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UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.03
UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.03
Author: Editor: Date: Version:
Matthias Braun Irfan Mahmood 6th August 2007 2.1
UMTS Network Performance Engineering
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UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.03
Table of Contents
1. 2. 3. GLOSSARY OF TERMS AND ABBREVIATIONS................................................................. 5 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................... 10 ABOUT THIS DOCUMENT..................................................................................................... 12 3.1. 3.2. 3.3. 3.4. 3.5. 3.6. 4. 5. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................................... 12 CONTENT ............................................................................................................................... 12 HOW TO READ ....................................................................................................................... 13 UTRAN/CN RELEASE AND VENDOR DEPENDENCY ............................................................... 13 INTENDED AUDIENCE ............................................................................................................. 13 DISCLAIMER - WHAT IS NOT COVERED ................................................................................... 13
DESCRIPTION OF THE OPTIMISATION PROCESS ........................................................ 14 CALL SETUP ............................................................................................................................. 16 5.1. CALL SETUP – RRC CONNECTION ESTABLISHMENT............................................................... 16 5.1.1. PLMN/cell selection and reselection ............................................................................ 16 5.1.2. Failures on the AICH, PICH and PCH......................................................................... 20 5.1.3. Random Access Procedure ........................................................................................... 23 5.1.4. Call Admission Control (CAC) ..................................................................................... 26 5.1.5. Radio Link Setup........................................................................................................... 28 5.1.6. Call setup failures on the FACH................................................................................... 29 5.1.7. RRC Connection Reject message with specified cause “unspecified”.......................... 31 5.2. CALL SETUP – FAILURES DURING THE CALL SETUP PHASE ..................................................... 32 5.2.1. Concept ......................................................................................................................... 32 5.2.2. Failure symptoms, identification and fixes for improvement ........................................ 32 5.3. CALL SETUP – CORE NETWORK FAILURES ............................................................................. 33 5.3.1. Mobility Management failures...................................................................................... 34 5.3.2. Call Control failures..................................................................................................... 35 5.3.3. Session Management failures ....................................................................................... 36 5.4. CALL SETUP – RAB ESTABLISHMENT .................................................................................... 37 5.4.1. Dynamic bearer control (DBC) .................................................................................... 38 5.4.2. Radio Link Reconfiguration.......................................................................................... 40 5.4.3. Radio Bearer Establishment ......................................................................................... 41
CALL RELIABILITY (RETAINABILITY)............................................................................ 43 6.1. CALL RELIABILITY – RADIO LINK FAILURE (RLF) ................................................................ 43 6.1.1. Concept ......................................................................................................................... 43 6.1.2. Failure symptoms, identification and fixes for improvement ........................................ 45 6.2. CALL RELIABILITY – DROP OF THE RAB................................................................................ 47 6.2.1. Concept ......................................................................................................................... 47 6.2.2. Failure symptoms, identification and fixes for improvement ........................................ 48 6.3. CALL RELIABILITY – DROP OF RRC CONNECTION AFTER CALL SETUP ................................... 49 6.3.1. Concept ......................................................................................................................... 49 6.3.2. Failure symptoms, identification and fixes for improvement ........................................ 51 6.4. CALL RELIABILITY – RF PLANNING RELATED ISSUES ............................................................ 52 6.4.1. Introduction .................................................................................................................. 52 6.4.2. Pilot pollution ............................................................................................................... 52 6.4.3. Around-the-corner-effect .............................................................................................. 53
UMTS Network Performance Engineering
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UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.03
6.4.4. Non-optimal neighbour definitions ............................................................................... 54 6.4.5. Poor RF coverage......................................................................................................... 57 6.4.6. Poor PSC plan .............................................................................................................. 58 6.5. CALL RELIABILITY – CONGESTION CONTROL (CONGC) ........................................................ 58 6.5.1. Concept ......................................................................................................................... 58 6.5.2. Failure symptoms, identification and fixes for improvement ........................................ 59 6.6. CALL RELIABILITY – FAILURES IN URA_PCH/CELL_PCH MODE ........................................ 59 6.6.1. Concept ......................................................................................................................... 59 6.6.2. Failure symptoms, identification and fixes for improvement ........................................ 60 6.7. CALL RELIABILITY – FAILURES IN CELL_FACH MODE ........................................................ 60 6.7.1. Concept ......................................................................................................................... 60 6.7.2. Failure symptoms, identification and fixes for improvement ........................................ 62 6.8. CALL RELIABILITY – HARDWARE AND NETWORK INTERFACE OUTAGES ................................ 63 6.8.1. Concept ......................................................................................................................... 63 6.8.2. Failure symptoms, identification and fixes for improvement ........................................ 63 6.9. CALL RELIABILITY – INTRA FREQUENCY HANDOVER ............................................................. 63 6.9.1. Concept ......................................................................................................................... 63 6.9.2. Failure symptoms, identification and fixes for improvement ........................................ 65 6.10. CALL RELIABILITY – IRAT HANDOVER ............................................................................. 67 6.10.1. Concept (UMTS->GSM)............................................................................................... 67 6.10.2. Failure symptoms, identification and fixes for improvement (UMTS->GSM).............. 69 6.10.3. Concept (CS GSM ->UMTS) ........................................................................................ 69 6.10.4. Failure symptoms, identification and fixes for improvement (CS GSM ->UMTS) ....... 70 6.11. CALL RELIABILITY – CELL CHANGE ORDER FROM UTRAN............................................... 71 6.11.1. Concept ......................................................................................................................... 71 6.11.2. Failure symptoms, identification and fixes for improvement ........................................ 71 6.12. CALL RELIABILITY – INTER FREQUENCY HANDOVER ......................................................... 72 6.12.1. Concept ......................................................................................................................... 72 6.12.2. Failure symptoms, identification and fixes for improvement ........................................ 72 6.13. CALL RELIABILITY – FAILURES ON THE TRANSPORT NETWORK ........................................ 75 6.14. CALL RELIABILITY – FAILURES ON RLC ............................................................................ 75 6.14.1. Concept ......................................................................................................................... 75 6.14.2. Failure symptoms, identification and fixes for improvement ........................................ 78 6.15. CALL RELIABILITY – HSDPA ............................................................................................ 79 6.15.1. Introduction .................................................................................................................. 79 6.15.2. Mobility aspects of HSDPA .......................................................................................... 80 6.15.3. RF related issues........................................................................................................... 82 6.15.4. UE limitations............................................................................................................... 84 6.15.5. Capacity issues ............................................................................................................. 84 6.16. CALL RELIABILITY – HSUPA/EDCH ................................................................................ 85 Introduction ................................................................................................................................. 85 6.16.2. Mobility aspects of HSUPA .......................................................................................... 85 6.16.3. MAC/ RF related Issues................................................................................................ 86 6.16.4. UE Limitations.............................................................................................................. 87 6.16.5. Capacity issues ............................................................................................................. 87 6.17. CALL RELIABILITY – MISCELLANEOUS FAILURES............................................................... 88 6.17.1. RB Reconfiguration / Transport Channel Reconfiguration failure............................... 88 6.17.2. Physical Channel Reconfiguration failures .................................................................. 89 6.17.3. Relocation failures........................................................................................................ 89 6.17.4. Failures during the RAB and RL release procedure..................................................... 91 7. CALL QUALITY ....................................................................................................................... 92 7.1. CALL QUALITY - BLOCK ERROR RATE (BLER) ..................................................................... 92 7.1.1. DL Block Error Rate (BLER) analysis.......................................................................... 92 7.1.2. UL Block Error Rate (BLER) analysis.......................................................................... 94 7.2. CALL QUALITY – QUALITY OF SERVICE (QOS) ...................................................................... 96
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................................. RRC connection reestablishment......................... 97 QoS – VT service .......................................................... 7.......... 102 A............................................... Measurement definition – data................... Measurement definition – VT ........................................................ 102 A. Measurement definition – voice ..................... TIME SYNCHRONISATION OF MEASUREMENT TRACES ..................2.............................1............................................................1 UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 4 of 106 ....................................2.... 102 A.....2...... QoS – general .................................... MEASUREMENT DEFINITION ........................... 2G->3G IRAT HO Issue# 2..................................................1 Date: 2007-06-08 7......... 101 APPENDIX ....................Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.................3............................2..... 96 QoS – data services....03 Rev: 2............................................................... 102 A................2...........4......................... 7.............. 96 QoS – voice service................... 7..... 105 B............................ InterFreq HO.....2..................................... 105 Change Record This table details the changes done to the document since the last baseline version Date 6 August 2007 th Changes Updated draft after review with following changes • • Editorial throughout the document Added sections like HSUPA.........................................1.................3..........................................................................................................................
Glossary of terms and abbreviations 3GPP ACB ACK AICH ALCAP APN AM ARQ AS ATM BCCH BER BLER BSIC BSS CAC CCPCH CM CN CongC CPICH CQI CRC CRCI CS DAHO DBC DCCH DCH DL DRNC DRX EDCH 3G Partnership Project Access Class Barring Acknowledgement Acquisition Indication Channel Access Link Control Application Protocol Access Point Number Acknowledged Mode Automatic Repeat Request Access Stratum Asynchronous Transfer Mode Broadcast Control Channel Bit Error Rate Block Error Rate Base Station Identity Code (GSM) Base Station Subsystem (GSM) Call Admission Control Common Control Physical Channel Configuration Management / Connection Management Core Network Congestion Control Common Pilot Channel Channel Quality Indicator Cyclic Redundancy Checksum CRC Indicator Circuit Switched Database Assisted HO Dynamic Bearer Control Dedicated Control Channel Dedicated Channel Downlink Drift RNC Discontinuous Reception Enhanced DCH UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 5 of 106 .Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.03 Rev: 2.1 Date: 2007-06-08 1.
03 Rev: 2.1 Date: 2007-06-08 ETSI FACH FDD FM FP FSN FTP GGSN GMM GPRS GPS GSM HCS HLR HHO HO H-PLMN HSDPA HS-DSCH HSUPA HTTP H-USDPA HW IE ICMP IP IRAT KPI LA LWS MAC MAC-hs MAHO MIB MM MMS MO European Telecommunication Standard Institute Forward Access Channel Frequency Division Duplex Fault Management Framing Protocol First SN File Transfer Protocol Gateway GPRS Support Node GPRS MM General Packet Radio Services Global Positioning System Global System for Mobile Communication Hierarchical Cell Structure Home Location Register Hard Handover Handover Home PLMN High Speed Downlink Packet Access High Speed Downlink Shared Channel High Speed Uplink Packet Access Hyper Text Transfer Protocol High Speed Downlink Packet Access Hardware Information Element Internet Control Message Protocol Internet Protocol Inter Radio Access Technology Key Performance Indicator Location Area Lucent Worldwide Services Medium Access Control Medium Access Control high speed Mobile Assisted HO Master Information Block Mobility Management Multi Media SMS Mobile Originating UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 6 of 106 .Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.
03 Rev: 2.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.1 Date: 2007-06-08 MOS MSC MSS MNC MT NACK NAS NBAP NTP O&M OMC-U PCPICH PC PCH PDCP PDP PDU PHY PICH PLMN PM PPP PS PSC QE QoS RA RAB RACH RAN RANAP RB RL RLC RLF RF RFCT Mean Opinion Score Mobile Switching Centre Maximum Segment Size Mobile Network Code Mobile Terminating Negative ACK Non access stratum NodeB Application Part Network Time Protocol Operation and Maintenance Operations and Maintenance Centre UMTS Primary CPICH Power Control Paging Channel Packet Data Convergence Protocol Packet Data Protocol Protocol Data Unit Physical Layer Paging Indication Channel Public Land Mobile Network Performance Measurement Point to Point Protocol Packet Switched Primary Scrambling Code Quality Estimate Quality of Service Routing Area Radio Access Bearer Random Access Channel Radio Access Network Radio Access Network Application Part Radio Bearer Radio Link Radio Link Control Radio Link Failure Radio Frequency RF Call Trace (also called IMSI tracing) UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 7 of 106 .
03 Rev: 2.1 Date: 2007-06-08 RNC RNSAP RRC RRM RSSI RSCP RTP RTT RXLEV SACK SC SCCPCH SCH SDU SGSN SHO SIB SIM SIR SM SMS SN SRB SRNC TB TBS TCP TGPS TM TPC TSSI TX UDP UE UL UM UMTS Radio Network Controller Radio Network Subsystem Application Part Radio Resource Control Radio Resource Management Received Signal Strength Indicator Received Signal Code Power Real Time Protocol Round Trip Time Receive Level (GSM) Selective ACKs Scrambling Code Secondary CCPCH Synchronization Channel Service Data Unit Serving GPRS Support Node Soft/softer Handover System Information Broadcast Subscriber Identity Module Signal to Interference Ratio Session Management Short Message Service Sequence Number Signalling Radio Bearer Serving RNC Transport Block Transport Block Size Transmission Control Protocol Transmission Gap Pattern Sequence Transparent Mode Transmit Power Control Transmitted Signal Strength Indicator Transmitted User Datagram Protocol User Equipment (mobile station) Uplink Unacknowledged Mode Universal Mobile Telecommunication Standard UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 8 of 106 .Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.
1 Date: 2007-06-08 URA U-SIM UTRAN VT UTRAN Registration Area UMTS Subscriber Identity Module UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network Video Telephony A reference for abbreviations can be found in . UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 9 of 106 .Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.03 Rev: 2.
http://www. References  TS 23122 NAS Functions related to Mobile Station (MS) in idle mode  TS 11.22 Functions related to Mobile Station in idle mode and group receive mode  TS 24008 Mobile radio interface layer 3 specification.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.03 Rev: 2. general aspects  TS 25413 UTRAN Iu Interface RANAP Signalling  TS 25423 UTRAN Iur Interface RNSAP Signalling  TS 25214 Physical layer procedures (FDD)  TS 25922 Radio resource management strategies  TS 25201 User Equipment (UE) Radio transmission and reception (FDD)  TS 25306 UE Radio Access Capabilities  TS 34121 Terminal conformance specification.1 Date: 2007-06-08 2.actix. Core Network Protocols – Stage3  TS 25331 RRC Protocol Specification  TS 25433 UTRAN Iub Interface NBAP Signalling  TS 24007 Mobile radio interface signalling layer 3 specification. Radio transmission and reception (FDD)  UMTS RF Translation Application Note (TAN) for HSDPA  UMTS RF Translation Application Note (TAN) for EDCH  UMTS RF Translation Application Note (TAN) for Cell Selection and Reselection  UMTS RF Translation Application Note (TAN) for Access Procedures  UMTS RF Translation Application Note (TAN) for Load Control  UMTS RF Translation Application Note (TAN) RLC  UMTS RF Translation Application Note (TAN) RF Call Trace  UMTS RF Translation Application Note (TAN) Handover  UMTS RF Translation Application Note (TAN) Inter-Frequency Handover  UMTS RF Translation Application Note (TAN) Inter-RAT Handover  UMTS RF Translation Application Note (TAN) Inter Frequency Handover  UMTS RF Translation Application Note (TAN) Radio Link Control  UMTS RF Translation Application Note (TAN) Power Control  Actix.com UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 10 of 106 .11 Specification of the SIM – ME interface  TS 25304 UE Procedures in Idle Mode and Procedures for Cell Reselection in Connected Mode”  GSM 03.
htm  NDP homepage http://ge1884ndp01.htm  UMTS RF Optimization Guidelines available at http://rfcoresupport.lucent.com/ UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 11 of 106 .lucent.com/RFCoreSupportWebPage/guidelines.246.htm  UMTS Cluster Optimisation Guideline  TS 25322 RLC protocol specification  TS 21905 Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications  Cygwin available at http://public.com  tcptrace.lucent. www.129/pm_db/login.wh.31210&_d ad=portal&_schema=PORTAL  Parameter consistency checks http://mobility.wh.de.1 Date: 2007-06-08  Ethereal.ih.cfm  Performance Measurements Definitions Manual (PMDM) for U04.wh.03 available at http://ns. documentation and download at www.com/pub/cygwin  DR TCP available at http://www2.uk/tardis.ethereal.co.htm  TR 26975 Performance characterisation of the AMR speech codec Report  ITU-T J.kaska.com/AL/arca/index. documentation and download at www.lucent.com:7779/portal/page?_pageid=35.com/RFCoreSupportWebPage/guidelines.asp  TS 25323 Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) Specification  Network Performance Engineering LWS Europe http://npe.php  UMTS IRAT Optimization Guidelines http://rfcoresupport.net/drtcp.de.org  Tardis2000.144 Objective perceptual video quality measurement techniques for digital cable television in the presence of a full reference  RF Optimisation and Analysis Tool Suit http://navigator.kansas.web.03 Rev: 2.tcptrace.planetmirror.lucent.com/ctip/gsmnav/gsmsysdoc/mnode/webdocs/libfiles/pmd mindex.htm  UMTS RF Engineering Guidelines available at http://rfcoresupport.lucent.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.com/~caateam/  Multi-vendor PM database system http://135.com/RFCoreSupportWebPage/guidelines.lucent.uk.63.demon.lucent.
g.1.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. Chapter “Call reliability” is describing failures and problems that might occur after call establishment. Introduction The UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline is the base document for the UMTS optimisation process and is used for the identification. radio link failures or handover problems. Last but not least this document is used as a specification for writing queries that automatically identify and classify failures and problems from network interface traces and drive test data. Content There are five main chapters in this document: • • Chapter “About this document” is providing an introduction and an overview of the UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline. Chapter “Call quality” is dealing with quality problems as perceived by the UMTS subscriber. failures or performance degradations that might be observed during the optimisation activity.2. For more information see .1 Date: 2007-06-08 3. Chapter “Call setup” is listing all problems that might occur at the call establishment phase. Iu. About this document 3.03 Rev: 2. examples are dropped calls. This document covers the following items: • • • • Drive test data analysis (Uu traces and 2G/3G scanner measurements) Network interface tracing analysis (e. Iur and Iub interface tracing) PM KPI analysis End-to-end performance analysis Furthermore this guideline is cross correlating the observed occurrences to the corresponding UTRAN parameter. classification and resolution of problems. • • • UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 12 of 106 . Chapter “Description of the optimisation process” is providing a short overview of the UMTS optimisation process as covered by the UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline. 3. PM counters and KPIs of the UTRAN and/or CN and gives references.
g.5. the problem and when applicable corresponding UTRAN parameter are described and listed. 3.4. these topics are covered in more details in  and . RF optimisation engineers and all engineers that are going to analyse network with the aim of optimising a UMTS network. but might be added in later releases.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. This version of the UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline is supporting exLucent equipment only. identification and fixes for improvement” there are – if applicable – three tables: o The first table is specifying the trigger points for the identification in the network interface trace or in the drive test data including the type of traces necessary for problem identification (e. 3G scanner measurements or TCP/IP protocol interface trace) The second table is listing the PM KPIs as retrieved by the UTRAN or CN PM system The third table is listing the corresponding parameter(s) • o o 3. This document does not support how to trace and to operate measurements instruments and tools. Disclaimer . As a consequence this Guideline cannot be used for troubleshooting maintenance task issues. 3. UTRAN/CN release and vendor dependency This document is a “living” document and is updated on a regular basis based on the experience coming from the different projects. Core Network specific problems are only covered in this guideline in the way to explain how to identify these kind of problems during the analysis. How to read The main analysis chapters are subdivided into subsections that are describing the particular problems and failures step by step. The subsections are structured as follows: • In the first part. This guideline is only shortly covering RF network planning and dimensioning issues. Whenever a new UTRAN or CN network release is available certain tables and descriptions have to be updated while others parameters are project dependent and hence no particular value is assigned to them. Intended audience This document is directed to system engineers. network planners.6. In the second part called “failure symptoms. However it is geared towards supporting multi-vendor equipment so long as they follow 3GPP mandated procedures. Uu trace. this part has the subtitle “concept”.1 Date: 2007-06-08 3. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 13 of 106 .what is not covered This document is not covering Element Management Layer activities. Basis for the structure is the UMTS call handling. The question of the root cause and how to overcome this problem is not part of the UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline.03 Rev: 2.3. For more details check the corresponding reference documentation. Currently the Fault Management (FM) analysis is also not covered in this guideline.
1 Date: 2007-06-08 4. Description of the optimisation process The different fields of UMTS RF optimisation can be summarised by the following items: • • • • • • • FM audit and analysis RF design audit and and  for a detailed description) CM audit and optimisation PM audit and optimisation Drive testing and investigation Network interface tracing and analysis Lab investigation and optimisation optimisation (see  These fields of UMTS optimisation are displayed in Figure 1 in yellow below. Figure 1: Ex-Lucent UMTS optimisation process – process flow UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 14 of 106 .Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.03 Rev: 2.
one or both pre-requisites are not fulfilled starting with the performance investigation and troubleshooting does not make much sense. For troubleshooting and optimizing new clusters.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 15 of 106 .1 Date: 2007-06-08 Pre-requisite before starting with a performance verification and optimisation is that • The FM analysis shows no severe alarms that might influence the performance measurements as retrieved by the PM statistic or drive test data The RF design audit and optimisation has been finished for the region to be optimised • In case. the Drive test and interfaces’ traces would be more relevant than PMs that may get skewed because of small number of users.03 Rev: 2.
however possible failures that may occur are covered in the subsection regarding failures on RACH (subsection 5.1 Date: 2007-06-08 5. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 16 of 106 . Call setup – RRC connection establishment 5.1.1. • • • Concept PLMN selection and reselection Cell selection and reselection Location registration 5. CELL_PCH or URA_PCH the UE also performs cell reselections.1.1. Call setup One main user perception of a UMTS network is the success of setting-up a UMTS call.1. PLMN/cell selection and reselection The UE in idle mode has to perform the following tasks: The whole procedure is visualised in Figure 2 below and will be explained in detail in the following subsections: Figure 2: PLMN (re-)selection and cell (re-) selection process If the UE is in CELL_FACH.6).3) and FACH (subsection 5. In the following it is assumed that the UE is in idle mode. 5.1.1. The different phases during the call setup are covered step-by-step in the following subsections of this chapter.1.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.03 Rev: 2. This section is describing all kind of failures and problems that might occur during the call establishment phase.
