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, most of african origin & a few of european origin. africa is the most polyglot continent in the world. it is not rare to find individuals there who fluently speak not only several african languages, but one or two european ones as well. there are four major lanugage families native to africa. they are: - the afro-asiatic languages are a language family of about 240 languages & 285 million people widespread throughout east africa, north africa, the sahel & southwest asia. - the nilo-saharan language family consists of more than 100 languages spoken by 30 million people. nilo-saharan languages are mainly soken in chad, ethiopia, kenya, sudan, uganda, northern tanzania. - the niger-congo language family covers much of sub-saharan africa & is propbably the largest language family in the world in terms of different languages. a substantial number of them are the bantu languages spoken in much of sub-saharan africa. - the khoisan languages number about 50 & are spoken in southern africa by approximately 1,20,000 people . many of the khoisan languages are endangered. the khoi & san peoples are considered the roiginal inhabitants of this part of africa. following colonialism nearly all african countries adopted official languages that originated outside the continent, although several countries nowadays also use various languages of native origin (such as swahili) as their official language. in numerous countries , english & french are used for communication in the public sphere including government, commerce, education & media.
ANDEAN RANGE the andean range is composed principally of two great ranges, the cordilera oriental & cordillera occidental, often seperated by a deep intermediate depression, in which arise other chains of minor importance, the chief of which is chile's cordillera de la costa. other small chain arise on the sides of the great chains. the cordillera de la costa, starts from the southern extremity of the continent & runs in northerly direction, parallel with the coast, being broken up at its beginning into a number of islands & afterwards forming the western boundary of the great central valley of chile. to the north this coastal continues in small ridges / isollated hills along the pacific ocean as far as venezuela, always leaving the same valley. this andean range extended over 7 countries. some of them known as andean states itself. the name andes comes from the Quechua word anti, means "high crest". another , it is derived from spanish word "anden" means terrace in reference the culitvation terraces used by the Incas & other related peoples. the andes range is the highest mountain range outside asia, with its highest peak, Aconcagua , rising to 6960 mts (22,841 ft) above sea level. the andes cannot match himalayas in height but do so in width & are more than twice as long.
it is a chain or cluster of islands. the word archipelago literally means "chief sea", from greek arkhon & pelagoes. in antiquity , the archipelago was the proper name for the aegean sea & later shifted to islands. archipelago are usually found in the open sea; less commonly , a large land mass may neighbour them. Scotland has more than 700 islands surrounding the mainland. archipelago are often volcanic, forming along mid-ocean ridges but there are many other processes involved in their construction, including erosion & deposition. the 4 largest modern states that are mainly archipelagos are : japan, philippiness, new zealand, indonesia. the largest archipelago in the world by size is in northern canada situated in the artic ocean. ARETE it is a thin , knife-like , ridge of rock which is typically formed when the two glaciers erode parallel U-shaped valleys. the Arete is a thin ridge of rock that is left seperating the two valleys.can also form when two glaciers cirques erode headwards towards one another, frequently this results in saddle shapped pass called Col. the edge is sharpened by freeze thaw weathering. the word arete is actually French for fishbone. Few examples of arete are : - knife-edge on Mount Katandin, maine, USA - clouds rest, in the Sierra nevada, california - the Minarets in sierra nevada, california - the garden wall in glacier national park, wales. - striking edge in the english lake district - the catwalk in olympic national park, washington, USA.
ATOLL it is an island of coral that encircles a lagoon partially or completely. the word atoll is derived from the Dhivehi an Indo-Aryan language spoken on the Maldives islands word atholhu. its first recorded use in english was in 1625. the term was popularized by charles darwin who described atolls as a subset in a special class of islands. DEFINITION : atolls are those as " an annular reef enclosing a lagoon in which there are no promontories other than reefs & islet composed of reef detritus". these are the product of the growth of tropical marine organisms, so these islands are only found in warm tropical waters . volcanic islands located beyond the warm water temperature requirements of reef building organism become sea-mounts as they subside & are eroded away at the surface. islands more polar evolve towards sea-mounts islands more equatorial evolve towards atolls. most of the world's atoll are in PAcific ocean & Indian ocean. LARGEST ATOLLS BY TOTAL AREA:
saya de masha bank, western Indian ocean 35,000 km2 without separate north bank, submerged ; least depth 7m great chagos bank 12,642 km2 land by area only 4.5 km2
y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y
reed bank, spratly islands 8860 km2, depth 9m macclesfield bank, south china sea 6448 km2, depth 9.2m north bank 5800 km2, depth <10m caysal bank, bahamas 5226.73 km2 landsdocone bank, west of new caledonia 5000 km2, depth 3.7m thilaanunmathi-miladhumadulu atoll, maldives 3850 km2 huvadhu atoll, maldives 3152 km2 trunk lagoon , chuuk 3130 km2 kepulauan sabalana, indonesia 2694 km2 ishou reef, coral sea 2529 km2 bassa de pedro 2474,33 km2, depth 16.4m ardasier bank, spratly islands 2347 km2 kwajalein, marshall islands 2304 km2 diamond islets bank, coral sea 2282 km2 namonuito atoll, chuuk 2267 km2 ari atoll, maldives 2252 km2 maro reef, north-western hawaiian islands 1934 km2 rangiroa tuamatu islands, 1762 km2 kolhumadulu atoll, maldives 1617 km2 north male, maldives 1656 km2 ontong java, solomon islands 1010
THE BEAUFORT SCALE this is the scale used for measuring & recording the strength of the wind. it is based on estomated velocity at 10 m (33feet) above the ground. it was devised by admiral sir beaufort, in 1805. DESCRIPTION = SPEED (KM/HOUR) = POSSIBLE EFFECTS I. LIGHT WINDS :
5-5 = smoke drifts gently light breeze = 6-12 = leaves rustle. gentle breeze = 13-20 = leaves & twigs on trees move. strong breeze = 40-50 = large braches move moderate gale = 51-61 = whole trees sway. Great Indian Hornbill Greater Indian Hornbill is considered to be the largest member of the hornbill family. it is usually found inhabiting the forests of Indian . is scientifically known as Spilornis cheela. is a resident bird of the Indian subcontinent. MODERATE WINDS : DESCRIPTION = SPEED (KM/HOUR) = POSSIBLE EFFECTS y y y y moderate breeze = 21-29 = dust & paper raised from ground fresh breeze = 30-39 = small trees start to sway. Almost all the subspecies of Bitterns have a short neck and tend to be more secretive than the other members of the family. Greylag Goose Greylag goose. It is a specialist reptile eater. Crested Serpent Eagle Indian Crested Serpent Eagle. Since then. a member of Accipitridae family. Anser anser. Grey Francolin Grey Francolin. III.y y y y calm = 0 = chimmney smoke rises vertically light air = 1. also known as Grey Partridge. Birds in India Bittern Indian bittern is a bird belonging to the Ardeidae family of herons. it has beautifully adapted itself to the country as well as its climate. which mainly hunts snakes and lizards. Gray Lag Goose is a very frequent winter visitor to the north regions of the Indian subcontinent. Scientifically known as Buceros bicornis. is one of the Old World species of birds and was known in the pre-Linnean times as Wild Goose. Indian Bittern birds form a monophyletic subfamily in the heron family of Botaurinae. storm = 103-121 = widespread damage occurs hurricane = above 121 = widespread devastation occurs. wind felt on face. II. GALES : DESCRIPTION = SPEED (KM/HOUR) = POSSIBLE EFFECTS y y y y y fresh gale = 62-75 = twigs are broken off trees strong gale = 76-87 = slight structural damage to buildings whole gale = 88-102 = trees are uprooted & houses damaged. It has ancestral relations with the domesticated geese of Europe and North America. The species was introduced for the first time in the Andaman Islands.
Heron Indian heron belongs is a member of the large wading bird family. Peacock Blue peacock is regarded as one of the most beautiful birds throughout the world. There is one major characteristic that distinguishes herons from the other birds. the Peafowl of India is a swan-sized bird. Peacock is the name given to a male peafowl. Dams and Reservoirs in Indian States 1. Stork Indian stork is one of the 17 different species of storks found throughout the world. the Malay Peninsula and Sumatra. The bird is usually seen in small coveys and is quite shy by nature. known as Ardeidae. Scientifically known as Pavo cristatus (Linnaeus). savannas and marshes. It is found mostly inhabiting the tropical and sub tropical areas. It is also the National Bird of the Indian subcontinent. Indian herons can also be seen in temperate areas. However. One can get a glimpse of the Jungle bush quails of India mainly when they burst out into flight from under the vegetation. The natural habitat of the storks comprises of Indian fields. The only continent where storks are not found is that of Antarctica.Andhra Pradesh * Nagarjuna Sagar Dam * Srisailam Project * Srisailam Dam * Nizam Sagar * Telugu Ganga * Polavaram dam * Nijam Sagar Reservoir * Osman Sagar * Sriram Sagar Reservoir * Lower Maneru Reservoir * Himayath Sagar Reservoir * Dindi Reservoir * Somasila Reservoir * Gandipalem Reservoir * Dowleswaram Barrage * prakasam barrage * Tatipudi Reservoir * Ichampalli * Pulichintala * Ellammpalli . Jungle Bush Quail Jungle bush quail bird is one of the species of quails found in South Asia. with a long and slender neck. The average lifespan of the Great Pied Hornbill of India exceeds 35 years and may go upto 50 years in captivity.subcontinent. Indonesia. while the female is known as Peahen.
* Chamera Dam on Ravi River near Chamba. * Pandoh Dam on Beas River.Gujarat * Sardar Sarovar Project on Narmada river * Ukai Dam near Surat 3. near Mandi. Chief Architect: Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvarayya. * Alamatti Dam * Basava Sagara Dam * Linganamakki dam * Supa Dam * Kodasalli Dam * Kadra Dam * Tunga Bhadra Dam * Kabini Reservoir * Harangi Dam * Narayanpur Dam downstream of Alamatti Dam * Garura Dam Krishna River * Hemavathi Reservoir (Gorur Dam) 5.Himachal Pradesh * Bhakra Dam on Sutlej river.* Singur Dam * Dummagudem * NagarjunaSagar TailPond * Sunkesula * Musi Reservoir 2. 4.Karnataka * Krishna Raja Sagara Dam built by the then Maharaja of the erstwhile Mysore Kingdom. near Talwara. * Nathpa Dam on Sutlej River near Rampur. Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. near Nangal * Gobind Sagar * Maharana Pratap Sagar * Pong Dam Reservoir on Beas River.Kerala * Banasura Sagar Dam * Chalakkudy Dam * Idukki Dam * Kundaly dam in Munnar * Malampuzha Dam * Mattupetty Dam * Parambikulam Dam * Pothundi Dam . across Cauvery River.
* Walayar Dam * Idukki arch dam in idukki * Neyyar Dam 6. Nashik * Karanjwan Dam * Nandur Madhmeshwar Dam * Yeldari on Purna River Near Parbhani * Siddheshwar on Purna River Near Parbhani * Manar On River Manar Near Nanded * Girna On River Girna * Chaskaman On River Bhima Near Rajgurunagar 8.Orissa * Balimela Reservoir * Hirakud Dam on Mahanadi River near Sambalpur * Balimela Reservoir .River Mula * Khadakwasla .River Mutha * Radhanagari * Bhatsa * Tansa * Vaitarna * Pawna .River Mutha * Kolkewadi Dam * Panshet .Meghalaya * Umiam Lake 9.Madhya Pradesh * Bansagar * Bargi Dam * Barna Dam * Gandhi Sagar dam * Indirasagar * Narmada Dam Project * Rajghat * Tawa Reservoir 7.River Koyna * Jaikwadi * Ujani -River Bhima * Mulshi Dam .River Pawna * Bhandardara * Gangapur Dam. Nashik * Ozarkhed Dam.Maharashtra * Koyna Dam .
* Jalaput on Machkund River near Jaypore. Koraput District 10.Tamil Nadu * Aliyar Reservoir * Amaravathi Reservoir * Anaikuttam Reservoir * Anainaduvu Reservoir * Bhavanisagar Reservoir * Chittar Reservoir * Chittar Reservoir-1 * Chittar Reservoir-2 * Gatana Reservoir * Golwarpatti Reservoir * Gomukhinadhi Reservoir * Gundar Reservoir * Gunderippalam Reservoir * Kariakoil Reservoir * Karupppanadhi Reservoir * Kelavarapalli Reservoir * Kesarigulihalla Reservoir * Kodaganar Reservoir * Kovilar Reservoir * Krishnagiri Reservoir * Kullursandai Reservoir * Kutharaiyar Reservoir * Lower Nirar Reservoir * Manimukthanadhi Reservoir * Manimuthar Reservoir * Manjalar Reservoir * Marudhanadhi Reservoir * Mettur Dam * Nagavathi Reservoir * Noyyal Oarathuppalayam * Palar Porandalar Reservoir * Pambar Reservoir * Parambikulam Reservoir * Parappalar Reservoir * Pechiparai Reservoir * Periyar Reservoir (Pilavukkal Project) * Periyar Reservoir * Perumpallam Reservoir * Perunchani Reservoir * Peruvaripallam * Ponnaniar Reservoir * Ramanadhi Reservoir * Sathanur Reservoir * Sholayar Reservoir * Siddhamalli Reservoir .
