decide if we want to live or not?

Next comes the economic factor. Many times we do not have enough money to pay
for the necessary medical care. In a way, we are just wasting time and money on a
situation that won’t get better. If the patient wants euthanasia, why should we avoid it
if we cannot end the huge amount of money wasted on a treatment that won’t help?

Finally, the basic reason why euthanasia should be practiced is because it stops the
person from having a bad quality of life. As I said, a doctor’s function should not only
be the one of curing diseases but also providing the patients with a better quality of
life. Having a patient suffering is not giving him a better quality of life. When doctors
reach this point, then they should be allowed to grant the patient whatever he wants
since he or she cannot offer something better. Even if they could offer the patient any
kind of treatment or options, it is the patient who should decide how he wants to live
his life.

In conclusion, I have never been in a situation where I have to decide whether

euthanasia should be applied to someone or not. However if I ever see myself in that
kind of situation, I would have no doubt of agreeing with it.
(466 words)

Essay Practice

While many people may easily tolerate the unfavorable living circumstances, some
prefer to commit suicide to end the suffering.
Why do some people commit suicide? Use specific reasons and examples to support
your answer.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 105

Academic Essay Samples

24. Some parents believe spanking children is cruel while others believe
at times it can be a good form of punishment.

What’s your opinion? Use specific reasons to support your opinion.

The term corporal punishment means the intentional infliction of pain on the
body for purposes of punishment. Spanking can be defined as the use of
physical force aimed at causing children to experience pain but not injury, for
the purposes of correction and control of youthful behavior. Spanking is a
controversial topic and should not be taken lightly.

As a child I was spanked when I did something wrong. My parents never left a
mark on me whatsoever. Being spanked taught me respect and kept me in
line. The way my parents disciplined me, I think is an accepted method of
punishment. I believe what parents do to their kids at home is their business
as long as it is not a cruel or an unusual form of punishment. I find that
younger kids these days are not disciplined enough by their parents; these
kids do not respect their parents or other adults.

Spanking can be a practical form of punishment if first you tell the child that he
or she is going to be spanked. Spanking should never be spontaneous.
Parents must also tell the child the reason for the spanking, he or she may
already know why, but it's best that you verbally tell the child. Parents must
also let the child know that even though they are giving their children a
spanking they still love their children. And finally parents must take the child
into a private room such as a bathroom or bedroom, and close the door. A
spanking should never be administered in front of other siblings or onlookers.

However the child's personality directly influences the form of the punishment
that works best for him or her. Some children will only respond to physical
punishment and others will respond to verbal punishment. So before deciding
on the form of punishment, you must know your child well.

In conclusion, I believe spanking can be regarded as an acceptable form of

punishment as long as you do not hurt your child and follow the rules stated
(340 words)

Essay Practice

Nowadays the rate of school drop-out is increasing rapidly. Many educators blame
this on the characteristics of the new generation while others think the demotivating
education system is the culprit.
What is your opinion? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

106 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Academic Essay Samples

25- Alcoholism has turned into a serious problem in the world and in
particular in western countries.

What are the effects of alcoholism?

How many times have you heard about the consequences of alcoholism?
Have you taken them into account? Alcoholism is one of the major problems
in most societies. The effects of this disease are really serious. Many people
get used to drinking alcohol, and they can easily abuse it. Alcoholism has
many side effects and I will only discuss the most important ones.

The first effect of alcoholism is physical. It is the most important effect

because it can cause death. For example, alcoholism causes cancer in the
neurons, so it causes problems in the body movements, loss of appetite, and
depression. All these physical consequences could cause death if you drink

The second effect caused by alcoholism is psychological. At the beginning,

alcohol may make you feel relaxed, but if you drink it again, it increases
anxiety and causes depression. It also causes family and legal problems,
violence, changes of behavior, suicide, among others. Alcohol is very powerful
and affects all your normal behaviors.

The third effect of alcoholism is economic. Alcohol is not cheap. If you drink
two or three times in a week, it could cost you a lot! People do not think about
the money and spend almost everything when they are drunk.

In conclusion, the effects of alcoholism can cause many problems which

would affect all aspects of your life. Alcohol damages your brain, muscles,
digestion process, and other organs. It also can cause depression or changes
in your behavior which will consequently result in problems with your family
and friends, and finally it will leave you in poverty because it costs a lot.

(269 words)

Essay Practice

Some people believe smoking and sale of cigarettes must be banned totally; others
think people should be free to choose whether to smoke or not.
Discuss both these views and give your opinion.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 107

Academic Essay Samples

26- Nowadays the rate of drug abuse among the youth is on the

What are the reasons for the increasing rate of drug abuse among the
How can we solve this problem?

Youth drug abuse is a serious problem nowadays in many cultures. Not only
is illegal drug use on the rise, but children as young as 10 years old are
experimenting with alcohol and tobacco. The reasons for this behavior are
unclear, but certain sociologists blame the examples set by the elders.

Parents who drink and smoke to excess are, in effect, telling their children that
it is acceptable to abuse their bodies with drugs. Consequently, children may
have a similar view towards illegal drugs even if their parents are against their
use. In addition, drug use shown on television and in films can only confuse
children who are also taught at school that drug abuse is wrong. The pressure
on young children to perform well at school in order to compete for jobs is a
possible cause for the problem. Many believe they cannot live up to their
parents’ expectations and feel a sense of hopelessness. Also, the widespread
availability of drugs means teenagers are faced with the temptation to
experiment. Drugs are used as a means of expressing dissatisfaction with the
pressures they face in society.

The rate of drug abuse is increasing and it is high time we took action to
tackle the problem. I recommend that in order to solve the problem; the first
step to be taken is to educate young people and their parents about the
dangers of drug abuse. Parents must also set a good example for their
children to follow; parents need to know that children are influenced more by
the way they behave rather than by what they say as the old saying goes,
“actions speak louder than words”. The government must also severely punish
drug traffickers who either produce or smuggle drugs into the country. It must
be extremely impossible for a teenager to purchase illegal drugs.

In conclusion, I believe it is possible to eliminate the problem of youth drug

abuse providing that we discover its causes. Then it is high time we took
action to save our children who may get addicted to narcotics in the near
(349 words)

Essay Practice

Addiction means dependency on a certain habit and addict is a person who is

dependent on a certain habit.
In your opinion what are different forms of addiction?
And how can one recognize whether one is addicted to a certain habit or not?

108 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Academic Essay Samples

27- These days, people are producing more and more trash, and
unfortunately the rate is increasing.

In your opinion why do people produce more trash these days?

What actions can we take in order to reduce the amount of trash that
people produce?

Each family in the world produces a certain amount of rubbish everyday and
the governments allocate a huge sum of money for collecting and dumping
trash. Producing trash is inevitable however what looks unacceptable is that
families these days are producing much more than they should and this is
causing many problems for the people and the governments.

The first reason why we produce so much rubbish is our modern lifestyle.
These days we are consuming things which are packaged. Most of our
garbage comes from packaging, we are consuming a lot of convenience food
and we are throwing away lots of cans, bottles, and packages. We are also
discarding many plastic bags and boxes used to carry things around. We are
accustomed to using disposable products, we use them once and then we
dispose of them. And unfortunately we forget that many of the things we try to
get rid of are non-biodegradable and difficult to dispose of. Another reason is
our interest in mass consumerism. In the modern world today many people
consume more than they really need and therefore waste a lot which in turn
results in the production of trash.

