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For the power generation with 2x110 MW, 3x210 MW and 2x195 MW of K.S.T.P.S. authorities are required to be operative to active full operation. The auxiliaries are basically operated on L.T. System i.e. 415 V 3-Ø power supply. It is made available to the system after providing the station transformer of 3x50 MVA capacity with voltage 220 KV/ 7.2/7.2 KV & different service transformers of capacity 1.0 MVA, 1.5 MVA, 2.0 MVA, which are located near the load centre as the transformer having the voltage of 6.6 KV /415 V. The 6.6 KV power is distributed through 6.6 KV interconnected Bus System for all the seven units with a control through AC of 220 V. The 415 V power supply is done through a L.T. SWGR (Switchgear) which are located nearby the distribution transformer as well as the load centers. The all incomers, which are breaker controlled , are having the control the L.T. SWGR are having the control system on 110/ 220 V AC. The LT supply is controlled through air break circuit breaker or MOCB (minimum oil circuit breaker) which are either L&T make or English Electric Company of India Further, the 6.6 KV system which is normally in delta configuration and terms as an unearthed system so also to keep the running motor complete in operating condition in case if any one phase of motor winding is earthed due to any reason. Earthing is detected by a protection system with alarm facility to take remedial measures immediately and at the same time to maintain the generation level in the same condition, prior to occurring of the earth fault the single phase earth fault is detected in due course till the motor is not earthed to other or another phase. “PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEM” is available through in area of each unit which helps in fast communication for prompt remedial measure.
In April 1973, Central Electricity Authority prepared a Project Report for power station comprising of the two units of each of capacity 110 MW for RSEB subsequently in September. 1975 this was revised by the Consultant Thermal Design Organization, these units are manufactured by BHEL, Hyderabad in 1st Stage. The planning commission cleared the project report in Sept., 1976 for installation of two units each of 110 MW in first estimated cost of Rs. 143 Crores. The KSTPS is five stage & seven unit power station. In first stage there is 2 unit of 110 MW, in second stage 2 unit of 210 MW. Third stage is of 210MW, fourth & fifth stages are of 195 MW each. The total power generated in KSTPS is 1240MW.
LOCATION:The Kota Thermal Power Station is situated on the left bank of Chambal River at Up Stream of Kota Barrage. The large expanse of water reached by the barrage provides an efficient direct circulation of cooling system for the power station. The 220 KV GSS is within ½ Km. from the power station.
K.S.T.P.S. IS DESISIGNED IN FOLLOWING STAGES:-
STAGE I STAGE II STAGE III STAGE IV STAGE V-
2x110 MW 2X210 MW 1X210 MW 1X195 MW 1X195MW
LAND:Land measuring approx. 250 hectares was required for the project in 1976, For disposal of ash tank very near to power station is acquired which the ash in slurry form is disposed off through ash and slurry disposal plants.
COAL:Coal India limited owns and operates all the major coal fields in India through its coal producing subsidiary companies viz. Eastern Coal Fields Limited, Western Coal Fields Limited/Coal India limited is supply coal from its coal mines of coal producing subsidiaries BCCL, SECL & ECL to Kota Thermal Power Station through railway wagons. The average distances of SECL, ECL & BCCL are 800, 950 and 1350 Kms. respectively.
WATER:The source of water for power station is reservoir formed by Kota Barrage on the Chambal River. In case of large capacity plants huge quantities of coal and water is required.
DESIGN FEATURES:The satisfactory design consists of the flowing steps. • • • • • • • Estimation of cost. Selection of site. Capacity of Power Station. Selection of Boiler & Turbine. Selection of Condensing Unit. Selection of Electrical Generator. Selection of Cooling System.
Design of Control and instrumentation system.
CHAPTER -1 General Layout & Basic Idea
A control system of station basically works on Rankin Cycle. Steam is produced in Boiler is exported in prime mover and is condensed in condenser to be fed into the boiler again. In practice of good number of modifications are affected so as to have heat economy and to increase the thermal efficiency of plant.
The Kota Thermal Power Station is divided into four main circuits: Fuel and Ash Circuit Air and Gas Circuit.
Air and Gas Circuit:Air from the atmosphere is supplied to the combustion chamber of Boiler through the action of forced draft fan and induced draft fan. This ash is collected at the back of the boiler and removed to ash storage tank through ash disposal equipment. next through dust collector (ESP) & then economizer. In boiler tubes water circulates because of density difference in lower and higher temperature section of the boiler. Feed Water and Steam Circuit:The condensate leaving the condenser is first heated in low pressure (LP) heaters through condensate extracted pump from the low pressure extraction of the turbine. This water is called the make up water. Then its goes to deaerator where extra air and non-condensable gases are removed from the hot water to avoid pitting / oxidation. they are exhausted to the atmosphere through fans. which on combustion in the boiler produced the ash. From the BFP it passes through the high pressure heaters. feed water enters into the boiler drum through economizer. From deaerator it goes to boiler feed pump which increases the pressure of the water. The fuel used in KSTPS is coal. Fuel & Ash Circuit:Fuel from the storage is fed to the boiler through fuel handling device. A small part of water and steam is lost while passing through different components therefore water is added in hot well. The low pressure steam called the cold reheat 5 . Feed water and Steam Circuit. The flue gases are first pass around the boiler tubes and super heated tubes in the furnace. Finally. Thereafter. From superheated it goes into the HP turbine after expanding in the HP turbine. The wet steam passes through superheated. The quantity of ash produced is approximately 30-35% of coal used. Cooling Water Circuit.
The coal handling plant can broadly be divided into three sections:- 6 .steam (CRH) goes to the reheater (boiler). It costs approximate 2 crores of rupees per day including transportation expenses. The main coal sources for KSTPS are SECL (South Eastern Coalfields Limited). Cooling Water Circuit:A large quantity of cooling water is required to condense the steam in condenser and maintaining low pressure in it. The water is drawn from reservoir and after use it is drained into the river. Each train consists of 58 wagons and each wagon consists of 60 tons of coal. In this plant unit 1 to 5 needs cooling as they work on open water cycle system while unit 6&7 needs no cooling as they work on close water system therefore the water is recycled. CHAPTER-2 COAL HANDLING PLANT INTRODUCTION:It can be called the heart of thermal power plant because it provided the fuel for combustion in boiler. The whole transportation of coal is through conveyor belt operated by 3-Ø Induction motor. ECL (Eastern Coalfield Limited) and BCCL (Bharat Coking Coal Limited). Everyday 3 to 4 trains of coal are unloaded at KSTPS. The approximate per day consumption at KSTPS is about 18000 tones. The coal is firstly unloaded from wagon by wagon triplers then crushed by crushers and magnetic pulley and pulverized to be transformed to the boiler. From reheater it goes to IP turbine and then to the LP turbine and then exhausted through the condenser into hot well. The coal is brought to the KSTPS through rails there are fourteen tracks in all for transportation of coal through rails.