West Bengal * Maithon Dam * Panchet Dam EOLINE PROCESSES it is the processes pertain to the activity of the winds & more specifically . to the winds ability to shape the surface of the earth & other planets. called blowouts are hollows formed by the removal of particles by wind . a dark. clay. fine-grained particles .Uttar Pradesh * Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar on Rihand River in Sonbhadra * Matatila Dam on Betwa River in Lalitpur * Parichha Dam on Betwa River in Parichha (Jhansi District). sculpted landforms .Uttarakhand * Tehri dam 13. shiny stain called desert vanish is often found on the surface of some desert rocks that have been exposed at the surface for a long period of time. by the removal of loose. most of Eoline deflation zones are composed of the desert pavement. called Yardangs. are up ot tens of meters high & kilometers long are form that have been stremlined by desert winds. wind erodes the earth's surface by deflation . wind-driven grains abrade landforms. iron oxides. deflation basins .* Soolagiri chinnar Reservoir * Stanley Reservoir * Thambalahalli Reservoir * Thirumurthi Reservoir * Thoppaiyar Reservoir * Thunakadavu Reservoir * Uppar Reservoir * Upper Nirar Wier * Vaigai Dam * Vaigai Reservoir * Vaniyar Reservoir * Varadamanadhi Reservoir * Varattupallam Reservoir * Vattamalaikarai Odai Reservoir * Vembakottai Reservoir * Vidur Reservoir * Willingdon Reservoir 11. . regions which experience intense & sustained erosion are called deflation zone. by the turbulent eddy action of the wind & by abrasion. 12. hydroxides. this process are important in arid environments such as deserts . a sheet-like surface of rock fragments that remains after wind & water have removed the fine particulars. winds may erode transport & deposit minerals & are effective agents in regions with sparse vegetation & large supply of unconsolidated sediments . shine stain minerals are manganese.
which includes regions crossed by the dry.Lothal-1957(Ahmedabad) -.Harappa-1921(Montgomery) -. the mason esker at 22 miles is one of the longest Esker in the US. length / both dimensions greater than 500m. ergs are als found on other celestial bodies. the term takes its name from the Arabic word erg mean "dune field".Bonwali-1973(Hissar) -.S.Bist 6. water-laid sand & gravel. an ergis defined as to be a desert area that contains more than 125 square kilometers of eolian sand & where sand covers more than 20% of the surface approximately 85% of the earth's mobile sand is found in ergs that are larger than 32. attain great thickness more than 1000m. stream deposits remain as long winding ridges. at least 1 million years are required to build ergs with very large dunes sand sea that have accumulated in subsiding structural & topographic basins. they can reach hundreds of kilometers in high. flood plains. individual dunes forming ergs typically have width.D.R. glacial out wash plains. sand sea & dune fields generally occur in regions downwind of copious sources of dry. dry lakes & dry beaches.Sharma 8. in linear zones between stagnant blocks. but have gaps that seperate the winding segments.Y. structure of Esker.D.Vatsa 7.Kalibangan-(Hanumangar) -.Alamgirpur-(Meerut) -. winding ridge of stratified sand & gravel.M. ESKER it is a long . such as venus & saturn's moon titan. deltas.S. the sediments consists of coarse-grained. cross-bedding is common in Esker. after the retaining ice walls melt away. Eskers can be borad-crested / sharp-crested with steepsides. increvasses. this in turn determines shape. these are frequently several miles in length.ERG LANDFORM an erg is also known as duna sea is a large relatively flat area of desert covered with wind-swept san with little of to no vegetation cover.000 km2. erg are concentrated in 2 broad belts between 20 degree-40 degree S latitutdes. loose sand. subsiding air of the trade winds.Rangpur-1931(Gujarat) -. composition.Rakhaldas Banerjee 3. the ridge crests of eskers are not usually level for very long & are generally knobby. EXCAVATIONS IN INDIA AND THEIR EXCAVATORS 1.Ropar-1955(Punjab) -. most of esker are believed to form in ice-walled tunnels by streams which flowed within & under glaciers.Amalananda Gosh 4.Sharma . averaged erg are limited to regions which receive not more than 150 mm of annual precipitation.it it is also form above the glaciers by accumulation of sediment in supraglacial channels.Dayaram sahani 2.Y. they are no often found as continuous ridges.R. the name Esker is derived from Irish word eiscier means " a ridge of one seperating two plains surfaces". such as dry riverbeds .Rao 5. by nature ergs are very active. the rate of plastic flow & melting of the basic ice determines the size & shape of the subglacial tunnel.Mohanjadaro-1922(Sindh) -. the concentration of rock debris in the ice & the rate at which sediment is delivered to the tunnel by melting & from upstream transport determines the amount of sediments in Eskers.S.
. . most recently.A. international commission for the protection of the Rhine against pollution was formed. .Surkotada-(Gujarat) -. FELDSPAR . in Strasbourg in 1987 are : . the use of the river of extracting drinking water is also dafeguarded. .national laws are made starting how much waster material can be discharged.P. international co-operation over the river Rhine goes back to 1887 with a treaty prohibiting the discharge of wastes dangerous to fish.there is an alaram system for every time the concentration of a certain material exceeds its permitted value. main. Lippe. * back bone of Europe = Rhine * Rhine originates from = Gothar * Rhine enters rift valley at = Basle * Rhine drains into = North sea * Tributaries of Rhine = Mosel.to accelerate the reduction of permanent pollution from all sources.Joshi 11.Sutkagendor-(Baluchisthan) -.plans are made for the conservation & restoration of natural landscapes. by the 2000.to improve hydrological & other conditions of the river.Stein FACTS OF RHINE Introduction : Rhine is the of the largest at river in Europe. the Rhino Action Programme was developed . programme aims to achieve a return to the river species such as the salmon which once thrived them. At The National Rivers : .to reduce the risk of accidents & spillages.9.there is nore co-operation between countries that share the Rhine . At International Level : . it runs for over 1300 kilometers from its source in South Rhine flows on through France. The specific aimes of the Rhine Action Programme Approved by a confluence of ministers on the protection of the Rhine against Pollution. after a serious incident in 1986.pollution taxes are imposed on individuals & industrial plants .Majumdar 12.J. Germany & Netherlands.Kotdiji-1935(Sindh) -. .purification & measuring stations are built.Ghurey 10.industrial plants are obliged to have a permit for their emissions.Changudaro-(Sindh) -.
they are distinguished from a regular flood by a timescale less than 6 hours. .sodium solution between K-feldspar & albit are called alkali feldspar.it is the name of a group of rock-forming minerals which make up as much as 60% of the earth's crust. it is typically reddish / pale pink in color. or multiple thunder storms. . FLASH FLOOD it is rapidly flooding of geomorphic lowlying areas.sanidine.feldspar is often an anti-eating agent used in powedered forms of non-dairy creams.microline at the lowest perthite is typical texture in alkali feldspar. feldspar refers to minerals that contains feldspar.feldspar is common raw material in the production of ceramics. they are also found in many types of sedimentary rock. they mostly often occur in dry areas that have recently received precipitation. K-feldspar endmembranes = KAlSi3O8 Albite endmembranes = NaAlSi3O8 Anorthite endmembranes = CaAl2Si2O8 . composition of major elements in common feldspar can be expressed in term of 3 endmembranes. CAUSES it occurs when the ground becomes saturated with water that has fallen too quickly to be absorbed. these are extremely dangerous because of their sudden nature.solid solution between albite & anorthite are called plagioclase.washes. COMPOSITION : this group of minerals consists of framework or tectosilicates . USES : . feldspar is derived from the german word feld.feldspar are used for thermoluminescence dating & optical dating in earth science & archeology. a rock that does not contain ore. field. .caused by the intense rainfall associated with a thunder strom. . spat . due to exsolution of contrasting alkali feldspar compositions during cooling of an intermediate composition. & they can also occur as compact minerals as veins & are also present in many types of metamorphic rock . rivers & streams -. the perthitic texture in the alkali feldspar of many granites are coarse enough to be visible to the naked eye. . . microline refer to polymorphs of K-feldspar. rock formed entirely of plagioclase Feldspar is known as northosite. & has a hardness of 60 the mohs scale.sanidine is stable at the highest temperature . orthoclase. crystallize from magma in both intrusive & extrusive rocks.
Foehn wind in Austria.the Nor'Westr in Hawkes Bay . fumarole could be described as a hot spring that boils off call its water before the water reaches the surface example famous ot spring that boils off call its water before the water reaches the surface example famous valley of ten thousand smokes .FOEHN WIND this occurs when a deep layer of prevailing wind is forced over a mountain range. is given to fumaroles that emit sulfurous gases.Zonda winds in Argentina . which was formed during the 1912 erruption of novarupta in alaska.Berg wind in South Africa . Eastern Europe .Chinook in USA & Canada .Fogony in the Catalan Pyrenees . in chatic clusters or fields & on the surface of lava flows & thick deposites of pyroclastic flows. they are : . Foehn winds are often associated in popular mythology with illness ranging from migraines to psychosis. often in the neighbourhood of volcanoes. Foehn winds can rise temperature by as much as 30 degree C . sulfur dioxide. causing water vapour to precipitate out. it expands & cools. 54 degree F in just a matter of hours. from the italian solfa sulfur. the name Foehn came from German. GEOGRAPHICAL SURNAMES 1. EFFECTS : winds of this type are called "snow-eaters" for their ability to make snow melt rapidly. a fumarole field is an area of thermal springs & gas vents are releasing gases or interacting with groung water from the perspective of ground water.Terral in Malaga Souhtern Spain . FUMAROLE it is an opening in earth's crust .fumarole may occur along tiny cracks or long fissures. Foehn winds are called in different names in different countries.Halny in Carpathian Mountain. the name solfatare . originated in the alpine region.Viento Sur in the Cantabrian region of North Spain . which emits steam & gases such as carbon dioxide. Blue Mountains = Nilgiri Hills . southern germany. as the wind moves upslope. hydrocloric acid & hydrogen sulfide. this dehydrate air then passes over the cre st & begins to move downslope. this ability is based no t only on high temperature. but also the low relative humidity of the air mass.
4.2. 14. 24. the formation of geysers require a favourable hydrogeology which exists in only a few places on earth. 26. ejecting a column of hot water & stream into the air. 21. 15. That is located around the northwest area of Mt. which is also an active volcano in the south central part of the island. 5. 16. 3. 20. exchange of functions with near by hot springs. 11. US. 12. . 7. 10. 28. 19. It is a type of hot spring that errupts periodically. 13. Hekla. 9. geyser erruptive may change / cease due to ongoing mineral deposition with in the geyser as plumbing. the word comes from Iceland means "to gush". the name of an errupting spring at Iceland. 29. Bengal's Sorrow = Damodar river City of Palaces = Kolkota China's Sorrow = Hwang Ho City of Seven Hills = Rome City of Skyscrapers = New York Cockpit of Europe = Belgium Dark Continent = Africa Empire city = New York Emerald Island = Ireland Gift of Nile = Egypt Gateway of India = Bombay Granite city = Aberdeen ( Scotland ) Holy land = Jerusaleum Island of Cloves = Zanzibar Land of Midnight Sun = Norway Land of Rising Sun = Japan Land of Thousand Lakes = Finland Land of Golden Pagoda = Burma Land of Morning Calm = Korea Land of Maple Leaf = Canada Land of Thousand Elephants = Laos Land of White Elephants = Thailand Land of Five Rivers = Punjab Land of Thunderbolt = Bhutan PlayGround of Europe = Switzerland Rose Pink City = Jaipur Roof of World = The Pamirs in Central Asia Sugar Bowl of World = Cuba Yellow River = Hawang-Ho ( China ) GEYSER Geysers were named after a famous "the Great Geysir" of Iceland. 8. That means "roarer" in Icelandic language. the name geyser comes from geysir. 25. 18. about 1000 exist worldwide. 17. 6. 30. 23. half of them is in Yellowstone National Park. 27. 22. so they are fairely ran phenomena.
many geyser have been destroyed by people throwing litter & debris into them. 2.000 liters of boiling water to heights of aver 30 to 55 m in each eruption. Yellowstone has 500 of all the geysers in the world. most geysers form in places where there is volcanic rhyolite rock which dissolves in hot water & forms mineral deposite called silicons sinter. The geysers are made by a forceful eruption of water to go to heights of 100 to 200 feet. the upper limit for the survival of eyanobacteria . as the structure of key cellular proteins & DNA would be destroyed. Old Faithful is not the largest geyser in Yellowstone. with an average of 76 minutes less predictable. However most geysers are always irregular. typically in a series of intense. but then they are a rather unusual phenomenon. Approximately 700 geysers.earthquakes influence. geyser activity all hot spring activity is caused by surface water gradually seeping down through the ground until it meets rock heated by magma. in the 1960s . the specific colours of geysers derices from the fact that despite the apparently harsh condition. life is often found in them in the form of thermophilic prokaryotes. though Old Faithful ejects 14. FOUNTAIN GEYSER : errupt from pools of water. These eruptions do erupt in about 45 to 110 minutes. GLACIER ERRATIC . others have ceased to errupt due to the dewatering by geothermal power plants. when the research of biology of geyser first appeared. scientists were generally convinced that no life can survive above around 73 degree c (163 degree F). but is known to be the most frequent on its eruptions on time periods. and the record holding is around 1500 feet. Old Faithful is known to be the most famous geyser in Yellowstone National Park. Iceland is located on the Mid Atlantic ridge noted for its basic activities. TWO TYPES OF GEYSERS : 1. which is responsible for all that roaring. burts. even violent. When the water comes to blow off steam. usually in steady jets that last anywhere from few seconds to several minutes. Other Physical Nature In the Earth where there is an opening that would contain superheated water that periodically erupts in a shower of water and of steam. Geysers are always around places like hot springs. They are found around places where there are heated rocks close to the surface. Once the other geysers in the Norris Geysers the north Geysers Basin did erupt to 12 to 15 m every 60 seconds. The vigor of these eruptions is what we want to understand more of. geyser differ from non eeruptive hot springs in their subterranean structure.000 to 32. CONE GEYSER : these geysers which errupt from cones of siliceous sinter.