In my opinion, the future generation must be aware of the consequences of

this trend therefore they must be educated about the environment issues at
school now. The governments must urge upon industry the importance of
applying reusable packaging, such as glass bottles instead of plastic bottles.
People must be informed of the damage to the environment caused by trash
and encouraged to use recycled materials since most of the things that we
consider as being trash can be used to produce other things. And finally I
think People must learn not to waste anything. Unfortunately a considerable
amount of the rubbish we produce comes from things we have wasted.

To conclude, I think we cannot help producing trash and the earth and the
ecosystem can take in only a certain amount of trash; therefore, people must
reduce the amount of rubbish they produce before it is too late.
(343 words)

Essay Practice

Most companies these days promote the habit of consumerism among people thinking
it can boost the world economy. While others think the so-called benefits of
consumerism are elusive.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of consumerism and finally give your own

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 109

Academic Essay Samples

28- Drug abuse is becoming a problem in our society.

What are the problems caused by drug abuse and what are some

Drug abuse is rife in many countries. And the rate of drug abuse is rising
dramatically all around the world, even though Billions of dollars are spent
internationally preventing drug use, treating addicts, and fighting drug-related
crime. Drugs threaten families as well as the societies, and their effects can
be combated successfully.

Drug abuse causes multiple problems for countries and communities. The
medical and psychological effects are very obvious. Addicts cannot function
as normal members of society. They neglect or abuse their families, and
eventually require expensive treatment or hospitalization. The second effect is
on crime. Huge police resources are needed to fight smuggling and dealing.
Criminal gangs and mafia underworlds develop with the money from drugs.

However, the menace of drugs can be fought. Education is the first battle.
Children need to be told at home and in school about drugs. People need to
be aware of the effects so that they can avoid this problem. A second
approach is to increase police manpower and powers to stop dealers and to
enforce the law. However the main target should be the user. Families and
counselors need to talk to children and people at risk. Parents need to look at
their children and help them

In conclusion, although the problem of drugs may seem impossible to

eliminate, there are concrete steps that can be taken to weaken the hold of
drugs on society. Drug addiction is jeopardizing our society and ignoring it is
the biggest mistake we can ever make.

(250 words)

Essay Practice

“Drug traffickers are more dangerous than murderers and they deserve a more severe
form of punishment”.
Do you agree or disagree with this opinion? Use specific reasons and examples to
support your answer.

110 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Academic Essay Samples

29- Some employers reward members of the staff or their exceptional

contributions to the company by giving them extra money. This practice
can act as an incentive for some but may also have a negative impact on

To what extent is this style of management effective?

Are there better ways of encouraging employees to work hard?

In times of high unemployment, employers need to do very little to encourage

their staff to work hard, but when job vacancies are galore, they have to find
effective ways of rewarding their staff in order to stop them from going

One obvious way of doing this is to offer extra money to employees who are
seen to be working exceptionally hard and this is done in companies with a
product to sell. For example, real estate agencies or department stores can
offer a simple commission on all sales. This style of management favours the
ones who can demonstrate their contributions through sales figures, but does
not take into account the work done by people behind the scenes who have
little contact with the public.

A better approach is for management to offer a bonus to all the staff at the
end of the year if the profits are healthy, this however does not allow
management to target individuals who have genuinely worked harder than
others. Another possibility is to identify excellent staff through incentive
schemes such as ‘Employee of the month’ or ‘worker of the week’ to make
people feel recognized. Such people are usually singled out with the help of
clients. Hotels, restaurants and tour operators may also allow staff to accept
tips offered by clients who are pleased with the service. However, tipping is a
highly unreliable source of money and does not favour everyone.

Basically, employees want to be recognized for their contribution – whether

through receiving more money or simply some encouraging words. They also
need to feel that their contribution to the whole organization is worthwhile.
Good management recognizes this need and responds appropriately.

(280 words)

Essay Practice

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People should sometimes do
things that they do not enjoy doing. Use specific reasons and examples to support
your answer.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 111

Academic Essay Samples

30- Some people trust their first impressions about a person’s character
because they believe these judgments are generally correct. Other
people do not judge a person’s character quickly because they believe
first impressions are often wrong.

Discuss both these views and give your opinion.

Leaving a good impression upon the people we meet especially the ones we
meet for the first time is now common practice, but judging a person by his or
her appearance or the impression they create cannot be considered a
sensible policy; however, there are people who trust their judgments about a
person’s character based on their first impressions.

Some people know that people might not be what they pretend or claim to be;
as a result, they think first impressions are always wrong. They try not to
evaluate people merely based on how they appear or how they try to assert
themselves, rather they try to base their evaluation on other variables such as
people’s thoughts, achievements in life, relations with others, their friends,
their beliefs etc. Hence, even though these people have taken the issue to an
extreme, I think they will make fewer mistakes than those who trust their first
impressions since they appear to be intelligent or they might deign to speak
with a person who appears to be below par.

However, Others believe one must not adopt a radical approach to the
problem; for them, appearance is very important too. A person cannot have an
unkempt and disheveled appearance and advise others about cleanliness. In
fact such a person is a hypocrite. Generally taking into account many
variables before making a decision about a person’s character and
appearance is definitely one of the important variables.

In conclusion, I believe that human beings are more complex than we could
make up our mind about their character by simply looking at them; therefore,
people must try to pay attention to many variables affecting a person’s
character before making a judgment.

(283 words)

Essay Practice

We all work or will work in our jobs with many different kinds of people. In your
opinion, what are some important characteristics of a co-worker (someone you work
closely with)? Use reasons and specific examples to explain why these characteristics
are important.

112 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Appendix 1: Connectives



IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 113

Appendix 1: Connectives

Appendix 1 Connectives

1- Enumeration:
First, … Furthermore, … Finally, …
Firstly, … Secondly, …. Thirdly, …

Above all
Last but not least

First and foremost

First and most importantly

To begin, … In the second place, … Moreover, … And to conclude, …

To start with, … Next, … Then, … Afterward, … Lastly/Finally, …

2- Addition: to what has been previously indicated

A. Reinforcement (includes confirmation):

What is more
In addition
Above all
As well (as)

B. Equation (similarity with what has preceded):

In the same way

3- Transition can lead to a new stage in the sequence of thought

With reference/ respect/ regard to
Let us (now) turn to

114 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Appendix 1: Connectives

As for
often used when discussing something briefly
As to

Indicates a
Incidentally digression and an
By the way afterthought
Come to think of it
language Talking/speaking of … (informal)
To introduce a
Apropos of … (formal)
That reminds me …

4- Summation indicates a generalization or summing-up of what

has preceded

In conclusion
To conclude
To sum up briefly
In brief
To summarize

5- Apposition is used to refer back to previous sentences or to

parallel or related references

i.e., that is, that’s to say

vis., Namely
in other words
or, or rather, or better
as follows
mostly (of)

The relationship that these phrases can express include:

reformulation, exemplification and particularization

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 115

Appendix 1: Connectives

6- Result expresses the consequences or result of what was said


As a result/consequence
The result/consequence is/was
Because of this/that
For this/that reason