The hopper. which is made of Iron. size pass through it.1) 2) 3) Wagon Unloading System. WAGON UNLOADING SYSTEM:Wagon Tripler:It unloads the coal from wagon to hopper. It is a mechanical system having two rollers each at its ends. The bigger ones are broken by the workers with the help of hammers. is in the form of net so that coal pieces of only equal to and less than 200 mm. Conveying System. The rollers roll with the help of a rope moving on pulley operated by a slip ring induction motor with specification: 7 . Crushing System. From the hopper coal pieces fall on the vibrator.
When the motor operates the rollers roll in forward direction moving the wagon towards the “Wagon Table”.e. Ring granulators.22 Amp. On the Wagon table a limit is specified in which wagon has to be kept otherwise the triple would not be achieved. No. Rated Voltage. 8 . 975 rpm. Rated Current. Secondary Crushers i. while breaking of coal in CHP Stage 1 & Stage 2 system is done at wagon triplers hopper jail up to the size (-) 250 mm. Rated Speed.e. CRUSHING SYSTEM:Crusher House:It consists of crushers which are used to crush the coal to 20 mm. Frequency. Primary Crushers:Primary crushers are provided in only CHP stage 3 system. size. The four rollers place themselves respectively behind the first and the last pair of wheels of the wagon. : : : : : : 71 KW. 415 V. i) Roll crushers ii) Rotary breaker. 14. of phases.Rated Output. There are mainly two types of crushers working in KSTPS:Primary Crushers i. 3 50 Hz.
Under ground machines are installed known as plow feeder machines. CONVEYING SYSTEM:- Stacker Reclaimer:The stacker re-claimer unit can stack the material on to the pipe or reclaim the stack filed material and fed on to the main line conveyor.i. The unique feature of this granulator is the minimum power required for tone for this type of material to be crushed compared to that of other type of crushers. FEEDERS:This structure is erected to serve the purpose of storage. Ring granulators crush by compressing accompanied by impact and shearing. During reclaiming the material discharged on to the boom conveyor by the bucket fitted to the bucket wheel body and boom conveyor feeds the material on the main line conveyor running in the reverse direction. 9 . Roll Crusher:Rotary Breaker:- Secondary Crusher:Basically there are four ways to reduce material size: impact attrition. Most of the crushers employ a combination of three crushing methods. While stacking material is being fed from the main line conveyor via triplers unit and vibrating feeder on the intermediate conveyor which feds the boom conveyor of the stacker cum reclaimer. Shearing and Compression. ii.
Air and Gas Plant. Fuel and ash plant:- 10 . Ash Disposal and & Dust Collection Plant. ASH HANDLING PLANT This plant can be divided into 3 sub plants as follows:1) 2) 3) Fuel and Ash Plant.These machines collect the coal from conveyor and drop it to the other from one conveyor with the help of jaws and this coal is taken to huge erected structure from where the coal falls to the ground.
The Pulverization also increases the overall efficiency and flexibility of boilers. The air before being supplied to the boiler passes through pre-heater where the flue gases heat it. In order to get an efficient utilization of coal mills. In economizer the heat of flue gases raises the temperature of feed water. oil burners are also used. In re-heater the temperature of the steam (CRH) coming from the HP turbines heated with increasing the number of steps of re-heater the efficiency of cycle also increases. In KTPS there are two FD fans and three ID fans available for draft system per unit. The flue gases formed due to combustion of coal first passes round the boiler tubes and then it passes through the super heater and then through economizer. Ash produced as the result of combustion of coal is connected and removed by ash handling plant. However for light up and with stand static load. Ash Handling Plant consists of especially designed bottom and fly ash system for two path boiler. Ash Disposal & Dust Collection Plant:KSTPS has dry bottom furnace. Air & Gas Plant:Air from atmosphere is supplied to combustion chamber of boiler through the action of forced draft fan. The system for both units is identical and following description is applied to both the units the water compounded bottom ash hopper receives the bottom ash from the furnace from where it is stores and 11 . The pre heating of primary air causes improved and intensified combustion of coal. Ash Handling Plant at KTPS consists of specially designed bottom ash and fly ash in electro static precipitator economizer and air pre-heaters hoppers.Coal is used as combustion material in KTPS. Finally the flue gases after passing through the Electro-Static Precipitator is exhausted through chimney.
2.discharged through the clinker grinder. Government may give attractive subsidy and create marketing facility so that entrepreneurs may come forward to use as their raw material. Road construction etc. There are various methods of utilization of coal-ash along with established engineering technologies some of them are mentioned below: 1.750 MT 12 . In all the above cases financial constraint discourages the entrepreneurs to take up the work.M/s. Manufacturing of building materials. In view of the environmental impact of disposal. Associated Cement Co. Two slurry pumps are provided which is common to both units & used to make slurry and further transportation to ash dyke through pipe line. Dry free fly ash is collected in two number of 31 fly ash hoppers which are handled by two independent fly ash system. 3. . Ltd. The ash is removed from fly ash hoppers in dry state is carried to the collecting equipment where it is mixed with water and resulting slurry sump is discharged Utilization:Utilization of coal-ash is always practice than its disposal. Making of concrete. Unit 1&2 .