IMPORTANT GLACIERS OF HIMALAYAN MOUNTAINS KARAKORAM RANGE Name of the glacier = Length(km) = Location y y y y y y y y y y y y siachen = 75 = nubra fedchenko = 74 = south-western pamir hispar = 62 = tributary of hunza river biafo = 59 = braldoh valley batura = 58 = hunza baltoro = 58 = braldoh valley chogo lungma = 50 = rakaposhi range khurdopla = 47 = shingshal valley lolofond = 40 = west of siachen yarkand rimo = 40 = shyok valley mohil yaz = 32 = shingshal valley yazhit = 31 = shingshal valley . the ozone level can rise to a point where it becomes hazardous to our health. these rocks were carried to their current location by glacial ice. and this ozone is very beneficial because it absorbs UV radiation and prevents it from reaching us. over hundred's of kilometers. the name "erratic" is based on the errant location of these boulders. That's when we hear about an ozone warning on the news. chemicals in car exhaust and chemicals produced by some industries react with light to produce lots of ozone at ground level. It also damages plants and buildings.it is a piece of rock that deviates from the size & type of rock native to the area in which it rests. Unfortunately. Ozone is a very reactive gas that is hard on lungtissue. Erratics can range in size from pebbles to large boulders such as Big rock which is 16. Any ozone at ground level is a problem. How can ozone be both good and bad? The thing that determines whether ozone is good or bad is its location. Ozone is "good" when it is in the stratosphere. Ozone is "bad" when it is at ground level.500 ton is in Alberia. In cities. The stratosphere is a layer of the atmosphere starting at the level of about 6 miles (about 10 kilometers) above sea level. The stratosphere naturally contains about six parts per million of ozone.
y y y godwin austen = 30 = K2 ching kumdon = 21 = shyok gasherbrum = 16 = gasherbrum THE PIR PANJAL RANGE Name of the glacier = Length(km) = Location y y y y y sonapani = 15 = chandra valley of lahul & spiti bara shigri = 10-20 = chandra valley rakhiot = 15 = nanga parbat gangri = 13 = nun kun massif chungphar = 13 = nanga parbat KUMAON-GARHWAL REGION Name of the glacier = Length(km) = Location y y y y y gangotri = 30 = source of the ganga milam = 20 = gori ganga bhagirath kharak = 18 = near badrinath mana = 18 = mana valley north of the gangotri satopanch = 16 = near badrinath CENTRAL NEPAL REGION Name of the glacier = Length(km) = Location y y y y yepokangara = 13. covers head of kanchen river khumbu = 20 = south of Mt.everest kangshung = 19 = east of Mt.5 = gosainthan lidanda = 11 = manasulu chhuling = 11 = manasulu mayondi = 11 = dhaulagiri himal KANCHENJUNGA-EVEREST REGION Name of the glacier = Length(km) = Location y y y y y y y y rongbuk = 52 = northern (tibetan) side of the mount everest zemu = 25 = zemu valley (from headwaters of the tists river) kanchenjunga = 21 = north of kanchenjunga.everest tolam bau = 19 = south-west of barunste peak barun = 15 = north-east of baruntse peak rambang = 10 = kanchanjunga International Lines: .
World's longest dam: 4801m 6 Rihand Project On Son in Mirzapur. 3 dams are there: Gandhi Sagar Dam. 4 Damodar Valley Project On Damodar in Bihar. Apart from power and irrigation it helps to remove silt for easy . Reservoir is called Govind Vallabh Pant reservoir. Reservoir is called Gobind Sagar Lake.Namibia and Angola 8.North and South Korea 10. 49th Parallel Line .NAME OF THE LINE and COUNTRIESBETWEEN 1.Afghan and Pak 2.France and Germany 5. 2 Mandi Project On Beas in HP 3 Chambal Valley Project On Chambal in MP & Rajasthan. 14 Tata Hydel Scheme On Bhima in Maharashtra 15 Sharavathi Hydel Project On Jog Falls in Karnataka 16 Kundah & Periyar Project In TN 17 Farakka Project On Ganga in WB.16th Parallel Line .India and Pakistan 7.Germany and Poland(After I World War) 3.Maginot Line . It is the oldest river valley project of India.India and China 6.17th Parallel Line . Highest in India. 7 Kosi Project On Kosi in N. Based on Tennessee Valley Project.Mac-Mohan Line . Rana Pratap Sagar Dam and Jawahar Sagar Dam. 8 Mayurkashi Project On Mayrukashi in WB.Bihar. 11 Nagarjuna Sagar Project Krishna in AP 12 Tungabhadra Project On Tungabhadra in AP & Karnataka 13 Shivasamudram Project On Cauvery in Karnataka.North and South Vietnam 9.USA and Canada Important River Valley Projects 1 Bhakra Nangal Project On Sutlaj in Punjab. Hindenburg Line . Durand Line . Ht 226 m. Oder-Neisse Line . 5 Hirakud Project On Mahanadi in Orissa.Radcliffe Line .38th Parallel Line .Germany and Poland 4. 9 Kakrapara Project On Tapi in Gujarat. USA. 10 Nizamsagar Project On Manjra in AP.
Afghanistan = 80 = 0.78 . continuous beach structure .Pakistan = 3310 = 21. Uttaranchal 25 Sardar Sarovar Project On Narmada. Punjab 23 Pong Dam On Beas. Gujarat/MP.59 .Bangladesh = 4096 = 26. Punjab 24 Tehri Project On Bhgirathi.Aminidiv = group of islands north of 11th parallel part of lakshadweep .Lakshadweep = coral islands .navigation.Diu = fishing island.52 .Nepal = 1752 = 11.86 . 18 Ukai Project On Tapti in Gujarat 19 Mahi Project On Mahi in Gujarat 20 Salal Project On Chenab in J & K 21 Mata Tila Multipurpose Project On Betwa in UP & MP 22 Thein Project On Ravi. LENGTH OF INDIA'S BORDER WITH ITS NEIGHBOURS COUNTRY =LENGTH OF BORDER (KM) = % OF TOTAL BORDER .Bassein = old deposits .77 .53 .China = 3917 = 25.95 INDIAN ISLANDS ISLANDS = SIGNIFICANCE .Myanmar = 1458 = 9.Cannanore = group of islands south of 11th parallel part of lakshadweep .Bhutan = 587 = 3.salsette = group of seven islands forms present mumbai .
Southern Railway--chennai 8. North Western Railway--jaipur 12.New Moore = deltic island & disputed site between india & bangladesh . Western Railway--Mumbai November 10. Eastern Railway--Kolkata 5.Sriharikota = spit island . South East Central Railway--Bilaspur .Andaman = submerged peaks of ridges continuous with arakan yoma .M. Northern Railway--Delhi 2. Northeast Frontier Railway--Maligaon(Guwahati) 4.N.Andaman = submerged peaks of ridges continuous with arakan y oma . West Central Railway--jabalpur 13. South Western Railway--Hubli 11.Narcondum = unsubmerted islands of andaman.Pamban = remnants of land link now submerged .Minicoy = corraline islands . North Central Railway--Allahabad 14. North Eastern Railway--Gorakhpur 3. Indian Railway zones--HeadQuarters and Divisions Indian Railway zones and Headquartes 1.. South Eastern Railway--Kolkata 6.Andaman = submerged peaks of ridges continuous with arakan yoma .L.Berra island = only active volcano of india . Central Railway--Mumbai November 9. South Central Railway--Secunderabad 7.Kavarathi = sile of desalinisation & OTEC plant .Kacchativa = fishing island recently leased to srilanka .Wellington = naval station in kerala .
Rangia.Northern Railway-. Moradabad 2. in southern & southern-central Africa. Nagpur 15.Jaipur.North Central Railway-. Firozpur. Kharagpur. Madurai. 1. Guntur.Hubli.Northeast Frontier Railway-. INTERNATIONAL AIRPORTS OF INDIA There are 12 international airports in India.Alipurduar.Mumbai. Bhavnagar 10. Bhopal. Mysore 11. Solapur.North Western Railway-.South Central Railway-. Palghat.Chennai.East Coast Railway-. it is an isolated hill.Southern Railway-.South Eastern Railway-. Tinsukia 4. Airport Name: Amritsar International Airport City: Amritsar State: Punjab 2. Ambala. Bikaner. Samastipur.Western Railway-. Pune. Asansol. Ratlam.Howrah. the name is derived from the Abenaki language.South East Central Railway-. Varanasi 3.Mumbai Central. Sambalpur. Rajkot. Baroda. East Central Railway--Hajipur 17. Lumding.Danapur.Central Railway-.Bilaspur. Bhusawal.Allahabad.West Central Railway-. Trivandrum. Visakhapatnam 16. Raipur. Lokpriya Gopinath Bordolio International Airport Guwahati . Airport Name: Indira Gandhi International Airport New Delhi 3.North Eastern Railway-. Guntakal. from either memonadenak means smooth mountain. Salem 8.Eastern Railway-. Ranchi 6. Lucknow. Malda 5. Katihar. Sonpur INSELBURG it is also known as monadrock.Secunderabad. Ajmer.East Central Railway-.South Western Railway-.Khurda Road. this monadrock is an originally native american term for an isolated hill or lone mountain. Chakradharpur.Delhi. Nagpur 9. Tiruchchirapalli. knob. Jhansi 14.Izzatnagar. Ahmedabad. Bangalore. Jodhpur 12.15.Adra. ridge that rises abruptly from a gently sloping or vertically level surrounding plain. East Coast Railway--Bhubaneswar 16.Jabalpur. Kota 13. Konkan Railwayâ *--Navi Mumbai Indian Railways and Divisions 1. Lucknow. Hyderabad. Dhanbad. Mughalsarai. Vijayawada 7. Agra. the word insulburg is german for "island mountain". Nanded. Sealdah.
Airport Name: Goa Airport City: Vasco da Gama State: Goa 9. T. Rama Rao Terminal 8.4.Airport Name Cochin International Airport City: Cochin State: Kerala 12. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Inte rnational Airport Kolkata 6.Airport Name: Bangalore International Airport City: Bangalore State: Karnataka Physical Location: Southern India. Airport Name: Chennai International Airport Chennai 10.Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport Mumbai 7. Airport Name: Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel International Airport City: Ahmedabad State: Gujarat 5. South-East of the State of Karnataka 11.Airport Name Trivandrum International Airport City: Thiruvananathapuram State: Kerala Physical Location: South Kerala India India . Airport Name: Hyderabad Airport City: Hyderabad State: Andhra Pradesh Passenger Terminals International: Rajiv Gandhi Terminal Domestic: N.
The subcontinent was divided into the secular state of India and the smaller Muslim state of Pakistan. By the 19th century. bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal.C. Britain had assumed political control of virtually all Indian lands. extensive poverty.. India faces pressing problems such as the ongoing dispute with Pakistan over Kashmir. between Burma and Pakistan . Aryan tribes from the northwest invaded about 1500 B. their merger with the earlier Dravidian inhabitants created the classical Indian culture. Despite impressive gains in economic investment and output. environmental degradation. Arab incursions starting in the 8th century and Turkish in the 12th were followed by those of European traders.Introduction India Background: The Indus Valley civilization. beginning in the late 15th century. A third war between the two countries in 1971 resulted in East Pakistan becoming the separate nation of Bangladesh. Nonviolent resistance to British colonialism led by Mohandas GANDHI and Jawaharlal NEHRU brought independence in 1947. Geography India Location: Southern Asia. massive overpopulation. one of the oldest in the world. and ethnic and religious strife.000 years. dates back at least 5. Indian armed forces in the British army played a vital role in both World Wars.