In case there is no suitable cell of a non-forbidden network (no roaming agreement. lack of coverage. P-CCPCH RSCP for TDD cells (dBm) and RXLEV for GSM cells (dBm) Pcompensation is the defined as Max(UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH Max(MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH – P. This is received signal. SIM locked in the HLR etc.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.Pcompensation > 0 Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas – Qrxlevmin .Pcompensation > 0 For GSM: The different terms in the formula are defined as follows: Qqualmeas is the measured cell quality value. After power-on the UE starts with the initial cell search procedure and tries to decode the network information as broadcasted by the 2G or 3G cells on the BCCH. camping on the best suitable cell and starts with the location registration procedure. broadcasted via SIB3 and SIB4 Minimum required RX level in the cell (dBm).Qqualmin > 0 AND Srxlev = Qrxlevmeas – Qrxlevmin . 0) (GSM) – P_MAX. The process can be configured by O&M parameters as explained below: In case ACB is used the UE is selecting a non-barred cell based on either cell information stored on the U-SIM or after doing the initial cell search.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Description of the NAS part during PLMN/cell selection and reselection The NAS part is described in  and depends mainly on the information stored on the U-SIM . UE_TXPWR_MAX_RACH is the maximum allowed power for the RACH and P_MAX is the maximum power for the given mobile power class. Optimisation approach is to ensure that the UE camps on the best suitable cell (in terms of RF conditions. Prerequisite for the cell selection (and also cell reselection) are that the following criteria are fulfilled: For UMTS: Squal = Qqualmeas . traffic distribution assumptions etc. The different O&M parameters of the formula above are listed in Table 1 below: Parameter Qqualmin Qrxlevmin Description Minimum required quality level in the cell (dB). The quality of the received signal expressed in CPICH Ec/N0 (dB) for FDD cells. Qrxlevmeas is cell RX level value.) the mobile enters the “Limited Service” state. Not applicable for TDD cells or GSM cells.) to setup a call.03 Rev: 2. 0) (UMTS). see below) of its H-PLMN and starts with the location registration procedure or otherwise when the H-PLMN is not available the UE is selecting a non-forbidden PLMN. Not applicable for TDD cells or GSM cells. The UE is either selecting the best suitable cell (in terms of the cell selection criteria. CPICH RSCP for FDD cells (dBm). In this state the UE is only allowed to initiate emergency calls in case it detects any PLMN coverage. Description of the AS part during PLMN/cell selection and reselection The AS part is defined in  (for UMTS) and  (for GSM). broadcasted via SIB3 and SIB4 Table 1: Parameters used for cell selection UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 17 of 106 .
Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.s + Qhysts Rn = Qmeas. However note that to avoid ping ponging between UMTS and GSM the following condition should be fulfilled: FDD_Qmin > Qqualmin + SsearchRAT If the above condition is not satisfied. for this parameter Sintersearch is used and is broadcasted on SIB3/SIB4.03 Rev: 2.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Remark The current formulas can only be used in case HCS is not deployed. For cell reselection the target cell has to fulfill the same criteria as specified for the cell selection case. The UE can only reselect one of the 2G or 3G cells that are defined in the reselection list that are broadcasted via SIB11/SIB12 on the BCCH. SSearchRAT is a configurable UMTS parameter broadcasted on SIB3/SIB4. The UE ranks the cells according to the cell ranking criteria Rs (serving cell) and Rn (neighbour cell). In a similar way the criterion for UMTS Interfrequency measurements is defined.n is an offset defined on a per-neighbour definition (for both GSM and UMTS neighbours). otherwise not. Qhysts is an hysteresis to avoid ping-pong effects.n = 0) is visualised in Figure 3 below: Figure 3: Cell reselection process UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 18 of 106 . Qoffsets. For UMTS network without HCS the following formulas are used (both for GSM and UMTS cells): Rs = Qmeas. The UE will reselect the best GSM or UMTS cell of the ranking list if at least Treselection (UMTS parameter) has elapsed when camping on the cell. The reselection process using the mentioned parameters (Qoffsets. Furthermore frequent re-selections between UMTS and GSM can cause mobile terminating call failure in case the PLMN pages the current network while the UE is in the process of registering with the other network.n For UMTS Qmeas is based either on RSCP or Ec/No measurements of the server/neighbour cell depending on the setting of the UTRAN parameter configuring the selection and reselection quality measure.n . a UE will move from GSM to UMTS and immediately start monitoring neighboring GSM cells again. an undesirable condition. Furthermore while camping the UE shall start to perform inter-RAT measurements if Squal <= SSearchRAT.Qoffsets.
identification and fixes for improvement A failure of the PLMN selection/reselection during a drive test can be easily identified when the screen of the drive test mobile is showing “Limited Service” and the MNC of the selected cell is different from the H-PLMN. In that case the drive test route should be checked.cellOffset Description Parameter defining whether CPICH or RSCP measurement shall be used for UMTS measurements Time hysteresis for the cell reselection UMTS parameter broadcasted via the SIB3/SIB4 defining whether or not to start with inter-RAT measurements (setting of SSearchRAT) UMTS parameter broadcasted via the SIB3/SIB4 defining whether or not to start with UMTS interfrequency measurements (setting of Sintersearch) Hysteresis to avoid ping-pong effects (RSCP.2).1.1.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.1. The cell selection and reselection process and its translations are covered in more details in . As a consequence the call will be setup on a non-optimal cell or a non-optimal RAN so the call-setup might fail during the RACH procedure (subsection 5. Another problem might be ACB on one or several of the surrounding GSM and/or UMTS cells. A consistency check of the parameters listed in Table 1 and Table 2 might help to find parameter misconfiguration.4. For these kinds of failures see subsection 5. When the PM counters of the CN are showing a high rejection rate due to missing national roaming it may be caused by an interface problem to or an outage in the roaming networks be it UMTS or GSM.2.1.8) or when the test van is driven out of the coverage footprint of the (GSM and UMTS) network.3.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Table 2 below is listing the main parameters configuring the cell reselection process in case no HCS is used: Parameter cellSelAndResQualMeas sIB3Treselection sIB3RAT. 5.sSearchRAT sIB3SInterSearch sIB3Qhyst1. Information regarding Access Class Barring is broadcasted via SIB3 or SIB4 .1. In case of poor 3G coverage and low call setup success rate the parameter SSearchRAT might be set to a lower value so the UE will start earlier with inter-RAT UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 19 of 106 . The root cause might be a network outage due to NodeB. the paging procedure (subsection 5. ACB is used during the integration of cells see  for details.2) or during the call setup procedure (subsection 5. Ec/No hysteresis) UMTS parameter broadcasted via the SIB11/SIB12 defining an offset on a per neighbour basis Table 2: Most important parameter used for cell reselection. Failure symptoms. Parameter Qoffsets. non HCS Description of the Location Registration part during PLMN/cell selection and reselection The Location Registration procedure is initiated by the UE by sending MM/GMM Direct Transfer messages.n used for optimisation of a per-cell basis should be reviewed.3).03 Rev: 2. RNC or any particular network interface like Iub or Iu (see also subsection 6.5 and 6. sIB3Qhyst2 outFDDAdjCells. Common problems of the cell selection/reselection procedure are non-optimised configuration of the corresponding UTRAN parameter.
The CN might perform a repetition of paging process in case the UE has not answered within a certain period in time. Concept The UTRAN might initiate the paging procedure because of the following events: • • The UTRAN is receiving a paging request from the CN via RANAP The UE has an established PDP context.2. The RXLEV of the best measured 2G cell is within a x dB window (or even better) for y seconds compared to the RSCP of the cell the UE is camping on when sending the RRC Connection Request or Cell Update message on RACH There are two consecutive LUs between 2G and 3G within x seconds and the LA codes for the cells are different. URA_PCH or CELL_PCH modes and the UE is receiving a Paging Indication on the PICH from the NodeB. then the UTRAN is sending the paging via DCCH (“Paging Type 2”). Table 3 below is listing the identification techniques of PLMN/cell (re-)selection failures in drive test traces and scanner measurements: Problem Wrong PLMN selected ACB Call setup on nonoptimal cell Call setup on nonoptimal RAN technology Ping-pong LU between 2G / 3G Trace Uu Uu Uu. In case the UE is in connected mode and is paged. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 20 of 106 . Another problem arises when different LA codes are defined for the GSM and UMTS networks and the Inter-RAT reselection criterion is met. PICH and PCH 5. then the UE is starting to monitor the PCH to receive the paging (“Paging Type 1”). Uu Table 3: Identification of PLMN/cell (re-)selection failures in traces Cell selection and reselection failures cannot be detected via PMs because the process is within the UE.1.1 Date: 2007-06-08 measurements.3. but the preference is on the UMTS network. but the UE is in URA_PCH or Cell_PCH mode and downlink PS data are scheduled to be delivered in the downlink If the UE is in idle. Failures during the Location Registration procedure are identified via CN PMs and covered in subsection 5. Failures on the AICH. 3G scanner Uu.1. 5.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. In addition the RNC might trigger the repetition of the UE paging in the UTRAN. As a consequence it is recommended to assign the same LA codes to GSM and UMTS cells that are providing coverage to the same area to avoid LAU ping-pong.03 Rev: 2. The repetition timers of the RNC and CN have to be set accordantly. 2G/3G scanner Trigger Any occurrence of the MNC of the cell the UE is camping on is different from the MNC of the H-PLMN Any occurrence of IE “Access Class Barred” = TRUE in SIB3/SIB4 The call is setup via RRCConnectionSetup message on a cell that is not on the x best cell listed by the 3G scanner within y dB window. This is in particular the case for subscribers inside a building where the UMTS coverage is not as strong compared to the GSM coverage.2. In the following it is assumed that the UE is not in connected mode so it has received a Paging Type 1.1. Also the cell offsets for the GSM cells can be adapted to prefer call setup on the 2G layer.1.
1) etc.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. 5.6.03 Rev: 2.1.1).6). 1 CN_PCH_Timer & CN_PCH_Max are dummy names for the parameters Page 21 of 106 UMTS Network Performance Engineering .3. • • Failure symptoms. FACH failures are covered in subsection 5. AICH or PCH Poor radio conditions in terms of low RSCP or Ec/No because of e. The drive test equipment can record paging requests. poor RF coverage (subsection 6. Upon successful decoding the NodeB forwards the RACH Message Part to the RNC. the RRC connection is maintained via the common physical channels (subsection 6.1. AICH and PCH The paging itself is sent on the PCH that is a PHY channel on Uu. When the NodeB receives the RACH Preamble it answers by sending an indication on the AICH.4.g. PCH and AICH: Parameter pICHPower pCHPower aICHPower CN_PCH_Timer tPageRep CN_PCH_Max nUtranPageRep 1 Description UTRAN parameter defining the power settings of the PICH UTRAN parameter defining the power settings of the PCH UTRAN parameter defining the power settings of the AICH Timeout when the CN will reinitiate the paging Timeout when the RNC will reinitiate the paging Maximum number of paging repetitions by the CN Maximum number of paging repetitions by the RNC Table 4: Parameter used for configuring the PICH. However analysing drive test logs is not a good way to investigate paging problems because paging that is not received by the UE can only be detected via parallel Iub tracing.1.1 Date: 2007-06-08 After the UE has successfully decoded the paging on the PCH it sends a RACH Preamble using the open loop power control algorithm. Congestion on the PCH Failures on the PCH. A better approach for analysing call setup problems due to paging failures is to use PM counters of the UTRAN and the CN. the reception of the AICH is answered by the UE by sending a RRC Connection Request/Cell Update/URA Update message using the RACH (so called RACH Message Part). camping on a non-optimal cell (see subsection 5.2. pilot pollution (subsection 6.1. The RNC sends back (on the FACH) the RRC Connection Setup/Cell Update Confirm/URA Update Confirm message (successful case). If the UE is in URA_PCH or CELL_PCH mode. PICH and AICH are most likely due to • Table 4 below is listing the main UTRAN parameters configuring the PICH.5). When the UE cannot be reached via paging the UTRAN may decide to drop the RRC connection. RACH failures are covered in subsection 5.2. identification and fixes for improvement Non-optimal power settings of the PICH.4.
03 Rev: 2. In addition creating smaller Location Areas / Routing Areas will also lower the paging load. Table 5 below is listing of how failures on the PICH/AICH/PCH can be identified in interface traces: Problem RRC drop due to unsuccessful paging Trace Iub and Iu Trigger Cross correlation Iu and Iub trace: any occurrence where a UE page is recorded on Iub.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. Increasing the power settings of the particular Physical Channels will reduce the failure rate. there is no Cell Update recorded on Iub within x seconds and the RNC is sending back within y seconds an Iu Release Request message with cause “Release due to UTRAN generated reason” (UE is either in URA_PCH or CELL_PCH mode) Any occurrence where a UE is paged and recorded on the Iub and there is no answer by the UE on UL CCCH also recorded on the Iub within x seconds Unsuccessful paging Iub UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 22 of 106 .1 Date: 2007-06-08 Figure 4: Dropped RRC connection due to unsuccessful paging Congestion on the PCH is also indicated by the UTRAN PM system. In addition “normal” RF optimisation for areas with low Ec/No will improve the situation. no corresponding Transport channels) can be detected only indirectly because standard drive test tools do not record these messages that are sent only on the Uu interface. A solution of lowering the paging load might be to separate the FACH and PCH on the SCCPCH by introducing an additional SCCPCH. Failures on the AICH or PICH (PHY channels.
AttPsPagingProcIu + AttPsPagingRepititionsIu)*100 VS.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. The RACH is transmitted on the PHY in two separated parts: first a certain number of RACH Preambles are sent. Provides the channel occupancy rate for the PCH channel RNC 3G-SGSN VS. PM system RNC UtranCell Counter / KPI VS.PagAttDiscard.1.1. setting up a call.MM.MM. Figure 5 below illustrates the transmission of several RACH Preambles in different Ramping Cycles and only after the reception of an ACK on AICH.MM.RRCConnDrop. This is the case when received preamble power exceeds the parameter “physicalRACHPreambleThreshold”.ChannelOccupRatePCH Table 6: PM KPIs/Counters for PICH/PCH/AICH failures 5. Each of the following RACH Preambles are transmitted with an increased power level till an ACK is received on the AICH.succFirstPageReqs 3G-MSC RNC VS.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Table 5: Identification of PICH/PCH/AICH failures in traces Table 6 below is listing the identification possibilities using KPIs/Counters retrieved by the CN and/or UTRAN PM system. Then the UE transmits the RRC Connection Request (Cell Update. Concept The RACH Access Procedure is used when attaching to the network.SuccPsPagingProcIu + SuccPsPagingRepititionsIu) / (MM. The power of the first RACH Preamble is relatively low and calculated using Open Loop Power Control. the transmission of the RACH message part: UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 23 of 106 . URA Update) message in the RACH Message Part. Paging success rate defines the rate of successful paging in the packet network. The attempt and success counts are used to monitor the paging performance. The measurement provides the number of successful page responses from MS.1.ProcessorLoad KPI Name / Description Counting the number of RRC drops due to UTRAN Paging failures This measurement provides the number of paging attempts discarded by the RNC TPU due to processor load This measurement provides the number of paging attempts received by the RNC KPI ”Paging success rate”.3.03 Rev: 2.3. The RACH procedure has been successfully performed when the RACH Message Part is received by the RNC upon successful decoding at the NodeB.PagAttRec (MM.UTRANPagingFailure VS. Random Access Procedure 5. answering to a page or performing a LA Update/RA Update.
CellUpdateReq.<per establishment cause>. If V300 > N300.g. OrigStrmCall etc. A full list is available in . Figure 6 below is showing as an example the Cell Update procedure: Figure 6: Cell Update procedure supervised by T302 and V302 2 “<per establishment cause>” is a placeholder for e. counter V300 is incremented by one and guard timer T300 is restarted. Upon expiry of timer T300 the UE may start again by sending RACH Preambles depending on the status of counter V300. the corresponding PM counters are named VS. PM counter RRC.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. For the Cell Update and URA Update procedure V302 and T302 are used.<per 2 establishment cause> is incremented by one . resets T300 and sends the RACH Preamble again. the UE stops sending on the RACH and stays in idle mode . UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 24 of 106 .03 Rev: 2.MM. it resets its internal counter V300 to 1 and starting its internal guard timer T300 (to UTRAN parameter t300). OrigConvCall. Upon reception of the RRC Connection Request message at the RNC. If V300 <= N300 (configured by UTRAN parameter n300).AttConnEstab.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Figure 5: RACH procedure with RACH Preambles and Message Part When the UE is sending the RRC Connection Request message for the first time. if the UE has already sent one or several RRC Connection Request messages before. the UE increments V300 by one.
1). for the other (common) RF issues see the corresponding subsections. The ratio between received preamble power during the preamble period and interference level shall be above this threshold in order to be acknowledged. Table 7 below is listing the main UTRAN parameters configuring the RACH: Parameter constantVal PowerRampStep maxRetranPreamble physicalRACHPreambleThres hold SIB3MAXAllowedULTXPower.4.g. These parameters define the maximum allowed power the UE may use when accessing the cell on PRACH in idle mode Determine the maximum number of power ramping cycles allowed UE guard timer that is supervising the RRC Connection Setup procedure when the UE is waiting for the RRC Connection Setup message Defines the number of times the UE is allowed to send the same RRC Connection Request message UE guard timer that is supervising the Cell/URA Update procedure when the UE is waiting for the Cell Update Confirm/ URA Update Confirm message Defines the number of times the UE is allowed to send the same Cell Update/ URA Update message n300 t302 n302 Table 7: Parameter used for configuring the RACH For a complete list of RACH parameters see also . camping on a non-optimal cell (see subsection 5. 5. In the following only the RACH specific issues are covered.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Failures in the RACH procedure occur if either the RACH Preamble or the RACH Message Part cannot be decoded.5).2. In most cases only a statistic about the PHY UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 25 of 106 .3.4. SIB4MAXAllowedULTXPower mMax t300 Description Used by UE to calculate Initial Preamble Power Determines the power increment between two successive RACH Preambles Determines the maximum number of preambles allowed within one Power Ramping Cycle The threshold for preamble detection.03 Rev: 2. Possible reasons for these decoding problems are: • • • • • Non optimal RACH power settings Non optimal RACH counter/timer settings RACH congestion Non optimal setting of physicalRACHPreambleThreshold & RACH search Window Poor radio conditions in terms of low RSCP or Ec/No because of e.1) etc. poor RF coverage (subsection 6.1. Failure symptoms. but not by “normal” drive test tools.1. identification and fixes for improvement The RACH Preambles may only be recorded in internal UE or NodeB traces. pilot pollution (subsection 6.
Table 8: Identification of RACH failures in traces PM system UtranCell UtranCell Counter / KPI VS.1 Date: 2007-06-08 and MAC procedure of the RACH is listed in the drive test logs e. In case of a lower layer failure ro deliver preamble it is up to the higher layer re-initiate the whole RACH procedure again (means in the RRC decoding another RACH Message would be listed). but the RACH message part is never transmitted via the air interface in case the RACH preamble has already failed.Bad + VS. Call Admission Control (CAC) 5. The CAC is started after the RNC receives the RRC Connection Request message on RACH and executes CAC before setting up the RL on NBAP (see Figure 7 below): 3 Note: It might be that in the drive test logs a RRCConnectionRequest message is listed.RACHTransBlock. This measurement provides the channel occupancy rates for Radio Access Channel. but not recorded on the Iub interface.4. Cell Update or URA Update) is recorded on the Uu.1. UtranCell Table 9: PM KPIs for RACH failures More RACH related PM KPIs are available in . 5. The higher layer (RRC) initiates the transmission of the RACH message.1. number of 3 RACH Preambles sent.ChannelOccupRateRACH KPI Name / Description This measurement provides the percentage of time that the RACH is in congested state.Good / (VS. The CAC algorithms and the corresponding parameter are described in detail in . The RACH performance can be improved by changing of the power settings and/or changing of the timer/counter as listed in Table 7.4. The CAC thresholds can be defined for uplink and downlink load separately.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.1. Iub Trigger Cross-correlation Uu/Iub trace: RACH Message Part (RRC Connection Request.RACHTransBlock. Table 9 below is listing the identification possibilities using KPIs retrieved by the UTRAN PM system. Problem RACH message lost Trace Uu. Concept The Call Admission Control (CAC) procedure is used in order to admit or deny the establishment of the RRC connection to avoid an overload of the UMTS system. KPI “RACH transport block good CRC rate” is the percentage of RACH Transport Blocks with good CRC.g. Table 8 below is listing the identification possibilities for network interface traces.RACHTransBlock. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 26 of 106 .03 Rev: 2. last transmitted power etc .RACHcongestion VS.Good) * 100 VS. Possible congestion on the RACH could be detected by supervision of PM UTRAN counters (Table 9 below).
