# Phsx 217, A.

Ware Chapter 18 Homework Solutions
Halliday, Resnick, and Walker, Chapter 18 Problems: 5, 7, 10, 18, 21, 23, 31, 41, 43, 44, 46, 48
18.5 At what temperature is the Fahrenheit scale reading equal to (a) twice that of the Celcius scale and (b) half
that of the Celcius scale?
(a) Fahrenheit twice the Celsius reading:
T
F
= 2T
C
→ T
F
= 2

T
F
−32

1.8

→ 0.9T
F
= T
F
−32

0.1T
F
= 32

→ T
F
= 320

and T
C
= 160

(b) Fahrenheit half the Celsius reading:
2T
F
= T
C
→ 2T
F
=

T
F
−32

1.8

→ T
F
= −12.3

and T
C
= −24.6

18.7 Suppose that on a linear scale X, water boils at −53.5

X and freezes at −170

X. What is a temperature of 340
K on the X scale? (Approximate water’s boiling point as 373 K.)
The diﬀerence between boiling and freezing points on this scale:
−53.5

X−(−170

X) = 116.5

X
So a 116.5

X diﬀerence is equivalent to a 100 K diﬀerence. Thus, 67 K above freezing corresponds to
(67 K)

116.5

X
100 K

= 78.1

X above freezing
Thus, 340 K is equivalent to −170

X + 78.1

X = −91.9

X.
18.10 An aluminum ﬂagpole is 33 m high. By how much does its length increase as the temperature increases by
15

C?
The length is initially 33 m and the temperature increases 15

C. The new length is
∆L = Lα∆T = (33 m)

23 ×10
−6
/

C

(15

C) = 1.1 ×10
−2
m
The length increases by about a centimeter.
18.18 At 20

C, a rod is exactly 20.05 cm long on a steel ruler. Both the rod and the ruler are placed in an oven at
270

C, where the rod now measures 20.11 cm on the same ruler. What is the coeﬃcient of linear expansion for
the material of which the rod is made of?
Both the rod and the ruler will expand but not necessarily at the same rate. The original length of the rod is
L = 20.05 cm. The length of the rod after a 250

C increase in temperature is equal to a 20.11 cm length of
steel after the steel has also expanded. The expanded length of the steel is:
L
steel
+ ∆L
steel
= L
steel
(1 +α
steel
∆T) = (20.11 cm)

1 + (11 ×10
−6
/

C)(250

C)

= 20.165 cm
So the increase in length of the rod is ∆L = 20.165 cm−20.05 cm = 0.115 cm.
∆L = Lα∆T → α =
∆L
L∆T
=
0.115 cm
(20.05 cm)(250

C)
= 23 ×10
−6
/

C
The rod is likely made of aluminum.
1
18.21 As a result of a temperature rise of 32

C, a bar with a crack at its center buckles upward (Fig. 18-31). If the
ﬁxed distance L
0
is 3.77 m and the coeﬃcient of linear expansion of the bar is 25 ×10
−6
/

C, ﬁnd the rise x of
the center.
The original, unbent length and the buckled beam make two right triangles with x.
Phys 222 Spring 2007
A. Ware Homework 1 Solutions
HRW 18.4 (a) Fahrenheit twice the Celsius reading:
T
F
= 2T
C
→ T
F
= 2

T
F
−32

1.8

→ 0.9T
F
= T
F
−32

0.1T
F
= 32

→ T
F
= 320

and T
C
= 160

(b) Fahrenheit half the Celsius reading:
2T
F
= T
C
→ 2T
F
=

T
F
−32

1.8

→ T
F
= −12.3

and T
C
= −24.6

HRW 18.7 The diﬀerence between boiling and freezing points on this scale:
−53.5

X −(−170

X) = 116.5

X
So a 116.5

X diﬀerence is equivalent to a 100 K diﬀerence. Thus, 67 K above freezing corre-
sponds to
(67 K)