Geographic 20 00 N, 77 00 E coordinates: Map references: Asia Area: total: 3,287,590 sq km land: 2,973,190 sq km water: 314,400 sq km Area - slightly more than one-third the size of the US comparative: Land boundaries: total: 14,103 km border countries: Bangladesh 4,053 km, Bhutan 605 km, Burma 1,463 km, China 3,380 km, Nepal 1,690 km, Pakistan 2,912 km Coastline: 7,000 km Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm contiguous zone: 24 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin Climate: varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north Terrain: upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north Elevation lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m extremes: highest point: Kanchenjunga 8,598 m Natural resources: coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land Land use: arable land: 54.4% permanent crops: 2.74% other: 42.86% (2001) Irrigated land: 590,000 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards: droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes Environment - deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; Air pollution from current issues: industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources Environment - party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, international Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, agreements: Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements Geography - note: dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes People India Population: 1,080,264,388 (July 2005 est.) Age structure: 0-14 years: 31.2% (male 173,634,432/female 163,932,475) 15-64 years: 63.9% (male 356,932,082/female 333,283,590) 65 years and over: 4.9% (male 26,542,025/female 25,939,784) (2005 est.) Median age: total: 24.66 years male: 24.64 years female: 24.67 years (2005 est.) Population 1.4% (2005 est.) growth rate: Birth rate: 22.32 births/1,000 population (2005 est.) Death rate: 8.28 deaths/1,000 population (2005 est.) Net migration -0.07 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2005 est.) rate: Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 1.02 male(s)/female total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2005 est.) Infant mortality total: 56.29 deaths/1,000 live births rate: male: 56.86 deaths/1,000 live births female: 55.69 deaths/1,000 live births (2005 est.) Life expectancy at total population: 64.35 years birth: male: 63.57 years female: 65.16 years (2005 est.) Total fertility rate: 2.78 children born/woman (2005 est.) HIV/AIDS - adult 0.9% (2001 est.) prevalence rate: HIV/AIDS - people 5.1 million (2001 est.) living with HIV/AIDS: HIV/AIDS - deaths: 310,000 (2001 est.) Major infectious degree of risk: high diseases: food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid fever vectorborne diseases: dengue fever, malaria, and Japanese encephalitis are high risks in some locations animal contact disease: rabies (2004) Nationality: noun: Indian(s) adjective: Indian Ethnic groups: Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000) Religions: Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1% (2001 census) Languages: English enjoys associate status but is the most important language for national, political, and commercial communication; Hindi is the national language and primary tongue of 30% of the people; there are 14 other official languages: Bengali, Telugu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Malayalam, Kannada, Oriya,
Jammu and Kashmir. amended many times Legal system: based on English common law. Andhra divisions: Pradesh. and Sanskrit. Daman and Diu*. universal Executive branch: chief of state: President Pratibha Devi Singh Patil (Since June 21. Chhattisgarh.2% female: 48. Orissa. limited judicial review of legislative acts. accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction. Kerala. 2007). Uttaranchal. Chandigarh*. Assamese. West Bengal Independence: 15 August 1947 (from UK) National holiday: Republic Day. Bihar. Vice President Mohd. Pondicherry*. Meghalaya. separate personal law codes apply to Muslims. Maharashtra.3% (2003 est. Kashmiri. Jharkhand. Tamil Nadu. Sindhi. Sikkim. Mizoram. Uttar Pradesh. Haryana. Dadra and Nagar Haveli*. with reservations.5% male: 70. Punjab. Goa. Manipur. Tripura.Punjabi. Andaman and Nicobar Islands*. Assam. Delhi*. 26 January (1950) Constitution: 26 January 1950. Rajasthan. Karnataka. Christians. Madhya Pradesh.) Government India Country name: conventional long form: Republic of India conventional short form: India Government type: federal republic Capital: New Delhi Administrative 28 states and 7 union territories*. Hindustani is a popular variant of Hindi/Urdu spoken widely throughout northern India but is not an official language Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 59. and Hindus Suffrage: 18 years of age. Gujarat. Arunachal Pradesh. Himachal Pradesh. Hamid Ansari (since 11 August 2007) head of government: Prime Minister Manmohan SINGH (since NA May 2004) . Nagaland. Lakshadweep*.
MDMK 4. DMK 16. prime minister chosen by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections. BANATWALA]. Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]. Asom Gana Parishad [Brindaban GOSWAMI]. LJSP 4. D. Congress (I) Party [Sonia GANDHI]. up to 12 of whom are appointed by the president. Jharkhand Mukti Morcha or JMM [leader NA]. M. TRS 5. Dravida Munnetra Kazagham or DMK (a regional party in Tamil Nadu) [M. vice president elected by both houses of Parliament for a five-year term. Lok Jan Shakti Party or LJSP [leader NA]. PMK 6. Indian National League [Suliaman SAITH].89. Indian National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI]. All India Forward Bloc or AIFB. [Debabrata BISWAS]. SP 36. M.59. MANI]. election last held July 2002 (next to be held 18 July 2007). Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]. other 30 Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the president and remain in office until they reach the age of 65) Political parties All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [C. Kerala Congress (Mani faction) [K. election last held April . SS 12. Janata Dal (Secular) [H.last held 20 April through 10 May 2004 (next to be held 2009) election results: People's Assembly . members serve six-year terms) and the People's Assembly or Lok Sabha (545 seats. Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Lal Krishna ADVANI]. Bhairon Singh SHEKHAWAT elected vice president.NA%. Janata Dal (United) or JDU [Sharad YADAV].INC 145. Deve GOWDA]. percent of Parliament vote . JDU 8. members serve five-year terms) elections: People's Assembly . BJD 11. TDP 5. 2 appointed by the president. seats by party . Communist Party of India (Marxist) or CPI (M) Hakishan Singh SURJEET]. election last held 12 August 2002 (next to be held August 2007). independents 5. Jayalalitha and leaders: JAYARAM]. BSP 19. BJP 138. Marumalarchi Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or MDMK [VAIKO]. KARUNANIDHI].percent of vote by party .6%. NCP 9. CPI(M) 43. SAD 8. Communist Party of India or CPI [Ardhendu Bhushan BARDHAN]. JMM 5. the remainder are chosen by the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies.cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister elections: president elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states for a five-year term. Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI].8% Legislative bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha branch: (a body consisting of not more than 250 members. CPI 10. Muslim League [G. 543 elected by popular vote. percent of electoral college vote . RJD 24.May 2004 (next to be held May 2009) election results: Abdul KALAM elected president. Pattali .
UNIDO. MULFORD representation embassy: Shantipath. UNCTAD. white. CP. ICFTU. modern . G-19. Tamil Maanila Congress [G.India's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming. G-77. Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [G. WTO Diplomatic chief of mission: Ambassador Ranendra SEN representation in chancery: 2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW. SACEP. WHO. BIS. IHO. SAARC. UNHCR. Washington. including Vishwa groups and Hindu Parishad. Telangana Rashtra Samithi or TRS [leader NA]. ONUB. UN. IMF. ICAO. WCO. IBRD. New York. IFAD. UNOCI. Bajrang Dal. NAM. Trinamool Congress [Mamata BANERJEE] Political pressure numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations. WMO. Chanakyapuri. IAEA. UPU. DC 20008 telephone:  (202) 939-7000 FAX:  (202) 265-4351 consulate(s) general: Chicago. AsDB. various leaders: separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy. S. which has a small orange disk centered in the white band Economy India Economy . OPCW. ITU. DC 20008. Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Laloo Prasad YADAV]. Mumbai (Bombay) Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top). IOC. IOM (observer). Gorganization 6. MONUC. CERN (observer). WFTU. UNMIK. participation: IFRCS. K. Kolkata (Calcutta). UNESCO. WToO. PCA. Interpol. similar to the flag of Niger. Washington. IMO. ICRM. C. WIPO. VASAN]. WCL. G-15. ASEAN (dialogue partner). TOHRA]. UNMOVIC. Houston. G-24. IFC. including the All Parties Hurriyat Conference in the Kashmir Valley and the National Socialist Council of Nagaland in the Northeast International AfDB. Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]. and Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. ARF. Revolutionary Socialist Party or RSP [Abani ROY]. and San Francisco Diplomatic chief of mission: Ambassador David C. UNMEE. and green with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band. UNIFIL. IDA. ILO. note the US: Consular Wing located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW. Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]. ICC. MIGA. FAO. ISO. OAS (observer).Makkal Katchi or PMK [leader NA]. Shiv Sena or SS [Bal THACKERAY]. New Delhi 110021 from the US: mailing address: use embassy street address telephone:  (11) 2419-8000 FAX:  (11) 2419-0017 consulate(s) general: Chennai (Madras).
4% sector: services: 48% (2002 est. industry 17%.) GDP .8% since 1994. and economic rigidities hold back needed initiatives. services 23% (1999) occupation: Unemployment 9.100 (2004 est. running at approximately 9% of GDP.by Agriculture 60%. a wide range of modern industries. the World Bank and others worry about the combined state and federal budget deficit. GDP (purchasing $3.000 missing.real growth 6. left almost 6. Government controls on foreign trade and investment have been reduced in some areas.6% composition by industry: 28. The UPA government has committed to furthering economic reforms and developing basic infrastructure to improve the lives of the rural poor and boost economic performance. economic.319 trillion (2004 est.) Labor force . though two-thirds of the workforce is in agriculture.) rate: GDP . and continues to generate political debate.000 lives. The government has indicated it will do more to liberalize investment in civil aviation. handicrafts. Despite strong growth. but high tariffs (averaging 20% in 2004) and limits on foreign direct investment are still in place. Privatization of government-owned industries has proceeded slowly. political. In late December 2004.Agriculture: 23.overview: Agriculture.) rate: .2 million (2004 est. The huge and growing population is the fundamental social. and a multitude of services. and severely damaged the Fishing fleet. continued social.) power parity): GDP . telecom.) Labor force: 482. destroyed $1. a major tsunami took nearly 11.2% (2004 est. reducing poverty by about 10 percentage points.2 billion worth of property.per capita: purchasing power parity . Services are the major source of economic growth. and environmental problem. India is capitalizing on its large numbers of well-educated people skilled in the English language to become a major exporter of software services and software workers.2% (2004 est. and insurance sectors in the near term.$3. The economy has posted an excellent average growth rate of 6.
steel.5 billion (2004 est.7% production by hydro: 14.8% of GDP (2004 est. water buffalo.5% income or highest 10%: 33. sugarcane.5% (1997) consumption by percentage share: Distribution of 37. mining. state debt not included) (2004 est.3 billion expenditures: $104 billion. cement. potatoes. oilseed. wheat.8 (1997) family income Gini index: Inflation rate 4. cotton.) Agriculture . chemicals. products: sheep. Fish Industries: textiles. tea.4% (2004 est. jute.547.) Public debt: 59.Population below 25% (2002 est.) production growth rate: Electricity .2 billion kWh (2002) production: Electricity .fossil fuel: 81. poultry. software Industrial 7.7% of GDP (federal debt only.) fixed): Budget: revenues: $67. petroleum. goats. machinery.) (consumer prices): Investment (gross 23.4% .) poverty line: Household lowest 10%: 3. cattle.2% (2004 est. including capital expenditures of $13. transportation equipment. food processing.rice.5% source: nuclear: 3.
75 billion cu m (2001 est.imports: NA Oil .897 billion (2004 est.54 billion kWh (2002) imports: Oil .) exports: Natural gas .) Oil .exports: NA Oil .000 bbl/day (2004 est.7 billion bbl (2004 est.3% (2001) Electricity .75 billion cu m (2001 est.22.0 cu m (2001 est.) reserves: Natural gas .510.production: 780.0 cu m (2001 est.22.proved 5.542.) production: Natural gas .) Oil .consumption: 2.13 million bbl/day (2001 est.other: 0.) consumption: Natural gas .350 million kWh (2002) exports: Electricity .1.) imports: Natural gas .1 billion kWh (2002) consumption: Electricity .) balance: .4 billion cu m (2004) proved reserves: Current account $4.