For fly ash .400 MT . Shree Cement Ltd.M/s. Mangalam Cement Ltd. In an ESP the dust lidded gas is passed through an intense electric field. As far as air pollution is concerned now a days various flue gases filter are there in service. . . . which causes ionization of the gases & they changed into ion while traveling towards opposite charged electrode get deposited as particles and thus dust is electric deposited an electrode creating the field. Grasim Industries Ltd. or Fabric filter.M/s.M/s. CONTROLLER:- 13 . . The choice depends on the size of suspended particle matter.400 MT THERMAL POWER STATION ACHIEVED 98.S.P.Unit 3 .75 microns to 100 micron gradually use E. where the particle size vary from 0. today an Eco friendly industry is must.M/s.P. .48% DRY FLY ASH KOTA UTILIZATION ELECTRO-STATIC PRECIPITATOR Scope & Principle of Operation:For general mankind.1500 MT Unit 6 Unit 7 . .400 MT .S. Birla Cement Works Ltd.M/s. Mangalam Cement Ltd. It is continuous process.M/s. Shree Cement Ltd. to purify the flue gases due to its higher efficiency & low running cost etc. These filters are E.400 MT .750 MT Unit 4&5 .
Controller also takes place care of fault in KVR and gives a trapping and non-trapping alarm as per the nature of fault.S. Average power fed to ESP field can be controlled by variation of the firing angle of thyristor.Now a day micro-processor based intelligent controllers are used to regulate the power fed to the HVR. controller for indication and control purpose.P. E. The D. The positive bushing so connected to earth through small resistance which forms a current feed back circuit. It steps up to high voltage rectifier. A very high resistance column is also connected with negative bushing.S. FIELD:The field consists of emitting and collecting electrodes structure which are totally isolated from each other and hanging with the top roof of field. These controls the firing / ignition angle of the thyristor connected in parallel mode. supply is fed to E. HIGH VOLTAGE RECTIFIER TRANSFORMER:HVR receives the regulated supply from controller. It forms the voltage feed back circuit. The collecting electrodes are of the shape of flat plates. The emitting is also isolated from the roof through the support insulators which are supporting the emitting electrode frame works and also the supply to these electrodes is fed through support insulators.C. The output of controller with respect to time is also controlled by microprocessor.P. These two feedbacks are used in the 14 . so that ESP operation is smooth and efficient As can be seen in the event of spark between electrode the output of controller is reduced to zero for few millisecond for quenching the spark. field through its negative bushing.
It is one of the major components of a thermal power plant.The ash depositing on these electrode is rapped down by separate wrapping mechanism happens at the bottom of the field. Water tube boiler:In this type of boiler water flows inside the tubes and hot gases flow outside the tubes. These are economical for low pressure only. convection and radiation. A boiler is always designed to absorb maximum amount of heat released in process of combustion. located in the ESP auxiliaries control panels. under pressure is converted into steam. CHAPTER -3 BOILER A boiler (or steam generator) is a closed vessel in which water. From these hoppers ash is evacuated by ash handling system and dispose to the disposal area. Boilers are classified as:Fire tube boiler: In this type the products of combustion pass through the tubes which are surrounded by water. These tubes are interconnected to common water channels and to steam outlet.e. conduction. The wrapping system is automatically controlled with the help of the programmable metal controller. 15 . This is transferred to the boiler by all the three modes of heat transfer i.
In KSTPS. The UV flame scanners installed in each of the four corners of the furnace. Four nos. For ensuring safe operation of boilers. Better heat transfer to the mass of water. of ball mills of 34MT/hr. Oil burners are provided between coal burners for initial start up and flame stabilization. over hanged type.boiler interlocks safe guarding the boiler against possibility furnace explosion owing to flame failure. scan the flame conditions and in case of unsafe working conditions trip the boiler and consequently the turbine. Turbine . The pressure inside boiler is -ive so as to minimized the pollution and looses & to prevent the accidents outside the boiler. tangentially fired. 16 . capacity each have been installed for each boiler. furnace safe guard supervisory system (FSSS) of combustion engineering USA designed has been installed. light oil (diesel oil) is sprayed for initialization then heavy oil (high speed diesel oil) is used for stabilization of flame. Better efficiency of plant owing to rapid and uniform circulation of water in tubes. Easy removal of scale from inside the tubes. Pulverized coal is directly fed from the coal mills to the burners at the four corners of the furnace through coal pipes with the help of heated air coming from PA fan. Water tube boilers are used. Firstly. Better overall control.• • • • • • The water tube boilers have many advantages over the fire tube boilers High evaporation capacity due to availability of large heating surface. Natural circulation. This equipment systematically feed fuel to furnace as per load requirement.
Furnace:- 17 .
Fuel Oil System:The functional requirement of the fuel burning system is to supply a controllable and uninterrupted flammable furnace input of fuel and air and to continuously ignite and burn the fuel as rapidly as it is introduced into the furnace. The rotary feeders feed the coal to pulverize mill at a definite rate. The Fuel air (secondary air) provided FD fan. This system provides efficient conversion of chemical energy of fuel into heat energy. Furnace is designed for efficient and complete combustion.Furnace is primary part of the boiler where the chemical energy available in the fuel is converted into thermal energy by combustion. surrounds the fuel nozzles. which causes rapid mixing of fuel and air. Since this air provides covering for the fuel nozzles so it is called as mantle air. The fuel burning system should function such that fuel and air input is ignited continuously and immediately upon its entry into furnace. These burners are placed in the corners of the furnace and they send horizontal streams of air and fuel tangent in the center of the furnace. The crushed coal from the coal crusher is transferred into the unit coalbunkers where the coal is stored for feeding into pulverizing mill through rotary feeder. Major factors that assist for efficient combustion are the temperature inside the furnace and turbulence. Then coal burners are employed to fire the pulverized coal along with primary air into furnace. In modern boilers. Dampers are provided 18 . water-cooled furnaces are used. PULVERISED FUEL SYSTEM:The boiler fuel firing system is tangentially firing system in which the fuel is introduced from wind nozzle located in the four corners inside the boiler.
since solids in steam are carried by the moisture associated with it. No flammable mixture should be allowed to accumulate in the furnace. This ignition energy is provided by oil guns and by igniters. It also houses the equipment needed for purification of steam. Ignition takes place when the flammable furnace input is heated above the ignition temperature. The steam purification primarily depends on the extent of moisture removal. Ignition energy is usually supplied in the form of heat. Boiler Drum:The drum is a pressure vessel. It provides water storage for preventing the saturation of tubes. Coal burners distribute the fuel and air evenly in the furnace. Its function is to separate water and steam from the mixture (of steam & water) generated in the furnace walls.so that quantity of air can be modulated. The drum internals reduce the dissolved solids content of the steam to below the acceptable limit. Drum is made up of two halves of carbon steel plates having thickness of 133 mm. 19 .
down comer stubs. Boiler drum is located at a height of 70m from ground.The top half and bottom half are heated in a plate heating furnace at a very high temperature and are pressured to form a semi cylindrical shape. Manhole is used for facilitating the maintenance person to go inside the drum for maintenance. Main parts of boiler drum are:• • • • • • • Feed pipe Riser tube Down comer Baffle plate Chemical dosing pipe Turbo separation Screen dryer 20 . The drum is provided with manholes and manhole covers. Feed water is supplied to the drum from the economizer through feed nozzles. movement of fluid from the drum to the combustion zone and back to boiler drum. riser tubes stubs and super heater outlet tube stubs. Water from the drum goes to water walls through six down comers. The drum is provided with stubs for welding all the connecting tubes i.e. The drum form the part of boiler circulating system i.e. The top and bottom semi cylinders with hemispherical dished ends are fusion welded to form the boiler drum.