7- Inference indicates a deduction from what is implicit in the

preceding sentences:

In other words
In that case

Or else Equivalent to a negative condition


If so/not
That implies
My conclusion is

8- Reformulation to express something in another way:

Or better
Or rather
In other words
In that case
To put it (more) simply

9- Replacement to express an alternative to what has


Or alternatively
Or rather
Or better/worse (still) …

116 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Appendix 1: Connectives

On the other hand

The alternative is
Another possibility would be

10- Contrast, with what has preceded

On the contrary
By (way of) contrast
In comparison
(On the one hand) … on the other hand …

11- concession indicates the unexpected, surprising nature of

what is being said in view of what was said before:

or (else) yet
however in any case
nevertheless at any rate
nonetheless for all that
notwithstanding in spite of/despite
only that
still after all
while at the same time
al(though) on the other hand
even if/though all the same

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 117

Appendix 1: Connectives



118 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Appendix 1: Connectives

Appendix 2 Structure and Vocabulary Aid

1- Location
X is situated/located in/to/on
X is in the south of the country
X is to the north of the country
The north of the country is on/near the equator/the coast/sea
The north of the country is inland
X is a neighboring country

2- Composition

comprises …
consists of …
X constitutes …
is composed of …

3- Approximation
X has just/a little over/under (a figure, measurement, etc.)
X has about/approximately (a figure, measurement, etc.)

4- Qualification
X is predominately/mainly/generally …
The majority of/most of the X is …

5- Definition
is …
means …
X describes …
is defined as …
is used …

X is concerned with/deals with/relates to/involves

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 119

Appendix 1: Connectives

6- Exemplification
Shown/exemplified/illustrated by …
X shows/exempify/illustrates …
The following are examples of X
A and b are examples of X
Writes such as Dickens and Hardy …
Such writers as Dickens and Hardy …

7- Classification
Useful nouns

Criterion/criteria Breeds
Basis/bases Orders
Features Divisions
Characteristics Families
Categories Members
Classes Sub-categories
Groups Sub-classes
Types Sub-groups
Kinds Sub-orders
Sorts Sub-divisions

Useful verbs

Place in
Categorise Distinguish
Group Differentiate
Divide into
Arrange in
Put into Sub-group
Fall into Sub-divide

X consists of … according to whether or not … there is X …


according to …
X may be classified on the basis of …
depending (up)on…

The classification is based (up)on …

120 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Appendix 1: Connectives

Note the possible sequences:

… may be divided
… may be sub-divided …
… may be further sub-divided …

8- Comparison
A great deal
(very) much
X is (quite) a lot smaller than
rather bigger
somewhat cheaper
a little etc.
only just

X is practically the same as
more or less

X is not exactly/entirely/quite the same as

X is totally/completely/entirely/quite different from Y
X is not quite as/so big/expensive etc. as …

X and Y are different/dissimilar in every way/respect

X and Y are totally/completely/entirely/quite different

9- Cause & Effect

the cause of higher prices was an increase in demand

the one effect/consequence/result of an increase in demand is

higher prices

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 121

Appendix 1: Connectives

as a result,
as a consequence,
the demand has increased (:) consequently, the prices are
higher because of this,
for this reason,

because/as/since/now that the demand has increased, the prices

are higher

an increase in demand often causes/results in/leads to/produces

higher prices

higher prices are (often) caused by/due to/because of an increase in


because of
as a result of
on account of an increase in demand
owing to

the prices are higher

since there is an increase in demand

when/if there is an increase in demand (then) prices rise

122 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Appendix 1: Connectives

10- Scale

always certainly certain will

all/every/each definitely definite is/are
most usually undoubtedly undoubted must/have to
a majority (of) normally clearly clear should
many/much generally presumably (un)likely would
a lot (of) on the whole probably probable ought to
enough regularly
often conceivably
some frequently possibly may
a number of sometimes perhaps possible might
several occasionally maybe can
rarely uncertainly could
a minority (of) seldom uncertain
hardly ever will
0% a few/a little is/are not
no/none/not any never could

it is fairly certain/likely that …

it is very/quite probable/possible/likely/unlikely that …
it is rather unlikely that …
it is almost/quite certain that …

in the (vast) majority of cases

in a (large) number of cases
in most cases
in some cases
in a few cases

11- Caution:
impersonal verbs phrases

it appears to/that
it would appear to/that
it seems to/that
it would seem to/that
it tends to be
there is a tendency to/for
it is said that
some of the evidence shows that
some writers say that

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 123

Appendix 1: Connectives

it has been suggested that

it is generally agreed that
it is widely accepted that
it is now generally recognized that
it is very doubtful if

some adverbs and nouns

adverbs nouns
Apparantly Assumption
Approximately Claim
Hardly Estimate
Practically Evidence
Presumably Possibility
Relatively Presumption
Scarely Chance
Seemingly Likelihood

12- referring to a diagram, chart etc.

as it can be seen from/in the chart …

according to table …

as (is) shown in the diagram …

it can be seen from the graph that …

from the table, it can be that …

124 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Appendix 1: Connectives

13- Describing change

Direction Verbs Nouns

Rose (to) A rise

Increased (to) An increase
Went up (to) A growth
Climbed (to) An upward trend
Boomed A boom
(a dramatic rise)

Fell (to)
Declined (to) A decrease
Decreased (to) A decline
Dipped (to) A fall
Dropped (to) A drop
Went down (to) A slump
Slumped (to) (a dramatic fall)
Reduced (to) A reduction
Plummeted (to)

Leveled out (at) A leveling out

Did not change No change
Remained stable (at) A plateau
Remained steady (at)
Stayed constant (at)
Maintained the same
Plateaued (at)
Reached a plateau

Fluctuated (around) A fluctuation

Peaked (at)
Bottomed out at
Stood at (we use this
phrase to focus on a
particular point, before
we mention the
movement, for example:
In the first year,
stood at … )

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 125

Appendix 1: Connectives

Adjectives Adverbs

dramatic dramatically
sharp sharply
enormous enormously
steep steeply
substantial substantially
considerable considerably
significant significantly
marked markedly
moderate moderately
slight slightly
minimal minimally

Adjectives Adverbs

rapid rapidly
quick quickly
swift swiftly
sudden suddenly
steady steadily
gradual gradually
slow slowly

14- introducing a point of view

the first thing/first of all we have/I should like to consider …
the first thing to be considered is …
it is a fact that …
there is no doubt that …
I believe that …
one of the main arguments in favor of/against X is that…

15- Summarising and concluding

in short, … in conclusion, …
in a word, … on the whole, …
in brief, … altogether, …
to sum up, … in all, …
therefore/thus/on this basis/ given this, it can/may be

126 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Appendix 1: Connectives

16- useful words

Stating the topic

Concept Hypothesise Proposition

To consist Issue To speculate
Factor to predict Thesis
Hypothesis premise topic
General research vocabulary
Academic Evidence Reliable
Anecdotal Exception Research
Anomaly Explicit Source
Argument Feasible Study
Assimilate Findings Subsequent
Cogent Homogeneus Survey
Conform Implicit Tentative
Consequent Issue Theory
Controversy Norm Trend
Debate Pertinent Valid
Empirical Priniciple
To equate Relevance