(2004 est.186 (2001).o.China 6.26.Exports: $69.external: $117.1%. China 5. 48.$2.2 billion (2004 est.917 million (2003) lines in use: Telephones .61 (2002). chemicals commodities: Imports .317 (2004).5%. 44.400 (2003) . US 6%.2%.942 (2000) Fiscal year: 1 April .18 billion f. gems.154. UAE 8. 47.partners: US 17%. gems and jewelry.textile goods.) Imports .) Exports . UK 4.8%. fertilizer. 46. Singapore 4.o.b.9 billion (FY98/99) recipient: Currency (code): Indian rupee (INR) Currency code: INR Exchange rates: Indian rupees per US dollar .31 March Communications India Telephones . Hong Kong 4. Belgium 4.) Economic aid .) foreign exchange and gold: Debt .45.crude oil. chemicals.5%.5% (2004) Imports: $89. leather commodities: manufactures Exports .main 48. engineering goods. (2004 est. Switzerland 5.4% (2004) partners: Reserves of $126 billion (2004 est.b.33 billion f. machinery.7%.583 (2003).
and Ernakulam.mobile cellular: Telephone general assessment: recent deregulation and liberalization of system: telecommunications laws and policies have prompted rapid change.91.8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region). Gandhinagar. South Africa .7 million. resulted from increased competition and dramatic reductions in price led in large part by wireless service. Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) with landing site at Mumbai (Bombay). satellite earth stations . and Tata Indicom linking Singapore and Chennai (Madras). although still weak in rural areas. mobile cellular service (both CDMA and GSM) introduced in 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan cities and 19 telecom circles each with about three private service providers and one state-owned service provider. FM 91.Far East (SAFE) with landing site at Cochin. 5 submarine cables. Chennai (Madras). with five satellites supporting 33.000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT) international: country code . New Delhi. i2icn linking to Singapore with landing sites at Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras). provide a significant increase in the bandwidth available for both voice and data traffic (2004) Radio broadcast AM 153. in recent years significant trunk capacity added in the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems. the Indian National Satellite system (INSAT). nine gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay). Hyderabad. but telephone density remains low at about seven for each 100 persons nationwide but only one per 100 persons in rural areas and a national waiting list of over 1. shortwave 68 (1998) stations: Radios: 116 million (1997) Television 562 (of which 82 stations have 1 kW or greater power and 480 stations have broadcast less than 1 kW of power) (1997) stations: Televisions: 63 million (1997) . Jalandhar. with services primarily concentrated in the urban areas. fastest growth is in cellular service with modest growth in fixed lines domestic: expansion of domestic service. local and long distance service provided throughout all regions of the country. Kolkata (Calcutta). including Sea-Me-We-3 with landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay). Kanpur. steady improvement is taking place with the recent admission of private and private-public investors.
China 1.Internet country . passenger/cargo 9.000-m gauge.000 GRT or over) 6.with total: 234 .in code: Internet hosts: 86. New Mangalore.481 million (2003) Transportation India Railways: total: 63. combination ore/oil 1.762-m gauge and 0.106 km 0.655 km unpaved: 1.676-m gauge narrow gauge: 14.077. Vishakhapatnam Merchant marine: total: 299 ships (1. Greece 1. oil 5.507 GRT/11.525.406 km 1.195 km.200 km on major rivers and 485 km on canals suitable for mechanized vessels (2004) Pipelines: gas 6.871 (2003) Internet Service 43 (2000) Providers (ISPs): Internet users: 18. Mumbai (Bombay). container 7.448. refined products 5.718 km 1.334 km (1999) Waterways: 14.610-m gauge (2004) Highways: total: 2.613 km.791 DWT by type: bulk carrier 85. cargo 75.230 km (16.) Airports . Jawaharal Nehru.171 km. Kandla. Kolkata (Calcutta). chemical tanker 13. petroleum tanker 91. passenger 3. liquid petroleum gas 1.693 km electrified) broad gauge: 45.500 km note: 5. United Kingdom 1) registered in other countries: 30 (2005) Airports: 333 (2004 est. liquefied gas 14.989 km paved: 1.069. UAE 6.555. roll on/roll off 1 foreign-owned: 10 (Australia 1.567 km (2004) Ports and harbors: Chennai. 3. Haldia.
452 (2005 est. Air Force.471.) available for military service: Manpower fit for males age 16-49: 219.438 to 3.047 m: 14 2.paved runways: over 3.86 billion (2005) expenditures dollar figure: .551. National Security Guards. Coast Guard.524 to 2.047 m: 3 1.047 m: 47 1. Assam Rifles.438 to 3. Central Reserve Police Force. various security or paramilitary forces (includes Border Security Force.) Military India Military branches: Army.437 m: 9 914 to 1.) reaching military service age annually: Military $18.111 (2005 est. and Defense Security Corps) Military service 16 years of age for voluntary military service (2001) age and obligation: Manpower males age 16-49: 287. Indo-Tibetan Border Police.999 (2005 est. Central Industrial Security Force.with total: 99 unpaved runways: 2.437 m: 78 914 to 1.524 to 2.) Airports . Navy (includes naval air arm).446.523 m: 42 under 914 m: 45 (2004 est. Railway Protection Force.) Heliports: 20 (2004 est. Special Frontier Force.) military service: Manpower males: 11.523 m: 74 under 914 m: 21 (2004 est.
Pakistan has taken its dispute on the impact and benefits of India's building the Baglihar dam on the Chenab River in Jammu and Kashmir to the World Bank for arbitration. restored bus service across the highly militarized Line of Control.394 (Tibet/China) 60. and transit of terrorists through the porous border. in 2004. most IDPs are Kashmiri Hindus). to allocate divided villages. migration. India and Pakistan instituted a cease fire in the Kashmir and in 2005. to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary.China and India launched a security and foreign policy dialogue in 2005.Military 2. displaced persons: 113. discussions with Bangladesh remain stalled to delimit a small section of river boundary. in 2004. recent talks and confidencebuilding measures have begun to defuse tensions over Kashmir. regional nuclear proliferation. violence. Pakistani maps continue to show Junagadh claim in Indian Gujarat State.922 (Sri Lanka) internally IDPs: 650.93% (2005/06) expenditures percent of GDP: Transnational Issues India Disputes . militarized boundary. site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin). and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas). India seeks cooperation from Bhutan and Burma to keep Indian Nagaland and Assam separatists from hiding in remote areas along the borders. international: consolidating discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged. dispute with Bangladesh over New Moore/South Talpatty/Purbasha Island in the Bay of Bengal deters maritime boundary delimitation.000 (resulting from 26 December 2004 tsunami) (2004) Illicit drugs: world's largest producer of licit opium for the pharmaceutical trade. India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964. India (Jammu and Kashmir). UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949. but an . to exchange 162 miniscule enclaves in both countries. Indian claims that China transferred missiles to Pakistan. disputes persist with Pakistan over Indus River water sharing. India has instituted a stricter border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal Refugees and refugees (country of origin): 92. India and Pakistan resurveyed a portion of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch. and to stop illegal cross-border trade. Bangladesh protests India's attempts to fence off high-traffic sections.000 (Jammu and Kashmir conflicts. Joint Border Committee with Nepal continues to demarcate minor disputed boundary sections. and other matters.
>3% potassium. OH)2 garnete A3B2(SiO4)3 LAHAR it is a type of mudflow composed of pyroclastic material & water that flows down from a volcano. this is used primarily in refractory & ceramic products. ASSOCIATED MINERALS OF KYANITE : andalusite Ai2SiO5 sillimanite Al2SiO5 Quertz SiO2 staurolite Fe2Al9Si4Onn(OH)2 micas AB2-3(X1Si)4 O10(O.undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets. became of their energy & speed. . including porcelain plumbing fixtures & dinnerware. small volume ultrapotassic igneous rocks primarily occuring as dikes. ultramafic rocks with high magnesium oxide. causing catastrophic distruction in their path. the osceola lahar produced 5600 years ago by mount rainier in washington prod uced a wall of mud 140 mts 450 feet deep in the white river canyon & extends over an area of over 330 square kilometers. lopoliths. they are uncommon. they occur in all geologic eras. they are alkaline silica-undersaturated . it is also used in electrical insulators & abrasives. typically along a river valley. transit point for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries.a flood caused by a glacier. the term lahar originated in the Javanese language of Indonesia. . as long as the conditions are right to cause the collapse & movements of mud originating from exisitng volcanic ash deposits. lahars are associated with volcanic activity. can occur even without any current volcanic activity . this is also been used as gemstone. LAMPROPHYRE it is a greek word Lampros meaning "bright". meaning blue. high sodium oxide & high nickle & chromium. it is strongly anisotrophic . lahars have the consistency of concrete. large lahares can flow several dozen meters per second & can flow for many kilometers . in that its hardness varies depending on its crystallographic direction. it undergoea an irreverssible expansion when fired at high temperature. stocks & small instrusions. Prophyre meaning "rocks". lake breakout & heavy rainfall can release a lahar also called glacier run. comonly found in aluminium-rich metamorphic pegmatites & sedimentary rocks. it is typicaly blue siliacte mineral. lahars possible causes : . fluid where moving then solid when stopped. laccoliths. vulnerable to narcotics Money laundering through the hawala system KYANITE the name derived from the greek word kyanos. illicit producer of methaqualone. F. lahars are be huge.snow & glaciers can be melted by a pyroclastic flow during an eruption. these are extermely dangerous.
Lamprophyre are usually associated with voluminous granodiorile intrustive episodes ^.high potassium & sodium concentrations. . .some form of volatile enrichment. .lithophile element (K. the roots of the willows are often exposed & undercut. whilst on the outside of the bend.low degrees of partial melting. the term derives from the river known to the ancient greeks Maiandros meander is located in present-day Turkey near the ancient greek town of miletus. Meander is calculated as .high Mg# (NgO// FeO+Fe2O3). the result is snaking pattern as the stream meander bock & forth across its flood plain . meander is linked to the existance of pool-riffle sequence where meander form hard rock. eventually leading the trees to fall in the river.high depth of melting which yields more mafic magmas. most of meander occur in the lower course of river .lack of fractional crystallisation . to provide the biolite (phlogopite) & amphilobole (pargasite) mineralogy. a stream or river flowing through a wide valley or flat plain will tend to form a meanding stream course as it alternatively erodes & deposits sediments along its course . when the meander meets the hardrock it then bends into another area. . Cs. willows are often far from the bank.ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS OF LAMPROPHYRE : . Rb) enrichment . on the inside of menader. high Ni & Cr. on the inside meander. Ba. which yields magmar rich in the alkalies (potassium mainly) . Lamprophyre are also known to be spatially & temporarily associated with gold mineralisatio MEANDER it is a bend in a river also known as an oxbow loop.
such as sill may shield the layers below it from erosion while the softer rock surrounding it is eroded into valley. it is a elevated area of land with the flat top & sides that are usually steep cliffs.Bara Lancha La pass = kyelang & leh. MERCALLI INTENSITY SCALE it is a scale used for measuring the intensity of an earthquake.Rohtang = kullu & kyelang. himachal pradesh . EVOLUTION it originated with the widely used simple ten-degree rossi-forel scale. himachal pradesh . less resistant rocks. Mesa form in area where horizontally layered rocks are uplifted by tectonic activity. Himachal pradesh .shipkila la pass = sutlej enters india from tibet . it is in table top shape. in 1902.the differences in strength of various rock layers is what gives mesas their distinctive shape. then changed the name to mercalli-intensity-scale. MESA ROCKS this is a spanish& portuguese word meaning table. it was later completely re-written by german geophysicist August heinrich sieburg & became known as the mercalli-cancani-scale. difference in rock type also reflect on the sides of mesa. thus forming caprock. arunachal pradesh . J & K . the sides are broken into a staircase pattern calle "cliff &-bench topography". 12 denoting : one that causes almost complete destruction. which was revised by Halian volcanologist Giuseppi mercalli in 1883 & 1992. while they more resistant layers are left standing out. objects of nature & man-made structures on a scale of 1 through 12. a large area of very resistant rock.Bomdi La pass = tezpur & tawang.Banihal pass = doda & anantnag districts.the length of the stream divided by the length of the valley. ten-degree mercalli intensity scale was expanded to 12 degrees by Italian physicist Adolf cancani. with 1 denoting a weak earthquake. humans. where they collect water drainage from the surrounding area. MOUNTAIN PASSES OF INDIA Name of Pass = Place . as instead of smooth slopes. the scale quantifies the effects of an earthquake on the earth's surface . are eroded away on the surface into valley.
. in the state of Rajasthan.Hurricane Western North Pacific .Karakoram pass & Aghil pass = j & k . Ranthambore National Park is an outstanding example of Project Tiger's efforts at conservation in the India.Lipu = leh. the only surviving habitats of this prehistoric survivor in India.Nowaki ( in olden days) Taifu (Recent Name) Rest of the World .Cyclones Phillipine Islands .Typhoons Australia .Thalghat = mumbai & pune .Palghat = palakkad & coimbatore . indo-nepal-china..Nathu La pass = india & china. uttaranchal .Jelepla = india & china (gangtok-lhasa road). Names of Tropical Cyclones North Atlantic & North Pacific . y Ranthambore national Park A nearby attraction of Sawai Madhopur.Bhorghat = mumbai & nasik.Tropical Cyclone National Parks in India y Bandhavgarh National Park This park is some of the left out preserved wild pockets of Madhya Pradesh of what were once splendid forests that extended across the whole of Central India.Shenkotta = kollam & madurai . sikkim . y Kaziranga National Park Assam The land of Rhino is counted among the two major wild pockets. sikkim .Baguio Japan .Wily Wily Indian Ocean .Thanga La & Niti La pass = uttaranchal .
along the Indo-Nepal border. and in winter months of DecemberJanuary. y Rajaji National Park.this place is called a wild hideout taken straight from the famous "Jungle Book". located in one of the remotest region among the foothills of Himalayas. but the autumn months are perfect for visiting. with Himalayan views. Bardia encompasses 1.000-sq-kms of riverine grassland and sal forests. Another major attraction of this wild reserve is the Barasingha . both resident and migratory. is quiet known for its wild Elephants. Uttaranchal Situated in the forested hills. provides a great wildlife experience with its rich flora and fauna. Because of the pleasant climate this hideout becomes a pretty good tourist destination and a perfect retreat for picnicking y Dudhwa National Park. y Sultanpur National Park Sultanpur national park was a stretch of marshy land that has been remodeled and converted into a water body. Also popular as a Tiger Reserve. y Royal Chitwan National Park (Nepal) Established in 1973. The park is home to a large range of birds. Simialar to Chitwan park.y Kanha National Park In the state of Madhya Pardesh. Beside the Kaziranga there's Manas another habitat of the Rhino's.P. y Manas National Park Assam is the state of the Great One Horned Rhino. this national park is located in the district of Lakhimpur. but with a drier climate and a more remote location. U. this Tigerland vibrates with countless forms of colourful life. Short grass makes the months of February-May the best game-viewing season. y Sundarbans National Park Known as the largest estuarine delta in the world. Chitwan has quiet a pleasant climate compared to Kathmandu. y Bandipur National Park Lies halfway down the Mysore-Ooty highway became one of the first of India's Tiger Reserves and the southernmost of the nine reserves specially established under Project Tiger. y Royal Bardia National Park (Nepal) Largest and most undisturbed wild area of the Terai region of the Nepal Himalayas. which have an approximate population of 150. east of Haridwar.