In doing this it overcomes resistance to flow by supplying the fluid with the energy necessary for contained motion. It ensures that there is no egress of air or hot gas and ash into boiler house. this fan also dries the coal. The following fans are used in boiler house.• Drum level gauge Draft System:The combustion process in a furnace can take place only when it receives a steady flow of air and has the combustion gases continuously removed. fan):- 21 . Its speed varies from 600-1500 RPM. Draught Fans:A fan can be defined as volumetric machine which like pumps moves quantities of air or gas from one place to another. Theoretically balanced draft means keeping furnace pressure equal to atmospheric pressure. Thus FD fan takes air from atmosphere at ambient temperature & so provides additional draught.D. fan):The combustion process in the furnace can take place only when it receives a steady flow of air.A. Forced draught fan (F. but in practice the furnace is kept slightly below atmospheric pressure. Induced draught fan (I. Secondly. Primary air fan (P. Usually sized for 1500 RPM due to high pressure.D. fan) or Exhauster fanPulverized coal is directly fed from coal mills to the burners at the four corners of the furnace through coal pipes with the help of heated air coming from PA fan. This air is supplied by FD fan.
Typical speed is 1460 RPM. When F. One will run and 2nd will remain as stand by. fans trip the scanner air fan will draw air from atmosphere through emergency damper. Two fans are usually provided. Economizer:- 22 . Scanner Air Fan:Used to provide necessary cooling air to the flame scanners. One will run and other will remain as stand by.The flue gases coming out of the boiler are passed to the ESP & then dust free gases are discharged up by the chimney to the atmosphere through the ID fan.D. Typical speed 3000 RPM. Igniter air fan:It is used to provide necessary combustion air to igniter. A control damper is provided on the discharge which modulates to maintain a constant differential pressure across igniter when any igniter is in service. Two air fans are usually provided.
Super heater:Superheated steam is that steam. a large number of small diameter thin walled tubes are placed between two headers. The use of economizer results in saving fuel consumption and higher boiler efficiency but needs extra investment. Cooling of flue gases by 20% raises the plant efficiency by 1%. Air preheaters:Air preheaters are employed to recover the heat from the flue gases leaving the economizer and are used to heat the incoming air for combustion. thus improving the overall efficiency of the boiler. it. improves combustion rates and efficiency and lowers the stack (chimney) temperature. which contains more heat than the saturated steam at the same pressure i. The flue gases flow outside the tubes. This raises the temperature of the furnace gases. 23 . In an economizer. An from the flue gases and uses it for heating the feed water before it enters into the steam drum. Feed water enters the tubes through the other.e.The flue gases coming out of the boiler carry lot of economiser extracts a part of this heat heat. has been heated above the temperature corresponding to its pressure.
turbine blades remain dry so the mechanical resistance to the flow of steam over them is small resulting in high efficiency. it is delivered to economizer. Circulation System:In natural circulation system. After header. Reheater:Reheater are provided to raise the temperature of the steam from which part of energy has already been extracted by HP turbine. A reheater can also be convection. • No corrosion and pitting at the turbine blades occur owing to dryness of steam.This additional heat provides more energy to the turbine and thus the electrical power output is more. water delivered to steam generator from header. which heated to above the saturation temperature. 24 . This is done so that the steam remains dry as far as possible through the last stage of the turbine. The steam is superheated to the highest economical temperature not only to increase the efficiency but also to have following advantages – • Reduction in requirement of steam quantity for a given output of energy owing to its high internal energy reduces the turbine size. which are at a temperature well below the saturation value corresponding to that pressure. radiation or combination of both. • Superheated steam being dry. A super heater is a device which removes the last traces of moisture from the saturated steam leaving the boiler tubes and also increases its temperature above the saturation temperature.
BHEL. : : : Two. the steam is separated out through the steam separators and passed to the super heater. of tubes are presented inside the boiler. There are mainly three types of soot blower are used in KSTPS: • • • Water wall soot blower Super heater soot blower Air pre heater soot blower TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION OF BOILER 1. In water wall tubes a part of the water is converted to steam due to boiler and the mixture flows back to the drum. of Units. 3. Type : Direct fired. 25 . 2. Soot is a thermal insulating material. 375 tonnes per hour. Capacity. In the drum. We are well known that a greater no. After the super heater when the steam temperature becomes high and pressure upto 150 Kg.From economizer the water enters the drum and thus joins the circulation system through down covering water wall tubes. natural circulation balance draft water tube boiler. Soot Blower:The boiler tubes are cleaned with the help of steam by the process called soot blowing./cm3 steam is allowed to enter the turbine to convert potential energy to kinetic energy. Make 4. No. Slowly and slowly the fine ash particles are collected on the tube surface and from a layer this is called soot.
6. Quantity. No.6 %. FUEL:a) COAL:Type Quantity consumed Type of handing. b) FD fans. 3 : 70 Nos. d) Seal Air fan. Steam Temperature 9. of fans in service. Steam Pressure. 2 Nos. Wet system. * : : : : Slack Coal. No. 2 Nos.5. Ash disposal B) OIL:Type. c) PA fans. 1 No. of coal mills in 10. 1 No. a) ID fans. 1 No. a) HSD – 5520 KL per year. No. f) Igniter fan. 3074 tones per day./Cm2 86. : : : : : : 540oC. 2 Nos. 26 . of soot blowers : : : : 139 Kg. Conveyor. e) Scanner Air fan. 8. : : HSD and fuel oil. Efficiency 7.
