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# Principalele valori ale funcţiilor sin x şi cos x Funcţiile trigonometrice ale multiplilor unui unghi

y
sin 2α = 2 sin α cos α sin 3α = sin α(3 − 4 sin2 α)
cos 2α = cos2 α − sin2 α = cos 3α = cos α(4 cos2 α − 3)
(0, 1) 2 cos2 α − 1 = 1 − 2sin2 α 3tgα−tg 3 α
√ ! √ ! 2 tg α
tg2α = 1−tg 2α
tg3α = 1−3tg 2 α
1 3 1 3
− , , ctg 2 α−1 ctg 3 α−3ctgα
!
2 2 2 2 ctg2α = ctg3α = 3ctg 2 α−1
√ √ √ √ ! 2ctgα
2 2 π 2 2
− , , Funcţiile trigonometrice ale jumătăţii unui unghi
2 2 2 2 2
!
2π π
!
q q
√ √ α 1−cos α
3 1 3 3
π 3 1 sin α2 = ± 1−cos α
tg 2 = ±
− ,
2 2

90◦ ,
2 2
q 2 q1+cos α
4 4
120◦ 60◦ cos α2 = ± 1+cos
2
α
ctg α2 = ± 1−cos
1+cos α
α
5π ◦
π
135 45◦
6 6 Pentru funcţiile tg α2 şi ctg a2 se folosesc uneori şi formulele
150◦ ◦
30
tg α2 = sin α
1+cos α ctg α2 = 1+cos α
sin α
(−1, 0) (1, 0) tg α2 = 1−cos α
sin α ctg α2 = sin α
1−cos α
π 180◦ 0◦ ◦
360 2π x
De asemenea sunt utile şi formulele

210◦ 330◦ sin α = 2 sin α2 cos α2 ; 1 − cosα = 2 sin2 α2 ;
7π 11π cos α = cos2 α2 − sin2 α2 ; 1 + cos α = 2 cos2 α2
225◦ 315◦
6 6
√ ! 240◦ 300 ◦
√ ! Exprimarea funcţiilor trigonometrice ale unghiului α cu ajutorul tg α2 (for-
3 1 5π 7π 3 1
− ,− 270◦ ,−
2 2 4 4 2 2 mulele universale)
4π 5π
√ √ ! 3 3π 3 √ √ ! 2tg α 2tg α
2 2 2 2 sin α = 2
1+tg 2 α tg α = 2
1−tg 2 α
− ,− 2 ,− 2 2
2 2 2 2 1−tg 2 α 1−tg 2 α
√ ! √ ! cos α = 2
ctg a = 2tg α 2
1 3 1 3 1+tg α
2
2 2
− ,− ,−
2 2 2 2 Formule pentru transformarea unor sume şi diferenţe de funcţii trigono-
(0, −1) metrice ı̂n produs.
sin(α+β)
sin α + sin β = 2 sin α+β
2 · cos 2
α−β
ctg α + ctg β = sin α·sin β
sin α − sin β = 2 sin α−β
2 · cos 2
α+β sin(β−α)
ctg α − ctg β = sin α·sin β
Formule fundamentale cos α + cos β = 2 cos 2 · cos α−β
α+β
2
cos(α+β)
tg α − ctg β = − cos
sin α α cos β
sin2 α + cos2 α = 1; tg α = cos α − cos β = 2 sin α+β2 · sin β−α
2 1 − cos α = 2sin2 α2
cos α sin(α±β)
tg α ± tg β = cos α·cos β 1 + cos β = 2cos2 α2
Funcţiile trigonometrice ale sumei şi diferenţei de unghiuri
Formule pentru transformarea unor produse de funcţii trigonometrice ı̂n
tgα+tgβ
sin(α + β) = sin α · cos β + cos α · sin β tg(α + β) = 1−tgα·tgβ sume:
tg β+tg β
sin(α − β) = sin α · cos β − cos α · sin β tg α−tg β
tg(α − β) = 1−tg α·tg β sin α · cos β = 12 [sin(α + β) + sin(α − β)] tg α · tg β = ctg α+ctg β
ctg α+ctg β
cos(α + β) = cos α · cos β − sin α · sin β ctg(α + β) = ctg α·ctg β−1 cosα · cosβ = 12 [cos(α + β) + cos(α − β)] ctg α · ctg β = tg α+tg β
ctg α+ctg β
cos(α − β) = cos α · cos β + sin α · sin β ctg(α − β) = ctg α·ctg β+1 sinα · sinβ = 12 [cos(α − β) − cos(α + β)] ctg α · tg β = ctg α+tg β
tg α+ctg β
ctg β−ctg α