17- Reporting
as X implies …
X implies that …
as noted by X …
it has been argued by X that …
Add Deny Postulate
Affirm Describe Querry
Agree Determine Question
Argue Disagree Recommend
Assert Discern Refute
Assume Discuss Reject
Challenge Dispute Remark
Claim Emphasise Report
Clarify Enumerate Repudiate
Comment Explain Say
Consider Imply Suggest
Contend Infer Stipulate
Contradict Maintain View
demonstrate Point out note

other reporting structures:

according to X, …
for example, X argued that …
writing in 1979, X commented that …
to quote X: '…'
recent research by X shows that …

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 127

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas



128 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas

1- to be the reason why something happened or why someone
does something
Be the reason
Nick's teachers think that problems at home are the reason for his poor schoolwork.
Be the reason why
He borrowed too much money, and that's the reason why his business failed.
Be the reason (that)
I knew that I had my weaknesses. Perhaps that is the reason that I was not more
Explain something
We were all puzzled: what could explain his sudden change of mind?
Explain why/what/how
She couldn't sleep last night, which explains why she was in such a bad mood this
Account for
If it's true that he was taking drugs that would account for his strange behavior.
Lie behind
I wonder what lies behind Arthur's sudden interest in golf.
I think that behind Tania's aggression lay a deep insecurity about her.

2- why something is right or should be done

Reason (why/that)
The reason why we need these laws is to protect children from violent adults.
Reason to do something
I can think of lots of reasons to get married.
You may be dissatisfied, but is that sufficient reason to resign?
Have every reason to do something
We have every reason to believe he is guilty.
Argument that
Do you agree with the argument that violence on TV makes people behave violently?
Argument for/against
What are the arguments for the legalization of cannabis?
The main argument against smoking is that it's bad for
Justification for
There's no justification for cruelty.
Justification for doing something
What justification can there be for paying women lower
Grounds for
Is mental cruelty sufficient grounds for divorce?
On the grounds of something
(=for this reason)
He had been fired from his job on the grounds of incompetence.
On what grounds are you claiming compensation?
On the grounds that

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 129

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas

She was prohibited from speaking to the students on the grounds that it would stir
up trouble.
Cause to do something
I've never had any cause to complain about my doctor.
With good/just cause
He no longer loved her, and with just cause, because she had betrayed him.
Without good/just cause
We have little sympathy for people who leave their jobs without just cause.
Cause for complaint/alarm/concern etc
The child's behavior is giving us cause for concern.
There is no cause for alarm about the safety of drinking water.
Rationale for/behind
In the document he explains the rationale for his plan to build a car for the African
If you do not understand the rationale behind any action you are asked to take, be
sure to find out.

3- to tell someone the reason for something

Provide an explanation is more formal than come up with an explanation
In an attempt to provide an explanation she said she thought I had given her
permission to be absent.
After failing to come up with an adequate explanation, Jones was arrested for
Justify Something
How can you justify the expense?
Justify doing something
How can you possibly justify charging four pounds for a glass of beer?
Account for
If you walked home, how do you account for the fact that a witness said he saw you
driving your van?
It is difficult to account for the big differences in their scores.
Provide an explanation/come up with an explanation
In an attempt to provide an explanation she said she thought I had given her
permission to be absent.
After failing to come up with an adequate explanation, Jones was arrested for

4- when there is no reason for someone's behaviour

Be no reason to do something
I know I'm late, but that's no reason to lose your temper.
There is no reason for something
Please remain calm everyone. There is no reason for panic.
Be no excuse/justification to do something
Ron may not be the most pleasant person to work with, but that's no justification to
fire him.
There's no excuse/justification for something

130 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas

There's no excuse for such childish behaviour from a grown man.

Fleury dismissed our fears as groundless, though he was secretly alarmed.
A message from Interpol confirmed that our Inspector's suspicions were far from
I am going to prove to you that your suspicions are entirely unfounded.
All the signs indicate that the general's optimism is unfounded.

1- the good and bad features of something
Have both advantage and disadvantages
Being an only child has both advantages and disadvantages.
The advantages and disadvantages of something
The advantages and disadvantages of owning a car in the city
Weigh the advantages and disadvantages of something
(=to consider the advantages and disadvantages of something)
Politicians should carefully weigh the advantages and disadvantages of committing US
troops to this conflict.
The pros and cons of
There has been a lot of discussion about the pros and cons of making certain types of
drugs legal.
Your doctor should explain the pros and cons of the different treatments available.
Weigh up the pros and cons
(=think about the advantages and disadvantages)
Karen and David weighed up the pros and cons of having another child and decided
against it.
The pluses and minuses of
She talked about some of the pluses and minuses of being self-employed.

2- a good feature of something

Advantage of
The advantage of walking to work is that I get some exercise.
Big advantage
One of the big advantages of the course is that it helps students develop their writing
skills in English.
Benefit to
Tourism has brought many benefits to the area.
Benefit of
The benefits of a healthy lifestyle
What are the benefits for Britain of belonging to the European Union?
The merits of the new health programmed are gradually being recognized.
The committee is still considering the merits of the new proposals.
Be a plus
The hotel's closeness to the beach is definitely a plus.
Plus point

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 131

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas

The plus point of this area is its school system, which is considered one of the best in
the city.

3- something that makes you more likely to be successful

Have an advantage
People who have been to university have a big advantage when it comes to finding
Advantage over
I had already lived in France for a year, so I had a big advantage over the other
Give somebody an advantage
Taxes on imports gave Japanese companies an unfair advantage.
An asset for somebody
A sense of humour is an important asset for any teacher.
Be an asset to something
Laney continues to be a great asset to the company.
Have a privilege/grant a privilege
Foreign diplomats have all kinds of special privileges.
Countries within the European Community grant certain commercial privileges to
each other.
The privilege of something
Not everyone has the privilege of a private education.

4- the only good feature of something

Saving grace
I can't really play baseball. My one saving grace is that I can pitch.
I hate this house. Its only saving grace is that it's near the centre of town.
Redeeming feature
The heroine of the novel is cruel and evil, with no redeeming features.
Coal is relatively expensive but its redeeming feature is that it is in plentiful supply.

1- a bad feature of something
Have a disadvantage
The proposal has some major disadvantages.
Disadvantage of
The main disadvantage of being a nurse is working irregular hours.
Drawback of
One of the major drawbacks of being famous is the lack of privacy.
Drawback to
High house prices are one drawback to economic growth.
Liability to
The product that was once so popular is now a liability to the company.
Serious liability

132 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas

The bank realized that the dispute was becoming a serious liability in doing business
I think we've done a wonderful job, considering the limitations we've had to work
We made an inspection of the building's resources and limitations.
The downside of
The downside of the New Economy is the forced resettlement of villagers.

2- to have a disadvantage compared to other people or things

Be at a disadvantage
Women are still at a disadvantage when it comes to getting jobs in the military.
People with previous convictions are always at a disadvantage when on trial in a
court of law.
Put/place somebody at a disadvantage
The test put candidates whose first language was not English at a disadvantage.
The disadvantaged
(=disadvantaged people)
Booth invented schemes to help the disadvantaged in the community.
Be against
Time is against us. The longer we wait to find a solution to the crisis, the worse it will
He wanted to become a pilot but his bad eyesight was against him.
Count against
We believe Caroline Connely is innocent, but her silence could count against her in a
He was a child when he committed the crime. Should that count against him as an
adult with a clean record?

