Anatomy of the Respiratory System
Upper and Lower Respiratory System Structures
1. Complete the labeling of the diagram of the upper respiratory structures (sagittal section).

Frontal sinus~ Cribriform plate of ethmoid bone




Superior Middle

concha concha






nares (nostril)
Hard palate



Opening of auditory tube or eustachian tube or pharyngotympanic tube

-rr,--HTirr-"""'7"<:::'Z7""--i---- Nasopharynx ,**~H-+--:",,"----f---Posterior nasal apeture (internal nares)

Soft palate
Tongue -----


Lingual Epiglottis



Hyoid bone -------"-~

Vocal fold (true vocal cord)
Thyroid gland




2. Two pairs of vocal folds are found in the larynx. Which pair are the true vocal cords (superior or inferior)?

3. Name the specific cartilages in the larynx that correspond to the following descriptions. forms the Adam's apple: _th....::.y_ro_i_d a "lid" for the larynx: _e"-p-=ig_lo_t_tis
_ _

shaped like a signet ring: _c_r_ic_o_id vocal cord attachment: _a_r_yt_e_l1o_i_d

_ _


:.------main (primary) bronchi superior lobe of left lung lobar (secondary) bronchus segmental (tertiary) bronchus inferior lobe inferior lobe alveolar respiratory bronchioles ~--=><¢ duct terminal bronchiole -----'''----'-.. _ 7.I~·g. 5.4.:.R:.s'---and moistens incoming air.ift _ _ Which more commonly traps a foreign object that has entered the respiratory passageways? --. The following questions refer to the primary bronchi.-fi_t _ Larger in diameter?. Appropriately label all structures provided with leader lines on the diagrams below.:R:. .. What is the function of the pleural membranes? Produce a serous fluid that reduces friction during breathing movements and helps to hold the lungs tightly to the thorax wall which keeps the lungs inflated..:.I~·g--... Allows a food bolus traveling down the posterior esophagus to bulge Of the fact that the rings are incomplete posteriorly? anteriorly. What is the significance of the fact that the human trachea is reinforced with cartilaginous rings? Prevents its collapse during pressure changes occurring during breathing. Which is longer? _L_e".:...h.' alveolar sac 244 Review Sheet 36 .._a'-r_m.:..t _ More horizontal? _L_e-".. _w.. Name two functions of the nasal cavity mucosa.:h_t 8.:. 6.

Column A n k e d g Column B a. Why? Because no gas exchange occurs except in the respiratOlY zone. contains the vocal cords d. 6. connects the middle ear to the nasopharynx 10. internal respiration: Exchange of respiratory gases between the blood of the systemic capillaries and the tissue cells of the body. Match the terms in column B to the descriptions in column A. What portions of the respiratory system are referred to as anatomical dead space? All but the respiratory zone structures (respiratory bronchioles. Define the following terms. covers the glottis during swallowing of food 5. g. i. and alveoli). external respiration: Exchange of gases across the respiratory membrane in the lungs. cellular respiration: Oxygen-using cellular processes (that produce energy) with tissue cells. p. Review Sheet 36 245 . 9. food passageway posterior to the trachea 4. trachea vagus nerve visceral pleura 12. Trace a molecule of oxygen from the external nares to the pulmonary capillaries of the lungs: External nares nasal cavity ~ pharynx respiratory bronchiole ~ ~ larynx ~ trachea ~ primary bronchus ~ tertiary/secondary bronchi (etc. e. increases air turbulence in the nasal cavity 1. f. 7. j. b. site of tonsils 3.) ~ ~ ~ bronchiole alveolar duct ~ alveolar sac ~ across alveolar/capillary walls ~ pulmonary blood 10. alveolus bronchiole concha epiglottis esophagus glottis larynx opening of pharyngotympanic palate parietal pleura pharynx phrenic nerve tube l. site from which oxygen enters the pulmonary blood k. pleural layer lining the walls of the thorax 8. opening between the vocal folds II. nerve that activates the diaphragm during inspiration j a h f c h. separates the oral cavity from the nasal cavity 11. c. alveolar ducts and sacs. particularly in the alveoli. primary bronchi n. 12. m. o. connects the larynx to the primary bronchi 2.9.

What happened when the pressure was released? -=-T~he:.Demonstrating Lung Inflation in a Sheep Pluck a~t. Observations Student data. therefore.b::""Y!o. Complete the table below using your answers....:ed~.. 17..:. like a balloon? __~ar_t. record your observations. If you observed pathological lung sections.. Slide type Student data. Does the lung inflate part by part or as a whole.. Comparison to normal lung tissue 246 Review Sheet 36 .efl 15. What type of tissue ensures this phenomenon? _E_la.::'. the partial pressure of oxygen is greater Why does oxygen move from the alveoli into the pulmonary capillary blood? Because in the alveoli.:. _ _ _ Examining Prepared Slides of Trachea and Lung Tissue 16. P 14...st_ic_c_o_n_n_ec_t_iv_e_ti_ss_u_e_..p_ar_t~.:. Also record how the tissue differed from normal lung tissue.:. extremely large surface area. it moves according to the laws of diffusion into the pulmonary blood.. What structural characteristics of the alveoli make them an ideal site for the diffusion of gases? Thin walls.. n~g d.

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