Conceptual Physics Lab Determining Specific Heat of MetalsThe purpose of this lab is to determine the specific heat of a small
metal cylinder. This will be done using calorimetry along with a LabPro temperature probe and the law of heat exchange. Introduction Scientists identify substances on the basis of their chemical and physical properties. One physical property of a substance is the amount of energy it will absorb per unit of mass. This property can be measured quite accurately and is called specific heat (Cp). Specific heat is the amount of energy measured in joules, needed to raise the temperature of one gram of the substance one Celsius degree. Often applied to metallic elements, specific heat can be used as a basis for comparing energy absorption and transfer. To measure specific heat in the laboratory a calorimeter of some kind must be used. A calorimeter is a well-insulated container used in measuring energy changes. The calorimeter is insulated to reduce the loss or gain of energy to or from the surroundings. Energy always flows from an object at a higher temperature to an object at a lower temperature. The heat gained by the cooler substance equals the heat lost by the warmer substance, if we assume no loss of heat to the surrounding environment. heat lost = heat gained In this experiment, you will determine the specific heat of a metal sample. The metal sample will be heated to a high temperature then placed into a calorimeter containing a known quantity of water at a lower temperature. Having measured the mass of the water in the calorimeter, the temperature change of the water (ΔT) and knowing the specific heat of water (4.184 J/g °C) the heat gained by the water (lost by the metal) can be calculated as follows:
Materials: Each group will need the following ▪ LabPro with temperature probe ▪ Electronic balance ▪ 1 dry Calorimeter ▪ metal specimen ▪ 100 ml of cold water (just enough to submerge your specimen when it is placed in the cup) ▪ one beaker for boiling water ▪ one hot plate Procedure:
Logger Pro should automatically set up the graphs according to the connected sensor. 4. 7. Also note that no water should splash from the COLD water. Record the mass carefully to two decimal places. Try not to allow any hot water to be transferred with the specimen by letting the steam assist in "drying" off the specimen. Cover the calorimeter with its cover. Turn the hot plate on high. then begin the experiment. Remove the calorimeter cover. Carefully
place the metal sample in the boiling water using test tube clamps. Return metal to its original place. With a temperature probe properly connected. Fill a large beaker approximately half full of water. Fill the calorimeter approximately half full with water at room temperature and record the mass to two decimal places.
1. Repeat the entire procedure with a different metal if time permits. Pour
the water down the sink. but carefully. Measure the temperature of the water IN THE CALORIMETER and record to tenths. ALERT: The change occurs quickly . the program should display a graph of temperature vs time.
Immediately Begin Data collection Stir very slowly with a stirring rod. retrieve and dry the metal.
It will be assumed that the temperature of the metal is the same as the boiling water which is 100 degrees C. carefully remove it with the test tube clamps
and quickly transfer the metal into the calorimeter cup so that the metal is covered by the water. quickly. Rinse and dry the calorimeter cup 11. 3. Place the beaker of water on a hot plat.Launch the Logger Pro program. 9.
6. Do NOT rest the probe against the metal specimen. Begin
heating the water to the boiling point. and record the highest temperature reached by the water to tenths. press Collect to start timing.
Determining Specific Heat of a Metal Lab Name____________________________
. When you are ready to transfer the hot metal specimen into the cold water. Use the temperature probe to gently stir the mixture .record the final equilibrium temperature. Obtain a calorimeter cup. When you are ready to start collecting data. Turn off the hot plate or burner.
2.watch your screens for the PEAK temperature after the specimen is transferred!
8. move it into the COLD water cup. Determine the mass of a metal sample (I might assign a specific one to your group). After the metal has been heating at least 5 minutes.
4) What substance lost heat in this experiment? 5) What substance gained heat? 6) Why is the calorimeter insulated? Metals have a lower specific heat than that of water. other than specific heat. 9) What are some of the sources of error in this experiment? How can this lab be improved to reduce these?
. 7) Was this true in what you observed? 8) Explain with a “low specific heat” means in terms of heat retention and heat requirements. could you use to help you identify the metal samples? 3) Why is water an excellent material to use in the calorimeter? In an insulated environment. HEAT LOST = HEAT GAINED.Calculations: show all units! (show work below or use a another sheet of paper) Heat gained by water— use the second equation in the introduction Experimental specific heat—use the third equation in the introduction Percent error = | experimental – standard | x 100 standard Analysis Questions (use space below or a separate sheet of paper to answer questions) 1) What is the purpose of this lab? 2) What physical properties.