116.5

X
100 K

= 78.1

X above freezing
Thus, 340 K is equivalent to −170

X + 78.1

X = −91.9

X.
HRW 18.10 The length is initially 33 m and the temperature increases 15

C. The new length is
∆L = Lα∆T = (33 m)

23 ×10
−6
/

C

(15

C) = 1.1 ×10
−2
m
The length increases by about a centimeter.
HRW 18.14 Both the rod and the ruler will expand but not necessarily at the same rate. The original
length of the rod is L = 20.05 cm. The length of the rod after a 250

C increase in temperature
is equal to a 20.11 cm length of steel after it too has expanded.
L
steel
+∆L
steel
= L
steel
(1 +α
steel
∆T) = (20.11 cm)

1 + (11 ×10
−6
/

C)(250

C)

= 20.165 cm
So the increase in length of the rod is ∆L = 20.165 cm−20.05 cm = 0.115 cm.
∆L = Lα∆T → α =
∆L
L∆T
=
0.115 cm
(20.05 cm)(250

C)
= 23 ×10
−6
/

C
The rod is likely made of aluminum.
HRW 18.21 The original, unbent length and the buckled beam make two right triangles with x.
L/2
L
0
/2
x
x
2
+

L
0
2

2
=

L
2

2
We need to ﬁnd L to ﬁnd x.
L = L
0
(1 +α∆T) = (3.77 m)

1 + (25 ×10
−6
/

C)(32

C)

= 3.773 m
x =
1
2

L
2
−L
2
0
=
1
2

(3.773 m)
2
(
3.77 m)
2
= 0.075 m
1
x
2
+

L
0
2

2
=

L
2

2
We need to ﬁnd L to ﬁnd x.
L = L
0
(1 +α∆T) = (3.77 m)

1 + (25 ×10
−6
/

C)(32

C)

= 3.773 m
x =
1
2

L
2
−L
2
0
=
1
2

(3.773 m)
2
−(3.77 m)
2
= 0.075 m
18.23 A small electric immersion heater is used to heat 100 g of water for a cup of instant coﬀee. The heater is
labeled “200 watts” (it converts electrical energy to thermal energy at this rate). calculate the time required
to bring all this water from 23.0

C to 100

C, ignoring any heat losses.
Ignoring heat losses makes this easier. First, I’ll calculate the energy required to raise the temperature of 100
g of water 77.0

C.
Q = mc∆T = (100 g) (4.190 J/g ·

C) (77.0

C) = 3.226 ×10
4
J
A 200 watt heater is putting out 200 J every second (ignoring heat losses!).
P =
Q
∆t
→ ∆t =
Q
P
=
3.226 ×10
4
J
200 J/s
= 161 s
18.31 What mass of steam at 100

C must be mixed with 150 g of ice at its melting point, in a thermally insulated
container, to produce liquid water at 50

C?
The mass of steam, m
s
, is at T
s0
=

C and the mass of ice, m
i
= 150 g, is at T
i0
= 0

C. The heat lost by the
steam will be equivalent to the heat gained by the ice.
m
s
L
V
+m
s
c (T
s0
−T) = m
i
L
F
+m
i
c (T −T
i0
)
where T = 50

C is the ﬁnal temperature, L
V
= 2256 J/g is the heat of vaporization, L
F
= 333 J/g is the heat
of fusion, and c = 1.00 cal/g ·

C is the speciﬁc heat (all of water). Solve for m
s
:
m
s
= m
i
¸
L
F
+c (T −T
i0
)
L
V
+c (T
s0
−T)

= (150 g)
¸
79.7 cal/g + (1.00 cal/g ·

C)(50.0

C −0

C)
539 cal/g + (1.00 cal/g ·

C)(100

C −50.0

C)

m
s
= 33 g
18.41 (a) Two 50 g ice cubes are dropped into 200 g of water in a thermally insulated container. If the water is
initially at 25