.Black Buck. Karnataka Two of the most attractive national parks of Karnataka are Nagarhole and Bandipur. Wild Ass sanctuary is another of Gujarat's wild surprises famous for its large wild Ass herds. y Bandipur & Nagarhole National Parks. Gujarat Gujarat is an exciting place for wildlife enthusiasts. has attracted worldwide attention for the successful conservation of the fastest of the Indian Antelopes . Orissa A combination of a beautiful botanical garden. the breeding center of the Giant Olive Ridley Turtles. and is popularly known as the "Garden of Pleasure" in Orissa. y Bhalukpong. Beside the faunal attractions. along the Kameng river lies the village settlement of Bhalukpong. Orissa Simplipal is counted among the earliest Project tiger reserves of India and is located in the northern-forested belt of Orissa. y Gahirmatha Turtle Sanctuary. The park is also a Tiger Reserve under Project Tiger. found in the southwest and southeast region of the park. mainly because it resides some of the unique wild attractions within its numerous sanctuaries. y Velvadhar Blackbuck Sanctuary. y Namdhapha National Park. Even if separate entities. The zoo at Nandankanan is world famous for its White Tigers. y Nandankanan Zoo. who crossover the Pacific to come here and lay their eggs. y Wild Ass Sanctuary. Orissa Aqua fauna is what going to attract you to this sanctuary. Arunachal Tucked away in the northern most state of Arunachal. the attractive terrain also includes numerous waterfalls.or the Swamp Deer. famous for the extremely elusive snow and the clouded Leopard. Nandankanan. y Simplipal National Park. is situated 20-km from Bhubaneshwar. they are a part of a large neighboring wildlife reserve that also includes Madumalai Sanctuary of Tamil Nadu and Wynad Reserve of Kerala. a zoo and a sanctuary. Arunachal On the edge of the luxuriant forest of the Pakhui Game Sanctuary. also known as the gateway to Bomdila and the Tawang Monastery. Gujarat Popularly known as the home of the Indian Black Buck. is the Namdhapa National Park.
in the eastern part of the cold desert of Ladakh. H. y Pin Valley National Park. Tibetan Wolf. the Wild Water Buffalo. situated at the foothills of eastern Himalayas. Nebraska Sand Hills! . Assam This splendid wildlife reserve even if doesn't have many faunal varieties to offer. Bharal. Tucked in between the snow laden higher reaches and scree slopes covered with scanty tufted vegetation. to preserve the or Hangul population or the Kashmiri Stag. Assam Nameri is the second Tiger reserve of Assam. it was declared a national park in 1951. deciduous and the river Jia Bhoroli have added a unique natural charm to it. Snow Leopard. H.This sanctuary has been exclusively built for the protection of the wild water buffalo. Assam Located on the alluvial flood plains of Brahmaputra in Upper Assam neighboring Arunachal is a biosphere reserve called Dibru Saikhowa National Park Its also an orchid paradise besides being a home to numerous wild animals and birds. y The Great Himalayan National Park.P. J&K Hemis is a high altitude protected area that was created in the year 1981. Once an exclusive hunting preserve of the Maharaja of Kashmir. It is also one of the largest protected area of the state.y Dachigam National Park. for the conservation and protection of its unique flora and fauna. and Snow Cock. still it possesses the most coveted one. The National Park with an area of 620-sq-kms is caved out of the splendid mountain terrain of the Kullu District and has the representative area of temperate and alpine forests of Himachal. y Milroy or Pabha Sanctuary.P. Pin Valley National Park forms the natural habitat of a number of endangered animals including Himalayan Ibex. y Nameri National Park. J&K Of all the sanctuaries present in the state of Jammu & Kashmir. Wooly Hare. The hilly backdrop. y Hemis High Altitude National Park. owing to a strictly enforced conservation programme. the one at Dachigam is the best known. y Dibru Saikhowa National Park.
the term is typically used in areas where a permanent ice sheet is present . & can be seen to contrast strongly with the softer contours of the glacially eroded land below if the glacier retreats. there has been a reduction of the ice cover over the last 10 years of about 1.km in just one year is extreme.000 mi2 (50. nunatak are generally angular & jagged because of freeze. so its size is indicated as 19. the average elevation of the sand hills region gradually increases from about 1500 feet 550m in the eat to about 360 feet 1100m in the west.these are highly vulnerable to raising temperatures & predicted arctic would be virtually ice free by the summer 2070. mountain / peak not covered with ice snow within an icefield or glacier. covering just over 1 quarter of the state. dunes in sand hills may exceed 330 feet (100m) in height. than weathering. the eastern & central sections of the regions are drained by tributaries of the long river & the niobrara river .a long-sought short cut between Europe & Asia that has been historically impassable-is opening up due to raising global temperature. the word nunatak is of grenlandic origin meaning a hill . the region is variously defined by different organizations . as much as 85% of the sand hills ecoregion is intact naural habitat. has been fully open since early August 2007.. the plant-anchored dunes of the sand hills were formed at the most recent ice age by wind-blown particles originating from regions to the north & west of Nebraska. ORIGIN OF RIVERS SOURCE = RIVERS .theMcClure Strait. distinct from other grasslands of the great plains.600 mi2 (61. the worldwide fund for nature designated the sand hills as an ecoregion. the most direct route of the Northwest Passage.SAND HILLS OF NEBRASKA sand hill is a region of mixed grass prairie in north-central Nebraska. the reason is primarily due to lack of agriculture.km per year on average so drop of 1 million sq.100 km2).manasarovar = indus & tsangpo . the highest level in the great plains. .00. NUNATAK it is the exposed summit of a ridge . it has been used in western european languages since 1870s.700 km2) or 23.000 sq. the sand hill sit top the massive ogallala aquifer & marshes & shallow lakes both temporary & permanent--are common in low-lying parts of the sand hills. NorthWest Passage Opens the north-west passage .lahul = chenab . this area covered by sea ice in the Arctic region has now shrunk to its lowest level. .
devprayag = bhagirathi & alaknanda.amarkantak = narmada & sone . The Cambay-Dhiwaran Gas pipeline 9.mahabaleshwar = krishna . The Anklaeshwar-Vadodara. JAmnagar-Loni LPG pipeline 6. . Kalol-Sabarmati Crude pipeline 7.brahmagiri = kaveri ..trimbak = godavari . associated Gas pipeline 10.medak = musi .pharsiya = mahanadi . Nawgam-Kalol-Koyali Crude pipeline 8. Mumabi high-Mumbai-Ankleshwar-Kayoli pipeline 3. Hajira-Bijapur-Jagdishpur Gas pipeline 5.annasgar = luni .betul = wardha Pipeline Projects! PIPELINES 1.harike = sutlej & beas . Haldia-Kolkata pipeline 12. Naharkatia-Nunmati-Barauni pipeline 2. Pune-Mumbai-Manmad pipeline PIPELINE PROJECTS UNDER CONSTRUCTION .kalahandi = indravati .betul = tapi . Salaya-Koyali-Mathura 4. The Koyali-Ahmedabad Products pipeline 11.pilibbit = gomti .balaghat = manjra .rohtang = beas .
Kandla-Bhatinda pipeline 5.labradorite = 50-30 = 50-70 . plagioclase is major constituent mineral in earth's crust. more properly known as plagioclase feldspar series from greek word "oblique fractor" in reference to its two cleverage angles. plagioclase is a hand samples is often by its polysynthetic twinning or 'record-froove' effect. the series range from arbite to anorthite endmembers where sodium & calcium atoms can substitue for each other in the mineral crystal lattice structure. Dahej-Hazira-Uran pipeline 4.andesine = 70-50 = 30-50 .1. Haldia-Budge Budge pipeline PLAGIOCLASE it is very important series of tectosilicate minerals within the fields par family. Dahej-Vijaipur pipeline 2. PLAGIOCLASE MINERALS & THEIR COMPOSITIONS NAME = %NaAlSi3O8(%Ab) = % CaAl2Si2O8(%An) . Kochi-Mangalore-Bengalooru pipeline 6.bytowrite = 30-10 = 70-90 . Mangalore-Chennai pipeline 9. origin & evolution of igneous rocks. in reference to its unusally pure white color. & is consequently an important diagnostic tool in petrology for identifying composition. rather than referring to a particular mineral with a specific chemical composition.albite = 100-90 = 0-10 .anorthite = 10-0 = 90-100 ALBITE is named from latin albus. Vijayawada-Vishakhapatanam pipeline 10. Kanpur-Bina pipeline 8. North-South Gujarat pipeline 3. Vishakhapatanam-Secunderabad pipeline 7.oligoclase = 90-70 = 10-30 . it is relatively common . plagioclase is a solid solution series.
andesite. gabbro. referring to its triclinic crystallization. anorthite is characteristic of the mafic igneous rocks such as gabbro & basalt. it is rare mineral occasionally found in more basic rocks.&important rock-making mineral associated with the more acid rock types & in pegmatite dikes. the term "polynesia". it is frequent associate of orthoclase. sunstone is mainly oligoclase with flakes of hematite. Canada. meaning many islands. geographically . jules dumont d'uvrille in 1831 a lecturer to the geographical society of paris proposed a restriction on its use. ******************************************************************************* Polynesia! POLYNESIA Polynesia is generally defined as the islands within the polynesian triangle.& oversimply. syenite. polynesia may be described as triangle with its corners at hawaii. LABRADORITE is the feldspar of the more basic rock types such as divrite. often with rare minerals like bery & tourmaline. the other main island groups located . was first used by charles de brosses in 1756. ANDESINE is a characteristcs mineral of rocks such as diorite which contain a moderate amount of silica related volcanics such as andesite. labradorite frequently shows an iridescent disply of colors to light refracting within the lamellae of the display. OLIGOCLASE is common in granite. & originally islands of the Pacific. BYTOWRITE named after the former name of Ottawa. basalt is usually associated with one of the pyroxenes. ANORTHITE was named by the Rose in 1823 from the greek meaning oblique. diotire & gneiss. aotearoa (new zealand) & rapu nui (easter island). the name oligoclase is derived from the greek for little & fracture in reference to the fact that its clevage angle differs significantly from 90 degree.
The Country known as Sugar Bowl in World = Cuba. ********************************************************************* Tiger reserves in India Hai all the members. nuie is a rare solitary island state near the centre of polynesia. it is an anthropological term referring to one of the three parts of Oceania whose pre-colonial generally belongs to one ethno-cultural family as a result of centuries of maritime migrations. the various island chains that form the cook islands & french polynesia. . The Leading producer of Uranium in World = Canada The Leading producer of Automobiles in World = USA The Leading producer of Cement in World = USA The Country that Manufactures due Maximum number of Locomotives in World = USA The Country known for Locomotive = Philadelphia The Country famous for Petroleum = Baku The Country famous for Wollen textiles in World = Leeds. The Largest producer of Mercury in World = Spain The Largest producer of Rock Phosphate in World = USA & Russia.within the polynesian triangle are samoa. polynesian island groups outside this great triangle include tuvalu & french territory of wallis & futuna. in essance. tonga. ************************************************************************ PRODUCER'S OF DIFFERENT CROPS IN WORLD y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y The Largest producer of groundnut in World =India The Largest producer of Tobacco in World = China The Largest Quantity of Barley is produced in World = Russia The Largest producer of Long Staple Cotton in World = USA The Largest Cattle production in World = India The Largest producer of Butter & Ghee in World = India The Largest producer of Rice in World = India & USA The Largest producer of Fish in World = China The Largest producer of Mutton in World = New Zealand & Australia. rotuma in the northern fijian islands & some of the lau group to fiji's southeast have strong polynesian character too.
