This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
This week, you may choose from three different assignment options. Each option requires you to read the scenario below. The options are listed after the scenario. Select Option 1, Option 2, or Option 3 to complete for your assignment.
The Pesticide Problem and Proposed Solution
The following outlines a common dilemma faced by countless communities every year. The scenario presents a proposed pesticide application program awaiting approval from the city council of Genericville.
The City and the Problem
Genericville is an American city with an economically diverse population of 100,000, and is highly dependent on summer tourism. A wide river runs through the center of the city. Along the banks of the river are several wetlands that protect the city from spring flooding. The wetlands also provide a source of nutrients for several species of birds and fish, which are among many environmental elements that make Genericville popular with summer vacationers. Unfortunately, the wetlands also serve as a breeding ground for mosquitoes that may spread various diseases. West Nile Virus (WNV), one such disease, is a dangerous nervous system disease that spreads primarily by mosquitoes. According to data from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2007), there were 4,269 WNV cases in the U.S. in 2006, including 177 fatalities. Based on experience, recent testing of infected birds, and an enlarged mosquito breeding area due to heavy rainfall, there are projections that there could be 50 cases of WNV in Genericville this year with two fatalities. The rich and poor communities of Genericville equally share this risk.
The Pesticide Solution and its Proponents
A wealthy city resident who suffered a family loss from WNV a couple of years ago has offered to provide Genericville with all funds necessary to implement an extensive program of aerial spraying and ground application of the pesticide, Malathion. The proposed program could reduce the mosquito population by 90%, providing the same reduction in risk of WNV. This would mean that the projected number of WNV cases would drop from 50 to five, with less than a 20% chance of a fatality in each case. Proponents presented data from government studies to indicate that long-term environmental risk from application was unlikely, because it degrades to harmless materials rapidly after application (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2005, Section 1). They argue that exposure could be controlled by educational programs and precautions. Part of the proposal includes extensive precautions and an awareness campaign to avoid exposure during applications and to prevent contact with residues for a week after applications. Proponents contend that avoiding exposure to the large uncontrolled mosquito population that could cause WNV is not as feasible as avoiding exposure to applications, which may be controlled. Proponents further argue that, because Genericville has such a high rate of incidence of WNV, tourists would not visit without the program’s implementation. Reduced tourism could create further poverty that could increase health risks to city residents.
The Opposition to Pesticide Application
A proposal has been brought forth to use the insecticide spray. Uninformed residents. Section 3). because of this unknown risk. and Control. all council members have to vote. The Decision That Is Required Like many environmental debates. They believe that not voting or stating an unrealistic alternative is not accepting societal responsibility. the council is split on its decision. could be outside during aerial spraying. particularly the poor or uneducated. Opponents believe that. Opponents also argued that the use of pesticides could kill the natural predators of mosquitoes and ultimately increase the spread of WNV and damage the fragile ecosystem important to tourism. Malathion (CAS Number 121-75-5). Surveillance. The City Council must make a decision through a majority vote. Retrieved from http://www.Opponents propose that monetary resources proposed for pesticide application could be better spent on educational efforts to avoid exposure to the mosquitoes rather than on pesticide application. Retrieved from http://www. .htm. Opponents used information from a Florida study referenced in the same study used by proponents (Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Such long-term effects are possible and the risks are unknown. stakeholders with different priorities view the same information differently. • Create an outline of the risk of using Malathion according to the four steps of risk assessment presented in Figure 4. (2005). When faced with a decision. They must learn as much as they can about the options and make a decision when the time comes. (2007). o o o o • Hazard identification Dose-response Exposure Risk characterization Decide your vote based on your outline. What decision will you make? References Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.gov/consultations/west_nile_virus/ Malathion.cdc. Toxicologic information about insecticides used for eradicating mosquitoes (West Nile Virus control). Currently. the precautionary principle should apply to Malathion application.html. would not follow the safety precautions required by the program. Option 1: Risk Assessment Paper You are a member of the Genericville City Council.cdc. Malathion should not be applied until there is direct evidence that there is no longterm risk to the environment. Opponents estimate that there could be as many as 90 cases of Malathion-related illnesses from the proposed program with four that may be fatal. In other words. and your vote will determine whether Malathion may be used.atsdr. West Nile Virus Statistics. 2005.1 of Visualizing Environmental Science. 2006 West Nile Virus activity in the United States. or they could handle or eat matter that contains residues from application. even if they still have questions or do not like the alternatives. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. They argue that many people. for example.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/surv&controlCaseCount06_detailed.