1- something that happens or exists because of something else
Result of
Her constant cough is the result of many years of smoking.
The results of the attack included two helicopters burnt out, and three groundcrew
With the result that
More and more people are using cars, with the result that towns are much more
As a result
Jobs are hard to get and, as a result, more young people are continuing their
A direct result of something
(=caused by only one thing even if people think there may be other causes)
Her parents believe that her death was a direct result of medical error.
Effect of
The effects of the oil spill were devastating for wildlife.
The harmful effects of radiation

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 133

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas

Have an effect/have no effect

All my efforts to persuade them were beginning to have an effect.
I've been taking these pills for three days, but so far they've had no effect.
Effect on
The death of a parent can have very serious and long-lasting effects on a child.
Have a bad/good effect (on something/somebody)
Any increase in fuel costs could have a bad effect on business.
Consequence of
Pain and illness are sometimes thought to be the unavoidable consequences of
growing old.
Consequence for
If river levels continue to rise, it will have very serious consequences for many
people's homes.
Take/face the consequences
(=accept the bad results of something you do)
People who run up big debts eventually have to face the consequences.
Damaging/dire/disastrous etc consequences
Safety procedures had been ignored, with disastrous consequences.
Implications of
The legal implications of the case are extremely significant.
Implications for
Any change in interest rates has important implications for most people's financial
Important/significant/profound etc implications
The discovery of planets orbiting other suns has profound implications.
Outcome of
It's impossible to say for sure what the outcome of the election will be.
Affect/influence the outcome
The patient's general health and fitness can also affect the outcome of the disease.
Predict the outcome
At this point, I wouldn't even try to predict the outcome, but we're hoping for the
Upshot of
What was the upshot of the trial?
The upshot is that
The upshot of that experience was that I decided I didn't want to study medicine
after all.
The end result is that
If students constantly fail, the end result is that they switch off any interest in
The net result/effect is that
The new system is designed to spread payments over several months but the net
effect is that people pay more in total.
Aftereffect of
A large number of working days are lost through the aftereffects of alcohol abuse.
Psychological aftereffects

134 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas

The psychological aftereffects of a tragedy like the Zeebrugge disaster can stay with
the survivors for years.

2- a result that happens in addition to the intended result

Have side effects
The drug can have side effects such as headaches and sickness.
Transplanting genes from one plant to another may have unintended side effects for
the environment and the food supply.
Side effect of
One of the side effects of chemotherapy is hair loss.
Dangerous/nasty/unpleasant etc side effects
These pills don't normally have any unpleasant side-effects.
Indirect result of
The job losses were an indirect result of lower cost imports.
The increase in greenhouse gases is the direct result of pollution, and the indirect
result of a reduction in the atmosphere's ability to absorb them.
By-product of
One of the by-products of the peace treaty was the growth of trade between the two
Another by-product of space exploration is a growing awareness of this planet's
fragile environment.
Corollary of
Huge increases in unemployment were the corollary of the government's economic
A logical/natural/necessary etc corollary (of something)
A rapid increase in population would be a natural corollary of any such changes in
the birth control program.
The corollary of this is that
The government has promised tax cuts, but the corollary of this is that there will be a
reduction in public services.
Spin-off for
One of the main spin-offs for countries that host the Olympic Games is increased
business for hotels, restaurants, and theatres.
Have a spin-off
Research into lasers has had important spin-offs for eye-surgery.
Ramifications of
The ramifications of the decision whether to build a new airport or not are
Ramifications for
The course that people choose to do at university can have ramifications for the rest
of their lives.
Economic/legal/political etc ramifications
Whatever the judges decide, the legal ramifications of the case will be with us for
many years to come.
Wider ramifications
(=more complicated results)

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 135

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas

The introduction of national testing in schools had wider ramifications than people
Repercussions of
The psychological repercussions of the accident might affect her for the rest of her
Have repercussions (on something)
The transport strike had all sorts of repercussions on other industries.
Important/profound/serious etc repercussions
A scandal like this could have serious repercussions on his political career.
Economic/legal/political etc repercussions
Even the possibility of a war in the Middle East has important political repercussions.

3- when one thing happens because of another

Because of
Sampras seemed likely to miss the US Open because of a back injury.
Because of problems with the fuel system, the launch has been put back a week.
She was chosen for the Peace Prize because of her courageous fight for democracy.
Be a result of/result from
Our success is the result of a great deal of hard work.
The big population increase in the US was partly the result of immigration.
It is thought that the train crash resulted from a fault on the line.
When one thing happens because of another
Be the product of
When one thing happens because of another
The agreement was the product of 21 months of negotiations.
Saturday's goal was the product of some poor defending by the opposing team.
When one thing happens because of another
Stem from from (doing) something
Many of my patients' anxieties stem from experiences in their childhood.
The dog's aggression stemmed from being kept locked up all day.
Stem from the fact that
Part of the education problem stems from the fact that class sizes have increased
dramatically in the last 5 years.
When one thing happens because of another
Arise from the fact that
Lung cancer is just one of the many diseases that arise from smoking too many
The difficulty arises from the fact that there has been insufficient time to train new
As a result of
He died as a result of cold and exhaustion.
Over 60 drugs have been removed from sale as a result of recent tests.
Burrows took the resulting penalty kick.
Without government support the factory would be forced to close, with the
consequent loss of thousands of jobs.

136 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas

Britain's resulting debt burden was greater than that of the French.

4- to think that something happens because of something else

To put something down to
When Charlie became ill, I was inclined to put it down to the pressures of his job.
No one was injured, and US officials put the incident down to "high spirits".
To attribute something to
The management attributed the success of the company to the new Marketing
1150 deaths a year can be attributed to drunk driving.

1. what you say when you are giving the reason for something
She's in a bad mood because her father won't let her go to the party tonight.
"This photograph doesn't look like you." "That's because it isn't me - it's my sister".
Because you've done such a good job, I'm giving everyone a 10% bonus.
Just because
(=used when you think an explanation is not a good enough reason for something)
You mean you dumped him just because he forgot your birthday?
Simply because
(=used when there is a very simple reason for something)
We're not going on holiday this year, simply because we can't afford it.
Because of something
I had to move because of my job.
Because of the increase in street crime, many old people are afraid to leave their
Also as British [conjunction] use this to give the reason why someone decides to do
We had planned to play tennis but since it was raining we decided to go swimming
Since you're going to be in the area anyway, you can pick up the order for me.
As he wasn't well, I offered to do the shopping.
Owing to
Owing to circumstances beyond our control, we regret to inform customers that this
store will close early.
In the end I was unable to attend the conference, owing to financial difficulties.
Be due to
The accident was due to a concrete block thrown from a bridge.
Thanks to
Today thanks to the Internet, you can do all your Christmas shopping from home.
The play was a great success thanks to the effort and commitment of everyone
As a result of
Many people are now homeless as a result of the civil war.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 137

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas

As a direct result of
Mr Logan died as a direct result of the injuries he received in the accident.
The reason … is
The reason we didn't consider her for the job was that she didn't have enough
The reason we are here this evening is to say thank you to Brian for all his hard work.
We succeeded through sheer hard work.
Hundreds of working days have been lost this year through illness.
The Community Association collapsed through lack of support.
Out of interest/curiosity/desperation etc
She opened the letter, just out of curiosity.
I came to you out of desperation - you've got to help me.
On account of
We had to move to London on account of my job.
They're called the Black Hills on account of their color.
Seeing as
Spoken informal use this to give a reason for what you are suggesting or deciding
Seeing as it's your birthday, why don't we go out for a meal?
I'd better do it myself, seeing as no one else wants to do it.