5) or also for other failures. In addition it should be verified that the CAC thresholds are set correctly.03 Rev: 2. Problem RRC Connection Reject Trace Uu or Iub Trigger After the UE sends a RRC Connection Request message the RNC replies with RRC Connection Reject message with cause “Congestion” .1. Table 10: Parameter configuring CAC 5. identification and fixes for improvement CAC failures can only be identified in a reliable manner via PM counters or internal traces. The only optimisation approach in case of CAC rejections is to optimise the RF environment in terms of pilot pollution.2. Specifies the load threshold for DL call admission of a non-emergency RRC connection request when HSDPA is enabled.4.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. Table 10 below is listing the main parameters configuring CAC: Parameter thrCAC2UL thrCAC2DL thrCAC2DLHS DPA Description Specifies the load threshold for UL call admission of a non-emergency RRC connection request. Failure symptoms. Table 11: Identification of RRC Connection Reject due to Congestion or missing resources For CAC related PM KPIs see  however the main PM counter is given below: UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 27 of 106 .1. Specifies the load threshold for DL call admission of a non-emergency RRC connection request when HSDPA is disabled. neighbour list optimisation etc.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Figure 7: CAC executed after reception of RACH Message Part If the defined load thresholds for CAC are exceeded the RRC connection establishment request is denied and a RRC Connection Reject message with cause “Congestion” is sent back to the UE. Reason is that the RRC Connection Reject message with cause “Congestion” might also be sent in case of missing resources during the RL setup procedure (subsection 5.
Figure 8: Initial RRC Setup Steps after successful CAC 5. In case of soft handover when allocating resources on a new NodeB The Radio Link Setup procedure is initiated in two cases: • Note that after the Radio Link Setup on NBAP the RNC should initiate the establishment of the AAL2 bearer over the Iub interface using ALCAP (ALCAP Establishment Request and ALCAP Establishment Confirm).1. Problems on ALCAP could be due to ATM configuration and are outside the scope of this document. Failure symptoms. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 28 of 106 . identification and fixes for improvement The NBAP Radio Link Setup procedure may fail and the NodeB sends back the Radio Link Setup Failure message.03 Rev: 2.2.1.FailConnEstab. Radio Link Setup 5. Table 12: PM Counter for CAC failures 5.1.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.1 Date: 2007-06-08 PM system UtranCell Counter / KPI RRC.5. ATM synchronisation problems are not expected at this stage of the call because of the already successful NBAP procedure.CAC Name / Description This measurement provides the number of failed RRC connection establishment with cause “Call Admission Control” (CAC). • Concept During the call establishment phase after the CAC is granted the RNC requests the NodeB to allocate resources through the NBAP Radio Link Setup message.1. The same is valid for the synchronisation between NodeB and RNC via the DCH-FP over AAL2 bearer.5.5.
AttConnEstab.PSD) / RLM.FailRLSetupIub.FailRLSetupIub.NodeBRes.PSD) / RLM.FailRLSetupIub.TransRes. For identification of failures during the Radio Link Setup procedure Iub traces are mandatory. Concept This subsection is covering only call setup related failures on FACH.6.03 Rev: 2. Here one major reason for NodeB resources problem can be UCU capacity shortage.CSD + RLM. for failures in CELL_FACH mode see subsection 6.AttRLSetupIub*100 (RLM.NodeBRes.FailRLSetupIur. “NodeB Resources unavailable” or ”Semantic error” etc.1.4.TransRes.AttRLSetupIub*100 (RLM.NodeBRes. Iub Trigger Cross-correlation Uu/Iub trace: Any occurrence of the NBAP Radio Link Setup Failure message on Iub and RRC Connection Reject with cause “unspecified” or “congestion” on Iub/Uu Any occurrence of the NBAP Radio Link Setup Failure message on Iub Radio Link Setup II Iub Table 13: Identification of failures in the Radio Link Setup PM system UtranCell Counter / KPI RRC. 3GPP has defined a variety of failure causes.CSV + RLM.Call setup failures on the FACH 5.7.1.CSV + RLM.1.AttRLSetupIur – RLM.AttRLSetupIur * 100 Table 14: PM KPIs for Radio Link Setup failures 5. Reason is that on Uu only the RRC Connection Reject message is available with only two possible failure causes (“congestion” and “unspecified”). Problem Radio Link Setup I Trace Uu.SuccRLSetupIub / RLM. Table 13 below is listing the identification possibilities for network interface traces.TransRes.FailRLSetupIub. while transport resources issue can point to the backhaul bandwidth limitation.FailRLSetupIub. see also subsection 5. Table 14 is listing the identification possibilities using KPIs retrieved by the UTRAN PM system.6.CSD + RLM.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.AttRLSetupIub*100 (RLM.FailRLSetupIub.sum*100 KPI Name / Description Failed RRC Connection Establishment Rate due to RL Setup failures Radio link setup success rate on Iub Radio link setup failure rate on Iub NodeB resource Radio link setup failure rate on Iub transport resource Radio link setup success rate on Iur UtranCell UtranCell UtranCell RNC RLM.sum) / RLM. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 29 of 106 .FailConnEstab.1 Date: 2007-06-08 According to  the failure causes can be classified as follows: • • • • Radio Network Layer Cause Transport Layer Cause Protocol Cause Miscellaneous Cause Each category has many subcauses like “Transport Resources unavailable”.RLSetupFailure/RRC.1.
… ) before T30001 expires. When the RNC receives the answer by the UE (RRC Connection Setup Complete. Note that the RNC will not send any failure message on the Uu.03 Rev: 2. In this case the RNC sends back either the RRC Connection Setup. the RNC will stop sending FACHs to the UE and will release the reserved resources on NBAP and ALCAP.1 Date: 2007-06-08 It is assumed that the RACH Message Part has been successfully received. the RNC increments V30001 by one. The whole procedure is visualised in Figure 9 below: Figure 9: Failures on FACH UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 30 of 106 . resets timer T30001 and sends the FACH message again. Cell Update Confirm or URA Update Confirm message on FACH (successful case). Radio Bearer Reconfiguration Complete. If V30001 > N30001. the CAC has been granted and the RL are established. UTRAN Mobility Information Confirm. the RNC stops T30001. resets counter V30001 and starts its guard timer T30001.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. If the RNC does not receive the message before T30001 expires. If V30001<= N30001 (maximum number of retries). The RNC sends the FACH message. the RNC may resend the FACH message depending on the status of counter V30001.
1. Table 17 the corresponding PM KPIs: Problem Lost FACH message FACH Failure Trace Iub and Uu Uu or Iub Trigger Cross-correlation Uu/Iub trace: one or more FACH messages are recorded on the Iub.2. Iub and Uu traces.FailConnEstab.03 Rev: 2. but not on the Uu interface Any occurrence of a Cell Update/URA Update message and within x seconds there is a RRC Connection Release message with specified cause other than “normal event” sent back by the RNC Table 16: Identification of failures on the FACH PM system UtranCell UtranCell Counter / KPI RRC.7. On Uu FACH failures cannot be directly observed because there is no corresponding failure message sent.2) There are the following possible reasons for failures on FACH: Failures on the FACH can be indicated by UTRAN PM statistics.6. FACH signalling and traffic power) Call setup not done on an optimal cell (subsection 5. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 31 of 106 . identification and fixes for improvement Non optimal UTRAN parameter settings (e.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Table 15 below is listing the parameters configuring the FACH: Parameter fACHTrafPower fACHSigPower uERRCConnectionSetupRes ponseTimer maxRRCConnSetupRetries Description UTRAN parameter defining the power settings of the FACH data part UTRAN parameter defining the power settings of the FACH control part UTRAN parameter defining setting of T30001 UTRAN parameter defining setting of N30001 Table 15: Parameter used for configuring the FACH 5. RRC Connection Reject message with specified cause “unspecified” The UE might receive a rejection when trying to establish a RRC Connection with specified cause “unspecified”.1) The FACH message is not successfully decoded due to poor FACH coverage The message on the FACH is successfully decoded by the UE.SetupIncomplete / RRC. see also subsection 5.AttConnEstab.g.PercentageFACHOccupancy KPI Name / Description Failed RRC connection Establishment Rate timeout Occupancy rate on FACH Table 17: PM KPIs for failures on the FACH 5.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.1.sum*100 VS.1. • • • • Failure symptoms. Table 16 below is listing the identification of FACH failures on Iub. but afterwards the RNC cannot successfully decode the answer sent by the UE (UE is already in CELL_DCH mode.
maxNoReport edCellsOnRACH addThresholdSHO Description Defines the maximum number of cells the UE may report on RACH Defines the hysteresis used at call setup to add neighbour cells to the Active Set Table 19: Parameter important for the call setup phase For more details about the translations see .2. When the call is not setup in soft/softer HO mode the UE has to wait for the reception of the Measurement Control messageand time-to-trigger before sending Measurement Report 1a etc.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. protocol errors or problems when sending the FACH etc. 5.2. This is the case if • • • • The UE is allowed to report the measurements of more than one NodeB in the RRC Connection Request / Cell Update message The UE is supporting this feature The measurement of more than one cell is reported in RRC Connection Request / Cell Update message The RNC is then directing the UE to soft/softer HO via RRC Connection Setup. 5.2. Concept Table 19 below is listing the parameters that are important for the call setup phase: Parameter measQty. there is a big likelihood that the call setup will fail.FailConnEstab.03 Rev: 2. Call setup – failures during the call setup phase At this point in time the UE is in the transition phase to either CELL_FACH or CELL_DCH mode. The next message will already be sent in the new mode (as an example next message to be sent by the UE is RRC Connection Setup Complete or UTRAN Mobility Information Confirm). When transiting to the CELL_DCH mode there is the possibility that the UE is already in soft/softer handover mode when sending this message. If the call is setup in an area where several NodeBs are providing marginal coverage and it is not possible to add the radio legs quickly. Cell Update Confirm or URA Update Confirm message 5. Table 18: RRC Connection Reject – unspecified There are no specific PM counters for that case. Table 18 below is listing how to identify this kind of error in Uu logs: Problem RRC Connection Reject with cause unspecified Trace Uu Trigger Any occurrence of an RRC Connection Reject message with specified cause “unspecified”. identification and fixes for improvement The RRC connection might drop in this early stage due to the following reasons: UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 32 of 106 . instead other PM counters with the name RRC.2.<different rejection causes> are used.Failure symptoms.1.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Possible reasons for that failure message are problems in the Radio Link Setup procedure.
3. but one neighbouring cell is within xdB window compared to the Ec/No of the best cell in the Active Set The call is dropped within x seconds after sending the RRC Connection Request or Cell/URA Update The call is setup in non soft/softer HO mode (# of SCs in RRC Connection Setup message is 1). 3G scanner Trigger The call is setup via RRCConnectionSetup message on a cell and at the same time the 3G scanner is reporting at least x cells that are within a y dB window compared to the best measured cell.1) etc. pilot pollution (subsection 6. The number of cells in the Active Set is smaller than max AS size.1). The following subsections are summarising possible failures that might occur during these procedures. There are no specific PM counters available that can be used to identify issues during the call setup phase because at this point the UE is already in CELL_DCH/CELL_FACH mode so a drop of the RRC connection cannot be differentiated from an RRC drop occurred in a later stage of the call.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. voice or VT call. these protocols are specified in  and . 3G scanner Uu.1 Date: 2007-06-08 • • • Non optimal handover parameter configuring the call setup in soft/softer handover mode Non optimal power settings Poor radio conditions in terms of low RSCP or Ec/No because of e. The subsections are grouped by the following three different protocols: • • • Mobility Management (MM) and GPRS Mobility Management (GMM) Call Control (CC) Session Management (SM) The three protocols are sublayer protocols of the Connection Management (CM). Nevertheless it is possible to identify issues in network interface traces as listed in Table 20 below: Problem Call setup on a nonoptimal cell Not best cells in AS at call setup Drop of RRC connection at call setup Call Setup not soft/softer HO mode in Trace Uu. 3G scanner Uu Uu.4. camping on a non-optimal cell resulting in non-optimal reselection list (see subsection 5.g.4. Call setup – Core Network failures After establishment of the RRC connection the UE and the CN exchange Direct Transfer messages so the UE can GPRS attach to the PS network.5). and these SCs are within y dB window as measured by the 3G scanner Table 20: Identification of call setup in traces 5. poor RF coverage (subsection 6. CM failures causes like “CM UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 33 of 106 . Also the drop might occur only a very short time later.03 Rev: 2. perform a Location or Routing Area Update or initiate a data. LAU/RAU involve just the mobility management procedures while the Call setup also includes call control and session management protocols for CS and PS calls respectively. the assigned SC is under the best x SCs measured by the 3G scanner. but the root cause for the failure is one of the issues mentioned above.1.
5.g.2. illegal MS/ME. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 34 of 106 .1. GMM. IMSI unknown in the HLR. 5. A mobility management context in the SGSN or 3GMSC is a prerequisite for the initialisation of voice. CC. Failure symptoms.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. Because the protocols are transparent to the UTRAN all PM KPIs are defined within the CN entities e. The settings of these timers are specified and not configurable. wrong or incorrect IE format etc. Any occurrence of a MM Location updating reject message sent by the CN.3. MM Abort Uu or Iub or Iu MM Location Updating Reject Uu or Iub or Iu GMM Attach Reject Uu or Iub or Iu 4 Exception: there might be the case that due to a bad RF environment the direct transfer messages cannot be delivered to the other entity because the RLC layer is not able to deliver the corresponding message also after RLC retransmissions. Any occurrence of a GMM Attach Reject message sent by the CN The specified rejection cause will indicate the reason for the failure e.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Service Reject Cause” is mapped on the Reject Cause of the Mobility Management IE .2. This message is sent by the network to the mobile station to initiate the abortion of all MM connections and to indicate the reason for the abortion. The specified rejection cause will indicate the reason for the failure e.3. It is up to the corresponding higher layer (e. Note that (almost) any failure in this subsection is not UTRAN related because 4 Direct Transfer messages are transparent to the UTRAN . SGSN / GGSN. This message is sent by the mobile station to the network to request the abortion of the first MM connection establishment in progress and the release of the RR connection. Any occurrence of a MM Abort message sent by the CN. protocol error. The rejection cause will give an indication about the occurred failure.1. Mobility Management failures 5.g. 3G-MSC. Any occurrence of a CM Service abort message sent by the UE. Any of the failures can be easily detected by the corresponding failure messages.g. CN problems like authentication not possible due to inaccessible HLR database etc. identification and fixes for improvement For the root cause analysis please review the timer settings supervising the mobility management protocols as specified in  chapter 11. the reject cause will give an indication of the occurred failure. Table 21 below is listing the Mobility Management failures as they can be retrieved by interface traces: Problem MM Authentication Reject CM Service Reject CM Service Abort Trace Uu or Iub or Iu Uu or Iub or Iu Uu or Iub or Iu Trigger Any occurrence of a MM Authentication reject message sent by the CN e. RLC resets etc. such as informing the network of its present location and providing user identity confidentiality. … basis.2 (MM/CM) and 9.1. locked SIM card. The failure messages are retrieved from  chapter 9.g. because of not-allowed national/international roaming Any occurrence of a CM Service reject message sent by the CN. roaming not allowed etc. data or VT services.4 (GMM).g. Concept The main function of the mobility management is to support the mobility of user terminals. In addition Mobility Management failures might be due to missing roaming agreement.3.1.03 Rev: 2. MM or SM) to react accordantly of the discarded message.
Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. The specified rejection cause will indicate the reason for the failure e.AttGprsDetachSgsn. CC procedures can only be performed if a MM context has been established between the UE and the CN (subsection 5.3.03 Rev: 2. The counter is incremented for a mobile termination attempt that is rejected by the MSC for reasons other than system resource overload related.2.U) / MM.U / MM.g.U * 100 (attInterVLRLocationUpdates + attIntraVLRLocationUpdates) / (succInterVLRLocationUpdates + succIntraVLRLocationUpdates) * 100 MM.SuccInterSgsnRaUpdate.U) / MM.SuccIntraSgsnRaUpdate. protocol error. Any occurrence of a GMM Authentication and Ciphering Reject message sent by the CN.1.U / MM.SuccGprsAttach.AttGprsDetachSgsn.2. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 35 of 106 . 3G-MSC VS.1).1 Date: 2007-06-08 GMM Authentication and Ciphering Failure GMM Authentication and Ciphering Reject GMM Routing Area Update Reject GMM Service Reject Uu or Iub or Iu Any occurrence of a GMM Authentication and Ciphering Failure message sent by the UE.AttIntraSgsnRaUpdate. Any occurrence of a GMM Routing area update reject message sent by the CN. Any occurrence of a GMM Service reject message sent by the CN Uu or Iub or Iu Uu or Iub or Iu Uu or Iub or Iu Table 21: Identification of Mobility Management failures in interface traces Table 22 below is listing the PM KPIs of the Mobility Management as they can be retrieved by the PM system of the 3G-MSC and SGSN: PM system SGSN SGSN SGSN Counter / KPI (MM.mobileOrigAttRejected KPI Name / Description GPRS attach failure rate Authentication failure rate SGSN initiated GPRS detach failure rate 3G-MSC Location Update Success Rate SGSN SGSN 3G-MSC Inter SGSN routing area update success rate Intra SGSN routing area update success rate The counter is incremented for a mobile origination attempt that MSC for reasons other than system resource overload related.AttInterSgsnRaUpdate.U * 100 MM.U * 100 (attAuthInSgsn – succAuthInSgsn) / attAuthInSgsn * 100 (MM.g.AttGprsAttach.U – MM. wrong or incorrect IE format etc. The CC protocol is responsible for CS call establishment and clearing procedures. call information phase procedures etc. The specified rejection cause will indicate the reason for the failure e.U – MM.3. Concept This subsection describes failures on the Call Control (CC) protocol.U * 100 VS. a sync failure. Call Control failures 5.mobileTermAttRejected Table 22: PM KPIs/Counters for (GPRS) Mobility Management failures 5.3.SuccGprsDetachSgsn.AttGprsAttach.
2. For the root cause analysis please check the timer settings supervising the CC protocol in  chapter 11.3. missing or faulty APN. The specified rejection cause is giving an indication of the type of failure e. note that the specified cause might depend on the 3G-MSC/UE vendors: Problem Ubnormal Disconnect Ubnormal Release CC CC Trace Uu or Iub or Iu Uu or Iub or Iu Trigger Any occurrence of a CC Disconnect message (either UE or CN initiated) with specified cause other than “normal event” Any occurrence of a CC Release / Release Complete message (either UE or CN initiated) with specified cause other than “normal event” Table 23: Identification of CC failures in interface traces Table 24 below is listing the PM KPIs of the CC failures as they can be retrieved by the PM system of the 3G-MSC: Counter / KPI5 NoCCDisconnectUbnormalEvent / NoCCDisconnects * 100 NoCCReleaseUbnormalEvent / NoCCReleases * 100 PM system 3G-MSC 3G-MSC KPI Name / Description Ubnormal CC Disconnect Rate Ubnormal CC Release Rate Table 24: PM KPIs for CC failures Depending on the specified failure cause the failure might be due to missing resources (e.3.1). The SM comprises procedures for identified PDP context activation. SM procedures for identified access can only be performed if a GMM context has been established between the UE and the CN (subsection 5.g.3. Concept The main function of SM is to support the PDP context handling of the PS services.3. identification and fixes for improvement Table 23 below is listing the CC failures as they can be retrieved by interface traces .Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.2. Failure symptoms.g.3. 5. deactivation and modification.3.1.3. Failure symptoms. SM Activate Secondary PDP Context Reject Uu or Iub or Iu 5 Dummy names Page 36 of 106 UMTS Network Performance Engineering .2.03 Rev: 2.3. Any occurrence of a SM Activate Secondary PDP Context Reject message sent by the CN. identification and fixes for improvement The failure messages are retrieved from . “User busy”) or protocol failure.Session Management failures 5. The settings of these timers are not configurable.g. 5. Table 25 below is listing the SM failures as they can be retrieved by interface traces: Problem SM Activate PDP Context Reject Trace Uu or Iub or Iu Trigger Any occurrence of a SM Activate PDP Context Reject message sent by the CN. protocol error.1 Date: 2007-06-08 5.3. drive test configuration issue (e. lack of resources etc. The specified rejection cause is giving an indication of the type of failure e. “requested circuit/channel not available”).g.
Cause+SM. SM Request PDP Context Activation Reject Uu or Iub or Iu Any occurrence of a SM Request PDP Context Activation Reject message sent by the UE. 5.FailActPdpCtxMs.SuccActPdpCtxMs)) )*100 SM. SM Modify PDP Context Reject Uu or Iub or Iu Table 25: Identification of SM failures in interface traces Table 26 below is listing the PM KPIs of the SM failures as they can be retrieved by the PM system of the GGSN: PM system SGSN Counter / KPI (1-((SM. The specified rejection cause is giving an indication of the type of failure e. lack of resources etc. service option not supported. The specified rejection cause is giving an indication of the type of failure e.U * 100 KPI Name / Description Session establishment success rate SGSN Network originated session modification success rate Table 26: PM KPIs for SM failures The most common SM failures are PDP Context activation failures due to wrong or missing APN or if the user is not allowed to subscribe to PS services.g. For the root cause analysis please review also the timer settings supervising the SM protocol in  chapter 11. The settings of these timers are specified and not configurable.g. lack of resources etc.Cause) / (SM. lack of resources etc.AttModPdpContextSgsn.FailActPdpCtxMs.U / SM. Any occurrence of a SM Modify PDP Context Reject message sent by the CN.SuccModPdpContextSgsn.1 Date: 2007-06-08 protocol error. Figure 10 below is showing the flow chart for a PS data call: UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 37 of 106 .Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. Call setup – RAB establishment The RAB establishment is started at higher layer signalling after the RRC Connection establishment and CM procedures are successful.4. protocol error.3.03 Rev: 2. feature not supported. missing or faulty APN. protocol error.2. This is also a typical configuration issue of the drive test equipment.