Nagarhole National Park Extension (1999-2000) . that causes effect such .Simlipal National Park (1973-74) . Satpura & Pachmarhi Wildlife Sanctuaries (1999-2000) .Chattisgarh 14.Kanha National Park (1973-74) .Ranthambore National Park (1973-74) . or by a sea or lake that it is flowing into becoming lower.Uttar Pradesh 17.Periyar National Park (1978-79) . is lowered.Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve (1993-94) .Arunachal Pradesh 16. 5 of the states of below Tiger reserves were given wrong.Namdapha National Park (1982-83) .Bori.Bandipur National Park (1973-74) .Bhadra National Park (1998-99) .Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary Extension (1999-2000) . that makes the river suddenly start eroding its bed vertically faster as it gains gravitational potential energy.Pakhui-Nameri Tiger Reserve (1999-2000) . thank you.Pench National Park (1992-93) .Palamau National Park (1973-74) .Nagarjunsagar National Park (1982-83) .Valmiki National Park (1989-90) . this can happen by uplift of land.Jim Corbett National Park (1973-74) .Buxa National Park (1982-83) .by mistake.Maharashtra 21.West Bengal 10.Dampha Tiger Reserve (1994-95) .Kalakad-Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (1988-89) .Bihar 19.Madhya Pradesh 22.Rajasthan 8.Madya Prades 28.Assam 5.Assam and Arunachal pradesh 27.Panna National Park (1994-95) .West Bengal 13.Maharashtra 6.Sunderbans National Park (1973-74) .Melghat Wildlife Sanctuary (1973-74) . Thank you for the right information and founding out the mistake chanda sir.Andhra Pradesh 15.Tamil Nadu 18.Uttar Pradesh 3.Jharkhand 7.Madhya Pradesh 20. please verify.Kerala 11.Karnataka 25.Madhya Pradesh 4.Indravati National Park (1982-83) .Karnataka 2.Sariska National Park (1978-79) .Maharashtra 26.Pench National Park (1998-99) .Dudhwa National Park (1987-88) .Orissa 9.Rajasthan 12.Bandhavgarh National Park (1993-94) .Madhya Pradesh 23.Manas National Park (1973-74) . I have given below the corrected information in BOLD letters. 1.Mizoram 24.Uttar Pradesh 29.Karnataka **************************************************************** RIVER REJUVENATION river is to be rejuvenated when the base level that is flowing down to.
dark black. dark red. there movements are either associated with neighbouring orogenic movements. GLACIO-EUSTATISM : is the change in sea level due to withdrawal of water into the oceans occupying the accumulation of successive ice sheet. parts of flodd pains may be preserved as terraces along the downcutting stream channels. it is commonly . very pronounced "V" shaped valley. the word comes from greek skoria means "rust". EUSTATIC :this rejuvenation results from the causes which bring worldwide decrease in sea level. I. Rejuvenation result from causes which are dynamic. spheroidal & donot impringe upon one another. as raising magma encounters lower pressures. vesicules are usually small.3.decrease in land . scoria is light as a result of numerous macroscopic ellipsoidal vesicles but most scoria has a specific gravity than 1 & sinks in water. CHANGES OF STATIC : . some of the vesicules are trapped when the magma chills & solidifies. dissolved gasses are able to exsolve & form vesicles. so a product of older river system is found with step.increase in runoff because of rainfall . ******************************************************************* . because remnants of older landforms are locally preserved.as meanders cut down as gorges. DYNAMIC : dynamic rejuvenation may be caused by the epeirogenic uplift of a land mass. II. the vasicularity results from the exsolution of magnetic volatiles prior to chilling. Meandering streams often become entrenched . scoria differs from purnice in having layer vesicles & thicker vesicles walls. & 2 types of such rejuvenation are recognized. this is the lightest rock on earth with its specific gravity less than 0.increase in stream volume through acquisition of new drainage by stream diversion ******************************** ******************************** SCORIA it is a textual term for macrovesicular volcanic rocks ejecta. it is formed from a thin layer of froth occuring on some basaltic lava flows due to the bursting of vasicle walls. the thin glass threads are the inter-section of burst vehicles. eustatic / static in nature. & terraces derived from old floodplains. DIASTROPHIC EUSTATISM :it is the change in sea level due to variation incapacity of ocean basins. steps where river suddenly starts flowing faster. Rejuvenation terrains usually have complex landscape. it is generally dark brown. but not exclusively basaltic in composition. & hence is typically darker in color.
Indo-Australian Plate. rent a car. and coast all the way to Los Angeles? Just because south is at the bottom of the map.5 REFRACTIVE INDEX = 1. new castle country." there really wasn't a good definition of those seas. today How many tectonic plates are on earth? There are dozens of tectonic plates on earth but only about one seven huge plates. doesn't mean it's lower in elevation. susica. such as the Ob in Russia and the Mackenzie in Canada. green LUSTRE = silky if in fibrous form. There are countless examples of rivers that flow from the south to the north (in both hemispheres). usa. South American Plate How do you convert snow into rainfall amounts? Since precipitation is generally measured in inches of liquid water and not in snowfall amounts. A volcano is considered active if it has erupted in the last 10. What are the seven seas? Although seamen of long ago are popularly known to have stated "I've sailed the seven seas. czech republic **************************************************** y y y y y Do rivers always flow from the north to the south? While some oblivious people think that rivers always flow from the north to the south (a term some even call downhill!) but rivers always flow with gravity (unless modified by humans). it is named after American Achemist Brjamin silliman (1779-1864). ten inches of snow is equivalent to one inch of rain. Eurasian Plate. Over 75% of the world's volcanoes and most active volcanoes are located in the Pacific Ring of Fire.is ia an alumino-silicate mineral with chemical formula Al2SiO2. However. Antarctic Plate. The largest include the African Plate. How many active volcanoes are in the world? There are approximately 1.SILLIMANITE it is also called as Bucholzite . North American Plate. Pacific Plate.500 active volcanoes worldwide. it is one of the three alumino-silicate : polymorphhs. delaware. Thus.000 years. kyanite & andalusite.would you fly to Seattle. snow is usually converted into inches of water by dividing by 10. it is also known as rock creek shear zone with the piedmont physiographic provience.641-1. a common variety of sillimanite is known as fibrolite. . brown. else vitreous HARDNESS = 7. both the fibrous & traditional forms of silicate are common in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks . so named because the mineral appears like a bunch of fibres twisted together when viewed under this section or even naked eye. it is an index mineral indicating a high degree of metamorphtism.648 CLEAVAGE = 1 PLEOCHROSIM = colourless to pale brown to yellow TYPE LOCALITY = wtava. CHARACTERISTIC FEATURES : CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC = orthorhombic COLOURS = white. sillimanite has been found in brandywine springs. An interesting analogy was brough up in the Geography Forum .
Stacks forms most commonly on chalk cliffs. bathtubs and other tiny bodies of water. What effect does the Coriolis force have upon my bathtub? It's granted that the Coriolis effect has an affect on the circulation of air and water on the planet but many people also think that the force has an effect on sinks.y y Light and loose snow takes more than 10 inches to make an inch of water but dense and slushy snow takes less. while harder rocks such as granite erode in different ways. small bodies of water are not affected by the Coriolis effect or bearing on whether sinks and toilets drain in one direction in the Northern Hemisphere and another direction in the Southern Hemisphere How often does a 100-year flood occur? Large floods are often given designations as a "one-hundred-year flood" but a 100-year flood does not mean that such a flood occurs once every 100 years. States and Rivers 1. instead it means that there is a one in one-hundred (or 1%) chance of such a flood occurring in a given year.2%) chance of occurring so it would be much more catastrophic than a 100-year flood. They are also form when natural arch collapses due to sub-aerial processes & gravity. beacause of the medium resistance to erosion. STACK It is a geological land form consisting of a steep & often vertical column / columns of rocks in the sea near coast. It is also famous for rock climbing. Cliffs with weaker rock such as clay tend to stump & erode too quickly to form stacks.Rivers flowing into Bay of Bengal . A stack may collapse / be eroded leaving a stums. Stacks are formed when a part of a headland is eroded leaving small island. Two 100-year floods could occur a year apart or even a month apart -. A "20-year flood" has a one in twenty (or 5%) chance of occurring in a particular year so it would be a less destructive flood than a 100-year flood while a "500-year flood" has a one in 500 (0. Unfortunately.it all depends on how much rain is falling or how quickly the snow melts. stacks are often important sites for nesting seabird. toilets. wash basins.
* Karnaphuli River from Mizoram and Bangladesh * Meghna River from India and Bangladesh o Titas River in Tripura + Haora River in Agartala Brahmaputra River Basin * Brahmaputra River o Lohit River o Burhidihing River o Dihing River o Kameng River o Manas River o Sankosh o Yamuna o Teesta River + Rangeet River + Lachen River + Lachung River o Darla River in Bangladesh + Jaldhaka in Sikkim and West Bengal Ganga River Basin * Ganges River o Hooghly River (distributary) + Damodar River # Barakar River + Rupnarayan River + Ajay River + Mayurakshi river + Dwarakeswar river + Mundeswari river o Meghna River (distributary) o Padma River (distributary) o Budhi Gandak o Kosi River o Gandak at Patna o Son River + Koel River + Rihand River o Ghaghara River (Gogra) or Karnali River in Nepal o Yamuna River + Ban Ganga River + Betwa River .
Gondiya districts of Maharashtra . Maharashtra states o Kolab River in Orissa State o Indravati River in Gadchiroli district of Maharashtra State and also in Chhattisgarh state + Bandiya River in Gadchiroli o Pranhita River in Gadchiroli district of Maharashtra State and also in Andhra Pradesh state + Dina River in Gadchiroli + Wainganga River in Gadchiroli. Chandrapur. Nagpur.# Dhasan River # Halali River # Kaliasote River + Sindh River # Kwari River # Pahuj River in Bhind District Madhya Pradesh + Chambal River # Banas River * Berach River o Ahar River # Kali Sindh River # Parbati River (Madhya Pradesh) # Shipra River in Ujjain + Gambhir River # Parbati River (Rajasthan) o Gomti River o Mahananda River o Mahakali River o Bhagirathi River o Alaknanda River o Maddie Phillips River West Bengal Coastal Rivers * Subarnarekha river o Kharkai River * Kangsabati River Mahanadi River Basin * Mahanadi River o Brahmani River + South Koel River near Rourkela + Sankh River Godavari River Basin * Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh. Bhandara. Karnataka.
Nagpur. Osmanabad. Buldhana. Bidar o Kadakpurna River in Parbhani. Nagpur districts of Maharashtra state # Bawanthadi River in Bhandara # Wagh River in Gondiya + Wardha River in Chandrapur. Aurangabad + Kelna River in Jalna. Amravati. Latur. Wardha. Yavatmal. Beed districts of Maharashtra State + Manhaad River in Nanded. Aurangabad . Aurangabad districts of Maharashtra state + Dudhna River in Parbhani. Latur + Tavarja River In Latur + Karanja River in Bidar. Nizamabad district of Andhra Pradesh and Nanded. Hingoli # Vena River in Wardha. Nagpur districts of Maharashtra state # Yashoda River in Wardha * Dham River in Wardha * Bhakalee River in Wardha # Ramganga River in Yavatmal # Bembala River in Yavatmal. Latur + Lendi River in Nanded. Amravati # Penganga River in Andhra Pradesh state and Chandrapur. Nagpur districts of Maharashtra state * Pothara River in Wardha o Lai River in Wardha * Bor River in Wardha. Yavatmal. Amravati in Amravati # Charghad River in Amravati and Madhya Pradesh State # Maad River in Amravati and Madhya Pradesh State o Manjra River in Bidar district of Karnataka State. Washim districts of Maharashtra state # Vidarbha River. Hingoli. Washim * Adan River in Yavatmal. Latur + Terna River in Osmanabad. Hingoli.state and Balaghat District of Madhya Pradesh State # Sati River in Gadchiroli * Khobragadi River in Gadchiroli o Teepa River in Gadchiroli # Chulband River in Bhandara. Gondiya districts of Maharashtra state # Kanhan River in Nagpur * Nag River in Nagpur * Pench River in Nagpur * Kolhar River in Nagpur # Sur River in Bhandara. Washim and Buldhana districts of Maharashtra State * Vidarbha River. Aurangabad + Girija River in Jalna. Latur # Devani River in Latur. Nanded. Washim * Kayadhu River in Nanded. Jalna. Yavatmal in Yavatmal * Khuni River in Yavatmal * Waghadi River in Yavatmal * Arunavati River in Yavatmal.
Ahmednagar in Ahmednagar o Kadwa River in Nashik o Darna River in Nashik district of Maharashtra state Krishna River Basin * Krishna River o Tungabhadra River + Vedavathi River + Tunga River + Bhadra River o Malaprabha River o Ghataprabha River o Bhima River + Sina River in Solapur. Satara # Karha River # Bhatghar River + Ghod River # Kukadi River + Mula Mutha River at Pune district of Maharashtra state # Mutha River # Mula River.o Kapra River in Parbhani district of Maharashtra state o Sindfana River in Beed + Bindusara River in Beed o Kham River in Aurangabad o Shivna River in Aurangabad o Pravara River in Ahmednagar + Mula River. Ahmednagar districts of Maharashtra state + Nira River in Pune. Beed. Osmanabad. India * Pavana River in Pune + Indrayani River + Bhama River o Dudhganga River o Panchganga River in Kolhapur district of Maharashtra state o Warna River o Yerla River o Koyna River in Satara district of Maharashtra state Andhra Pradesh Coastal Rivers Rivers like vamsadhara and nagavalli are the two coastal rivers in srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh Sharada river starts at Devarapally in visakhapatnam district and drains in to the Bay of Bengal .