1. to make something happen
To make something happen
I wish you wouldn't slam the door. It makes the floor shake.
Accidents don't always just happen - people can make them happen.
Gravity is the force that makes the planets move around the sun.
Cause something
Heavy traffic is causing long delays on the roads.
About half of the chemicals that were tested caused cancer in rats.
The autopsy showed that her death was caused by liver failure.
Cause somebody trouble/problems/anxiety etc
As children we were always causing our parents trouble.
Try to isolate the problems that are causing you the most difficulty.
Cause something to do something
The power failure caused the whole computer system to shut down.
To make something happen
Be the cause of
It's too early to say whether this virus is actually the cause of the disease.
An explosion on board appears to be the cause of the crash.
Be the leading/main cause of something
The study showed that drug use is the leading cause of crime and violence.
Be responsible for
Heart disease was responsible for most of the deaths.
He was clearly responsible for the deaths and must be punished.
Be largely/mainly responsible for something
Inflation was largely responsible for the economic crisis.
Results in something

138 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas

Workers fear that the company's reorganization will result in layoffs.

Months of secret talks with the rebels finally resulted in the release of the hostages.
If left untreated, the condition will eventually result in blindness.
Lead to something
His research eventually led to the development of a vaccine.
The new regulations should lead to an improvement in our water supply.
The bank has offered a reward for information leading to the arrest of the robbers.
Give rise to something
The canal project gave rise to a malaria epidemic in the region.
The President's frequent cancellations have given rise to concerns about his health.
Create / creation
The white walls and mirrors helped to create an illusion of space.
Margot's outburst created an unpleasant atmosphere and most of the guests left early.
The end of the cold war helped create a situation in which more countries than ever have
access to nuclear weapons.
The government's main economic aim has been the creation of wealth.

2. to make someone do something

Sarah's very funny. Her jokes always make me laugh.
The things she said make me wonder if she is in some kind of trouble.
The smell was so bad it almost made me throw up.
Be made to do something
I was made to wait for over an hour.
Cause somebody to do something
A dog ran into the road, causing the cyclist to swerve.
The parents' fear of gang activity caused them to move the family to a safer neighborhood.
No-one understands what could have caused her to hate him so much.
Lead somebody to do something
What led you to take up teaching as a career?
It was my interest in gardens that led me to study biology.
Lead somebody to believe
The negative publicity has already led many to believe that Tompkins is guilty.
Motivate somebody to do something
I don't know what motivates people to commit such crimes.
Be motivated by something
He was motivated by a desire to help his fellow man.
Many in the Asian community feel that the police actions were motivated by racial bias.
To induce someone do something
Whatever induced her to buy such an expensive car?
The state advertises a great deal to induce its citizens to buy lottery tickets.
To prompt someone do something
It was reading his book that prompted me to write to him.
What exactly prompted him to call you in the middle of the night?

3. to make something bad suddenly happen

Set off something
The army's invasion set off a major international crisis.
Set something off
Nobody knows what set the riot off.
Spark/trigger something

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 139

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas

Even the smallest diplomatic incident can trigger a major international conflict.

The assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand sparked the First World War.
Trigger/spark off something
Riots, sparked off by the arrest of seven student leaders, have spread to other universities.
The 1929 stock market crash precipitated the collapse of the American banking system.
Both countries claimed the same area, precipitating a border war.

4. to be the first or basic cause of something

Be at the root/bottom of
Simple greed is at the root of most white-collar crime.
At the bottom of the country's economic problems is its overwhelming debt.
Lie at the root/bottom of something
Difficulties with the company's overseas subsidiaries lie at the root of last year's losses.
Underlying cause/reason/factor etc
A cause, reason etc that is one of the most basic and important, but which is not easy to
They were treating only the symptoms of the disease rather than its underlying cause.
Climate and geography are the underlying reasons for the region's low level of economic

5. to cause someone or something to be in a particular

situation or condition
To cause someone or something to be in a particular situation or condition
Make somebody late/ill etc
Hurry up - you're going to make me late for work.
Something I ate last night really made me sick.
Make something safe/interesting/dirty etc
He could make things very difficult for us.
Engineers have been working throughout the night to make the bridge safe.
We gave the house a coat of paint to make it more attractive.
Make it easy/impossible/necessary etc (for somebody) to do something
The regulations should make it easier for patients to receive the treatment they need.
The increased costs made it impossible to continue producing the computers in the U.S.
Have something ready/organized/prepared etc
We'll have your car ready by 3 o'clock.
I'm going to have the roof fixed as soon as I can afford it.
My parents had the little train all laid out under the tree on Christmas morning.
Render something useless/impossible/harmless etc
Both runways have been rendered useless by enemy bombings.
The angry exchange rendered future compromise impossible.
Render somebody unconscious/helpless etc
Suddenly Packer struck a blow that rendered his victim unconscious.

6. to be one of the causes of something

Play a part
Many cases of breast cancer have genetic causes, but environmental substances may also
play a part.
Play a part in

140 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas

It is not yet known if weather conditions played a part in the accident.

The genius of the two designers has played a big part in the company's recent success.
Contribute to
An increase in the price of drugs has contributed to the rising cost of medical care.
It is thought that the pilot's negligence may have contributed to the disaster.
Contributory cause/factor
One of several causes of something that happens, but not the main cause
Malnutrition was considered to have been a contributory cause of death.
Alcohol is a contributory factor in at least 50% of the violent crimes reported.

7. something that makes something else happen

Something that makes something else happen
Doctors cannot find a cure for the illness until they have identified the cause.
Cause of
Investigators are still trying to determine the cause of the accident.
Root cause
(=basic cause)
The root cause of the current energy crisis is that we simply use too much energy.
The price of insurance depends on several factors, including the age of the car.
Factor in
His girlfriend lives in London and I'm sure that was a factor in his decision to move there.
Key factor
(=very important factor)
Money will be the key factor when we decide to buy a new house.
Deciding/determining factor
(=the thing that finally makes something happens)
Race should never be a deciding factor in a hiring decision.
"Why are you helping her?" "She asked me to. That's the only reason."
The main reason she quit is that she was not being paid enough.
Reason for/behind
Can anyone explain the reason for the delay?
There were two reasons behind the company's failure.
Reason why/ (that)
The reason why the economy is growing more slowly is a lack of workers.
Reason to do something
There's no reason to doubt what she says.
Origins of
The origins of the crisis were very complex.
Other cultures' beliefs about the origins of disease often differ from our own.
Have origins in
Many of our attitudes to the issue of race have their origins in the colonialism of days gone
Root of
The roots of the wars in the Balkans go back hundreds of years.
Get to the root of something
(=discover the most important cause)
We need to get to the root of the problem.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 141

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas

The appointment of a new director gave the project immediate stimulus.
Stimulus to
The surge in new housing construction ought to provide a stimulus to the economy.
Impetus for/behind
The impetus for change in the industry was provided by a new management team.
Press criticism has been the main impetus behind the government reforms.
Give impetus to something
The Surgeon General's speech will give new impetus to the anti-smoking campaign.