4. 5. there are a variety of causes and it is up to the infrastructure vendor as to what failure is mapped to which particular failure cause.1. The failure and failure causes of the RAB Establishment are specified in .1. Dynamic bearer control (DBC) 5. Page 38 of 106 UMTS Network Performance Engineering . Concept Dynamic bearer control (DBC) is used to prevent overload of the R99 system in case new radio resources or radio resources requiring more power are requested.1.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Figure 10: RAB establishment procedure The RAB establishment procedure is always initiated by the RANAP RAB Assignment Request and always terminated by the RAB Assignment Response. DBC takes place • During the RAB establishment after the RNC is receiving the RAB Assignment Request on RANAP 6 There are a huge amount of failure causes.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.4. but not all related to RAB assignment failure.03 Rev: 2. Table 27 below is listing how to identify failures of the RAB establishment procedure in network interface traces: Problem RAB establishment failure Trace Iu Trigger Any occurrence of an RAB Assignment Response with specified failure cause according to 3GPP6 Table 27: Identification of RAB establishment failures in traces In the following subsections possible root causes for an unsuccessful RAB establishment are discussed in detail.
identification and fixes for improvement Table 28 is listing the identification techniques in traces in case DBC is not granting the requested service: 7 The requested QoS profile in the PDP Context Activation message might be ignored and only a default one is assigned UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 39 of 106 .1 Date: 2007-06-08 • During the transition of CELL_PCH/URA_PCH to CELL_DCH mode (see also subsection 6. otherwise the call handling is as follows: • During the RAB establishment the RNC sends a RAB Assignment Response message on RANAP with specified cause “No resource available” under “miscellaneous” class.3) after the RNC receives a corresponding RRC Measurement Report from the UE • DBC thresholds can be defined for UL and DL load separately and DBC failure can also occur at stages other than RAB establishment. improving RF coverage.2. neighbour list optimisation etc. see also  for details. but the RRC State Indicator is set to CELL_PCH/URA_PCH. 5.03 Rev: 2. Failure symptoms. In case DBC grants the requested service the call handling proceeds as specified (depending on the phase of the call). The optimisation approach in the later case is to optimise the RF environment in terms of reducing pilot pollution. the default PS RB is configurable OR the PDP Context Activation is rejected with an appropriate specified cause like “QoS not accepted” or “Insufficient resources” o o • o The VT call is not granted or instead a voice call is setup The Voice call receives a CC Disconnect message with specified cause “resource unavailable” During the transition of CELL_PCH/URA_PCH to CELL_DCH mode: The RNC sends back the UE to idle mode with the RRC Connection Release message and specified cause “congestion” OR The RNC sends back to the UE either a Cell Update Confirm / URA Update Confirm message. In case of service based data rate increase: the RRC Measurement Report message is just ignored so the UTRAN is keeping the current RB and Transport Channels o • Not granting the requested service by DBC indicates either high cell loading or an area of high interference.4.6) after the RNC is receiving the corresponding RACH messages In case service based data rate increase is triggered (see also subsection 7.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.1. DBC uses a QoS parameter in order to prioritise different user when downgrading.2. On Uu the following messages/outcomes will be indicating that DBC has not granted the requested service: o The assigned PS RB is smaller than the default one or the one 7 requested in the PDP Context Activation message .
Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. Uu Trigger Any occurrence of a RAB Assignment Response message on RANAP with specified cause “No resource available” Cross-correlation Uu/Iu trace: Any occurrence of a RAB Assignment Response message on RANAP with specified cause “No resource available” Any occurrence of a SM Activate PDP Context Reject message sent by the CN to the UE and the specified cause is “Insufficient resources” On Uu. The whole procedure is described in . The NodeB is answering by either sending a Radio Link Reconfiguration Ready (successful case) or Radio Link Reconfiguration Failure (unsuccessful case). The successful case ends in the RNC sending a Radio Link Reconfiguration Commit to the NodeB. This procedure is used to order the Node B to switch to the new configuration for the Radio Link(s) within the Node B.4.<Cause> RAB. in the RRC RB Setup Message the IE “Spreading Factor” is larger than the default one and a PDP Context Activation message was sent within the last x seconds with the requested bit rate in the DL higher than the granted one The VT call has been requested.2.1. Failure symptoms.2.FailEstabCSNoQueuing . Concept After DBC has taken place the RLs on the Iub have to be reconfigured using the Radio Link Reconfiguration procedure on NBAP.4.5. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 40 of 106 . or Uu Uu Uu Uu DBC RB Setup voice DBC Cell/URA update failed Uu Uu Table 28: Identification of DBC rejections in interface traces For DBC related PM counters see  with a summarized version shown below. Note that <Cause> can be UL interference or DL power.FailEstabPSNoQueuing .2.2. 5. Number of RAB Establishment Failures due to a given cause for PS domain. identification and fixes for improvement For the failure analyses please refer to subsection 5.03 Rev: 2.1. Iu or Iub.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Problem DBC RAB not granted on Iu DBC RAB not granted on Iu and Uu DBC RAB PS not granted DBC RB Setup PS DBC RB Setup VT DBC Release RRC Trace Iu Iu. The RNC tries to allocate resources on the Iub by sending a RL Reconfiguration Prepare message on NBAP.<Cause> Name / Description Number of RAB Establishment Failures due to a given cause for CS domain.Radio Link Reconfiguration 5.2. The flowchart can be seen in Figure 10. Table 29: PM Counters indicating potential R99 DBC failures 5. PM system UtranCell UtranCell Counter / KPI RAB.4. the called entity is also a UE with VT capabilities but a voice RB is setup Any occurrence of an RRC Cell Update/URA Update message following within x seconds a RRC Connection Release message with specified cause “congestion” and the UE is in either CELL_PCH or URA_PCH mode The UE is sending a CC Setup message and within x seconds gets a CC Disconnect with cause “resource unavailable” The UE is sending a Cell Update/URA Update message and the RNC is sending back within x seconds a Cell Update Confirm/URA Update Confirm message with RRC State Indicator set to CELL_PCH/URA_PCH.
When a physical dedicated channel establishment is initiated by the UE. Main reason for the failure can be subdivided as follows: • • • • Physical Channel Failure (i.e.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.RLM. Radio Bearer Establishment 5. Problem Radio Link Reconfiguration Iub Trace Iub Trigger Any occurrence of the NBAP Radio Link Reconfiguration Failure message on Iub x seconds after there was a Radio Link Reconfiguration Prepare on NBAP Table 30: Identification of RL reconfiguration failures in traces PM system UtranCell Counter / KPI (VS. the physical channel is considered established and the timer T312 is stopped and reset.RLM. The whole procedure is explained in . If the timer T312 expires before the physical channel is established. Failure symptoms. identification and fixes for improvement In case the UE sends back the Radio Bearer Setup Failure message to the RNC and the Radio Bearer Establishment procedure fails. the UE shall start a timer T312 and wait for N312 successive “in sync” indications.3.RLM.4.1.AttRLReconfig * 100 KPI Name / Description Total radio link reconfiguration success rate Table 31: PM KPIs for RL reconfiguration failures 5.AttRLReconfig – VS.sum) / VS.FailRLReconfig.03 Rev: 2. in that case the UE sends back a Radio Bearer Setup Failure message to the RNC.4.4. Concept Once the required resources have been successfully reconfigured in the NodeBthe RNC sends the Radio Bearer Setup message to the UE that sends back the Radio Bearer Setup Complete message upon successfully allocating resources for the new RB. Table 31 the corresponding UTRAN KPIs.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Table 30 below is listing the identification triggers for network interface traces. Table 32 below is listing the parameters for the RB Establishment: Parameter t312 n312 Description The UTRAN parameter is configuring timer T312 The UTRAN parameter is configuring N312 Table 32: Parameter important for the RB Establishment 5.3. T312 expiry) Unsupported or invalid configuration in the UE Code starvation (the required channelisation code is not available anymore from the code tree) Protocol Error UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 41 of 106 .2. the UE shall consider this as a “physical channel establishment failure”. The Radio Bearer Establishment procedure may fail for different reasons (see below).3. On receiving N312 successive “in sync” indications.
Again it is up to the UTRAN vendor.03 Rev: 2.4 for details.3.1 Date: 2007-06-08 In general. The causes of the Radio Bearer Setup Failure message are listed in chapter 10. The other two causes are expected to occur infrequently and in general are not related to RF issues.FailEstabPSNoQueuing. This is mainly caused by poor RF conditions. Table 33 is listing the identification techniques in traces.RBSetupFail / CS RAB Attempts * 100 RAB. see also subsection 6.13 in .FailEstabCSNoQueuing. Table 34 the corresponding PM KPIs for failures in the Radio Bearer Setup procedure: Problem RB setup failure Trace Uu Trigger Any occurrence of the RRC Radio Bearer Setup Failure message Table 33: Identification of Radio Bearer Setup failures in traces Counter / KPI8 RAB. Page 42 of 106 UMTS Network Performance Engineering .RBSetupFail / PS RAB Attempts * 100 PM system RNC / Utrancell RNC / Utrancell KPI Name / Description CS RAB establishment failure rate due to RB setup failure PS RAB establishment failure rate due to RB setup failure Table 34: PM KPIs for Radio Bearer Setup failures 8 For corresponding definitions of CS RAB Attempts and PS RAB Attempts see . which cause out of this list is chosen for the particular failure that has occurred.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. the physical channel failure occurs when there is loss of synchronisation between UE and NodeB.3.1 and 6.
UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.03
6. Call Reliability (Retainability)
This section is describing failures and occurrences that might happen after the call has been successfully setup. This might endanger the single particular call to drop, but also the overall quality of the UMTS network as well as user perceived quality (section 7) might be degraded.
Call reliability – Radio Link Failure (RLF)
According to  the PHY in the NodeB and UE checks every radio frame the synchronisation status. The status is indicated to higher layers using the CPHYSync-IND and CPHY-Out-of-Sync-IND primitives indicating in-sync state and out-of-sync state respectively. In the following the UL and DL are treated separately. RLF and RL Restore in the UL The RLF and restore procedures in the UL are supervised in the NodeB on NBAP; the UL radio link sets are monitored to trigger if necessary RLF and RL Restore procedures. When the radio link set is in the in-sync state and the NodeB is receiving consecutive N_OUTSYNC_IND out-of-sync indications, NodeB starts timer T_RLFAILURE. The NodeB stops and resets timer T_RLFAILURE upon receiving successive N_INSYNC_IND in-sync indications. If timer T_RLFAILURE expires, the NodeB triggers the RLF procedure and indicates which radio link set is out-of-sync. In that case, the state of the radio link set changes to the out-of-sync state and the NodeB indicates the RLF to the RNC by sending a Radio Link Failure Indication on NBAP with the cause “Synchronisation Failure” (see ). Upon reception of this message the RNC starts timer T_RL_RESYNC (internal RNC timer defined by the UTRAN vendor). This timer is stopped and no further action is taken if the RNC receives from the NodeB the NBAP Radio Link Restore Indication message. The NodeB sends this message if the radio link set is in the out-of-sync state and the NodeB is receiving successive N_INSYNC_IND in-sync indications. The NodeB indicates which radio link set has re-established synchronisation. When the RL Restore procedure is triggered, the state of the radio link set changes to the in-sync state again. Upon expiration of timer T_RL_RESYNC, the RNC removes the particular RL in the NodeB via the NBAP Radio Link Deletion procedure. After the deletion of the RL the RNC starts either • With the Active Set Update procedure on RRC in case the UE is in soft/softer HO mode; note that this is not a dropped call (in terms RAB or RRC drop) Timer T314/T315 (configured by parameter T314rnc for CS / T315rnc for PS, see also Figure 17) giving the UE the possibility to re-establish the RRC connection. In case timer T314/T315 is expired the RNC releases the call by sending RANAP Iu Release Request message with specified cause “Release due to UTRAN generated reason” to the CN. Afterwards the RNC also releases the RRC connection by sending the RRC Connection Release message with cause other than “normal event”. The identification of this event only with Uu traces is difficult because it is up to the UTRAN vendor of what kind of specified cause is
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UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.03
sent in case of an UL RLF. Finally the UE sends back a RRC Connection Release Complete and the procedure ends. Figure 11 below is showing the call handling of the RAB release in case of a dropped call:
Figure 11: RLF is resulting in RAB drops RLF and RL Restore in the DL: The RLF procedure in the DL is supervised on RRC on the UE side. In CELL_DCH state, the UE starts timer T313 after receiving N313 consecutive out-of-sync indications for the established DPCCH physical channel. The UE stops and resets timer T313 upon receiving successive N315 in-sync indications. If T313 expires, the RRC connection is dropped and the UE goes to idle mode. In idle mode the UE will select a suitable cell according to the cell reselection criteria and will initiate a Cell Update procedure with specified cause “radio link failure” (chapter 8.5.6 in ). Subsequently the RLF in the UL will be triggered when the UE is in idle mode by the UTRAN on its own accord. Figure 12 below is showing the transitions between the different states; the initial state of a RL is defined as the state when a new RL is to setup:
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Figure 12: Transitions between different states Table 35 below is listing the parameters that are configuring the RLF and RL Restore procedure:
tRLFailure noOutSyncInd noInSyncInd radioLinkFailureResynchronisationR esponseTimer
This parameter is defining the setting of T_RLFAILURE This parameter is defining the setting of N_OUTSYNC_IND This parameter is defining the setting of N_INSYNC_IND Configure guard timer T_RL_RESYNC to allow time for resynchronization to occur when a loss of synchronization is detected on the last or only radio link associated with a UE connection. Configure guard timer T_RL_RESYNC to allow time for the normal operation of the handover and power control algorithm to delete a radio link affected by a loss of synchronization or for re-synchronization to occur when the radio link is one of several associated with a UE connection. This parameter is defining the setting of T313 This parameter is defining the setting of N313 This parameter is defining the setting of T314 This parameter is defining the setting of T315 This parameter is defining the setting of N315
t313 n313 t314 t315 n315
Table 35: Parameter configuring the RLF and RL Restore procedure 6.1.2. Failure symptoms, identification and fixes for improvement There are a variety of causes responsible for RLFs possibly resulting in dropped calls: • • • • • Pilot pollution and around-the-corner effect (subsection 6.4.1) Weaknesses in the neighbour planning (subsection 6.4.4) Problems during (or before) the call establishment phase (section 5) Problems with the RF coverage (subsection 6.4.5) Problems with the SC plan (subsection 0)
UMTS Network Performance Engineering
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3 and 6. Dropped calls due to RLF in the DL can be easily identified in Uu traces with the Cell Update message sent by the UE. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 46 of 106 .Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. for example when periodic reporting is enabled. Problem Dropped call due to RLF in the DL on Uu RLF and RL Restore on Iub and Uu RLF and RL Deletion on Iub and Uu RLF and dropped call on Iub and Uu UL RLF and leg removal on Uu High UE Tx power High DL BLER Trace Uu Trigger Any occurrence of a RRC Cell Update message with specified cell update cause (not failure cause) “radio link failure”. A RLF in the UL that is causing a removal of a radio leg can be indirectly identified if there is no Measurement Report with type 1b/1c sent previously. Identification of a dropped call due to RLF in the UL only with Uu traces is difficult because the RRC Connection Release message sent by the RNC has not a unique cause id. Other cell update failures are covered in subsection 6.03 Rev: 2. Refer to Figure 13 that shows at what point during the call flow the PM counters are updated. 9 To be noted: the group “eventResults” containing the IE “eventID” is optional. Note that the dropped call is the previous call and not the current one! There might be an optional failure cause specified. Please review the status of the IE AM_RLC error indication. which can be set to True. For a reliable identification additional Iub tracing is required. Problem is that it can be that the Measurement Report message may not have been recorded resulting in false identification. Cross-correlation of Uu/Iub traces: Any occurrence of an Radio Link Failure Indication on NBAP with the cause “Synchronisation Failure” and after x seconds a Radio Link Restore Indication on NBAP Cross-correlation of Uu/Iub traces: Any occurrence of an Radio Link Failure Indication on NBAP with the cause “Synchronisation Failure” and after x seconds a Radio Link Deletion on NBAP and the number of radio legs is more than one Cross-correlation of Uu/Iub traces: Any occurrence of an Radio Link Failure Indication on NBAP with the cause “Synchronisation Failure” and after x seconds a Radio Link Deletion on NBAP and the number of radio legs is equal to one Any occurrence of an Active Set Update containing any entries in the group “RemovalInformationList” and there was no Measurement Report within x seconds before either with specified event id 1b/1c or without any specified event id9 Any occurrence if the UE is transmitting with maximum allowed power for x seconds Any occurrence if the UE is reporting a BLER higher than x% for y seconds Iub and Uu Iub and Uu Iub and Uu Uu Uu Uu Table 36: Identification of RLF in traces Table 37 below is listing the identification possibilities using KPIs retrieved by the UTRAN PM system.14. Table 36 below is listing the identification possibilities for network interface traces.2.1 Date: 2007-06-08 For more information please take a look in these subsections. There might be an optional failure cause specified.
PS.ULRLF/RRC.FailEstabCSNoQueuing.3).4 in ).DCH.RAB.2.RAB.RAB.RRC.CS. but e.CSV.Drop.PS*100 VS.CSV. RF issues (subsection 6.Drop.SuccEstabCSNoQueuing.3).AttEstabCS.Drop.DL_RLF/(RAB.CauseULRLF+ VS.CSV.ReconfFail/ RAB.SuccEstabCSNoQueuing.PS.2.g.Drop.Drop.FailEstabCSNoQueuing.CSV +(RAB. The CN will send back an Iu Release Command message on RANAP with the same specified cause (chapter 9.RelocIratHO) + RAB.CSD)*100 VS. To be noted that this does not mean the PDP context is removed.3) (…) 6.g.CauseULRLF)/( RAB.1.HSDSCH.AttConnRel.1 Date: 2007-06-08 PM system UtranCell Counter / KPI VS.sum*100 KPI Name / Description CS RAB Drop Rate due to DL RLF UtranCell CS RAB Drop Rate due to UL RLF UtranCell UtranCell PS RAB Drop Rate due to DL RLF PS RAB Drop Rate due to UL RLF UtranCell Total PS Dropped RABs cause UL RLF UtranCell RRC connection drop rate caused by RLF Table 37: PM KPIs indicating RLF 6.CauseULRLF+ VS.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.2. Call reliability – drop of the RAB RAB drop due to UTRAN reasons The drop of the RAB that is caused by a failure within the UTRAN is always initiated by an Iu Release Request message on RANAP with cause “Release due to UTRAN generated reason”.CauseULRLF.DL_RLF/RAB.Drop.1) because of e. There are a variety of reasons why the RAB drops due to UTRAN reasons: • • • • • RLF (subsection 6.CauseULRLF+ VS.2.RelocIratHORAB.PS.ReconfFail VS.g.RAB.PS*100 VS.Drop.SuccEstabPSNoQueuing.CauseULRLF+ VS.Drop.CauseULRLF+ VS.4) Hardware failures and outages on UTRAN (subsection 6.HSDSCH.HSDSCH.CSD)*100 (VS.CSV.RAB.RAB.CSV.8) Failures that occurred on NBAP (e.CSV+ (RAB. the call handling is shown in Figure 11. a FTP session that is up and running might time out.RelocIratHO) + RAB.SuccEstabCSNoQueuing.Drop. RAB drop due to CN reasons UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 47 of 106 .AttEstabCS.2) General drops of the RRC connection (subsection 6.RAB.Drop.RelocIratHORAB. After sending this message the UTRAN will release the RRC connection (subsection 6.CSD.RAB.PS.1.SuccEstabCSNoQueuing. subsection 5.RAB.DCH.PS.SuccEstabPSNoQueuing.RAB.PS.CauseULRLF.PS.4. The UE can re-establish the RRC connection after doing a cell reselection by sending RRC Connection Request message with establishment cause “Call re-establishment” (subsection 7. Concept For the reasons of these failures please refer to the corresponding sections.03 Rev: 2.Drop.HSDSCH.SuccConnEstab.
2. identification and fixes for improvement Table 38 is showing the identification techniques in interface traces: UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 48 of 106 . Failure symptoms. For the root cause analysis please check with the corresponding UTRAN vendor documentation and the documentation of the CN vendor. The specified cause is vendor dependent.03 Rev: 2.2. Figure 13: Drop of the RABs after RLF 6.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.1 Date: 2007-06-08 RAB drops that are not caused within the UTRAN can be identified by the Iu Release Command message on RANAP. the specified cause is other than “Release due to UTRAN generated reason” and “normal-release”.
