TROPICAL DESIGN = Minimize SUN + Maximize WIND

TROPICAL DESIGN TROPICAL DESIGN = passive cooling PASSIVE COOLING: design with no mechanical equipment used to induce comfort conditions in building interior PASSIVE COOLING = inducing air movements INDUCING AIR MOVEMENTS: relevant for areas with temperature variations of 10° and with high humidity INDUCING AIR MOVEMENTS: can improve thermal comfort up to building interiors 15 meters deep .

Passive Systems for Various Climates HOT-HUMID CLIMATE: maximize wind exposure maximize internal airflow minimize radiant heat gain minimize radiant heat gain moderate wind resistance moderate internal airflow maximize thermal retention maximize radiant heat gain minimize wind resistance HOT-DRY CLIMATE: COOL CLIMATE: TEMPERATE CLIMATE: moderate thermal retention moderate radiant heat gain slight wind exposure (for humidity control) moderate internal airflow .

Air flows from a high-pressure to a low-pressure area. 3. air tends to continue to flow in its initial direction until some intervening force is met.AIR MOVEMENT ≡ wind Principles of Air Movement 1. Air flows through the path of least resistance. 2. . Once set in motion. INERTIA.

3. Equator receives more radiation than do polar regions. Hot air moves upwards going to polar regions. 2. Cold air moves to equator close to earth’s surface. 4.GLOBAL AIR MOVEMENT General Conditions 1. Heat from equator move towards polar regions. .

GLOBAL AIR MOVEMENT Specific Conditions 1. Rotation of earth deflects the air = Coriolis Force 2. • • Air temperature changes faster than ground temperature Daily fluctuations of air temperature caused by physical conduction up to 3 meters above the ground Marked differences of air temperature between night and day • . Wind flows due to heat exchange.

Night Time Cooling: land cools faster than water • LAND BREEZE – wind from land directed to sea . Daytime Heating: land warms more rapidly than water • • SEA BREEZE – wind from the sea directed toward land Strongest in the afternoon when heating variance is greatest 2.GEOGRAPHICAL AIR MOVEMENT Land and Sea Breezes 1.

WARM COOL Daytime Sea Breeze COOL WARM Night Time Land Breeze .

MONSOONS IN THE PHILIPPINES Monsoon: large-scale seasonal currents 1. Southwest Monsoon = HABAGAT = the summer monsoon • • • • Appears early May Maximum flows during August Disappears gradually in October Persists from November to December . Northeast Monsoon = AMIHAN = the winter monsoon • • • • Appears in October Attains maximum strength in January Gradually weakens in March Disappears in April 2.

Window heights = 1. Air enters through lower level openings Air exits at higher level openings 4. Window width ÷ wall width = 50% to increase indoor air speed 5. Wind deflectors. Prevent wind shadows by placing openings . Windward side = positive pressure Leeward side = negative pressure 2.AIR MOVEMENT IN BUILDINGS 1. Air enters through openings located in the positive pressure zone Air exits through openings located at the negative pressure zone 3. horizontal and vertical. to redirect air flow 7.10 meters for effective indoor air movement 6.

Make use of earth mounds to achieve better air movement . Tree foliage above openings promote air motion into openings 3. hedge and building to achieve air flow control 4. Lateral air channels to direct air flow 5. Hedges/shrubs should not be more than 3 meters from building 2.EFFECT OF LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS 1. Arrange trees to determine wind shadow 6. Combine tree.

SOLAR GEOMETRY 1. Celestial Sphere: earth is static. June 21 is considered the longest day = summer solstice 6. March 21 and September 21 = equinoxes . sun moves from east to west 3.04° per hour 4. The earth’s polar axis is inclined at 23°47’ from the vertical 5. The sun moves across the sky at a rate of 15. December 21 is the shortest day = winter solstice 7. Rays of the sun vary with time and place (latitude) 2.

Solar Azimuth Angle = the sun’s position as projected on a horizontal plane.SUN PATH 1.5° N Latitude 5. The two solar angles change with Latitude (location on Earth) 4. Solar Chart = Sun Path Diagrams 7. Solar Altitude Angle = the angle with height above the horizon. Two Methods for Calculating Solar Angles • Using graphs • By mathematical calculation 6. Different Solar Charts for Different Latitudes . Ranges from 0° when on horizon to 90° when directly above (noon) 2. Metro Manila is located at 14. 3.

20° 30 ° 40 ° ° 50 6 ° 60 6 5 4 3 2 1 12 11 10 8 9 7 70° 80° 90° 80° 100° 70° 60° 50° 40° 30° ° ° 110 ° 12 0 ° 13 0 20° 10° 0° 15 0 14 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.