ESP with collection efficiency of 99. The pulverized fuel pipes from the mills to the bunkers are provided with basalt lined bends to reduce erosion and to improve the life of these pipes owing to poor grade of coal there is a high percentage of mill rejects. They are designed for burning low grade coal with high ash content. GENERAL DESCRIPTION:Boilers are tangentially fired. A multiflue reinforced concrete stack with two internal flues has been provided. 27 . Two boiler feed pumps each of 100 % capacity are driven by AC motor through hyd. One for each unit. 198 M3/ Sec. natural circulation. Oil burners are located between coal burners for flame stabilization. Volume of flue Gas/ Temp. balance draft. Height of Chimney. ESP : : : : 180 Meters. Pulverized coal is directly fed from the coal mills to the burners at the four corners of the furnace through coal pipes. From this tank the mixture is taken to an overhead hydro-bin where water is decanted and the mill reject are disposed off by trucking.8% have been provided to reduce environmental pollution and to minimize induce draft fan wear.Air emitted. dry bottom with direct fired pulverized coal from bowl mills. 140oC. of flue gas. The mill rejects are conveyed in a sluice way to an under-ground tank.b) Furnace Oil : 28800 KL per year. radiant type. coupling with scoop tube arrangement for regulating feed water pressure for each unit.
Facilities have been provided to simultaneously unload and transfer 10 light oil and 40 heavy oil tankers to the designated tanks. Superheated steam temperature is controlled by attemperation. gases etc) upon blades of a wheel. air. The UV flame scanners installed at two elevation in each of the four corners of the furnace. CHAPTER . Oil preheating arrangement is provided on the tanks floors for the heavy oil tanks. water. It converts the potential or kinetic energy of the working substance into 28 . Turbine – boiler interlocks safe guarding the boiler against possibility furnace explosion owing to flame failure. For ensuring safe operation of boilers.4 STEAM TURBINE INTRODUCTION:Turbine is a machine in which a shaft is rotated steadily by impact or reaction of current or stream of working substance (steam. This equipment systematically feed fuel to furnace as per load requirement. Due to anticipated high abrasion of ID fans impellers. scan the flame conditions and in case of unsafe working conditions but out fuel and trip the boiler and consequently the turbine. furnace safe guard supervisory system (FSSS) of combustion engineering USA designed has been installed.The air required for combustion is supplied by two forced draft fans. Three ID fans each of 60% capacity have been provided one ID fan to serve as standby.
Such a turbine is broadly termed as impulse turbine. The passage of steam through moving part the commonly called the blade. The process of expansion and direction changing may occur once or a number of times in succession and may be carried out with difference of detail. PRINCIPAL OF OPERATION OF STEAM TURBINE:(1.) Working of the steam turbine depends wholly upon the dynamic action of Steam. This constitutes the driving force of the machine. may take place in such a manner that the pressure at the outlet side of the blade is equal to that at the inlet inside. 29 . The steam is caused to fall in pressure in a passage of nozzle: due to this fall in pressure a certain amount of heat energy is converted into mechanical kinetic energy and the steam is set moving with a greater velocity. The rapidly moving particles of steam.mechanical power by virtue of dynamic action of working substance. When the working substance is steam it is called the steam turbine. enter the moving part of the turbine and here suffer a change in direction of motion which gives rose to change of momentum and therefore to a force.
Simple velocity compounded impulse turbine. yet the methods where by these principles carried into effect very end as a result. 5. These are (1) the nozzle in which the system expands from high pressure and a state of comparative rest to a lower pressure and a status of comparatively rapid motion. 30 . (3. The pressure compounded impulse turbine. or Sets of such elements. Pure reaction turbine. certain types of turbine have come into existence. the drop in pressure suffered by the steam during its flow through the moving causes a further generation of kinetic energy within the blades and adds to the propelling force which is applied to the turbine rotor. 110 MW. Such a turbine is broadly termed as impulse reaction turbine. 1.) On the other hand the pressure of the steam at outlet from the moving blade may be less than that at the inlet side of the blades. 2. in which the steam particles changes its directions and hence its momentum changes.) The blade or deflector. Pressure-velocity compounded turbine. therefore two important elements. The blades are attach to the rotating elements are attached to the stationary part of the turbine which is usually termed the stator. TECHNICAL DATA OF TURBINES:The main technical data of 110 MW turbines is given below:Rated output.(2. Although the fundamental principles on which all steam turbine operate the same. The majority of the steam turbine have. Simple impulse steam turbine. 4. casing or cylinder. 6. Impulse reaction turbine. 3.
2135 K cal/Kwh 31 . Maximum Temp. Maximum temperature of steam before the stop valve. of steam before MP Casing. Informative heat flow at the economic output 95 MW.Economic output Rated speed. Rated steam pressure before Stop valve. Rated temperature of steam before the stop valve. Rated pressure of steam MP Casing. of steam before MP Casing. Rated pressure of steam before MP Casing:Rated Temp.6 atm 35 atm 535oC. 3000 rpm Clockwise 130 atm 146 atm 535oC 545oC 31. Direction of rotation viewing from the front bearing pedestal. Maximum steam pressure before stop valve. 545oC.
Double flow IP turbine with 20 reaction stages per flow. The HP part is single flow cylinder and HP & LP parts are double flow cylinders. MP Cylinder LP cylinder 12 moving wheels. 2 row carts wheel + 8 moving wheels. Description of Steam Turbines:1) Steam flow:210 MW steam turbine is a tandem compound machine with HP. 4 moving wheels of Double row design. 2 main stop & control valves. 2 reheat stop & control valves. for the turbine. Quantity of oil for first filling.Informative heat rate at the rated output HP Cylinder 2152. At KSTPS there are 2x110 MW turbines installed for unit 1 & 2 and 210 MW turbines installed for units 3. Double flow LP turbine with 8 reaction stages per flow. The individual 32 . & & 2 steam check valve in CRH. 1800 liters. 2 bypass stop & control valve.5 K Cal/Kwh. IP & LP parts. 4 & 5 & two 195 MW turbine installed for unit 6 & 7. • • • Single flow HP turbine with 25 reaction stages.