1. to prevent someone from doing what they want to do
To prevent someone from doing what they want to do
Prevent somebody from doing something
A leg injury may prevent Shearer from playing in tomorrow's game.
There were reports that some people had been prevented from voting in the election.
Stop somebody (from) doing something
My parents tried to stop me seeing Anne.
The government has taken legal action to stop the BBC from broadcasting a documentary
about the Secret Service.
Keep somebody from doing something
Staying busy kept her from thinking about her illness.
It was all I could do to keep myself from hitting him.
Restrain yourself
She wanted to ask him all about his private life, but wisely restrained herself.
Restrain somebody from doing something
His arm was hurting him and he had to be restrained from doing too much
Discourage somebody from doing something
Higher cigarette prices do not seem to discourage people from smoking.

2. a problem that prevents you from achieving something

Obstacle to
The greatest obstacle to economic progress has been mass unemployment.
Overcome an obstacle
(=deal with it successfully)
She had to overcome a lot of obstacles to finally make it to Drama College.
A bar to something
His disability was no bar to his entry into the profession.
Differences in religious beliefs are not necessarily a bar to a good relationship.
I found the lack of available reference books very limiting.
There is a lot of research that still needs to be done, but money is an important limiting

3. intended to prevent something happening

We should spend more money educating people about preventive medicine.
Schools must take preventative measures so that this type of tragedy never happens again
Preventative action can easily be taken to avoid damp occurring in your house.

142 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas

Pre-emptive strike/action/attack
An action that is done to harm someone before they can harm you - use this especially about
official or military actions
The US says it is prepared to launch a pre-emptive strike with nuclear weapons if it is

4. something that can be prevented

Whooping cough and measles are both preventable diseases.
Many of these deaths each year are preventable.
Running out of gas is annoying and easily avoidable.
Too many children are still injured in avoidable accidents.

5. to stop happening
Come to an end
When we had children, all our trips to theatres and cinemas came to an end.
Research at the college came to an end in 1870.
All good things must come to an end.
Hostilities between the two countries have now ceased.
Presently, the rain ceased and the sun came out.
Cease altogether
(=stop completely)
The sound of gunfire gradually receded and then ceased altogether.

6. to gradually stop happening

Wears off
The effects of the anesthetic will wear off within a few hours.
The shock has not worn off yet and he seems to be walking around in a daze.
The novelty wears off
(=when you stop feeling interested or excited about something because it is no longer new)
The kids spent hours on the computer at first, but the novelty soon wore off.
Fade away
He waited until the sound of the engines had faded away.
As the music faded away the audience broke into enthusiastic applause.

1. when people disagree
Disagreement about/over
Disagreement over who should produce the next album caused the band to split.
Disagreement between/among
There is some disagreement among medical experts about the best treatment for back pain.
Difference of opinion about/over
There were major differences of opinion over who should command the UN forces.
Difference of opinion between/among
There is a difference of opinion between the chairman and the board as to the best way to
handle the takeover.

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 143

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas

Controversy surrounds the TV show, which many consider to be racist, sexist, and
Controversy over
There has been a huge controversy over where to put the city's new sports stadium and who
should build it.
Deadlock/stalemate over
The political deadlock over allowable levels of greenhouse emissions
Break the deadlock/stalemate
(=end the situation)
US negotiators met with representatives from both countries today in an attempt to break
the deadlock.
Discord over
There has always been discord over NATO's role in world conflict.

2. causing disagreement
A recent government paper on education contains some controversial new ideas.
Rossellini's controversial film, "The Miracle"
The decision to use the bomb remains the most controversial question of the Second World
Causing disagreement
Contentious issue/subject/problem etc
One that is likely to cause a lot of disagreement and argument
Abortion has always been a contentious subject.
The contentious issue of arms sales to non-democratic countriesone that is likely to cause a
lot of disagreement and argument
Abortion has always been a contentious subject.
The contentious issue of arms sales to non-democratic countries

3. to have a different opinion from someone else

Disagree with
I showed my article to the editor. He disagreed with almost everything I'd written.
Disagree about
Throughout their marriage my parents disagreed about whether to stay in their hometown
or not.
Disagree that
The company's lawyers disagreed that the complaint was a criminal matter.
Strongly disagree
The court decision represents an issue on which the president and the Justice Department
strongly disagree.
Take issue with somebody over something
I took issue with Meeker over the way he was running the company.
Differ about/over
Critics differed about the importance of Osborne's new play.
All politicians agree that inflation must be beaten but they differ over methods of achieving
Differ widely
(=differ a lot)
Scholars differ widely about when the two manuscripts were written.

144 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas

4. a person or group that opposes something

Opponent of
In some countries, any opponent of the government is likely to lose their job.
One notable opponent of the proposal was the mayor.
Opinion polls showed the opposition pulling ahead in some areas.
Newspapers must reflect the views of the opposition as well as those of the government.

5. words or behavior that show that you oppose something

Have an objection
If anyone has any objections, please let us know as soon as possible.
Raise an objection
(=state an objection)
When I told him about my plans, my father raised one objection after another.
Have no objection
If you have no objection, I would like to use your name as a reference when I start applying
for jobs.
Opposition to
Opposition to the war grew rapidly.
Face opposition
Plans for the new stadium will no doubt face a lot of opposition.
Express opposition
Thousands of people plan to gather on Sunday to express their opposition to the
government's handling of the crisis.
Strong opposition
Despite strong opposition, the law was passed.
Hostility to/towards
Recently there has been hostility towards the Prime Minister from members of his own
Open hostility
(=obvious or public hostility)
Given his open hostility, it seemed pointless to try and continue to persuade him.
Antagonism to/towards
Hines made no effort to conceal his antagonism towards his supervisor.
Antagonism between
Mitchell sees no clear way to end the antagonism between the two groups.

1. to have the same opinion as someone else
Agree with
Mr. Johnson thinks it's too risky, and I tend to agree with him.
Lee agreed with Jackson that more opportunities should be created for minorities in film.
Agree that
Most experts agree that drugs like heroin can cause permanent brain damage.
Agree on/about
I agree with you about the color -- it looks awful.
The one thing all the parties agreed on was the need for fair elections.
Be in agreement on
The two sides are in agreement on the need for arms reduction.
Be in agreement with

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 145

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas

I found myself in agreement with the lawyer, for once.

Share somebody's view
Many people shared Duvall's view, and thought the plan should be stopped.
Share this/that view
This view is shared by many doctors.
Concur with
He resigned three years later, because he did not concur with the division of the country into
separate republics.

2. to agree by accepting less than you originally wanted

The employers will have to be ready to compromise if they want to avoid a strike.
Critics accused the mayor of compromising too easily.
Compromise on
Stalin refused to compromise on any of his demands.
The President might be willing to compromise on defense spending.
Make concessions on
The government has already made significant concessions on pay and conditions.
Make concessions to
Our policy of not making concessions to terrorists remains intact.