Rivers flowing into Arabian Sea Kerala Coastal Rivers * Chaliyar River * Periyar River o Chalakkudy River * Bharathapuzha River o Thuthapuzha o Gayathripuzha o Kalpathipuzha o Kadalundipuzha River o Kannadipuzha o Tirur River * Pamba River o Achankovil River * Payaswini * Meenachil River * Kodoor River .Penner River Basin * Penner River Kaveri River Basin * Kaveri River (Kaveri) o Kollidam (distributary) o Amaravati River o Arkavathy River o Mettur Dam o Bhavani River o Hemavati River o Kabini River Tamil Nadu Coastal Rivers * Cauvery River * Thamirabarani River * Palar River * Vaigai River * Vellar o Vasishta Nadi o Sweta Nadi 2.
Jalgaon districts . * Netravati River * Sharavathi River * Aghanashini River * List of rivers of Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts Goa Coastal Rivers * Zuari River * Mandovi River Maharashtra Coastal Rivers * Shastri River * Gad River * Vashishti River * Savitri River * Patalganga River * Ulhas River o Thane Creek (distributary) o Vasai Creek (distributary) * Mithi River or Mahim River * Oshiwara River * Dahisar River * Tansa River in Thane * Vaitarna River * Surya River Tapti River Basin Tapti River and its tributaries * Tapti River in Gujarat. Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh o Gomai River in Nandurbar district of Maharashtra o Arunavati River in Dhule district of Maharashtra o Panzara River in Jalgaon. Malegaon.* kallada river * Ithikkara river Karnataka Coastal Rivers The rivers flowing through three coastal districts of Karnataka join Arabian sea. Dhule districts o Girna River in Nashik. Dhule districts of Maharashtra + Kaan River in Dhule district o Aner River in Jalgaon.
+ Titur River in Jalgaon district o Waghur River in Jalgaon. Navsari districts of Gujarat. Amravati districts of Maharashtra + Morna River in Akola. Washim districts + Umaa River in Akola. Buldhana. Washim districts o Sangiya River in Amravati district of Maharashtra Narmada River Basin * Narmada River o Kolar River in Sehore o Barna River in Raisen o Hiren River o Tawa River o Burhner River Mahi River Basin * Mahi River o Som River + Gomati River Sabarmati River Basin * Sabarmati River o Wakal River o Sei River Indus River Basin * Indus River o Panjnad River + Sutlej River # Beas River * Parbati River (Himachal Pradesh) + Chenab River # Ravi River # Jhelum River Rivers flowing into inner part of India . Akola. Jalgaon. Aurangabad districts o Purna River in Amravati. Akola. Maharashtra Madhya Pradesh + Nalganga River in Buldhana district + Vaan River in Buldhana. Washim districts + Katepurna River in Akola.
Rajasthan * Musi River at Hyderabad.* Ghaggar River in Haryana. horizon.26. Bokaro Steel Plant (BSL) -.With the help of UK 3. Durgapur Steel Plant (DSP)--Late 1950s .1st Integrated in Coastal India ******************************************* SUPER VOLCANO it is a volcano that produces the largest & most voluminous kinds of erruption on earth. Bhilai Steel Plant (BSP)--1959 . the term originally coined by the producers of the BBC popular science program. Salem Steel Plant (SSP)-. IISCO Steel Plant (ISP) --1918 . Visvesvaraya Iron and Steel Limited (VISL)--1923 . nothr island. Alloy Steels Plants (ASP)-. Maharashtra Elektro-smelt Limited (MEL) --in Maharashtra 10.colossal events that eject at least 1000 km3 of pyroclastic material.in Orissa .West Bengal 7. but the volume of ejected tephra is enough to radically alter the landscape & severely affect global climate for years. 1170 km3 . eruptions with a volcanic explosively index of 8are mega.oruanui eruption . the caldera can remain for millions of years after all volcanic activity at the site has ceased.With the help of Germany 4.Only Producer of Steel Rails in India 2. ERUPTIONS : . a large igneous province is an extensive region of basalts on a continental scale.in West Bengal 6.With the help of USSR .lake tarpo. resulting from flood basalt eruptions. the explosivity of such eruptions varies. new zealand . Rourkela Steel Plant (RSP) --1965 .Tamil Nadu 8.1972 -in Jharkhand -With the help of USSR 5. VIZAG Steel Plant . with cataclysmic consequences for life. VEI-8 eruptions are so powerful that they form circular calderas rather than montains because the downward collapse of land at the eruption site fills empited space in the magma chamber beneath.at Durgapur.Karnataka 9. Korea .500 years ago .based on the design of Pohang Steel Plant. India *************************************************** Steel Plants in India 1. in the year 2000 it refered to three types of eruption. West Bengal .in Chhattisgarh . when created regions often occupy several million km2 & have volumes on the order of 1 million km3.(2nd after TISCO) .
Nepal-China: 29.035 feet / 8850 meters Highest Mountain in Africa Kilimanjaro.2. Tanzania: 19. eradicating an estimated 60% of human population & was responsible for the sulphuric acid in the atmosphere.066 feet / 4897 meters Highest Mountain in Australia Kosciusko: 7310 feet / 2228 meters Highest Mountain in Europe Elbrus.510 feet / 5642 meters Highest Mountain in Western Europe .2 million years ago .340 feet / 5895 meters Highest Mountain in Antarctica Vinson Massif: 16.000 years ago .Deepest and lowest points on Earth Tallest point of each continet Highest Mountain in the World (and Asia) Everest.75.. ******************************** Tallest. indonesia . the word synoptic is derived from the greek word sunoptikos meaning seen together. ********************************************************* SYNOPTIC SCALE METEOROLOGY it is also known as cyclonic scale. 2500 km3 lake toba eruption plunged the earth into a volcanic winter. most high & low pressure are as seen on weather maps are synoptic scale systems. it is a horizontal scale of order of 1000 kilometers / more this corresponds to a horizontal scale typical of mid-latitudes depressions. colorada.lake toba . Russia (Caucasus): 18. 2800 km3 .la garita caldera. us. . sumatra.
Azerbaijan: 92 feet / 28 meters below sea level Lowest Point in Western Europe Tie: Lemmefjord.333 feet) below sea level but is covered with ice.320 feet / 6194 meters Highest Mountain in the 48 Contiguous United States Whitney.771 feet / 4807 meters Highest Mountain in Oceania Puncak Jaya. exposing the trench. California: 14.834 feet / 6960 meters Lowest points on Land Lowest Point in the World (and Asia) Dead Sea shore.535 feet / 5040 meters Highest Mountain in North America McKinley (Denali). Deepest points in each Ocean . Russia-Iran-Turkmenistan.5 meters below sea level Lowest Point in Africa Lake Assal. Argentina: 22. if Antarctica's ice were to melt. California: 282 feet / 86 meters below sea level Lowest Point in South America Bahia Blanca.Mont Blanc.494 feet / 4418 meters Highest Mountain in South America Aconcagua. Alaska: 20. Netherlands: 23 feet / 7 meters below sea level Lowest Point in North America Death Valley. Djibouti: 512 feet / 156 meters below sea level Lowest Point in Australia Lake Eyre: 52 feet / 12 meters below sea level Lowest Point in Europe Caspian Sea shore. France-Italy: 15. Argentina: 138 feet / 42 meters below sea level Lowest Point in Antarctica The Bentley Subglacial Trench is approximately 2540 meters (8. New Guinea: 16. Israel-Jordan: 1369 feet / 417. Denmark and Prins Alexander Polder. it would be covered by sea so it is a quasi-lowest point and if one ignores the reality of the ice. it is the lowest point "on land" on the earth.
Mariana Trench. by wind-driven sand. ******************************** VENTIFACT these are rocks that have been abraded.924 meters Deepest Point in the Atlantic Ocean Puerto Rico Trench: 28.Deepest Point in the World (and Pacific Ocean) Challenger Deep. these gemorphic features are most typically found in & environments where there is little vegetation to interfere with eolian . grooved. Western Pacific Ocean: 35. depositing & shingle moved by longshore drift in each direction around the island where the waves meet eustatic sea level rise may also contribute to aceretion as material is pushed up with rising sea levels.881 feet / 5450 meters Deepest Point in the Indian Ocean Java Trench: 23.736 feet / 7235 meters ************************************************************************* TOMBOLO it is a deposition landform such as a spit or bar which forms a narrow piece of land between an island or offshore rock & a mainland shore.376 feet / 7125 meters Deepest Point in the Southern Ocean Southern end of the South Sandwich Trench: 23.374 feet / 8648 meters Deepest Point in the Arctic Ocean Eurasia Basin: 17.840 feet / 10. they usually form because the island causes wave refraction. / between two islands.
The wadi is very widely found in arabic to ponyms were streams in a desert environment & generally are dry year round except after rain.44. porpoises . Great Barrier Reed can be seen from outer space & is worlds biggest single structure made by living organism. & where there is a steady but not overwhelming supply of sand. by around 13. they are limited to growing above a depth of 150 meters due to their need for sunlight & cannot grow above sea level. coral reef began to grow in the basin until about 25 million years ago. ventifacts can be abraded to eye-catching natural sculptures. the reef is located in the coral sea. off the coast of Queensland in northeast australia. many countries had been using Greenwich as the Prime Meridian for decades so the tradition became internationally accepted World Largest Coral Reef! GREAT BARRIER REEF . continental islands. known as coral polyps. the land formed the subtrate of the current great barrier reef was a coastal plain formed from the eroded sediments of the great dividing range with some larger hills from 20. in moderately tall. they can increase in diameter from 1-2 cms per year & grow vertically any where from 1-15 cms per year. this is build by billions of tiny organisms . dolphines . The United Kingdom and.000 years ago the sea level was 60 meters lower than the present day. when coral sea basin was formed. Thus. this occurs because . by association. by the time of an international conference in 1884 to establish fixed degrees of longitude on the planet. even in strong winds. isolated rock out crops. including many vulnerable & endangered species.400 square kilometers. sand grains can't be continuously held in the air.WORLD'S LARGEST CORAL REEF SYSTEM it is the worlds largest coral reef system. Why was the Prime Meridian established at Greenwich In 1675. composed of roughly 3000 individual reefs & 900 islands stretching for 2600 km over an area of approximately 3. this GBR supports a diversity of life. mushrooms shaped pillars of rock may form as the out crop is eroded by saltating sand grains.000 years ago until 60. WADI It is traditionally a valley. outside of London was created to study the determination of longitude (a vital comonent to oceanic navigation). The deposition of wadi is rapid because of the sudden loss of the velocity & absorption of the water into the ground. the Royal Observatory at Greewich. used Greenwich as the reference point for longitude. the United States. corals began to grow around the hills of the costal plain . In some cases it can refer to a dry river bed that contain water only during times of heavy rain. which were by then. there are thirty species of whales. the sea level rose steadily.particle transport where there are frequently strong winds. some of them are endamic to the reef system.000 years ago.
lamproites which have their source in the upper mantle. near the town of window rock. b) Meso-yardang :these are generally a few meters high & 10-15 meters long. c) Micro-yardang :these are only few centimeters high. six species of a sea turtles come to the reef to breed-the green sea tutle. often contain fragments & crystals assumed to be a apart of the originating mantle minualogy. xenolith provide information about the composition of the innacessible mantle. Yardang form in environment where water is scarce. indo-pacific humpback dolphin & the humpback whale.have been recorded in the GBR. . loggeshead sea turtle. leather back the sea turtle. torn loose from the walls of an erupting lava conduct / explosive diatreme along the base of a flowing lava on earth's surface. The word is derived from turkish meaning. large populations of dugongs live there. Some are found in dried-up river beds. in geology xenolith is almost used to describe igneous rock during magma emplacement & eruption. kimberlites. TYPES: a) Mega-yardang : can be several kilometers long & hundreds of meters high. including the dwarf minke whale. when viewed from above . xenolith may be engulfed along the margins of magma chamber. These are elongate features typically 3 or more times longer than they are wide. Yardang! YARDANG It is a wind-abraded ridge found in cohesive material. arzona . resemble the hull of a boat. Xenolith! XENOLITH it is rock fragment which becomes enveloped in a larger rock during the latter's development & hardening. 'steep bank'. hawksbill turtle. olive ridly. A large concentration of mega are found near the tibesti mountains in the central sahara. unidirectional & carry an abrasive sediment load. basalts. a rock formation with a roughly another yardang arizona is window rock. There is a famous yardang are 'hole in the rock' in papayo parla in phoenix. salt water crocodiles live near the reef. The prevailing winds are strong. It is a 200 feet sandstorm hill with a very large circular rock in the middle of it.