C, and the ice comes directly from a freezer at −15

C, what is the ﬁnal temperature of the
equilibrium? (b) What is the ﬁnal temperature if only one ice cube is used?
(a) The total change of energy of the system (water plus ice) is zero. The question is “Will all the ice melt?” I
think for the two ice cube case, this is not likely. To raise the temperature of the ice to 0

C requires an amount
of heat equal to
Q
1
= m
i
c
i
(0

C −T
i0
) +m
i
L
F
= (100 g)(2.220 J/g ·

C)(15

C) = 3.33 ×10
3
J
2
and to melt the ice it requires
Q
2
= m
i
L
F
= (100 g)(333 J/g) = 3.33 ×10
4
J
Lowering the temperature of the water from by 25

C releases an amount of heat equal to
Q
3
= mc (T
0
−0

C) = (200 g)(4.190 J/g ·

C)(25

C) = 2.095 ×10
4
J
Thus, cooling the water to 0

C is enough to raise the temperature of the ice up to 0

C and to melt part of the
ice. How much ice is melted?
m
melt
L
F
= Q
3
−Q
1
→ m
melt
=
2.095 ×10
4
J −3.33 ×10
3
J
333 J/g
= 43 g
The ﬁnal temperature is 0

C with 57 g of ice and 243 g of water.
(b) Now we only have one ice cube, m
i
= 50 g. The heat required to raise the temperature of the ice and to
melt the ice will be half of what they were for part (a):
Q

1
= 1.665 ×10
3
J Q

2
= 1.665 ×10
4
J and Q

1
+Q

2
< Q
3
The last relation tells us that there will be some energy left over after raising the temperature of the ice and
melting the ice. There will be m