The IP turbine exhausts directly goes to LP turbine by cross ground pipes. bearing etc. Because of its rotation symmetry the barrel type casing remain constant in shape and leak proof during quick change in temperature. The moving and stationary blades are inserted into appropriately shapes into inner casing and the shaft to reduce leakage losses at blade tips. The HP cylinder has a throttle control.turbine rotors and generator rotor are rigidly coupled. The steam from HP turbine after reheating enters the inner casing from above and below through two inlet nozzles. into HP turbine. The centre flows compensates the axial thrust and prevent steam inlet temperature affecting brackets. while the joints of outer casing is subjected only to lower pressure and temperature at the exhaust of inner casing. Due to this reason barrel type casing are especially suitable for quick start up and loading. The casing of IP turbine is split horizontally and is of double shell construction. The double flow inner casing is supported kinematically in the outer casing. Main steam is admitted before blending by two combined main stop and control valves. The HP turbine exhaust (CRH) leading to reheater have two swing check valves that prevent back flow of hot steam from reheater. The arrangements of inner casing confines high steam inlet condition to admission branch of casing. The inner casing too is cylinder in shape as horizontal joint flange are relieved by higher pressure arising outside and this can kept small. 3) IP Turbine:The IP part of turbine is of double flow construction. The steam coming from reheater called HRH is passed to turbine via two combined stop and control valves. The HP turbine consists of 25 reaction stages. The pressure in outer casing relieves the joint of inner casing so that this joint is to be sealed only against resulting differential pressure. 33 . 2) HP Turbine:The HP casing is a barrel type casing without axial joint.
The shells are axially split and have rigidly welded construction. The moving and stationary blades are inserted in appropriately shaped grooves in shaft and inner casing. the lateral longitudinal support bearing and upper part.The IP turbine consists of 20 reaction stages per flow. The inner shell is attached to outer shell with provision of free thermal movement. The outer casing is supported by the ends of longitudinal beams on the base plates of foundation. CHAPTER-5 ELECTRICITY GENERATOR To the end of the turbine rotor generator is coupled. The rotor is housed inside the stator having coil of copper bars in which electricity is produced through the movement of magnetic field created by rotor The electricity passes from the stator winding to the transformer which steps up the voltage so that it can be transmitted effectively over the power line of grid 34 . Steam admitted to LP turbine from IP turbine flows into the inner casing from both sides through steam inlet nozzles. The outer casing consist of the front and rear walls. 4) LP Turbine:The casing of double flow type LP turbine is of three shell design. so that when turbine rotates the rotor turns with it. The double flow inner casings consist of outer shell and inner shell.
core and hydrogen coolers. The steam passing around the tubes loose heat and rapidly change into water. The cooling water is drawn from the river but the Boiler Feed Water must be pure than potable water (DM Water). Cooling medium hydrogen is contained within frame & circulated by fans mounted at either ends of rotor. Temperature detectors and other devices installed or connected within then machine. TURBO GENERATOR THEORY:TURBO GENERATOR manufactured by B.C. The auxiliary equipment’s supplied with the machine suppresses and enables the control of hydrogen pressure and purity. with constructional & operational economy. There is a provision for cooling water in order to maintain a constant temperature of coolant (hydrogen) which controls the temperature of windings Main parts of generator:(A) STATOR:i. and incorporated with most modern design concepts and constructional features. But these two types of water (boiler feed water and cooling water ) must never mix together. The generator is driven by directly coupled steam turbine at a speed of 3000 r. The generator stator is a tight construction. The source of excitation of rotor windings is thyristor controlled D. which ensures reliability.m.The steam which has given up its heat energy in changed back into a condenser so that it is ready for reuse. The cold water continuously pumped in condenser.p.L.H. permit the windings. shaft sealing lubricating oils. supporting & enclosing the stator windings. teeth core & hydrogen temperature. the Generator is designed for continuous operation at the rated output. pressure & purity in machine under the conditions.E. STATOR FRAME 35 . supply.
ROTOR WINDINGS:BEARINGS:SLIP RINGS:BUSH GEAR ASSEMBLY:- TECHNICAL DATA:(A) Type Generator (110 MW):: t. iv. v. iii. vii. The Clearing of the individual cooler element can be carried out from both ends of the Generator even during operation. 2.e. (B) ROTOR:i. iv. ii. STATOR CORE STATOR BARS STATOR WINDINGS TERMINAL BUSHINGS BEARINGS VENTILATION SYSTEM HYDROGEN COOLERS:Three Hydrogen Coolers each comprising of two individual units are mounted inside the stator frame.602 36 . 34. vi. The inlet and outlet of cooling water from both of machine i.g. iii.ii.p. The assembly of individual cooler elements in stator frame is however carried out only from the non-driving side. from non-driving side as well as turbine side.
0.37. 7.Continuous apparent power Active power Power factor Rated voltage Current Critical speed Frequency Phase connection No. 400C 12 mm. Informative. 30 M3/ sec.000 KW.500 KVA. at 50 Hz.m. 37 . 39%. of elements Cooling medium Discharge losses Quantity of H2 Quantity of water Temp Cooling cold H2 Temp. of terminals Main diameter of slip rings Voltage regulation Reactance : : : : : : : : : : : : 1. 39% 0. HYDROGEN COOLER:Nos.p. double star. 10. 7. 1000 + 5% rated. of peak.5%. 420 mm. How resistance (H2 side) Inherent voltage regulation Short circuit ratio : : : : : : : : : 6 Water. H2 at 2 ATM. 1500 KW. 6. 34oC.8 (lagging).220 A 3000 r.
The purity of 38 . of hydrogen heat carrying capacity is 1. Thermal conductivity of hydrogen 7.035 atm. Hydrogen is used for cooling medium primarily because of its superior cooling properties & low density. It also has higher transfer co-efficient. This reduces the wind age losses in high speed machine like turbo-generator. At pressure 0. Since oxidation is not possible.3 times of air.0 atm. Smooth operation of machine in view of vertical elimination of wind age noise & the use of heavy gas light enclosure and dirty probe casing. Density of hydrogen is approx. Relative cooling properties of air and hydrogen are given below:1) 2) 3) Elimination of fire risk because hydrogen will not support combustion. But at 2. Increasing the hydrogen pressure the machine improves its capacity to absorb & remote heat. Corona discharge is not harmful to insulator. of hydrogen heat carrying capacity is 1. Casing must be maintained as high as possible.95 to overcome the serious possibility of hydrogen explosion with in the machine and to ensure the safety of operation purity of hydrogen on the generator. Its ability to transfer heat through forced convection is about 75% better than air. 7/14 of the air at a given temperature and pressure.Type : HC-WLL-BS/C46 CHAPTER-6 COOLING SYSTEM a) GENERAL:In KSTPS hydrogen cooling system is employed for generator cooling.