3. when people have the same opinion about something

Agreement that
There is general agreement among doctors that pregnant women should not smoke.
Agreement on
Officials said there was widespread agreement on the need to promote growth by cutting
government spending.
In agreement
Tara nodded her head in agreement.
Consensus on/about
There is still no general consensus on what our future policy should be.
Consensus of opinion
The consensus of opinion seems to be that the Prime Minister should resign.
Reach a consensus
(=achieve agreement)
The delegates will continue to meet until a consensus is reached.
The decision of the committee was unanimous.
Unanimous agreement/choice/decision/vote etc
Mr. Harada was elected by a unanimous vote.
Ryan needed unanimous agreement to bring his proposal up for a vote.
The union members voted unanimously for a strike.

1. to let someone do something
Let somebody do something
Sue doesn't let her kids eat candy.
Thanks for letting me spend the night at your place.

146 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas

Allow somebody to do something

We do not allow people to smoke anywhere in the building.
Under federal law, Indian nations are allowed to operate casinos on their reservations, with
the state's permission.
Allow somebody something
(=allow them to have it)
Paul's bank now allows him £35 a week, and Geoff can withdraw no more than £40.
Agree to
The rebels finally agreed to a ban on terrorist activity.
McCaskill left the California Angels on Saturday and agreed to a three-year contract with the
Chicago White Sox worth over $6 million.
Permit somebody to do something
The law permits foreign investors to own up to 25% of British companies.
The water contained six times the permitted level of chlorine.
Who authorized the decision to close the factory?
Among other matters, the city council authorized more funds for additional police officers.
Authorize somebody to do something
Only Congress can authorize the President to declare war.
Have no objection to somebody doing something
They said they had no objection to us leaving a little early.
Give your consent to something
In September, he gave Dr. Arming his consent to conduct the experiment.

2. to be allowed to do something
Be allowed to do something
Are we allowed to use calculators on the test?
Something is allowed
Lanterns and heaters are allowed on Forest Service lands if they are fueled by propane.
Be allowed in/out/off/on etc
(=be allowed to go in, out, off etc)
Several international relief organizations had been allowed into the area to determine what
help was needed.
Be permitted to do something
Residents were not even permitted to fish in the reservoir.
Something is permitted
Smoking is only permitted in the public lounge.

1. to tell someone that they must not do something
Not let somebody do something
My parents won't let me stay out after 11 o'clock.
Not allow somebody to do something
The university does not allow athletes to work during the school year.
Not allow something
Joan and Bill don't allow smoking in their house.
Forbid somebody to do something
The management forbids employees to accept tips from customers.
Forbid somebody (from) doing something

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 147

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas

They were forbidden from entering the sacred chamber.

Many doctors now say that boxing should be banned.
A new international treaty banning all nuclear tests
Ban somebody from (doing) something
Relatives of the prisoners were banned from visiting them.
International Law prohibits the use of chemical weapons.
The U.S. prohibited all flights to the country while the war was in progress.
Prohibit somebody from doing something
Mexican law prohibits the clergy from teaching in universities and schools.

1. when one thing is being compared with another
Compared to/with
The British are good drivers compared to those in the rest of the EU.
Statistics show that there has been a 20% reduction in burglary compared with last
Women visit their doctors six times a year compared to the three or so visits that
men make.
In comparison/by comparison with
We employ far fewer staff in comparison with similar-sized companies.
Pale in/by comparison
(=to look worse or much less important in comparison)
Forecasters say this year's drought could make that of 1991 pale by comparison.
The Yankees' problems pale by comparison with those of the Dodgers.
In contrast
I read a lot as a child, but my daughter, by contrast, just seems interested in
In contrast to
In contrast to the hot days, the nights are bitterly cold.
Tom's efforts seemed so weak beside Martin's.
Delhi is so old that many European cities actually look young beside it.
As against
Last year there were 443 industrial accidents as against 257 in 1985.
With only 57 inhabitants per square mile, as against a world average of over 70, the
country is far from overcrowded.
In proportion to
Ricky's head is small in proportion to the rest of his body.
I've always thought that my problems were very minor in proportion to those of
many other people.
Relative strength/weakness
The relative strength of the dollar against the Mexican peso
Relative advantages (and disadvantages)

148 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas

She was terrified of flying. The relative advantages of air travel didn't tempt her at
Relative merits
(=what is good about them compared with each other)
The two men stood at the bar discussing the relative merits of various sports cars.
It is all relative
(=it cannot be judged on its own, but must be compared with others)
It's all relative, isn't it? Someone who is poor in this country might be considered
well off in another.
Once you've mastered the basic strokes of squash, the rest is relatively simple.
Comparative happiness/comfort/safety etc
Happiness, comfort, safety etc that is fairly satisfactory when compared to another
After a lifetime of poverty, his last few years were spent in comparative comfort.
Fresh fruit and vegetables have become a comparative rarity in the region.
During the bombings, families sheltered in the comparative safety of the
underground rail stations.
We were absolutely broke in those days. Now we're comparatively well off.
More/less/bigger etc than
Geographically, Canada is bigger than the US.
My sister earns a lot more than I do.

2. To compare things
Compare something/somebody with
I hate the way you always compare me with your ex-boyfriend.
If you compare rents in London with those in New York, you'll find they are about the
You can't compare Charlie Parker with John Coltrane. They were completely different
Liken somebody/something to
Critics have likened the new city hall building to a barn.
Morris has often been likened to Bobby Kennedy.
He likened today's stock market to that of the 1920s.
Make a comparison between
The article makes a comparison between the novels 'Anna Karenina' and 'Madame
Draw an analogy between
He drew an analogy between mathematics and language.
Joe drew an analogy between the Soviet Union of 1946 and Germany of 1938
Draw a parallel between/with
One could draw a parallel between the professions of acting and politics.
He was drawing parallels between events leading up to the last war and current
political problems.
You could draw parallels with the old Samson and Delilah story.
Contrast with

IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps 149

Appendix 3: Essential Ideas

In the film, the peaceful life of a monk is contrasted with the violent life of a
It is interesting to contrast life in Spain now with what it was like prior to 1975.
Compare and contrast
(=show the similarities and differences)
The book compares and contrasts the various methods used in language teaching.

1. the quality of being similar
Similarity between
The author notes the similarity between Western and Chinese principles and sees
them as having a common basis in science.
Similarity with/to
We were able to tell the date of the statue because of its similarity with other
statues of that period.
The similarity of something (to something)
For generations, scientists and science-fiction writers talked about the similarity of
Mars to Earth.
Resemblance to
Although the fish have little external resemblance to each other, skeletally they are
quite similar.
Family resemblance
(=a resemblance between members of the same family)
When he met Francesca's aunt he was instantly struck by the family resemblance.
Striking resemblance
(=extremely strong resemblance)
The Japanese maple leaf bears a striking resemblance to a marijuana leaf.

2. a particular way in which things or people are similar

Similarity in
The book classifies cheeses by similarities in flavour, rather than by ingredients.
Similarity between
There is one important similarity between the two political systems.
Parallel between
There are certain parallels between the situation in Europe today and that which
existed 90 years ago.
Kakar finds parallels between the Hindi film and popular myths.

150 IELTS Essays, Letters, Graphs, Diagrams & Maps