= m+m
i
= 250 g of water at the end at a temperature of
m

cT = Q
3
−Q

1
−Q

2
= 2.635 ×10
3
J → T =
2.635 ×10
3
J
(250 g)(4.190 J/g ·

C)
= 2.5

C
HRW 18.43 In Fig. 18-36, a gas sample expands from V
0
to 4.0V
0
while its pressure decreases from p
0
to p
0
/4.0.
If V
0
= 1.0 m
3
and p
0
= 40Pa, how much work is done by the gas if its pressure changes with volume via (a)
path A, (b) path B, and (c) path C?
The work done is just the “area” under the curve in a P −V diagram.
(a) All the work done at the higher pressure,
W
A
= P
1
∆V = (40 N/m
2
)(4.0 m
3
−1.0 m
3
) = 120 J
(b) Pressure decreases while the volume increases,
W
B
=
1
2
(P
1
+P
2
)∆V =
1
2
(40 N/m
2
+ 10 N/m
2
)(4.0 m
3
−1.0 m
3
) = 75 J
(a) All the work done at the lower pressure,
W
C
= P
2
∆V = (10 N/m
2
)(4.0 m
3
−1.0 m
3
) = 30 J
HRW 18.44 A thermodynamic system is taken from state A to state B to state C, and then back to A, as shown
in the p-V diagram of Fig. 18-37a. The vertical scale is set by V
s
= 4.0 m
3
. (a)−(g) Complete the table in
Fig. 18-37b by inserting a plus sign, minus sig, or a zero in each indicated cell. (h) What is the net work done
by the system as it moves once through the cycle ABCA?
(a) Here is the chart ﬁlled out, followed by the reasoning for each choice.:
HRW 18.42 (a) Here is the chart ﬁlled out, followed by the reasoning for each choice.:
A B
B C
C A
Q W E
int
+
+
!
+
0
!
+
+
!
A →B Since ∆V > 0, the system is doing positive work, so W > 0.
Since ∆E
int
> 0 and W > 0, we must have Q > 0.
B →C Since ∆V = 0, the system is not doing work, so W = 0.
Since Q > 0 and W = 0, we must have ∆E
int
> 0.
C →A Since ∆V < 0, work is done on the system (or the system is doing negative work), so W < 0.
For the whole cycle we must have ∆E
int
= 0 so we must have ∆E
int
< 0 here.
Since ∆E
int
< 0 and W < 0, we must have Q < 0.
(b) The work done by the system is equal to the area under the curve but negative here
because the loop is CCW.
W = −
1
2
∆P∆V = −20 J
HRW 18.43 The work done is just the “area” under the curve in a P −V diagram.
(a) All the work done at the higher pressure,
W
A
= P
1
∆V = (40 N/m
2
)(4.0 m
3
−1.0 m
3
) = 120 J
(b) Pressure decreases while the volume increases,
W
B
=
1
2
(P
1
+P
2
)∆V =
1
2
(40 N/m
2
+ 10 N/m
2
)(4.0 m
3
−1.0 m
3
) = 75 J
(a) All the work done at the lower pressure,
W
C
= P
2
∆V = (10 N/m
2
)(4.0 m
3
−1.0 m
3
) = 30 J
HRW 18.44 (a) Since work is done on the system, this implies, W, which is the work done by the system,
must be negative, W = −200 J.
(b) Heat is extracted from the system so Q = −70.0 cal = −293 J.
(c) Finally, the change in internal energy will be
∆E
int
= Q−W = −293 J −(−200 J) = −93 J
HRW 18.48 We are given Q
AB
= 20.0 J, Q
BC
= 0 (so BC is an adiabat), and W
ABCA
= 15.0 J.
We want the heat transfer dring CA. Knowing the internal energy change must be zero in a
closed cycle,
∆E
int
= 0 → Q
AB
+Q
BC
+Q
CA
−W
ABCA
= 0
Q
CA
= W
ABCA
−Q
AB
−Q
BC
= 15.0 J −20.0 J = −5.0 J
So 5.0 J of heat were removed from the system during process CA.
3
3
A →B Since ∆V > 0, the system is doing positive work, so W > 0.
Since ∆E
int
> 0 and W > 0, we must have Q > 0.
B →C Since ∆V = 0, the system is not doing work, so W = 0.
Since Q > 0 and W = 0, we must have ∆E
int
> 0.
C →A Since ∆V < 0, work is done on the system (or the system is doing negative work), so W < 0.
For the whole cycle we must have ∆E
int
= 0 so we must have ∆E
int
< 0 here.
Since ∆E
int
< 0 and W < 0, we must have Q < 0.
(b) The work done by the system is equal to the area under the curve but negative here because the loop is
CCW.
W = −
1
2
∆P∆V = −20 J
HRW 18.46 Suppose 200 J of work is done on a system and 70.0 cal is extracted from the system as heat. In the
sens of the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics, what are the values (including algebraic signs) of (a) W, (b) Q, and
(c) ∆E
int
?
(a) Since work is done on the system, this implies, W, which is the work done by the system, must be negative,
W = −200 J. (b) Heat is extracted from the system so Q = −70.0 cal = −293 J. (c) Finally, the change in
internal energy will be
∆E
int
= Q−W = −293 J −(−200 J) = −93 J
HRW 18.48 Gas held within a chamber passes through the cycle shown in Fig. 18-40. Determine the energy
transferred by the system as heat during process CA if the energy added as heat Q
AB
during process AB is
20.0 J, no energy is transferred as heat during process BC, and the net work done during the cycle is 15.0 J.
We are given Q
AB
= 20.0 J, Q
BC
= 0 (so BC is an adiabat), and W
ABCA
= 15.0 J.
We want the heat transfer dring CA. Knowing the internal energy change must be zero in a closed cycle,
∆E
int
= 0 → Q
AB
+Q
BC
+Q
CA
−W
ABCA
= 0
Q
CA
= W
ABCA
−Q
AB
−Q
BC
= 15.0 J −20.0 J = −5.0 J
So 5.0 J of heat were removed from the system during process CA.
18.E1 An energetic athlete can use up all the energy from a diet of 4000 Cal/day. If he were to use this energy up
at a steady rate, how would his rate of energy use compare with the power of a 100 W bulb? (The power of
100 W is the rate at which the bulb converts electrical energy to heat and the energy of visible light.)
We just need to convert this to Joules per second (i.e., Watts) keeping in mind that this is 4000 food calories
or 4000 kcal:
4000 kcal/day ×(4.180 J/cal)