1. for these two failures it might be that in addition a failure cause is specified. and following in . Call reliability – drop of RRC connection after call setup The RRC is the context between UE and RNC on layer 3. A drop of the RRC connection can be identified as follows: • • The RNC sends a RRC Connection Release message with specified 10 cause ”unspecified” or “pre-emptive release” The UE sends a Cell Update message with cell update cause “radio link failure” or “RLC unrecoverable error” and/or AM_RLC error indication is set to TRUE (see below) The UE sends a RRC Connection Request message with cause “Call re-establishment” (see comments in subsection 6.03 Rev: 2. …) RNC level and Utrancell level 6. due to DL power.2.3.4. The different PM KPIs describing RAB drops are differentiated as follows: • • • CS/PS RAB drops Reason (due to UE inactivity. Concept • • • For the variety of reasons of dropped calls (paging. UE Poor Quality Minimum Rate.3) RRC Cell Update message with specified failure cause and with a cell update cause other than “radio link failure” or “RLC unrecoverable error” (these failures are covered in subsections 6.1 and 7.1 and 6. If this IE is set to TRUE 10 11 The case RRCConnectionRelease with cause “congestion” is covered in subsection 5. 6. Note that the IE “AM_RLC error indication” in the Cell Update/URA Update is specifying whether an error occurred on the RLC or not. RLF. The likelihood of this is not very high because the specified failure causes do not match to the cell update causes Page 49 of 106 UMTS Network Performance Engineering .2. 11 this is up to the UTRAN vendor ). due to Inter-frequency HHO.1.2.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.14. Random Access procedure etc.3.) please refer to the corresponding subsections in this document. SRNS Relocation.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Problem RAB drop due to UTRAN reasons on Iu RAB drop due to UTRAN reasons on Iu and Uu RAB drop due to CN reasons on Iu RAB drop due to CN reasons on Iu and Uu Trace Iu Trigger Any occurrence of an Iu Release Request message with cause “Release due to UTRAN generated reason” on Iu Cross-correlation Iu and Uu: Any occurrence of an Iu Release Request message with cause “Release due to UTRAN generated reason” on Iu Any occurrence of an Iu Release Command message with cause other than “Release due to UTRAN generated reason” or “normal-release” on Iu Cross-correlation Iu and Uu: Any occurrence of an Iu Release Command message with cause other than “Release due to UTRAN generated reason” or “normal-release” on Iu Iu and Uu Iu Iu and Uu Table 38: Identification of RAB drops in network interface traces There are different PM KPIs describing RAB drops defined in chapter 5.
the UE sends a cell update with cause “RLF” and consequently old radio links are deleted and the new radio links are established by the RNC. where by on detection of the RLF.03 Rev: 2. If there is a RRC Connection Release message with cause “congestion” the reason might be either Dynamic Bearer Control (subsection 5.1) or Congestion Control (subsection 6.4.1 Date: 2007-06-08 it is indicating that the RLC in the UE has detected a failure on one of its AM RLC entities that has not been resolved by e. The procedure will also not occur if all the radio legs are on the Drift RNC.ppt" UE Node B RNC CN RN C su spen ds RLC. a RANAP procedure has started or a NAS message is received to be forwarded to the UE. For more details regarding failures on the RLC see subsection 6. resetting of the RLC .g.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. MAC 1) Cell Update (Cause Radio Link Failure) 2) Radio Link Deletion Request 3) Radio Link Deletion Response 4) ALCAP Release N ew r a d io lin k s ba sed u p on m ea su r ed E c/Io U E Moved ba ck t o Cell DCH 5) Radio Link Setup 6) Radio Link Setup Response 7) ALCAP & FP Synch 8) Cell Update Confirm 9) Radio Bearer Reconfiguration Complete 10) UE Measurements Figure 14: DL RLF and RRC re-establishment UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 50 of 106 . Ex-Lucent supports the RRC connection re-establishment for PS. "RRC Connection Re-Establishment Feature.5). This procedure fails if the UE does not send the cell update.14. CS and simbearer services. a RANAP procedure is in progress or UE indicates that the T314 or T315 timer has expired.
ULRLF / RRC. UE is PS only Node B RNC CN 1) Radio Link Failure Indication 2) Radio Link Deletion Request 3) Radio Link Deletion Response 4) ALCAP Release T_RL_RESYNCH RNC su spen ds RLC & MAC. identification and fixes for improvement Table 39 and Table 40 below listing the identification of dropped RRC connection and the PM KPIs: Problem Drop of RRC connection I Drop of RRC connection II Drop of RRC connection III Trace Uu Uu Uu Trigger Any occurrence of a RRC Connection Release message on Uu with specified cause ”unspecified” or “pre-emptive release” Any occurrence of a RRC Connection Request message on Uu with establishment cause “Call re-establishment” The UE is simply going to idle mode without dropping the call in a regular way.sum*100 KPI Name / Description RRC Connection drop rate caused by RLF Table 40: PM KPIs of dropped RRC connections UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 51 of 106 .2. RNC sent a ‘Cell update confirm’ but the UE didn’t respond back with a ‘RB reconfiguration complete’ within x seconds showing failure of the reestablishment Drop of RRC connection IV Uu Table 39: Identification of dropped RRC connections in interface traces PM system Utrancell Counter / KPI VS. The UE start monitoring the BCCH and might perform a cell re-selection following a Cell Update with cause “RLF” or “RLC unrecoverable error” (see also Table 36 on page 46).Drop.1 Date: 2007-06-08 UE T_RL_RESYNCH expires.RRC.SuccConnEstab. There are no RRC/Direct Transfer messages indicating a regular/irregular call termination within x ms.03 Rev: 2.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.3.AttConnRel. Sta r t s Timer RNC st ops Tim er 5) Cell Update (Cause Radio Link Failure) 6) Radio Link Setup 7) Radio Link Setup Response 8) ALCAP & FP Synch 9) Cell Update Confirm 10) Radio Bearer Reconfiguration Complete 11) UE Measurements N ew ra dio lin ks ba sed u pon m ea su r ed E c/Io UE Moved ba ck t o Cell DCH Figure 15: UL RLF and RRC re-establishment 6.Failure symptoms.
Call reliability – RF planning related issues A detailed explanation of how to improve the RF environment is given in .1 Date: 2007-06-08 6. see also chapter 6. Concept Pilot pollution means an excessive overlapping of coverage footprints of different cells with no dominant pilot.1. In this case the cells that cannot be included into the active set are decreasing the quality of the signal.2.1). This guideline only briefly provides the techniques to identify these issues using Uu traces and 2G/3G scanner measurements. 6. Failure symptoms.1. Pilot pollution 6.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. For that reason no PM KPIs describing dropped calls are listed in this subsection.2. Pilot pollution is in particular an issue when the number of best cells within a certain range is exceeding the maximum size of the cells in the active set.4.3. Remark: Because in HSDPA there is no soft/softer HO gain in the downlink HSDPA is much more sensitive to pilot pollution compared to R99 services.4. As a consequence. the RLF could fail due to out-of-synchronisation (subsection 6. round-the-corner effect etc. Table 41 is listing identification techniques in drive test and scanner measurement data: Problem Pilot pollution I Pilot pollution II High number of cells in active set Overshooting Trace UE or 3G scanner UE or 3G scanner Uu UE or 3G scanner Trigger There are more than x cells with a measured Ec/No within x dB compared to the best measured Ec/No The aggregate Ec/No of the cells in the active set is below x dB while the measured RSCP is above y dBm for z ms The active set size is > 1 in more than x % of all measured samples12. There are no specific PM counters available that could differentiate RRC and RAB drops in terms of e.15 for details. reference the corresponding subsections 6.4. Introduction 6. 6.g.2. Page 52 of 106 UMTS Network Performance Engineering .03 Rev: 2. The Ec/No of a site y km away is within x dB of the best measured Ec/No cells Table 41: Identification of pilot pollution 12 This is not really a problem to be identified in a trace. 6. pilot pollution.2 and 6.4.1. In addition the number of cells in the active set is a good metric of how well defined are the handover zone within the UMTS network.2. identification and fixes for improvement This is a typical issue for RF optimisation and can be detected via Uu interface traces and 2G/3G scanner measurements of the PHY. This leads to poor Ec/Io ratios.4. it is more an indication for in general nonoptimal RF conditions.
The effect describes a moving UE where the receive level of the cells in the active set decreases dramatically (in terms of Ec/No and RSCP) whereas the receive level of cells in the monitored or detected set suddenly increases.1 Date: 2007-06-08 6. In addition the RF planer has to ensure that the parameters configuring the handover procedure is fast enough (subsection 6. Around-the-corner-effect 6.3.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. Table 42 is summarising the triggers in UE traces: Problem Around-the-corner effect I Around-the-corner effect II Trace Uu Uu Trigger Sudden drop/increase of the Ec/No of cells in the active set by x dB for the next at least y ms.1. Failure symptoms. the average aggregate Ec/No is below z dB Sudden drop/increase of the RSCP of cells in the active set by x dB for the next at least y ms. the average aggregate RSCP is below z dBm Table 42: Identification of around-the-corner effect UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 53 of 106 . identification and fixes for improvement Around-the-corner effect can be detected via UE traces when analyzing the PHY. As a consequence the quality of the call will always drop if the UE is not fast enough to adapt (via Active Set Update) to the new RF conditions.4.9).3. Figure 16 is showing the effect in a dense urban environment: Active Set Pilot Interfering Pilot Figure 16: Around-the-corner problem To overcome around-the-corner problem local optimisation of the RF environment is required.4.03 Rev: 2.2. The root cause for this problem is shadowing of buildings or other obstructions. Concept Around-the-corner-effect is quite often encountered in a dense urban environment.4. A detailed explanation of how to improve the RF environment is explained in .3. 6.
3G-2G.1.4.03 Rev: 2. IRAT parameter settings are covered in subsection 6.10.9 for details) Distance between the two cells With this kind of information the following database queries might be defined • • • • Check for symmetry or reciprocity Check for missing co-located neighbour definition (3G-3G.4. When the neighbour lists are not well defined the UE might not be on an optimal cell (or set of cells) and the call is endangered to drop. Non-optimal neighbour definitions 6.1 Date: 2007-06-08 6. The following neighbour lists exist in the OMC: • • • • • 3G-3G soft/softer MAHO list 3G-3G soft/softer DAHO list 3G-2G neighbour MAHO list 3G-2G neighbour DAHO list 2G-3G neighbour list The parameters configuring the intra-frequency soft/softer HO are listed in subsection 6. 2G3G) Check for right nLSAPriority flag Check for missing DAHO definitions Figure 17 below is showing a sample database in MS Access format: UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 54 of 106 .Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.4.4. To maintain the integrity of the different HO list it is required to use a database system with the following tables: • Table keeping site specific information of the UMTS cells o o o o • Site id (for identification for co-located 2G/3G cells) Sector id (to check if a 2G cell is identical resulting in identical coverage footprint for a possible DAHO definition) Userlabel Flag borderCellToGSM Table keeping site specific information of the GSM cells o o o Site id (for identification for co-located 2G/3G cells) Sector id (to check if a 3G cell is identical resulting in identical coverage footprint for a possible DAHO definition) BCCH frequency • Different neighbour lists including o o nLSAPriority flag for 3G-3G HO definition (see also subsection 6. Concept One of the essential tasks of RF planning is neighbour list assignment.9. This subsection is focused on the integrity of the different neighbour lists definitions itself.
Some ex-Lucent tools like LDAT  have the missing neighbour list analysis feature that can be used to debug.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. Some consistency checks are also available in the Ex-Lucent Intranet . Failure symptoms. 6. but the IRAT handover is not triggered UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 55 of 106 .1 Date: 2007-06-08 Figure 17: neighbour list checking using MS Access The RF template files that are converting OMC XML data into MS Excel format can be reused for these kinds of consistency checks see also  for details.4. identification and fixes for improvement Following methods can be used to fix/detect a non-optimal neighbour list assignment: • Cross-correlation measurements o o of Uu drive test logs with 2G/3G scanner Missing 3G-3G neighbour definition: measured RSSI is relatively high.2. but the RSCP of the cells in the active set is relatively low Missing 3G-2G neighbour definition: the measured RSSI is relatively low and the GSM coverage footprint is relatively strong as measured by the 2G scanner.4.03 Rev: 2.
MNC The counters have to be imported into a database as described in . Afterwards the analysis can be done using SQL queries with the focus on • • Deletion of unnecessary handover definitions Investigation of high amount of HO failures In a similar way the intra-frequency HO matrix can be analysed.LAC NumUMTS.Att NumUMTS.MCC NumUMTS. 2G scanner Missing 2G/3G neighbour definition Uu. at the time of the measurement the UE is in 2G Missing 3G/2G neighbour definition Uu. Table 44 is listing the identification possibilities using KPIs retrieved by the UTRAN PM system: Problem Missing 3G/3G neighbour definition Trace Uu.HOPerNCell.GSM. In the PM system the IRAT HO Matrix is given as follows: • • • • • • NumUMTS.9 and  for details) o • • Analysis of the handover matrix as available in the PM system (see below) RF prediction tool analysis.HOPerNCell. 3G scanner Table 43: Identification of non-optimal neighbour definitions in traces UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 56 of 106 .HOPerNCell.CI NumUMTS. see also  and  Example for an analysis of the PM Handover matrix The following is giving an example of the analysis of the IRAT HO matrix.1 Date: 2007-06-08 o Missing 2G-3G neighbour definition: UE is staying in 2G although there is sufficient 3G coverage as indicated by the RSSI measurements of the 3G scanner Analysis of the UE Measurement Reports: the UE might report cells of the detected set but these cells are not defined in the NLSA (see also subsection 6.Fail NumUMTS. 3G scanner Trigger Any occurrence where the measured RSSI (retrieved by 3G scanner) is within a xdB window compared with the measured aggregate RSCP of the cells in the active set (measured by the UE) for y seconds.GSM.Ncell.HOPerNCell.GSM.GSM. Table 43 below is listing the identification possibilities for network interface traces.HOPerNCell.Ncell. at the time of the measurement the UE is in 3G Any occurrence where the measured RSSI (retrieved by 3G scanner) is within a xdB window compared with the measured RXLEV of the 2G serving cell (measured by the UE) for y seconds.Ncell.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.03 Rev: 2.HOPerNCell. at the time of the measurement the UE is in 3G The measured RXLEV of the best 2G cell (measured by the 2G scanner) is within a xdB window compared to the measured aggregate RSCP of the cells in the active set (measured by the UE) for y seconds.GSM.GSM.Ncell.
When this happens either the radio bearer has to be reconfigured due to an increasing BLER in the DL when using a PS data service (subsection 6.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.17. 6.SuccOutInterFreq.SuccOutPSUTRAN / IRATHO.Qual + HHO.1) or a 3G/2G IRAT handover has to be triggered to rescue the call (subsection 6.IratCCO / RRC.SuccOutInterFreq. But also after the integration of the sites it might happen that due to “cell breathing” especially in the busy hour the Ec/No is not sufficient to guarantee for some services like 384 kbit/s sufficient RF coverage. a similar scenario is described for a UE in CELL_PCH/URA_PCH mode. In subsection 6.sum) / IRATHO. identification and fixes for improvement Low receive level in terms of RSSI (means low measured RSCP values) High NodeB TX power (probably also high UE TX power) Low RF coverage can be identified as follows: One root cause for low RF coverage might be a NodeB outage.1 Date: 2007-06-08 PM system UtranCell UtranCell Counter / KPI (VS.AttOutInterFreq.2.IRATHO.4.MX. Poor RF coverage 6.AttConnEstab. RFCT Trigger Measured RSSI of the 3G cells is below x dBm for y seconds Measured aggregate RSCP of the cells in the active set is below x dBm for y seconds and there is no RSCP of a 3G cell measured by the 3G scanner better than z dB compared to the aggregate RSCP The reported NodeB TX power is for x second above y dBm and the measured Low RF coverage II Low RF UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 57 of 106 .SuccOutCS / IRATHO.MX.SuccConnEstab.1.Qual +HHO.HHO.10).HHO.IntraFreq.IntraFreq.5.5. • • Failure symptoms. Table 45 below is listing identification triggers for low RF coverage in network interface traces: Problem Low coverage I RF Trace 3G scanner or Uu 3G scanner.1 and 7. Uu Uu.4.Succ / VS. this has to be crosschecked with the FM data (see also subsection 6. Concept Especially in the early days of 3G there will be many areas with a poor RF coverage.5.IratCCO) * 100 ((IRATHO.Load)) * 100 (RRC.7.AttOutPSUTRAN)*100 (IRATHO. In subsection Error! Reference source not found.03 Rev: 2.1 a drop of the RRC is described for a mobile in CELL_FACH mode.FailIncCS.AttRelocPrepOutCS)*100 KPI Name / Description Intra-frequency HHO success rate per neighbour cell Inter-frequency hard handover success rate Incoming IRAT PS success rate (GSM -> UMTS) Incoming CS Inter RAT handover success rate (GSM->UMTS) Outgoing PS Inter RAT handover success rate (UMTS->GSM) Outgoing CS Inter RAT handover success rate (UMTS->GSM) UtranCell UtranCell UtranCell UtranCell Table 44: PM KPIs identifying non-optimal neighbour definitions 6.AttIncCS .4.Att) * 100 ((HHO.AttOutInterFreq.AttIncCS) * 100 (IRATHO.8).Load) / (HHO.1.
1 and 6.Poor PSC plan The PSC is used for cell identification during the initial cell search and when measuring the neighbour cells in idle and connected mode. Also there are no specific PM counters that may track these issues. This will be the case if an overshooting site has the same PSC as one of the cells in the active set causing co-pilot interference or if the neighbours of the two existing active set cells share the same PSC creating NL ambiguity. The RNC can initiate the following actions for already connected users to resolve the overload situation: • • Transit (several or all) users connected to PS data services to a lower bit rate (e. RAB is released) or by the RB Reconfiguration procedure (transfer to CELL_FACH or URA_PCH/CELL_PCH mode.1.5. Start dropping (several or all) RRC connections of non PS users 6. idle or URA_PCH/CELL_PCH or from CELL_FACH mode to URA_PCH/CELL_PCH or idle mode (subsection 6. Call reliability – Congestion Control (CongC) The Congestion Control (CongC) function is used to monitor. see reference UTRAN vendor documentation.4.1 Date: 2007-06-08 coverage III Low Ec/No Uu RSCP of that NodeB is below z dBm Measured aggregate Ec/No of the cells in the active set is below x dB for y seconds Table 45: Identification of low RF coverage in network interface traces 6. Congestion control is configurable using UTRAN parameters. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 58 of 106 . Different strategies and a guideline for PSC planning and how to unveil weaknesses in the PSC assignment are described in . Concept • The lowering of the PS data rate is done by using either the RB Reconfiguration procedure or the Transport Channel Reconfiguration procedure (subsection 6. In case the rules in that guideline are not followed the UE may make failures in the neighbour list measurements or in case of overlapping coverage areas of two NodeBs sharing the same PSC.1).g.7 and 6.g. in both cases the PDP context is retained. It is hardly possible to identify PSC issues in drive test data because the measured low Ec/No values or even RLF can also be the result of pilot pollution or around-the-corner effect (subsection 6. detect and handle situations when the system is going into overload or getting close to an overload situation. The state transfer is done by the RRC Connection Release procedure (transfer to idle mode. interference and synchronisation issues will occur.4.6. CongC handles users already in connected mode. RAB is set to inactive).Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.5. 6. the algorithm is proprietary.6).17.1). CongC is based on UL and DL load estimations. from CELL_DCH to CELL_FACH. from 384 kbit/s to 128 kbit/s) Transfer of (several or all) PS data users to another state e.03 Rev: 2.
The initiating of CongC is indicating a high noise raise of the RF environment. The advantage of the URA_PCH/CELL_PCH mode compared of the idle mode is that the re-establishment can be done faster because the RAB and RRC 6. identification and fixes for improvement Table 46 is listing the identification techniques in traces in case of CongC.2. but for UDP or RTP this might result in lost data frames. When there are any data coming from the CN side. The UTRAN may or may not initiate a state transition. Instead for a PS call when the inactivity timer elapsed the RRC resources are released while maintaining the PDP context.1. the RRC Connection is maintained using common physical channels (RACH in the UL and the PCCH in the DL). neighbour list optimisation etc. The UE might indicate to the RNC if the UE RLC buffer is filled up rapidly by sending RRC Measurement Report 4a on RACH. The associated RAB is removed. 6.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Dropping of the RRC connection is done using the RRC Connection Release message with specified cause “congestion”.5. The behaviour is UTRAN vendor dependent and configurable via O&M parameter. Failure symptoms. The UE can send data via the RACH in UL. the UE is sent to idle mode.6. relevant PM KPIs are also listed in .Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. For TCP applications this is appropriate because TCP traffic always starts using the Slow Start procedure. More detailed information can be found in . TCP/IP trace in or after CN Table 46: Identification of CongC in interface traces 6. Concept 13 Note that when the UE is in URA_PCH mode or CELL_PCH mode the release message with cause “congestion” is used when DBC is triggered. do periodical URA/PCH updates and perform cell reselections. In might be that URA_PCH/CELL_PCH mode is not used. The only optimisation approach in that case is to optimise the RF environment in terms of pilot pollution. On the CN side there is always a RAB associated with the RRC connection but the RAB is marked (inside the RNC) as inactive. On the UTRAN side no dedicated radio resources are allocated (means no RB on RRC and RL on NBAP). According to  the UE has to monitor the PICH and PCH. Call reliability – failures in URA_PCH/CELL_PCH mode When the UE is in CELL_PCH or URA_PCH.6. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 59 of 106 .03 Rev: 2. the RLC buffer in the RNC belonging to the RAB is buffering the data and the RNC will initiate a state transition of the UE to deliver the DL data. Problem CongC Release RRC Trace Uu Trigger Any occurrence of an RRC Connection Release message with specified cause “congestion” and the UE is either in CELL_FACH or CELL_DCH PS mode13 Cross-correlation of interface traces on Uu and TCP/ in or after CN side: Any occurrence when either the PS data rate is reduced or the UE is transferred from CELL_DCH to CELL_FACH / CELL_PCH / URA_PCH mode and at the same time there is still data in the RLC buffer of the RNC as measured in Ethereal CongC RRC PS data reduction DL Uu.