it is chiefly dependent on exciter. The excitation system makes contribution improving power system stability in steady state condition. The excitation system have following principal feature :. The excitation system must be reliable. of dryers are provided to absorb the hydrogen in the Generator.Exciter of quick response & high voltage of not less than 1. EXCITATION SYSTEM The electric power Generators requires direct current excited magnets for its field system. (A) Function of excitation system:Exciter supply is given from The main function of excitation system is to supply required excitation current at rated load condition of turbo Generator. b) HYDROGEN DRYERS:Two nos. The saturation of silica gel is indicated by change in its color from blue to pink.5. Moisture in this gas is absorbed by silica gel in the dryer as the absorbed gas passes through it. stable in operation and must response quickly to excitation current requirements. 39 . By suitable change over from drier to the other on un-interrupted drying is achieved. It should be able to adjust the field current of the Generator.hydrogen should be 98% above but should not be less than 98%. either by normal controller automatic control so that for all operation & between no load and rated load. transformer and then rectified. The terminal voltage of the system machine is maintained at its value.4 times the rated filed voltage and nominal exciter response of minimum 0. In case of hydrogen purity drops below 98% an alarm is provided. The silica gel is reactivated by heating. When excitation system response is controlled by fast acting regulators.
Brushes excitation system. Conventional DC excitation system. accuracy etc. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT:In the excitation system the power required for excitation of Generation are tapped from 11 KV bus ducts through a step down rectifier transformer. The field flashing system facilitates initial built up of the Generator voltage from the static AC or DC supply. Field flashing equipment. Field suppression equipment. STATIC EXCITATION SYSTEM:In KSTPS static excitation system is provided it mainly consists of the following:1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Rectifier transformer. of thyristor converters.(B)Type of Excitation System:There have been many developments in excitation system design. Nos. The AVR control the o/p from thyristor converter by adjusting the firing angle depending upon Generator voltages. 40 . There has been continuing reach among the design and the use alike from improving the excitation system performance. An automatic voltage regulator (AVR). converter. the DC power is fed to the Generator field winding through a field breaker. The ultimate is to achieve stability. the modern excitation system adopted presently on BHEL makes turbo-generator I. After rectification in thermistor.
Dissolved slats and minerals. the voltage is slowly built up with the help of excitation system.m. CHAPTER-7 WATER TREATMENT PLANT The principle problem in high pressure boiler is to control corrosion and steam quality.OPERATION:After bringing the speed to operation speed say 3000 r. 41 . (A) SYNCHRONIZING:For synchronizing the Generator to the grid system 5 condition of equality have to be satisfied..). a) Turbidity & Sediment. This action is taken for synchronizing the Generator. Internal corrosion costs power station crores of rupees in repair without strict control impurities in steam also form deposit over turbine blades and nozzles. Dissolved gases Other minerals (oil.p. Wave form and phase sequence of the Generator are determined at the design of each connection SYNCHRONIZING of the generator. acid etc. The impurities present in water are as follows:1) 2) 3) 4) 5). These are (I)_Voltage (II) Frequency (III) Phase displacement (IV) Phase sequence (V) Wave form. Un-dissolved and suspended solid materials.
Pune. c) Micro Biological. This plant consists of two streams each stream with activated carbon filter. a) O2gas. Two filtered water booster pumps are provided on filtered water line for meeting the pressure requirement in DM Plant.b) Silica. Equipment for demineralization cum softening plant is supplied and erected by M/s. The deception water the weak base anion exchanger unit water then enters degasified unit where free CO2 is scrubbed out of water by upward counter flow of low pr. Sodium Sulphate solution of required strength is dosed into different filtered water by mean of dosing pump to neutralize chlorine prior to activated carbon filter. Wanson (India) Ld.M. When pressure drop across filter exceeds a prescribed limit from the activated carbon filter the works acid cation unit. Provision is made for back washing the activated carbon filter. 6). cation exchanger and mixed bed exchanger. 42 . D. b) CO2 gas.. When water passed an activated carbon filter will remove residual chlorine from water. weak acid. The filter water to DM plant through 250 dia. PLANT:In this plant process water is fed from all these dissolved salts. d) Sodium & Potassium Salt. air flow through degasified lower and degassed water is pumped to strong base exchanger (anion exchanger). header from where a heater top off has been taken to softening plant. e) Dissolved Sales Minerals.
W. of tress for each unit. PLANT:Circulating water pump house has pumps for condensing the steam for condenser./cm2.Arrangement for dosing ammonia solution into de-mineralized water after mixed bed unit has been provided p+1 correction before water is taken in de-condensate transfer pump the DM water to unit condensor as make up. C./Cm2.9 Kg. and develop pressure about 1. Oil coolers are situated on ground and there are no.94 Kg.C. PUMP HOUSE:Filter water after demineralization is used for bearing cooling from BCW pump house after passing through strainer and heat exchanger it enters at 30-32oC and leave exchanger at 38oC. From main line water passes through filter bed to filter the water. At 42 M elevation the water is stored in tank and used for cooling the oil coolers and returned back to river.Three seal water pump are used for sealing circulating water pump shaft at pr. Two pumps for unit 1 & 2 with one stand by is used for supplying raw water to chlorified chemical dosing is tone between and chlorified water is taken through main line./Cm2.1 & 2 and after condensing this water is discharged back into the river. Each pump has capacity of 8275 M3/Hr. 43 . 4. Five pumps are used for condensing Unit No. From here the water is pumped to CW Pump by TWS (Traveling water screens) pumps are run by motors of 90 KW and has a capacity of 240 Cum/hr/pump at pressure of 5 kg/cm2.5 kg.W. B. The raw water used in ash handling plant and remaining quantity is stored in sumps of BCW Pump House. Chlorified water is pumped to 42 m elevation by two pumps of capacity 270 M3/Inch at discharge pressure of 6.