1 day
86400 s

= 194J/s = 194 W
So the athlete uses up energy at a rate of roughly two 100 W bulbs.
18.E2 A chef, on ﬁnding his stove out of order, decides to boil the water for his wife’s coﬀee by shaking it in a
thermos ﬂask. Suppose that he uses tap water at 15

C and the water falls 30 cm each shake, the chef making
30 shakes each minute. Neglecting any loss of thermal energy by the ﬂask, how long must he shake the ﬂask
until the water reaches 100

C?
The energy gained in one 30 cm drop (assuming no losses) is mg∆h. The energy required to raise the temper-
ature is mc∆T. We can ﬁnd the number of shakes, N:
Nmg∆h = mc∆T → N =
c∆T
g∆h
=
(4180 J/kg ·

C)(85

C)
(9.80 N/kg)(0.30 m)
= 1.2 ×10
5
The time for this number of shakes is
∆t =
1.2 ×10
5
shakes
30 shakes/min
= 4.0 ×10
3
min
It would take about 2.8 days of shaking.
4

The rod is likely made of aluminum.31 What mass of steam at 100◦ C must be mixed with 150 g of ice at its melting point.11 cm) 1 + (11 × 10 ∆L 0. Ignoring heat losses makes this easier.075 m 2 2 = 1 0(3. ms LV + ms c (Ts0 − T ) = mi LF + mi c (T − Ti0 ) where T = 50◦ C is the ﬁnal temperature.00 cal/g ·◦ C)(100◦ C − 50.23 A small electric immersion heater is used to heat 100 g of water for a cup of instant coﬀee.Lsteel +∆Lsteel = Lsteel (1 + αsteel ∆T ) = (20.0◦ C to 100◦ C. If the water is initially at 25◦ C.00 cal/g ·◦ C is the speciﬁc heat (all of water).773 m)2 3. ﬁnd the rise x of the center.00 cal/g ·◦ C)(50. unbent length and the buckled beam make two right triangles with x.220 J/g ·◦ C)(15◦ C) = 3. this is not likely.0◦ C) = 3. First.21 The original.773 m L = L (1 + α∆T ) = (3. To raise the temperature of the ice to 0◦ C requires an amount of heat equal to Q1 = mi ci (0◦ C − Ti0 ) + mi LF = (100 g)(2. and c = 1. P = Q ∆t → ∆t = Q 3.115 cm / C)(250 C) = 20.165 cm − 20.226 × 104 J A 200 watt heater is putting out 200 J every second (ignoring heat losses!). is at Ti0 = 0◦ C. is at Ts0 =◦ C and the mass of ice. LF = 333 J/g is the heat of fusion. The heat lost by the steam will be equivalent to the heat gained by the ice. in a thermally insulated container. what is the ﬁnal temperature of the equilibrium? (b) What is the ﬁnal temperature if only one ice cube is used? (a) The total change of energy of the system (water plus ice) is zero. ∆L = Lα∆T → α= = 23 × 10−6 / C 18. and the ice comes directly from a freezer at −15◦ C. Solve for ms : ms = mi LF + c (T − Ti0 ) 79.0◦ C. L/2 x The original.33 × 103 J 2 .77 m and the coeﬃcient of linear expansion cm)(250 is 25 × 10−6 /◦ C.21 As a result of a temperature rise of 32◦ C.05 of the bar ﬁxed distance L0 is 3.226 × 104 J = = 161 s P 200 J/s 18. ms .7 cal/g + (1.0◦ C) ms = 33 g 18. ◦18-31). unbent length and the buckled beam make two right triangles with x. a bar with = crack at its center buckles upward (Fig.0◦ C − 0◦ C) = (150 g) LV + c (Ts0 − T ) 539 cal/g + (1.77 m) 1 + (25 × 10−6 /◦ C)(32◦ C) = 3.773 m)2 − (3.190 J/g ·◦ C) (77.773 m 1 1 L2 − L2 = (3. If the a ◦ C) L∆T (20. calculate the time required 1 to bring all this water from 23.115 cm. I’ll calculate the energy required to raise the temperature of 100 g of water 77.165 cm So the increase in length of the rod is ∆L = 20. ignoring any heat losses. to produce liquid water at 50◦ C? The mass of steam.05 cm = 0. We need to ﬁnd L to L to ﬁnd x.41 (a) Two 50 g ice cubes are dropped into 200 g of water in a thermally insulated container.075 m 2 2−L L x= 0 1 x= 2 2 ( 18. The question is “Will all the ice melt?” I think for the two ice cube case.77 m)2 = 0. L0/2 x2 + L0 2 2 2 L0 2 x2 + L = = 22 L 2 2 We need to ﬁnd ﬁnd x.77 m)2 = 0. LV = 2256 J/g is the heat of vaporization. Q = mc∆T = (100 g) (4. 0 L = L0 (1 + α∆T ) = (3. mi = 150 g. The heater is labeled “200 watts” (it converts electrical energy to thermal energy at this rate). HRW 18.77 m) 1 + (25 × 10−6 /◦ C)(32◦ C) = 3.