1.1. The UE has no dedicated UTRAN radio resources. Concept UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 60 of 106 .1 Date: 2007-06-08 connection does not need to be re-established again. There is always a RAB associated with the RRC connection because any DL data received by the GGSN has to be forwarded to the UE.3. The concept is similar to that described in subsection 6.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.17.1.1). on Iub there are no reserved resources available.7. Failures due to the RB Reconfiguration procedure are described in subsection 6.6. difference is that a state transition is not mandatory (but might be useful).1).6. the RRC connection is established using the common channels (FACH in the DL and the RACH in the UL). Disadvantage is that there are still some (very low) UTRAN resources the RNC has to maintain. Call reliability – failures in CELL_FACH mode When only a small amount of data has to be exchanged the UE can be in CELL_FACH mode camping on one cell in order to save battery and RF network resources. Figure 18 below is showing the transition phases between different UE states: URA_PCH / CELL_PCH Cell DCH HSDPA Cell FACH Cell DCH DCH IDLE Figure 18: Transition phases between the different UE states 6. identification and fixes for improvement Failures and dropped RRC connections when the UE is in URA_PCH or CELL_PCH mode might occur in the cell selection/reselection process (subsection 220.127.116.11. Failures due to PCH/AICH/PICH or the RACH procedure might lead to a drop of the RRC connection and drop of the PDP context as described in subsection 5. In this case the RAB will be removed.4.7.2.03 Rev: 2. 6.1. For dynamic bearer control (DBC) failures see subsection 5. Failure symptoms. failures due to periodical URA/PCH updates (subsection 5. 6.
The SRNC decides whether or not to transit the UE to another state.1). In all cases the RNC will initiate the transition by using either the RB Reconfiguration or the Transport Channel Reconfiguration procedure on RRC (subsection 6.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.03 Rev: 2. The algorithms are vendor dependent taking into account traffic measurements and the RF environment. Please check in the particular UTRAN vendor parameter description. Figure 19 and Figure 20 below are visualising the call handling for the transition from CELL_DCH to CELL_FACH and vice versa: Figure 19: Call handling for transition from CELL_DCH to CELL_FACH UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 61 of 106 . the RNC answers by sending a Cell Update Confirm message on the FACH and the procedure ends with the UE sending an UTRAN Mobility Information Confirm message again on RACH. It might be necessary to either delete or setup resources on the Iub via the corresponding NBAP procedures (exception is the transition from CELL_FACH to URA_PCH/CELL_PCH but this should occur rarely).1 Date: 2007-06-08 According to  the UE has to monitor the FACH transport channels in the downlink. The UE in CELL_FACH mode informs the UTRAN when reselecting a new cell by sending a RRC Cell Update message on RACH.17. Figure 18 is showing the different UE states and possible transition between them.
6) Failures related to the setup of the RL on NBAP (subsection 5.1) Table 47 is listing failures for UEs in CELL_FACH mode and how to identify it in traces: Problem Dropped call in CELL_FACH Trace Uu Trigger Any occurrence when the RRC connection dropped while the UE was in CELL_FACH state Table 47: Failure identification in traces if the UE is in CELL_FACH mode UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 62 of 106 .1. identification and fixes for improvement The following failures might occur for UEs in CELL_FACH mode or during the transition from/to CELL_FACH mode: • • • • • Failures related to the cell selection / reselection (subsection 5.03 Rev: 2.1.3) Failures related to the FACH (subsection 5. Failure symptoms.5) Failures related to the Radio Bearer Reconfiguration/ Transport Channel Reconfiguration procedure on RRC (subsection 6. 6.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. In this case the RNC sends a RRC Connection Release message on FACH and the UE sends back a RRC Connection Release Complete message on RACH before transiting to idle mode.2.17.1) Failures related to the Random Access Procedure (subsection 5. In the meantime the UTRAN might already have dropped the RRC if it had tried and failed to send PS data in the DL. In parallel the RAB will be released.1.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Figure 20: Call handling for transition from CELL_FACH to CELL_DCH The RNC may decide to release the RRC connection due to e.g. A drop of the RRC connection might occur if the UE is leaving the RF coverage area and then when coming back the UE has to inform the UTRAN by sending a Cell Update message with cause “Re-enter service area”.7. CongC.1.
3) 6.8. The soft/softer handovers can be either requested by the UE (mobile evaluated HO) or can be triggered by the UTRAN (network evaluated HO).Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.8.17. Concept 6. problems in the neighbour definition (subsection 6.9.4. Call reliability – hardware and network interface outages Hardware failures can occur on the different nodes of the UTRAN and the CN. 6.1.4) and problems in the cell/PLMN selection/reselection procedure (subsection 5. Outages may lead to drops of the RAB and the RRC connection because of missing synchronisation.2. There are many reasons for outages. Table 48 is listing possibilities of detecting the outages: Problem Iub out-of-sync I Iub out-of-sync II Iu out-of-sync I Iu out-of-sync II Trace Iub Iub Iu Iu Trigger Missing STAT PDUs on AAL5 for more than 5 seconds Any occurrence of an AuditRequiredInformation on NBAP Missing STAT PDUs on AAL5 for more than 5 seconds Any occurrence of an Reset on RANAP Table 48: Identification of outages in network interface traces 6. Concept UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 63 of 106 .1. Call reliability – intra frequency handover In UMTS networks intra-frequency soft/softer handover is one basic feature that ensure seamless mobility as well as call performance and quality improvement. 6. see  for details.1.9.1) may also occur leading to dropped calls and network degradation even on NodeBs not affected by the outages.5). identification and fixes for improvement Outages can be easily identified when tracing the interfaces that have been outof-sync. All intra-frequency measurement reporting events (1a to 1i) are defined in . In addition it is assumed that the reporting criteria are set to “event triggered” rather than “periodically”. According to  the soft/softer HO procedure consists of the following steps: • • • • • • Cell search and measurements of cells in the active set and the monitored set Reporting of measurement results by the UE (RRC Measurement Report message including specified event id) The HO algorithm Allocation/release/change of network resources on NBAP Execution of the HO (RRC Active Set Update message) by the RNC If necessary execution of RNS relocation procedure (subsection 6. but also on the particular interfaces as defined in the 3GPP specification. analysing the retrieved FM data can give a good indication for the failure cause.03 Rev: 2. Furthermore coverage issues (subsection 6. Failure symptoms.4.1 Date: 2007-06-08 There are a lot of PM counters available counting the number of attempts and failures for the state transitions.8.
Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. As an example Figure 21 below is visualising the HO parameter like time to trigger (∆T) and the HO hysteresis for the Measurement Report events 1a. 1b and 1c: Figure 21: HO parameter for event 1a.03 Rev: 2. as an example Figure 22 below is showing a flowchart for an intra-RNC Active Set Update procedure of type event 1a (the grey box contains the RL deletion in case of event 1c): UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 64 of 106 . 1b and 1c The call handling depends on the type of event.1 Date: 2007-06-08 • • Active Set Update Complete message on RRC from UE (successful case) RNC updates the measurement parameters including cells belonging to the new monitored set and other measurement parameters via the RRC Measurement Control Message The different steps are configurable using UTRAN O&M parameters.
6.5) and Radio Link Addition procedure in case there is already a RL to the NodeB Problems during RNS relocation procedure are covered in subsection 6.17. these failures should occur very rarely (subsection 6.9.17.g. identification and fixes for improvement There are many different reasons why the HO procedure might fail or not executed in an optimal manner: • Measurement problems of the cells in the active and monitored set. Failure symptoms.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Figure 22: Call handling flowchart of Active Set Update event 1a (event 1c) HO related parameters and more detailed information about the Ex-Lucent implementation is available in .3 Failures during the release of network resources on NBAP (e. weak PSC plan etc.4 for details) Misconfiguration of UTRAN parameter setting up the filtering. These failures are most likely due to RF planning issues like nonoptimal neighbour definitions.03 Rev: 2. pilot pollution.1. event 1c).Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.4) • • • • UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 65 of 106 . timing and HO algorithm Problems with the allocation of network resources on NBAP: Radio Link Setup procedure in case no RL exists to the particular (new) NodeB (subsection 5.2. (see subsection 6.
it is removed within x seconds again (event 1b or 1c) or vice versa Any occurrence where the UE is sending an Measurement Control Failure message Active Set Update Failure Long delay of Measurement Control message after Active Set Update Complete for event 1x Dropped call during event 1x Uu Uu Uu HO event 1a/1c is too slow Uu. Problem Intra Delay Frequency Handover Trace Uu Trigger Any occurrence where the UE sends a Measurement Report 1x and the RNC does not reply with an Active Set Update message within y seconds Any occurrence where the UE is sending an Active Set Update Failure message Any occurrence where the RNC is not sending the Measurement Control message within y seconds after the UE has sent the Active Set Update Complete message and the event ID of the last Measurement Report has been event 1x14 Any occurrence of a dropped call within y seconds after the RNC has sent an the Active Set Update message and the event ID of the last Measurement Report has been event 1x There is one (or more) intra-frequency cell measured by the 3G scanner that is not in the active set and its Ec/No is for x seconds better than y dB compared to the best cell in the active set and the UE is not sending within that time period a Measurement Report with id 1a or 1c Whenever a cell is added to the active set (event 1a) . timing and HO algorithm are configurable by UTRAN parameter. Table 49 below is summarising how to identify these issues in network interface traces. periodic reporting an update via Measurement Control message is not required Page 66 of 106 UMTS Network Performance Engineering . to react faster to the around-the-corner effect or in areas with weak coverage to trigger the 3G-2G HO faster.g. because the UTRAN instructs the UE to perform a measurement that is not supported by the UE) RRC Active Set Update failure message from UE in case of o o o o o o o Unsupported or invalid configuration Incompatible simultaneous reconfiguration Invalid Active Set Update message The UE is in a wrong state to receive that message (means another state than CELL_DCH) Protocol error Physical channel error (…) • The filtering. Especially in dense urban environment these parameter had to be optimised e.g.1 Date: 2007-06-08 • Measurement Control Failure message (e. Note that the handover delay can be confused with missing RRC messages (check event id of Measurement Report with removal/addition list of ASU message). Long handover delays can result in dropped calls and in a decrease of the overall UMTS RF conditions.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.03 Rev: 2.g. For each UTRAN vendor default parameter settings should be in place. 3G scanner Ping-pong HO Measurement Control Failure Uu Uu Table 49: Identification handover issues in traces 14 In case of e.
1 Date: 2007-06-08 PM KPIs related to the intra-frequency handover process are available in . the UE sends a Measurement Report “2d” to the RNC and after receiving the RB Reconfiguration message from the UTRAN goes in compressed mode to start the IRAT measurements as specified in the Measurement Control message. Concept (UMTS->GSM) IRAT handover are used to maintain the UMTS voice call in case the 3G RF coverage and/or quality is not sufficient. the IE “BSIC verification required” is set to “not required”). While in compressed mode. but now the IE “BSIC verification required” is set to “required”. if the measured level on the GSM/GPRS system exceeds a predefined threshold and the measured Ec/No or RSCP of the cells in the active set is below a predefined threshold. The UE may then leave compressed mode after it receives the Measurement Control message with IE “tgps-Status deactivate”. The UE is continuing reporting the IRAT neighbouring cells. Two different procedures might be used: Procedure 1: The measurement reporting and filtering methods are similar to the one of the intra-frequency handover as explained in subsection 6. Furthermore they can be used for traffic distribution. but now not only the BCCH and RXLEV. After some time the UE either automatically leaves compressed mode or the UTRAN selects one of the reported GSM cells as handover candidate by sending the Handover From Utran command on RRC.1.03 Rev: 2. When the measured Ec/No or RSCP of the cells in the active sets drops below a certain threshold. Call reliability – IRAT handover 6. When the measured Ec/No or RSCP of the cells in the active sets exceeds a specific threshold the UE sends a Measurement Report “2f”. Procedure 2: This procedure is using Measurement Report “1f” and Measurement Report “6a” based on which UTRAN may send the UE (via RB Reconfiguration message) into compressed mode. The UE is now starting to periodically report the BCCH and RXLEV. Meanwhile the UTRAN may send another Measurement Control message including a modified (shorter) GSM neighbouring list to measure. but not of the BSIC. The UTRAN/BSS might decide to trigger the IRAT handover by sending the Handover From Utran command on RRC. 6.10. The UE may send in between a Measurement Report “1e” including SC and measured Ec/No and/or RSCP of a 3G cell exceeding the “1e” threshold. IRAT handovers are always hard handovers and can be either mobile assistant or database assistant.9. the RNC may or may not react on this Measurement Report by sending an Active Set Update message.10. but also including the decoded BSICs. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 67 of 106 . The RNC sends two Measurement Control messages (a short one defining when the UE will automatically leave compressed mode as specified by IE TGPS and a following Measurement Control message with the IRAT handover list including BSIC and BCCH.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. the UE sends the Measurement Report “3a”.
03 Rev: 18.104.22.168 Date: 2007-06-08 Figure 23 below shows the call flow chart across the UMTS and GSM network for performing UMTS to GSM voice handover including the UMTS and GSM CN: Figure 23: Flow chart of successful UMTS to GSM voice handover The major components that constitute failures of UMTS to GSM Handover may be classified as following: • • • • RB reconfiguration failures when entering/leaving compressed mode (subsection 6.2/not in this figure) Relocation procedure failures (subsection 6.17.4/phase 3 in figure) Upon successful completion of the relocation procedure.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. the SRNC sends the Handover From UTRAN Command including the GSM Handover Command to UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 68 of 106 .3/phase 1 in figure) Handover procedure failures in GSM network (phase 2 in figure) Release procedure failures (subsection 6.
03 Rev: 2. identification and fixes for improvement (UMTS>GSM) In case of a high failure rate during the IRAT handover procedure it should be checked if the HO has to be triggered earlier under better 2G and 3G radio conditions.10. According to  the failure causes specified within this message can be subdivided as follows: • • • Physical channel failure Unacceptable configuration Protocol error The first failure refers to the case when there is loss of synchronisation between UE and NodeB. The following figure shows HO execution signaling flow that starts with the RNC receiving ‘Relocation Request’ from 3G MSC and ends when the RNC sends back ‘Relocation Complete’ after receiving ‘Handover to UTRAN Complete’ RRC message from the UE. This is mainly caused by poor RF conditions.3. If the UE fails to complete the requested handover then the SRNC receives a Handover From UTRAN Command Failure message from the UE. The other two causes are expected to occur seldom and in general are not related to RF issues. However the HO is actually initiated by the GSM network and hence not discussed any further. The IRAT HO can be configured with the parameters as described in .2. More information about IRAT Handover optimisation is available in . This HO is limited to CS calls and in case of combined CS/PS call the UE is required to setup the PS part of the call upon successful completion of CS handover. but there is no Handover From UTRAN Command within x seconds Any occurrence of a Handover From UTRAN Command Failure message sent by the UE Any occurrence of a drop of the RRC connection when the UE was in compressed mode Uu Table 50: Identification of IRAT HO problems in traces 6. 6.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 69 of 106 .1 Date: 2007-06-08 the UE. Failure symptoms. Concept (CS GSM ->UMTS) The IRAT for GSM to UMTS would allow the operator to make use of the 3G coverage in case of GSM network overload or simply to maximise the usage of UMTS network. in case of unsuccessful attempt.10. Table 50 below is listing the identification triggers for IRAT HO problems in traces: Problem Delayed IRAT HO after event 3a Handover From UTRAN Command Failure RRC drop compressed mode in Trace Uu Uu Trigger Any occurrence of a Measurement Report 3a sent by the UE. From UTRAN perspective hoToUtranCompleteTimer is used to ensure that RNC will release the resources if it does not receive any abort or failure messages.
radio link setup fails on Iub or the ALCAP Iu transport bearer cannot be established • The RNC does not receive a HANDOVER TO UTRAN COMPLETE message from the UE. For a full list please refer to . Failure symptoms. because the UE has received an invalid HANDOVER TO UTRAN COMMAND message or it does not support the configuration included in the message.10. e. identification and fixes for improvement (CS GSM >UMTS) Some main reasons as to why the GSM to UMTS handover procedure may fail can be as follows.4.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Figure 24: Flow chart of successful GSM to UMTS CS handover 6. • The GSM to UMTS handover feature is not enabled in UTRAN target cell • The UE does not support the target cell frequency band • The requested radio resources cannot be established.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.03 Rev: 2.g. In this case the timer expires • The MSC cancels the relocation by releasing the Iu connection UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 70 of 106 .
perform a cell update procedure with cause "Radio link failure" o • in CELL_FACH mode o Revert to the cell it was camped on at the reception of the reception of cell change order from UTRAN and transmit the cell change order from UTRAN failure message and set the IE "InterRAT change failure" to "physical channel failure" Select a UTRAN suitable cell and initiate the cell update procedure using the cause "cell re-selection" Table 51 below is listing the parameter for the cell change order from UTRAN procedure: Parameter t309 Description Defining timer T309 Table 51: Parameter used for configuring the cell change order from UTRAN Table 52 below is listing the identification in interface traces possibilities for the cell change order from UTRAN procedure: Problem Cell Change Order from UTRAN I Trace Uu Trigger Any occurrence of the RRC message CellChangeOrderFromUTRANFailure UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 71 of 106 . The UE is doing an inter-RAT cell reselection as specified within IE "Target cell description" of the CCO from UTRAN message.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. Concept The cell change order from UTRAN procedure may be initiated by the UTRAN when the UE is in CELL_DCH or CELL_FACH mode. In the UE. a BSIC and BCCH are specified.1. Failure symptoms.11. Call reliability – Cell change order from UTRAN 6. may not be adopted. the UE will • in CELL_DCH mode o Re-establish the UTRA physical channel(s) used at the time for reception of cell change order from UTRAN and transmit the cell change order from UTRAN failure message and set the IE "InterRAT change failure" to "physical channel failure" OR when not successful.03 Rev: 2.11. It might be that the twostep approach to first only measure BCCH/RXLEV of the neighbouring GSM cells. identification and fixes for improvement In case the UE cannot successfully complete the procedure and T309 expires. Nevertheless when the UTRAN decides to direct the UE to the GPRS domain.1 Date: 2007-06-08 PM KPIs related to the IRAT Handover process are detailed in .10. timer T309 supervises this procedure. and then the BSIC. 6.11. In the Measurement Control message it is only specified that the UE has to report the BCCH/RXLEV. The approach for PS inter-system/RAT handover is similar to the one described for the CS inter-system handover in subsection 6.2. 6.
12.12. as constituent procedures are the same. Irrespective of the reason for initiation.12. Otherwise MAHO is recommended for most scenarios.5) either directly or via DRNC.or Radio Bearer Reconfiguration • UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 72 of 106 . identification and fixes for improvement The reasons for inter-frequency HO failures are similar to the ones that may be encountered during intra-frequency or IRAT HO. The call continues on the current configuration (old frequency).1. The UE may not able to perform the new configuration and returns a Physical Channel -. According to  this procedure consists of the following steps: • • • • Detection of the need for inter-Frequency HO HO algorithm selection and measurement report setup Measurement event report reception and HO execution If necessary execution of RNS relocation procedure (subsection 6. DAHO algorithm is only used when handing over from a Micro to a Macro site.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Cell Change Order from UTRAN II Uu Any occurrence of the RRC message CellChangeOrderFromUTRAN and within x seconds there is a cell update message with cause "Radio link failure" Any occurrence of the RRC message CellChangeOrderFromUTRAN and within x seconds there is a cell update message with cell update cause "cellReselection" Cell Change Order from UTRAN III Uu Table 52: Identification of cell change order from UTRAN failures in traces PM KPIs related to the process is available in . Call reliability – inter frequency handover 6. however some salient failure mechanisms are • The Node B is unable to allocate the resources requested. the call flow follows slightly different sequence if the HO is inter/intra-NodeB and inter/intra-RNC. Furthermore transport channel reconfiguration is only used if doing HS-DSCH-to-HS-DSCH HO (as shown in Figure 25) else physical channel is reconfigured for DCH-toDCH HO. Concept In UMTS networks inter-frequency hard handover is a feature that ensure seamless mobility between frequency carriers in same or different spectrum bands. 6. All interfrequency measurement-reporting events (2a to 2f) are defined in . In addition it is assumed that the reporting reports are set to “event triggered” rather than “periodically”. Transport Channel .2. The whole procedure (from receipt of measurement report till HO success or failure) is supervised by a timer interFreqHoProcedureTimer.3) The different steps are configurable using UTRAN O&M parameters. The hard handovers can either be triggered by the degrading quality of the current frequency or by a high load condition. Two algorithms are available namely DAHO and MAHO with the later requiring compressed mode unless UE capability indicates otherwise.1. Failure symptoms. Then it returns a NBAP Radio Link Addition Failure or Radio Link Setup Failure message to the SRNC (section 5.03 Rev: 2. 6.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.17.
