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acoustics

acoustics

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Published by: Jessamine Kuh Fortuna on Feb 17, 2011
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Acoustics  Branch of physics that deals with the production control, transmission, reception, and effects of sound Types

1. Psycho-acoustics o deals with the health of the human being to audible sounds o medical purposes 2. Electro-acoustics o deals with the generation and detection of audible sound waves o development of acoustical instruments, principle of sound reproduction 3. Sonics o technical application of sound in basic scientific research industry and medicine o ultrasound, treatment of malignant disease using heat therapy 4. Environmental acoustics o effect of the environment on audible sound waves o noise control, acoustical design of auditoriums and concert halls, echoes in rooms ENVIRONMENTAL ACOUSTICS Types: 1. architectural acoustics o interior buildings 2. landscape acoustics o outdoors like concert in a football field Goal: 1. provide the most favorable conditions for the production, transmission, and perception of desirable sounds inside rooms or open air 2. exclude or reduce unwanted sounds such as noises and vibrations Acoustics in architecture is needed because: a. trends in architectural design that go against acoustical privacy b. multi-purpose areas that are divided into large areas without partitions c. lightweight construction materials d. external sources that contribute to noise pollution in buildings (trains, helicopters) e. because of technology buildings have become mechanized (elevators, airconditioning units) that contribute to lose patterns HISTORY    1st recorded activity that used acoustics  Greek, open air auditorium Romans developed the arena Middle ages o Churches became the new assembly area o Built of stone, creates echo o Use of chants, songs, and visual presentation th 16 century onwards  opera

SOUND  basic element of acoustics  any vibratory motion of bodies wherein the transmission of these vibrations in a solid or liquid medium produces a sensation on a human auditory mechanism Sources: 1. speech 2. music 3. noise TYPES: 1. wanted  heard as perfectly as possible at a right level or loudness without causing pain or strain 2. unwanted exhibits an annoyance factor

 human voice  instrument  impact or vibratory bodies

structure  travels through water  travels through air. Auditor  receiver or listener of the sound o High frequency  more pronounced path along the axis of the sound source o Medium frequency  sound dispersed in almost all directions o Low frequency  most dispersed in all directions . cm2) NB: intensity of sound diminishes inversely as the square of the distance from the source (distance increases.000 Hz  Human being speaking nice = 100 – 600 Hz 3. unit of measurement = decibel (db) DECIBELS (db) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Threshold of audibility Human breathing Average whisper Residence without radio Residence with radio Average office Areas near highway traffic Large store School cafeteria Noisy urban traffic Automobile horn Accumulating motorcycle Rock band Threshold of pain Jet engine BEHAVIOR OF SOUND IN ENCLOSED AREAS 1. vice versa).MEDIA OF PROPAGATION OF SOUND 1. where: P = sound power (watts).. liquid 3. gas  when sound travels to the parts of the bldg. Intensity  Amount of acoustic power flowing through a unit area in a specified direction  Determined by pressure exerted by the sound  Loudness or softness of sound . intensity decreases. velocity  depending on the medium it travels  affected by temperature and pressure  at normal room temperature (68 F) and at sea level (velocity = 344 m/s )  velocity decreases at 3 cm/s for every 1 deg F increase in temperature  sound travels faster in denser medium ( solid and water ) 2. Sound directionality 3 elements: a. Path  medium c. airborne sound PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS 1. frequency  rate of repetition of a period event  pitch  1 cycle/ sec = 1 hertz (Hz)  Range of hearing for humans = 20 – 20. A = area (m2. Sound source b. solid 2.

and flat surface (concrete. glass. Fluttering  Repetitive succession of small echoes which occurs when a slight burst of sound is produced between parallel sound reflective surfaces  Very long corridor less than 50 ft width  Buzzing or ringing sound Solution:  Use absorptive materials such as carpets  Break the uniformity of walls with doors or windows  Change the slope of one wall from 1:10 to 1:20 3. rigid. Sound diffusion or dispersion  When sound waves are a. which is caused by absorption in the air and distance INVERSE SQUARE LAW IN ACOUSTICS  Sound intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source . Sound reflection  Hard. Flat or level surface  angle of incident ray = angle of reflected ray b. where: I = intensity P = acoustical power A = area (cm2. brick. and b. and uneven surface a. Sound dissipation  Attenuation  weakening of sound intensity after the sound source is turned off. stone) reflects more than soft. Accentuates the natural qualities of music and speech iii. porous. Sound absorption  Soft and porous materials absorb considerable amount of sound stroke at them (sound absorbers)  Absorbed sound will be transformed into heat energy 4. Echo  Sound waves are reflected to a listener in sufficient magnitude of time delay so as to be perceived separately from those communicated directly from the source 2.) sound intensity is equal to all parts of the enclosed areas i. Promotes uniform distribution of sound ii.2. Prevents the recurrence of undesirable effects 5. Concave surface  reflected sound will be concentrated or focused on a certain area 3. Sound shadow  Areas in a room have deficiency in sound or do not receive adequate amount of direction or reflected sound Solution:  Put splay (jagged) on one side . longer wavelength. m2) SOUND DEFECTS 1.) travelling in all directions. Sound defraction  Bending or changing sound direction  Lower sound frequency. Convex surface  reflection of sound will be dispersed c. changes direction more  Sound changes direction when passing through an opening 6.

US Capitol. normal speech of a human reaches 20 to 30 meters. Washington Solution:  Provide coffers or recessed areas  Hang something on top ROOM ACOUSTICS Factors  Shape of the Room o Preferably rectangular or trapezoidal o Square-. o Reverberation time refers to the time it takes for the sound to be inaudible. Whispering gallery or creep  High frequency sound travels around a large concave room or hall  St. of Sabin Sabin  unit of sound absorption of a surface. when the unit for distance is in m Wherein RT Reverberation Time. o Claddings should have intervening voids. when the unit for distance is in ft . More than 45 degrees means that a flat/dead effect is produced. A  No. o If room height is excessive. V  Volume of Room. Reverberation Period o Reverberation refers to gradual decay of sound in a room after the sound source has been shut-off. Position of Sound Source o Source of sound should not be in front of a hard reflecting surface. for music.4. was tested. o Ceilings should be suspended. they must be close to each other. is 30000 cubic meters.C. o Sitting of the room should be staggered. also called ‘Open Window Unit’ 1 square foot of a surface has an absorption coefficient of 1. o Maximum volume for speech is 18000 cubic meters.0. o Reverberation is caused by successive reflections within the boundaries of a room. and length Furnishings found in the Room o Solid Walls/Ceilings aren’t preferable for acoustically sensitive rooms. o Preferable dimensions are 2:3:5 and 8:12:20 – respectively by height. Less than 45 degrees results to overlapping of consecutive syllables. o Height of room should not exceed 8 meters. Sound concentration or focus sound  Sound reflections from concave surfaces concentrate in a focal point called hot spots Solution:  Put undulations on wall 5. Sabin: a sound window which has an area of a square foot can absorb 100 percent of sound. o o o o o o o o . o Step Height should be 8 cm. Ideal reverberation time: not short and not long Graph between Level of Audibility (y) and Time in seconds (x) has an angle with respect to the horizon of 45 degrees. width. ending up with a clear observation – the formula. o If there is more than 1 source of sound. circular-. Experiment for Sabin by W.     . or oval-shaped room is acoustically unfavorable Size of the Room o Assuming that no device used. reflective sound boards around the sound source is recommended. Paul’s Cathedral.

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