: A B C B C A Q + + ! W + 0 ! Eint + + ! Since ∆V > 0.0V0 while its pressure decreases from p0 to p0 /4. 18-37b by inserting a plus sign. minus sig. so W > 0.43 In Fig. WC = P2 ∆V = (10 N/m2 )(4. (a) All the work done at the higher pressure.5◦ C (250 g)(4. How much ice is melted? mmelt LF = Q3 − Q1 → mmelt = 2. 18-37a.0. followed by the reasoning for each choice. 3 Since ∆Eint > 0 and W > 0. (a)−(g) Complete the table in Fig.0 m3 − 1. followed by the reasoning for each choice.665 × 103 J Q2 = 1. (b) path B.0 m3 − 1.33 × 103 J = 43 g 333 J/g The ﬁnal temperature is 0◦ C with 57 g of ice and 243 g of water. The heat required to raise the temperature of the ice and to melt the ice will be half of what they were for part (a): Q1 = 1. mi = 50 g.0 m3 and p0 = 40P a.33 × 104 J Lowering the temperature of the water from by 25◦ C releases an amount of heat equal to Q3 = mc (T0 − 0◦ C) = (200 g)(4. WA = P1 ∆V = (40 N/m2 )(4.0 m3 ) = 120 J (b) Pressure decreases while the volume increases.095 × 104 J − 3.190 J/g ·◦ C)(25◦ C) = 2. and then back to A. If V0 = 1.: (a) Here is the chart ﬁlled out. the system is doing positive work. (h) What is the net work done by the system as it moves once through the cycle ABCA? (a) Here is the chart ﬁlled out.635 × 103 J = 2. as shown in the p-V diagram of Fig. There will be m = m + mi = 250 g of water at the end at a temperature of m cT = Q3 − Q1 − Q2 = 2.0 m3 . a gas sample expands from V0 to 4.0 m3 ) = 75 J 2 2 (a) All the work done at the lower pressure.190 J/g ·◦ C) HRW 18. we must have Q > 0. how much work is done by the gas if its pressure changes with volume via (a) path A. or a zero in each indicated cell.and to melt the ice it requires Q2 = mi LF = (100 g)(333 J/g) = 3.0 m3 − 1. WB = 1 1 (P1 + P2 )∆V = (40 N/m2 + 10 N/m2 )(4. and (c) path C? The work done is just the “area” under the curve in a P − V diagram. The vertical scale is set by Vs = 4.44 A thermodynamic system is taken from state A to state B to state C. .0 m3 ) = 30 J HRW 18.635 × 103 J → T = 2. (b) Now we only have one ice cube. cooling the water to 0◦ C is enough to raise the temperature of the ice up to 0◦ C and to melt part of the ice.095 × 104 J Thus. 18-36.665 × 104 J and Q1 + Q2 < Q3 The last relation tells us that there will be some energy left over after raising the temperature of the ice and melting the ice.