03 Rev: 2.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. The RNC initiates the RANAP Iu Release Request procedure with cause 'Failure in the Radio Interface Procedure' towards the CN. The old radio resources are no more available and the call will drop. • If the Inter-Frequency Handover Procedure Timer expires before the Physical Channel or Transport Channel or Radio Bearer Reconfiguration message has been sent to the UE then the SRNC undoes all actions already performed and releases all radio resources newly allocated for this handover using the NBAP Radio Link Deletion Procedure. The call continues on the current configuration. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 73 of 106 . Otherwise the call continues on the current configuration. If the timer expires after any of the above Reconfiguration message has been sent to the UE then the SRNC releases all radio resources newly allocated using the NBAP Radio Link Deletion Procedure.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Failure. In case of HS-DSCH configuration the transport channel is re-configured to DCH. The newly allocated resources on the NodeB are released by means of the NBAP Radio Link Deletion procedure by the RNC.
03 Rev: 2.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Figure 25: Inter-frequency Handover Message Flow (HS-DSCH to HSDSCH) . Intra-SRNC Note that the phase “UE detected” refers to the achievement of RL synchronisation with the new target cell. The user plane interruption is likely to be longer for the UL as DL data is sent on both the old and new RL while UL is only sent on old RL until either it fails or the new RL is restored. Iu UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 74 of 106 . Problem Inter Frequency HO Delay Trace Uu Trigger Any occurrence where the UE sends a Measurement Report 2x and the RNC does not reply with Physical or Transport Channel Reconfiguration message within y seconds RNC sends a Physical or Transport Channel Reconfiguration message but the UE does not respond back with either Dropped call during IF HHO Uu.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.Intra-Node B.
14. Each RLC PDU is transferred as one fixed-sized PHY TB. ATM failures and performance statistics of the Transport Network are not reported at the FM/PM system of the UTRAN.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. 3. Table 53: Identification of inter Freq HO failures from traces UTRAN Some important KPIs/Counters pegged during this process are given below: PM system UtranCell UtranCell UtranCell Counter / KPI15 (HHO. Concatenation and padding are used for efficient packing. Main problems that might occur on the Transport Network are as follows: • • Link synchronisation problems e.13.<failure cause> VS.g. 2.1. The RLC is a layer 2 sublayer. but on the ATM system.14. Call reliability – failures on RLC 6. Concept The specification of the RLC protocol is provided in .<trigger> / HHO. Error control 15 <trigger> refers to quality or load based HO initiation and <failure cause> can be physical channel reconfig failure or protocol error or configuration not supported.HHO. with help of the ALCAP protocol resources are allocated.<trigger>.AttOutInterFreq. A detailed description of the ex-Lucent implementation is available in . Please check the corresponding documentation. On the Iub interface AAL2 and AAL5 are used. Segmentation and reassembly Variable-sized IP packets provided by the PDCP as RLC SDUs are segmented into fixed sized RLC PDUs. Page 75 of 106 UMTS Network Performance Engineering . Call reliability – failures on the Transport Network The underlying transport network on the Iub and Iu interface is ATM. Buffering Buffering is required in RLC to compensate for the data rate variations of higher and lower layers: TCP/IP based applications typically generate IP packets at variable data rate. RLC provides three basic tasks: 1.<trigger>) * 100 HHO. when using microwave links Configuration issues 6.FailOuterInterFreq. while the air interface provides varying throughput due to varying channel conditions.AttPrepOutInterFreq. On the Iu interface the underlying ATM protocol is AAL5. This will be followed by RNC initiaiting Iu release procedure.<trigger> KPI Name / Description Inter-frequency hard handover success rate Hard handover failure count Hard handover preparation attempt count Table 54: PM KPIs identifying Inter-Freq HO problems 6.03 Rev: 2.SuccOutInterFreq.1 Date: 2007-06-08 complete or failure message within y seconds.
concatenation and padding into RLC PDUs.g. retransmission of erroneous or lost PDUs and in sequence delivery of RLC PDUs by ARQ Used for signalling (SRB 2-4) and PS data services There is one pair of AM RLC entities per RB. The RLC provides three different types of data transfer modes: • TM data transfer o o • No protocol overhead added. broadcast SRB on BCCH. transparent to the RLC Used for signalling SRB (e. Reassembly of PHY data from TB into RLC PDUs and RLC SDUs Used for fast signalling (e. paging SRBs on PCH).g. voice services and CS data UM data transfer o Buffer control of RLC SDUs for smoothing data rate variations introduced by burst-traffic sources (e.1 Date: 2007-06-08 AM RLC provides the link-layer ARQ scheme that is required to hide PHY block errors from higher layers. Each PDU is transferred as one physical layer TB. TCP flow control) and lower layer variations Segmentation.03 Rev: 2.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. SRB1 on DCCH) o o o • AM data transfer o o o o UM data transfer features plus Error control feedback. Figure 26 below is showing the UMTS protocol stack of the user plane for a TCP/IP data application: Figure 26: UMTS protocol stack of the userplane for a TCP/IP application UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 76 of 106 .g. In the following TM is not considered any further because there is no performance impact due to RLC.
A RLC PDU for PS RB has a size of 42 bytes (40 byte payload and 2 byte header). go either to SDU discard or RLC reset of the RLC connection between the two entities 16 The size of signaling SRBs is 16 bytes plus 2 bytes header The size of the TCP/IP packet is depending on the MSS negotiated for each TCP session during the connection setup.1). It is up to the RLC of how to react on lost data and possibly initiate retransmission. STATUS PDUs have priority over retransmitted data. In addition it might be that the IP packet is further segmented by one Internet server routing the packets 17 UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 77 of 106 . 4095 for AM. Furthermore if a data PDU is not completely filled with data of one SDU. Because the TCP settings could be different on each client PC (and the corresponding server in the Internet or corporate business network) a reference client-server system should be defined and used to optimise the RLC settings. Furthermore the physical frames on Iub are protected by additional CRCs. • • • Protocol error recovery • • • Data PDUs carrying poll requests and status or other control PDUs require a special ACK and are protected by timers When timer protected PDUs are not acknowledged before the timer elapses these PDUs are retransmitted If timer protected PDUs are retransmitted and still no ACK received then o If data PDU retransmission did not succeed. For each TB set the PHY is performing a CRC check.1.….g. after loss detection Polling from TX: the TX can request a status report Window mechanism: a sliding window allows the TX to transmit new PDUs while waiting for the ACKs till end of the window size. If a data PDU is NACK it can be quickly retransmitted. which is relatively small compared to a TCP/IP packet size of around 17 1000 byte . SDU discard function: when the delivery of a SDU cannot be managed because of e. As a consequence retransmission on RLC results in a retransmission of relatively small amount of data compared to that on TCP/IP layer.g. ….127 for UM). ARQ is using the following mechanism: • Status reporting on the RX: the RX sends a status report in so-called STATUS PDUs containing a detailed list of received and missing PDUs. repeated errors. At the TX the data PDUs are stored in a retransmission buffer when they are submitted to the MAC and PHY layer. in the UL the NodeB is adding the CRCI to each TB set (see also subsection 7. If one of both CRC fails lower layer discards the whole frame on Iub / the whole TB set. They can be sent periodically or unsolicited e. the transmission of SDUs is stopped and discarded on both TX and RX side.1 Date: 2007-06-08 TCP has its own flow control and ARQ algorithms so the O&M parameter of RLC has to be adapted to interwork with TCP in an optimal way. concatenation and/or padding are applied.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.03 Rev: 2. 0.2. 16 RLC ARQ mechanism For identification each PDU has (for DL and UL and per RLC entity separately) an increasing SN (0.
go to RLC reset of the RLC connection between the two entities o If RLC reset does not succeed. Another (but quite complicated) possibility is the analysis of the BITMAP in the status reports of the RX. Table 55: Identification of RLC problems in traces UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 78 of 106 . Table 55 is listing problems that can be detected in interface traces and Table 56 the corresponding KPIs in the PM system: Problem RLC Resets RLC retransmission SDU discard with explicit signalling Dropped call due to RLC error Trace Iub Iub Iub Uu Trigger Any occurrence of RLC Resets in Iub traces Any occurrence of retransmission of RLC PDUs per RLC session Any occurrence of a Move Receiving Window (MRW) command indicating a SDU discard and/or a MRW-ACK Any occurrence of a RRC Cell Update message with specified cell update cause (not failure cause) “RLC unrecoverable error”.3). when the transmission of the RLC PDU does not succeed for a long time. CongC resulting in SDU discards 6.2.1) Parameters configuring the RLC are available in .1 Date: 2007-06-08 o If SDU discard does not succeed. The SDU discard function allows discharging RLC PDU from the buffer on the transmitter side. and which discard function to use will be given by the QoS requirements of the Radio Access Bearer.e. The BITMAP is giving the TX an indication about which PDUs have been successfully received and which not starting from the FSN (number of octets determined by LENGTH) . In this case the RRC might be dropped and the UE performs a Cell Update and the IE “AM_RLC error indication” is set to TRUE (subsection 6. In addition special ASCII files downloaded via FTP can be used to easily identify retransmission (only possible when PPP and PDCP compression techniques as well as ciphering is disabled.14. incorrect neighbouring definitions etc. The RX acknowledges in its status reports all PDUs with a SN < LSN. Reason for problems on the RLC might be due to • • • RF related issues like pilot pollution. The IE AM_RLC error might be set to TRUE. Failure symptoms. see also subsection 7. For better identification on Iub the particular call has to be extracted so as not to mix up with RLC PDUs of other calls. There might be optional a failure cause specified. identification and fixes for improvement The retransmission on RLC layer can be easily identified by a not-in-sequence delivery of RLC PDUs on Iub. There will be several alternative operation modes of the RLC SDU discard function. The SDU discard function allows avoiding buffer overflow.3. See Table 55. this information is normally not available in Uu traces.g.2. A dropped call due to a RLC error can be easily identified by a Cell Update message with cell update cause “RLC unrecoverable error”. Lower layer problems on the Iub Decrease of the data rate because of .03 Rev: 2.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. signal unrecoverable error to higher layers.
UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 79 of 106 . Introduction From UMTS Release 5 onwards HSDPA is supported in order to provide UMTS subscribers higher throughput rates in the downlink as well as better resource allocation in the UTRAN. fast scheduling and resource sharing techniques.1 GTP-C GTP-U UDP Q2150.CellUpdateReq.1 Date: 2007-06-08 PM system UtranCell Counter / KPI VS.2 NBA A DCH FP HSDSCH FP PHY A L2 A A TM E1/ STM -1 SSCF-UNI SSCOP A L5 A A P LCA NBA STC.… New UMTS physical channels New handsets with high speed capability Core Network accommodation for more traffic … Figure 27 below is visualising the changes in the UMTS protocol stack in order to support HSDPA: UE Uu Node B Iub RNC Iups SGSN Gn GGSN SM SM PM M M M PDCP RRC RRC PHY RLC codec RLC MC A MC A Phy-up Phy-up IP SM M M PM M SM RRC PDCP GTP-U RRC RLC RLC MC A MC A A P LCA P M C-hs STC. Table 56: PM KPIs on RLC layer 6.1 UDP Iu UP IP Q2150. Call reliability – HSDPA 6.1 PHY DCH PHY HSDPA PHY PHY HSDPA DCH HSFP SSCF-UNI SSCF SSCF DSCH FP SSCOP SSCOP SSCOP A L5 A A L5 A L5 A A A L2 A A L2 A L2 A A A TM A TM STM -1 E1 Control Plane User Plane Transport Plane Com on m Figure 27: HSDPA protocol stack enhancements The following subsections are describing different aspects of HSDPA data calls.2 P NBA A P P LCA Phy-up Phy-up IP SCCP SCCP M TP3-b DCH FP SSCF-N SSCF SSCOP A L5 A A A L5 A L5 A IP SCCP SCCP Q2150. Compared to Release 99 the following changes have been done for HSDPA: • • • • • On UTRAN. new modulation schemes.1 M TP3-b M TP3B M TP3B SSCF-N SSCF SSCF SSCOP SSCOP SSCOP A L5 A L2 A L5 A L5 A A A L2 A L1 A TM A TM STM -1 E1 UDP RA P NA FP RA P NA GTP-U GTP-C Q2150.RLCError KPI Name / Description The measurement provides the number of requested cell updates with cause “Radio Link Control (RLC) Unrecoverable Error” received by the RNC from the UE.15.03 Rev: 2.1. 1 M TP3B SSCF SSCOP L2 A L5 A L1 IP Q2150.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.15.MM.
Mobility aspects of HSDPA Concept For the UL the mobility procedures are largely mostly the same as for PS calls over DCH (e.2. A typically scenario might look as follows: • • • • • • UE connected to NodeB A.1 Date: 2007-06-08 6. The algorithms are proprietary and depend on the infrastructure vendor.2. The number of HS-DSCH Hard Handovers is tracked by the UTRAN. As a consequence only Hard Handovers (Cell Changes) are triggered 6.15. In case of a Hard Handover the NodeB discards data that has been not been transmitted yet. As a consequence too many serving HS-DSCH Cell Changes within a short period of time (Ping-Pong handovers) may cause a reduced throughput due to loss of data.15. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 80 of 106 . if call is in CELL_FACH state Might be asked to change state from HS-DSCH to DCH or vice versa For parameters configuring HSDPA see  section 9.03 Rev: 2. the call is changed from HS-DSCH to DCH.1. so that it immediately changes back to the previous cell if the radio conditions vary (Ping-Pong effect). • The mobility aspect of a HSDPA user is as follows: • The RNC is forwarding the DL application data to the NodeB from the MAC layer to the new MAC-hs layer that is scheduling the data for delivery.g. when the UE has already moved 'far' into the area of another cell where it could have better throughput. • In ex-Lucent UTRAN for each UE a timer hSDPAMobilityTimer is defined tracking the number of cell changes in a certain time frame.2. soft/softer HO triggered via event 1a. If this number exceeds an unusual amount of serving cell changes. NodeB B is becoming stronger and stronger UE sends Measurement Report with event id “1a” RNC adds NodeB B to the Active Set via Active Set Update procedure UE sending Measurement Report with event id “1d” RNC triggers Hard Handover via Transport Channel Reconfiguration or Radio Bearer Reconfiguration procedure UE sends Measurement Report with event id “1b” to remove NodeB A from the active set The optimisation approach when triggering event id “1d” is as follows: • HSDPA cell change should not be performed too late. Depending on the status of this timer the UE • • Might setup the call either on DCH or HS-DSCH. HSDPA Hard Handovers should not be executed too early. In this case it is up to the higher layer protocols (RLC or TCP) to retransmit lost data.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. 1b and 1c) For the DL the HS-DSCH for a given UE belongs to only one of the radio links of one sector of the NodeB where the UL is connected.
Figure 28 below shows an example cross-correlated by Actix .2. The reason might be synchronisation problems or not optimal timing during the handover procedure e. in this case the throughput will decrease or even the call may drop. in particular Ping-Ponging effects.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. Furthermore non-optimal handover settings might cause unnecessary transitions from HS-DSCH to DCH.1 Date: 2007-06-08 6. as a result the benefits from HSDPA will not be available to that particular UE. the timing when the RNC stops forwarding data towards the old NodeB. the lower left picture shows the TCP SQN recorded at the client site by Ethereal: Figure 28: Hard handover problems identified by cross-correlated RRC and TCP data Table 57 below is listing the identification techniques for HSDPA mobility problems: Problem HSDPA ping-pong Trace Uu Trigger There are two consecutive Transport Channel Reconfiguration / Radio Bearer Reconfiguration procedures within x seconds UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 81 of 106 . This problem can be easily detected when correlating RRC with TCP/IP data. Finally during the Hard Handover there might be major transmission gaps including TCP retransmission. It is very important to avoid unnecessary Hard Handovers.2.g. identification and fixes for improvement HSDPA performance degradations due to mobility issues can be best observed by analysing drive test data.03 Rev: 2. On the other hand the Hard Handover should not be triggered too late so that the UE is not served by a NodeB that is much worse compared to the best cell. in the upper left part of the picture the RRC protocol is shown. Failure symptoms.15.
see also subsection 6.4.15.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. It should be noted that the 3GPP specification does not demand that the power PCPICH + Γ is equal to the total available HSDPA power.03 Rev: 2. PCPICH is the transmit power of the Primary or Secondary CPICH. It is based on the instantaneous measurements of the RF conditions. In the following subsections the most important measures are summarised.3.1.3. the test has been done stationary. 6. RF related issues RF related issues on the air interface are one of the main reasons for performance throughput degradations of HSDPA calls.2 for details. with greater values indicating better quality. TCP Cross-correlation Uu and TCP trace: during a Transport Channel Reconfiguration / Radio Bearer Reconfiguration procedure there is a transmission gap on TCP layer in the DL for x seconds Table 57: HSDPA related problems indicated by network interface traces 6. The UE shall assume for the purpose of CQI reporting a total received HS-PDSCH power PHSDPSCH = PCPICH + Γ + in dB where the total received power is evenly distributed among the HS-PDSCH codes of the reported CQI value.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Transmission gap during HO in HSDPA call Uu.15. In  requirements for the accuracy of the channel quality measurements are given. The NodeB is deciding upon the reported CQI values which Transport Format Resource Combination (TFRC) can be transmitted given a certain transmit power and an expected CRC error rate that is directly impacting the expected throughput.CQI The most important measure of the DL quality of the HSDPA shared channel is the channel quality indicator (CQI) the UE is reporting back to the Node B on the HS-DPCCH. The optimisation has to be done on a per-cell basis using UE drive test data. Figure 29 below show as a graphical distribution of the throughput versus CQI. The CQI ranges from 0 to 30. The measurement power offset Γ is signaled by the RNC and the reference power adjustment is given for each UE category in . RF related issues . the cell was unloaded. Due to the fact that in the downlink there is no gain from soft/softer HO a UE in HSDPA mode is more sensitive regarding pilot pollution. application was FTP download via TCP/IP: UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 82 of 106 . 3GPP  defines the meaning of the reported CQI values for each UE category.
Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 83 of 106 .4). Again a strong correlation between both measures has been recorded as visualised in Figure 30: 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 -20 -18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 App Fwd Throughput [kbps] Ec/No [dB] Figure 30: HSDPA . 6.3. RF related issues – Ec/No For the same test case as described in previous subsection the HSDPA throughput versus Ec/No were analysed.15.03 Rev: 2.4 for details).2.throughput versus Ec/No for TCP download To be noted: the Ec/No is never exceeding (excluding single measurement samples) around –6 dB because the “No” term includes the HSDPA traffic of the user.throughput versus CQI for TCP download Note: when the CQI is exceeding 15 there is no obvious throughput improvement observed anymore because the UE capability of 12 is in this case the limiting factor (see also subsection 6.15. Furthermore for Ec/No values exceeding around –8 dB no throughput performance could be observed indicating again that the limiting factor is the UE capability (see also subsection 6.1 Date: 2007-06-08 1800 1600 App Fwd Throughput [kbps] 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 CQI Figure 29: HSDPA .15.
1. for more details see . Capacity issues – sharing of the bandwidth When sharing the HSDPA bandwidth with other users the application throughput will not be optimal due to the fact that • • The bandwidth provided by the HS-DSCH is limited The bandwidth on the backhaul transport network is limited These kinds of capacity issues can be detected as follows: • Indirectly by execution of UE performance tests during the busy hour and a comparison to the non-busy hour (e. Capacity issues – HSDPA call cannot be established on a particular NodeB Failed establishment of HSDPA call on a NodeB can be due to Hard limits During call set up. on Sunday or at the early morning). As described in subsection 6. a good test method might be static automatic tests for a full day.3.15. 6.2. different maximum TBS or modulation schemes are supported. Capacity issues Because the HS-DSCH is a shared channel the throughput of one UE highly depends on the overall HSDPA traffic in the particular NodeB.15.1 Date: 2007-06-08 6. For UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 84 of 106 . Soft limits Each time when a UE tries to establish a HSDPA call on a new NodeB via a RadioBearerReconfiguration procedure DBC is checking the soft limitations.15.3 currently the UE is the limiting factor in case of optimal RF conditions. Depending on the terminal type different maximum number of HS-DSCH codes.5.0x the UCU-II hardware limitation (and default parameter setting) is 24.03 Rev: 2.15.5. For this event there is no corresponding PM counter available in ex-Lucent UTRAN. HS-DSCH serving cell change and transition from URA_PCH/CELL_FACH to CELL_DCH with HSDPA the number of active HSDPA users is checked on a cell level against the parameter maxHsdpaUsersPerCell. HSDPA hardware and processing resources are limited in the NodeB. 6. Two cases can be differentiated: 6.g.4.15.3. access parameters or power control settings please take a look in the corresponding subsections of this guideline. For ex-Lucent U04. UE limitations HSDPA capable terminals with resulting peak data rates ranging from 1. RF related issues – other optimisation problems For any other optimisation problems as neighbour list planning. see also  and .2 Mbit/s to 14 Mbit/s at physical layer.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.15. As a consequence the maximum achievable throughput is terminal dependent and should be taken into consideration when analysing HSDPA UE traces. By evaluation of PM counter statistic Evaluation of Iub traces • • 6.5.