5 KV to 400 KV. It is located in between the main plant and the switchyard. 4. 44 . In CW pump house water is discharged from nozzle and impinged for traveling water screens for cleaning it. It steps down the voltage from 16. GENERATOR TRANSFORMER (GT – A):It steps up the voltage from 16. 2. 3. Main transformers. To start the plant by taking the supply from the grid.5 KV to 220 KV. It is used to step down 220 KV from the grid to 6. CHAPTER-8 TRANSFORMER Transformer is a static device which is used to change the voltage level keeping the power and frequency same. To supply power to the auxiliaries from the generator. there are about 83 transformer installed at various places to operate the auxiliaries.9 KV. which are necessary: 1.5 KV to 6. 3. In the plant transformer is one of the most important equipment. These are installed in a transformer yard. 2. To step up the generated voltage. It connects the plant with the 400 KV switchyard. UNIT AUXILIARY TRANSFORMER (UAT):It is a step down transformer with 20 MVA capacities. STATION TRANSFORMER (ST):It is a step down transformer with 50 MVA capacities. It connects the plant with the 220 KV switchyard.9 KV. In the whole plant.BCW here stand for water used for cooling oil used for cooling the bearing. GENERATOR TRANSFORMER (GT – B):It steps up the voltage from 16. The main transformers installed in the transformer yard are: 1.
side is provided at the side of the tank. Neutral point on the H. about 80% of the load is shifted on to the unit auxiliary transformer. one for each stage.4333 KV. UNIT AUXILIARY TRANSFORMER:Each unit has two unit auxiliary transformers. UAT relieves GT from extra load of about 20 45 . one for each unit. It is used to step down from 6. The output from the generator is fed to the generator transformer.5 KV to 400 KV and supplies power to grid. STATION TRANSFORMER:When the unit is to be started. When the unit starts generating electricity these transformers are energized and then supplies power to the auxiliaries. GENERATOR TRANSFORMER:There are 7 generator transformers in the plant. Neutral is solidly grounded. power supplied to the auxiliaries is taken from the station transformer.5.6 kV.T’s in the plant.V. It takes power from the grid at 220 kV and steps it down to 6. So in this case more care is to be taken.6 kV to 0. UAT bus is connected to the station bus. which step up the voltage from 16. Before starting of the unit. At the time of starting all the auxiliaries are supplied from the station transformer. The rating of the station transformer is 50 MVA. In case neutral is solidly connected to the earth a very small current flowing through the neutral causes the tripling of the transformer. There are 5 S. It is used to step down from 6. Auxiliaries of one unit take about 20MW of power.6 KV to 0. The load that requires uninterrupted supply is left connected on the station transformer. STATION SERVICE TRANSFORMER (SST):It is a step down transformer with 2MVA capacity. Generator transformer winding connected in star\delta with a phase displacement of 30 degrees. Three – phase supply from the generator is connected to the low voltage side bushings and the output is taken from the opposite side. UAT is connected between the generator and the GT.4333 KV. 6. When the generator is synchronized and starts producing power. UNIT SERVICE TRANSFORMER (UST):It is a step down transformer with 2 MVA capacity. A tapping is taken from the power coming from the generator to the GT.
UAT bus supplies only those auxiliaries. Each station transformer has two windings one secondary side and is rated for 50/25/25 mva. The rating of UAT is 20 MVA. Jaipur GSS. There are two step down transformer each feeding 6. It is a step down transformer. which steps down the voltage from 16.6 KV system (Station Switchyard ) viz.6 kV to 0. By closing bus coupler between 220 KV buses and putting line feeders whose breaker required maintenance of any one bus through by pass isolators and all other line feeders whose breaker is by passed is then 46 . SWITCH YARD 220 KV SYSTEM:Two 220 KV bus bars have been provided in switch yard and are inter-connected through a bus coupler. UNIT SERVICE TRANSFORMER:It is also a 66-kV/ 415 V transformers which is used to supply the auxiliaries connected to the unit secondary switchgear bus. BS-IS & SB-IB. Each of four feeders are provided with bypass isolators which is connected across line breaker and breaker isolator.MW which is to be supplied to the auxiliaries via GT and ST thus increasing the efficiency.2 kva four feeder take off from 220 switch yard. 270/7/7. two to SKATPURA GSS and other to HEERAPURA. It steps down the voltage from 6. UNIT STATION TRANSFORMER:It is a step down transformer. Each of the two 110 MW generator is connected to this system through a step up of 125 MVA 240/ 11 KV yard generator transformer.9kV. which are not necessary to be energized in case of sudden tripping of generator.433 kV it is used to supply the low voltage auxiliaries.5 kV to 6. which is connected to the station bus.
iv. Pole Slipping. vii. i. xi. ix. CIRCUIT BREAKERS:ISOLATOR:CIRCUIT TRANSFORMER:POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER:LIGHTENING ARRESTOR:220 KV MOCB:220 KV ISOLATORS:220 KV Current Transformers:CIRCUIT BREAKER:POWER CAPACITOR:220 KV LIGNTENING ARRESTOR:- CHAPTER -9 PROTECTION 1. 2. 47 . Plane Overload Protection. iii.transformed to bus coupler breaker. 5. Inter-turn Fault Negative Phase Sequence Protection. vi. 4. A brief description of equipments of 220 KV systems is as follows. 3. Field Protection. v. viii. ii. x.
9.110 MW & 210 MW turbines and generators. but the greater part is of planning proper management.B. to isolate faulty generator is not sufficient to prevent future damage. General Protection: It is most important electrical equipment of many generating station. 8. 10. CONCLUSION The first phase of practical training has proved to be quiet fruitful. The architecture of the power plant the way various units are linked and the way working of whole plant is controlled make the student realize that engineering is not just learning the structured description and working of various machines. Unlike other apparatus the opening of C. Rotor Earth Fault Protection. Under Frequency & Over Frequency Protection. The basis function of protection applied to generator is to reduce voltage to minimum by rapid discrimination clearance of faults.6. 48 . It provided an opportunity for encounter with such huge machines like wagon tippler . Forward Power Protection. Reverse Power Protection. 7. Generator Voltage Protection. Tripping of even a generating unit may cause overloading of associated machines and even to system unstability.
However training has proved to be quite fruitful. wagon Tripler (CHP).It also provides an opportunities to lean low technology used at proper place and time can cave a lot of labour e. It is recommended that there should be some project specially meant for students where presence of authorities should be ensured. There should be strict monitoring of the performance of students and system of grading be improved on the basis of work done.But there are few factors that require special mention. Training is not carried out into its tree sprit.g. 49 . It has allowed an opportunity to get an exposure of the practical implementation to theoretical fundamentals.
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