0 J. W .0 × 103 min 30 shakes/min → N= c∆T (4180 J/kg ·◦ C)(85◦ C) = = 1.0 J.180 J/cal) = 194J/s = 194 W 86400 s So the athlete uses up energy at a rate of roughly two 100 W bulbs. which is the work done by the system. so W = 0. Since ∆V < 0. Knowing the internal energy change must be zero in a closed cycle.0 J of heat were removed from the system during process CA. N : N mg∆h = mc∆T The time for this number of shakes is ∆t = It would take about 2. We want the heat transfer dring CA. If he were to use this energy up at a steady rate. W = −200 J. For the whole cycle we must have ∆Eint = 0 so we must have ∆Eint < 0 here. no energy is transferred as heat during process BC.E2 A chef. 18. what are the values (including algebraic signs) of (a) W . The energy required to raise the temperature is mc∆T .) We just need to convert this to Joules per second (i.0 J = −5.48 Gas held within a chamber passes through the cycle shown in Fig.2 × 105 g∆h (9. the chef making 30 shakes each minute.0 cal = −293 J.0 cal is extracted from the system as heat.80 N/kg)(0. ∆Eint = 0 → QAB + QBC + QCA − WABCA = 0 QCA = WABCA − QAB − QBC = 15. Since ∆Eint < 0 and W < 0.0 J. this implies.e. 18-40. Suppose that he uses tap water at 15◦ C and the water falls 30 cm each shake. the system is doing positive work. Since ∆Eint > 0 and W > 0. and the net work done during the cycle is 15. we must have ∆Eint > 0. decides to boil the water for his wife’s coﬀee by shaking it in a thermos ﬂask. and (c) ∆Eint ? (a) Since work is done on the system. 18. Determine the energy transferred by the system as heat during process CA if the energy added as heat QAB during process AB is 20.8 days of shaking. (b) Q. 1 W = − ∆P ∆V = −20 J 2 HRW 18. work is done on the system (or the system is doing negative work). the change in internal energy will be ∆Eint = Q − W = −293 J − (−200 J) = −93 J HRW 18.0 J − 20.A→B B→C C→A Since ∆V > 0. must be negative. so W < 0. (c) Finally. (b) Heat is extracted from the system so Q = −70.46 Suppose 200 J of work is done on a system and 70. We can ﬁnd the number of shakes. how long must he shake the ﬂask until the water reaches 100◦ C? The energy gained in one 30 cm drop (assuming no losses) is mg∆h. (b) The work done by the system is equal to the area under the curve but negative here because the loop is CCW.2 × 105 shakes = 4. We are given QAB = 20. on ﬁnding his stove out of order. we must have Q < 0. the system is not doing work.E1 An energetic athlete can use up all the energy from a diet of 4000 Cal/day. Since Q > 0 and W = 0. 1. how would his rate of energy use compare with the power of a 100 W bulb? (The power of 100 W is the rate at which the bulb converts electrical energy to heat and the energy of visible light. In the sens of the ﬁrst law of thermodynamics. Neglecting any loss of thermal energy by the ﬂask. QBC = 0 (so BC is an adiabat). so W > 0. we must have Q > 0.30 m) 4 .. and WABCA = 15. Watts) keeping in mind that this is 4000 food calories or 4000 kcal: 1 day 4000 kcal/day × (4. Since ∆V = 0.0 J.0 J So 5.