Explain the reasoning for your vote based on the four steps of risk assessment. Deliver a 3.to 5-minute multimedia presentation evaluating the risk of Malathion based on your outline. Option 2: Risk Assessment Video Presentation You are a member of the Genericville City Council. and so forth. Acceptable formats or applications are Prezi®. Explain the reasoning for your position based on the four steps of risk assessment. A proposal has been brought before the council to use the insecticide spray to control the mosquito population. you feel that the city must be aware of the proposal and its implications. Microsoft® PowerPoint®. Post your paper as an attachment. o o o o • • Hazard identification Dose-response Exposure Risk characterization Select a position to present to the city council.1 of Visualizing Environmental Science.• Write a 700.to 1. Before a vote may occur. Glogster®. social. You may use props and costumes.050-word paper that presents your evaluation of the risk of Malathion based on your outline. • Create an outline of the risk of using Malathion according to the four steps of risk assessment presented in Figure 4. The presentation must be in a format that may be easily accessed and viewed by the council members. • • Format your paper consistent with APA guidelines. you have been asked to conduct a risk assessment of Malathion to present to the council. o o o o • Hazard identification Dose-response Exposure Risk characterization Select a position to support in your editorial. . and you may wish to enlist friends or family members. • • Option 3: Risk Assessment Editorial You are a columnist for the Genericville Star newspaper. • Create an outline of the risk of using Malathion according to the four steps of risk assessment presented in Figure 4. Consider any relevant political. Consider any relevant political. Be creative with this assignment. and economic aspects involved. social. A proposal has been brought before the council to use the insecticide spray to control the mosquito population. and economic aspects involved. Before the council meets. Post your file as an attachment or submit the link to your instructor.1 of Visualizing Environmental Science.
Explain the reasoning for your position based on the four steps of risk assessment. social. Post your editorial as an attachment.• Write an editorial evaluating the risk of Malathion based on your outline. Use the template provided and follow the instructions for each section. and economic aspects involved. • • . Consider any relevant political.
and must fit entirely in this box. and economic aspects. 10-point font is recommended. The article must be between 350 and 500 words. Delete these instructions when you are done with this section. Delete these instructions when you are done with this section. social. Articles written by: Your Name Hazard Identification Insert text identifying if exposure to Malathion may cause an increased likelihood of adverse health effects.Genericville Star Risk Assessment of Malathion Insert text for the evaluation of the risk assessment. SCI/275 . Summarize your assessment and consider relevant political. 10-point font is recommended. and must fit entirely in this box. The story must be between 100 and 150 words.
if any. The story must be between 100 and 150 words. Risk Characterization Insert text identifying the probability of an individual or the population having adverse health effects to Malathion. SCI/275 . between the amount of exposure to Malathion and the seriousness of adverse health effects. Delete these instructions when you are done with this section. The story must be between 100 and 150 words. and how long are humans exposed to Malathion. and must fit entirely in this box. and must fit entirely in this box. how often. Delete these instructions when you are done with this section.Dose-response assessment Insert text identifying the relationship. 10-point font is recommended. 10-point font is recommended. Delete these instructions when you are done with this section. The story must be between 100 and 150 words. and must fit entirely in this box. Exposure Assessment Insert text identifying how much. 10-point font is recommended.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.