And as such this cell change only involves changing the physical channels E-AGCH/E-RGCH to accommodate the new role of the cell. A timer is used to supervise the UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 85 of 106 . 1b and 1c). Call reliability – HSUPA/EDCH 6.2. • • The mobility aspect of a HSUPA user is as follows: In HSUPA serving cell is responsible for issuing absolute serving grants (AG) for the UE to send data.16.16. HSDPA related PM counters are available in  section 11.1 Date: 2007-06-08 ex-Lucent UTRAN the corresponding parameter and algorithm configuring DBC are explained in .1. Figure 27 below is visualising the changes in the UMTS protocol stack in order to support HSUPA: Figure 31: HSUPA changes done to the Protocol Stack The following subsections are describing different aspects of HSUPA data call.03 does not support HSUPA over Iur boundary. But in this release HSUPA is only supported in UL.16. Introduction From UMTS Release 6 onwards HSUPA is supported in order to provide UMTS subscribers’ higher throughput rates in the uplink as well as better resource sharing in the UTRAN.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. However 04. if HSDPA is configured in the DL. The support of soft/softer HO means that the possibility of performance degradation is much less as compared to HSDPA. Mobility aspects of HSUPA Concept In general the mobility procedures are the same as for PS calls over DCH (e. soft/softer HO triggered via event 1a.2.1. the HSDPA/E-DCH call will be reconfigured to HSDPA/DCH state with a minimum data rate. Consequently if all the radio legs are from drift RNC. However one of the radio links acts as the “serving cell” which is selected to be the same as for HSDPA in the DL 6.03 Rev: 2. 6. Furthermore new UL MAC functionality has been split into RNC entity (MAC-es) and NodeB entity (MAC-e) respectively. 6.g.16.
6.SuccServCellChangeEDCH / VS. However reconfiguration to DCH can also occur if there are cells involved which don’t support E-DCH or cells are fully loaded with maximum allowed number of E-DCH users or if UTRAN wants to activate compressed mode on the UE. Problem HSUPA ping-pong along Iur Reduction in throughput during HO along Iur Trace Uu Trigger There are consecutive Transport Channel Reconfiguration / Radio Bearer Reconfiguration procedures within x seconds doing E-DCH ↔ DCH state changes frequently There is no subsequent Transport Channel Reconfiguration / Radio Bearer Reconfiguration procedure observed after the initial procedure that configured UL to DCH Uu Table 58: HSUPA HO related issues involving Iur Some relavent KPIs/Counters are given that deal with the handover aspect of HSUPA PM system UtranCell UtranCell Counter/KPI (VS. This scheduling grant takes the form of absolute (giving max uplink power that can be transmitted) or relative (stipulating change/no-change in power with respect to previous TTI). reducing delay.2.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.16. MAC/ RF related Issues The scheduling mechanism for EDCH involves UEs sending scheduling requests that are assigned resources by the MAC-e entity upon evaluation of a set of criteria. The scheduler is also responsible for the hybrid ARQ to ensure error-free delivery avoiding re-transmissions at higher layers. identification and fixes for improvement Depending upon the initial E-DCH throughput. Failure symptoms.AttServCellChangeEDCH)*100 VS. Furthermore the UL EDPCCH contains a “happy bit” that shows if the UE is satisfied with the UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 86 of 106 .03 Rev: 2.16.1 Date: 2007-06-08 reconfiguration back to HSDPA/E-DCH state (only possible in SRNS relocation or when all radio legs handover back to SRNC) and an optimum value should avoid ping ponging between DCH and E-DCH states in case call stays around Iur boundary.EDCH-HSDSCH_ULDCH-HSDSCH KPI Name / Description EDCH Serving Cell change Success rate Total number of successful reconfiguration E-DCH to DCH in UL with HSDPA in DL Total number of successful reconfiguration DCH to E-DCH in UL with HSDPA in DL UtranCell VS.ULDCH-HSDSCH_EDCH-HSDSCH Table 59: PM Counter/KPI for E-DCH Mobility 6. However in case of overload (on Uu or Iub) the scheduler will not honour the request and would most likely start downgrading the served and non-served UEs through absolute and relative grants respectively.ReconfSucc. However such situation will only occur if the user only moves along the Iur boundary.2.3. the new DCH bearer throughput will be lower at application level. Hence it is important to ensure that UL target load and Iub links are setup correctly to give desired cell throughput. If some of the radio legs go back to SRNC then there is possibility that bearer will never configure back up to E-DCH.ReconfSucc.
Depending on the terminal type.5.7 Mbit/s at physical layer.1 Date: 2007-06-08 current grant. see also  and . see Figure 32 The bandwidth on the backhaul transport network is limited These kinds of capacity issues can be detected as follows: • • • Indirectly by execution of UE performance tests during the busy hour and a comparison to the non-busy hour By evaluation of PM counter statistics Evaluation of Iub traces Figure 32: User versus Cell throughput variation with increase in users UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 87 of 106 . As a consequence the maximum achievable throughput is terminal dependent and should be taken into consideration when analysing HSUPA UE traces. Capacity issues Because the E-DPDCH is a shared channel the throughput of one UE highly depends on the overall HSUPA traffic in the particular NodeB. 6. 6. various options for maximum number of UL codes.16.7 Mbit/s to 5. Capacity issues – sharing of the bandwidth When sharing the HSUPA bandwidth with other users the application throughput will not be optimal due to the fact that • • The bandwidth provided by the E-DPDCH is limited.1.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. minimum SF and TTI durations are supported.16. This can act as an indicator of how fairly each UE is being scheduled.4.5. Two cases can be differentiated: 6. Under bad RF conditions the UE is likely to be transmitting at high power to reach the NodeB and hence will not have sufficient power available to send the data resulting in loss of throughput.16. UE Limitations HSUPA capable terminals have peak data rates ranging from 0.03 Rev: 2.
16.g. Currently PM system only records this failure if it happens during DCH to E-DCH reconfiguration.1.1) To direct to direct the UE into compressed mode • • • • In case of a change of the data rate first a Radio Link Reconfiguration on NBAP is executed following changes of the ATM resources on the Iub via ALCAP procedures. HSUPA hardware and processing resources are limited in the NodeB.1.2.3) Due to a high BLER in the DL indicated by Measurement Report 5a sent by the UE (subsection 7. E-DCH serving cell change and transition from URA_PCH/CELL_FACH/CELL_DCH to CELL_DCH with E-DCH the number of active HSUPA users is checked on a cell level against the parameter maxEdchUsersPerCell. RB Reconfiguration / Transport Channel Reconfiguration failure Concept 6.1. 6.2) In case RNC requests the UE to change the RB due to e.2. And as a result the E-DCH call can be reconfigured to DCH if the corresponding HS-DSCH serving cell changes to the NodeB with UCU-II. Full set of HSUPA related PM counters are available in  section 11.15. 6.1.7) or because of CongC (subsection 6.5) Hard handover for HSDPA calls (subsection 6.17. identification and fixes for improvement Main reason for a failure in this procedure is that the UE is not supporting the requested new configuration.17.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. for more details see  section 5.2.5. Call reliability – miscellaneous failures 6.17.0x. NodeB equipped with UCU-II does not support EDCH. PS traffic measurements triggered either by UE sending a Measurement Report 4a/4b or by the UTRAN monitoring the DL RLC buffer occupancy (subsection 7.17. For ex-Lucent U04.1. Capacity issues – HSUPA call cannot be established on a particular NodeB During call set up.1 Date: 2007-06-08 6. default setting for this parameter is 30.g. The RB Reconfiguration or alternatively the Transport Channel Reconfiguration procedure might be initiated for several reasons: • In case of UE state transitions e.03 Rev: 2. Failure symptoms. The RNC is sending a RB Reconfiguration message/Transport Channel Reconfiguration on RRC and in case of a failure the UE is sending back the corresponding failure message. when going from CELL_DCH mode to CELL_FACH mode in case the inactivity timer expires (subsection 6. Table 60 and Table 61 are listing the identification of RB Reconfiguration Failures in traces and in the PM system: UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 88 of 106 .
2.2. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 89 of 106 .RRC. Upon receiving the Physical Channel Reconfiguration message the UE has to change its physical configuration as requested and is sending back a Physical Channel Reconfiguration Complete message (successful case) or Physical Channel Reconfiguration Failure (unsuccessful case).TransChanReconfigSucc/ VS. Failure symptoms. The SRNC sends a Relocation Required message on RANAP.RBReconfigSucc/VS.3.RBReconfigAtt)*100 (VS. 6. in the subsection 6.RRC. Relocation failures Concept IRAT-HO (subsection 6.3. 6.17.1. Physical Channel Reconfiguration failures Concept 22.214.171.124. during inter-Frequency hard handover for DCH.12.TransChanReconfigAtt)*100 KPI Name / Description RadioBearerReconfiguration Success rate TransportChannelReconfiguration Success rate Table 61: PM KPIs identifying RB / Transportchannel Reconfiguration Failures 6. identification and fixes for improvement Table 62 is listing the identification of Physical Channel Reconfiguration Failures in traces: Problem Physical Channel Reconfiguration Failure Trace Uu Trigger Any occurrence of a Physical Channel Reconfiguration Failure message Table 62: Identification of Physical Channel Reconfiguration Failures PM counters pegging failures in the Physical Channel Reconfiguration procedures are listed in the corresponding subsections e.17. • • • The relocation procedure is used in case of The procedure is described in .2.03 Rev: 2.2.17.g. The Physical Channel Reconfiguration procedure can be initiated by the UTRAN e.10) Inter-RNC HO In case of a Cell Update on a new RNC 6.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.g.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Problem RB Reconfiguration failure Transport Channel Reconfiguration failures Trace Uu Uu Trigger Any occurrence of the RRC message RB Reconfiguration Failure Any occurrence of the RRC message Transport Channel Reconfiguration Failure Table 60: Identification of RB Reconfiguration Failures in traces PM system UtranCell and RNC UtranCell and RNC Counter / KPI (VS.1.RRC. The CN sends back the Relocation Command message (successful case) or Relocation Preparation Failure (unsuccessful case).RRC.
The SRNC considers the UMTS to GSM handover as not possible at this point in time and keeps the existing radio connections established. This parameter configuring the relocation guard timer.03 Rev: 2. In the second case upon receiving a Relocation Preparation Failure message from the 3G MSC. Table 64 is listing methods of how to identify relocation problems in interface traces: Problem Relocation Preparation Failure Relocation Cancel Trace Iu Iu Trigger Any occurrence of the RANAP message Relocation Preparation Failure Any occurrence of the RANAP message Relocation Cancel Table 64: Identification of relocation failures in interface traces Table 65 below is listing the PM KPIs describing relocation failures: UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 90 of 106 .g. If the failure cause specified within the message is “Relocation Failure in Target CN/RNC or Target System” or “Relocation not supported in Target RNC or Target System” then SRNC repeats the Relocation Preparation procedure with the next suitable cell from the list of potential GSM target cells otherwise the SRNC considers the UMTS to GSM handover as not possible at this point in time. Failure symptoms. A failure is detected during the RANAP Relocation Preparation procedure (e.3. the SRNC still maintains the call. GSM handover resource allocation fails or the CN rejects the UMTS to GSM handover request) due to the following causes: • • Timer TRELOCprep expiry at the SRNC Relocation Preparation Failure In the first case the SRNC initiates the Relocation Cancel procedure at the Iu interface.2. This means that the existing Iu-signalling connection can still be used for the call as the timer IRATHORelocGuardTimer is still running when RelocationGuardTimer expires. identification and fixes for improvement Failures of the relocation process occur most likely during the IRAT-HO process. Table 63: Parameter used for the relocation 6.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. This procedure enables the CN to initiate the release of the resources allocated during the Relocation Preparation procedure in the GSM network.17.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Table 63 below is listing parameters used for the relocation procedure: Parameter IRATHORelocGuardTimer RelocationGuardTimer Description This parameter configuring the IRAT-HO relocation guard timer.
AttRelocPrepOutCS IRATHO.SuccEstabPSNoQueuing.RAB.Drop. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 91 of 106 .RAB. In general failures are not expected to occur on this stage.Drop.RelocUEInvol / RAB.4. Failures during the RAB and RL release procedure The release of the RAB and the RL is not only used when terminating the voice or data call. the normal release procedure is identical with this call handling.T_RELOCprep_exp/ IRATHO.1 Date: 2007-06-08 PM system UtranCell UtranCell UtranCell Counter / KPI VS.AttRelocPrepOutCS*100 VS. In the 3GPP there are no failure messages defined for the NBAP Radio Link Deletion Request or the RANAP Iu Release Request.AttRelocPrepOutCS*100 IRATHO.03 Rev: 2.FailRelocPrepOutCS. the only exception is that it is not initiated by an Iu Release Request.FailRelocPrepOutCS.SuccEstabPSNoQueuing.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.PS.RelocUEInvol/ RAB.Drop. The call handling is shown in Figure 11. but also when doing an IRAT HO from 3G to 2G.CS.PS*100 KPI Name / Description CS RAB Drop Rate due to SRNS Relocation PS RAB Drop Rate due to SRNS Relocation Relocation preparation for CS UMTS to GSM HHO success rate Relocation preparation UMTS to GSM fail rate T Relocprep expiry PS RAB Drop Rate due to SRNS Relocation RNC UtranCell RNC Table 65: PM KPIs identifying relocation failures 6.17.RAB.RelocUEInvol/CS RAB Success*100 VS.PS*100 (IRATHO.PS.sum)/ IRATHO.
data and VT a specific BLER has to be maintained to guarantee a good call quality. The DL closed loop power control can be split into two loops: DL outer and inner loop PC.1 Date: 2007-06-08 7. High BLER can be observed in the UL or in the DL separately. The second part gives a definition of the Quality of Service (QoS) parameters for the different types of services like voice.DL Block Error Rate (BLER) analysis 7.1. Call quality . In case of data call the poor quality may cause throughput degradation or high ping delay times. Concept The DL closed loop power control is in charge to keep the DL BLER in a predefined range.1. In addition VT calls will result in a fragmented and interrupted video signal. Call quality In this section those aspects are investigated that have a direct influence of the user perceived call quality.1.Block Error Rate (BLER) For the different types of services like voice. BLER degradation occurs in case of pilot pollution. The DL and UL Block Error Rate (BLER) are the KPIs providing an indication of the quality of the UMTS call from the user perspective. 7.4. The UL BLER is provided via the following formula on a per RNC basis.1. Figure 33 below is showing the principle of the DL PC: UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 92 of 106 .2): UL BLER = 100 * (NumTransBlockErrUL / NumTransBlockTotUL) High values of one or both of these KPIs indicate that the perceived quality of the call is poor. In case of voice or VT call the quality degradation can be directly experienced during the conversation. this KPI can be only retrieved via UE logging: DL BLER = 100 * (NumRecBlocksErrDL / NumRecBlocksTotDL) The UL BLER is the percentage of corrupted blocks received by the Serving RNC (before frame selection) over the total number of blocks received (before frame selection). data and VT and a description of performance weaknesses and of how to overcome these issues. non-optimal neighbouring definitions etc. as explained in subsection 6. In the first part the BLER in the DL and UL is discussed. 7. statistics can be retrieved via the PM system (subsection 7.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.03 Rev: 2. The DL BLER is the percentage of corrupted blocks over the total number of blocks received by the UE.1. The DL and UL PC algorithms are there to control the BLER to a maximum. The reasons observing high BLER might be as follows: • • • Non-optimal PC settings The maximum NodeB or UE transmit power for the dedicated channels has been reached Power restrictions to avoid system overload In the following subsections the DL and UL BLER analysis is reflected in more detail.1.1.
However minimal UE performances in given RF conditions are specified in .Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.1. the only elements involved in the inner loop power control are the UE and the NodeB. The method on how to set SIR target in order to provide the requested BLER is not specified in the 3GPP standard. During the call the BLER target can be readjusted by the RNC. This value should guarantee an optimal performance for the (voice or data) service based on the requested QoS parameters. Furthermore the UE may send a Measurement Report “5a” in case the number of bad CRCs on a certain transport channel is exceeding a certain threshold specified by a previous Measurement Control message . The UTRAN may or may not react on this Measurement Report. Table 67 is listing the triggers in interface traces: UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 93 of 106 . When the UE is in compressed mode higher SIR target values will be defined.2. Failure symptoms. The control loop runs autonomously in the UE with a maximum speed of 100Hz. identification and fixes for improvement The DL BLER is reported by any drive test system in Uu traces. The TPCs the UE is sending to the NodeB is based on the comparison of the SIR estimation versus the SIR target.1. 7. Because of the speed of the control loop (up to 1500 Hz). DL inner loop PC: The inner loop PC purpose is fast adaptation of the NodeB transmit power in order to achieve the targeted SIR ratio for the considered downlink radio channel. The decision is based on the BLER and SIR measurements UE sends back in the UL via the DCCH. as there is no power control during transmission gap. The NodeB transmit power is limited to parameters given by the RNC on NBAP.03 Rev: 2. The DL outer loop PC in the UE defines a SIR target based on the BLER.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Figure 33: Downlink outer loop power control principle DL outer loop PC: The RNC sends a target value for the BLER to the UE on the DCCH.
UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.03
High DL BLER in Uu NodeB Tx Pwr via RFCT Measurement Report 5a
Uu RFCT Uu
DL BLER higher than x % for more than y seconds The NodeB transmit power is exceeding for service x more than y seconds z dBm. Any occurrence of a Measurement Report 5a sent by the UE
Table 66: Identification of high DL BLER in interface traces 7.1.2. UL Block Error Rate (BLER) analysis 126.96.36.199. Concept
The UL closed loop power control is in charge to keep the UL BLER in a predefined range. The UL closed loop power control can be split into two loops: UL outer and inner loop PC: UL outer loop PC: The UL outer loop PC is located at the RNC and is responsible for updating the UL SIR target so that the UL BLER ensures the QoS of the requested (voice or data) service. The RNC provides the NodeB the updated SIR target via the DCH FP on the Iub. The control loop runs in the RNC with a speed of 100 Hz. For updating the SIR target the RNC takes into account not only the measured BLER, but also the reported RSSI measured by the NodeB and other parameters.Figure 34 below is visualising the principle:
Figure 34: UL outer loop power control If the UE is in soft/softer HO mode and a particular NodeB has more than one leg, the NodeB does frame selection in the NodeB(called “micro-diversity”). For frames coming from different NodeBs belonging to the same RNC the RNC is doing the frame selection (termed “macro-diversity”). In case the NodeBs
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belong to different RNCs the SRNC is doing the frame selection; the data is provided via the Iur interface. For each UL TB set the NodeB is performing a CRC check on PHY and adding a CRCI to the frame. In addition the quality of the link is estimated; the QE in each TB provides the results. The QE is vendor proprietary, different metrics might be used to derive it. The QE ranges from 0 to 255 (small QEs are indicating good quality). UL inner loop PC: The UL inner loop PC is adjusting the transmit power of the UE in order to achieve the provided SIR target. All NodeBs involved in the particular call are sending TPC commands with a rate of up to 1500 Hz. The TPC commands of the particular NodeBs can differ. In this case if only one of the NodeBs is sending a “power down” command, the UE will lower its transmit power by the defined power-down-step. In case there is no TPC at all the transmit power of the UE remains unchanged. More information including parameter can be found in . 188.8.131.52. Failure symptoms, identification and fixes for improvement
Cells suffering with high UL BLER can be easily identified using data from the PM system. When doing drive testing high UL BLER can be identified by using the RFCT feature in parallel to tracking the KPIs as retrieved by the RNC. High UL BLER might cause a RLF in the UL and/or the drop of the call (see also subsection 6.1). Table 67 and Table 68 are listing the triggers in interface traces and the corresponding PM KPIs:
High UL BLER in RFCT High UE reached Bad CRCI Bad QE SIR exceeded target power
RFCT Uu Iub Iub Iub Iub
UL BLER higher than x % for more than y seconds Any occurrence where the UE is sending with at least y dB UE power for more than x seconds18 More than x % of the CRCIs within y seconds have a CRCI equal to 1. More than x % of the QEs within y seconds have a QE more than y. The SIR target for service x is exceeding value y. Any occurrence where the UL SIR target is not updated for more than x seconds. This is an indication of failure in the UL that might lead to an UL RLF.
UL SIR target not updated
Table 67: Identification of high UL BLER in interface traces
Counter / KPI
(VS.ULTransBlockErr.CSV.All / VS.ULTransBlock.CSV.All)*100 (VS.ULTransBlockErr.CSD / VS.ULTransBlock.CSD)*100
KPI Name / Description
UL BLER rate for All CSV AMR codec rates UL BLER rate for CSD
Note that according to the 3GPP specification there are four power classes defined (power class 1 to 4) with maximum output power +33 dBm, +27 dBm, +24 dBm and +21 dBm. The most common mobiles on the market are class 3 (+24 dBm).
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(VS.ULTransBlockErr.PS / VS.ULTransBlock.PS)*100
UL BLER rate for PS
Table 68: PM KPIs identifying BLER issues UL BLER measurements can also be retrieved via the ex-Lucent RF Call trace feature .
Call quality – Quality of service (QoS)
QoS is reflecting the quality of a wireless network from the user perspective in terms of voice quality, data throughput or the quality of the video signal using VT. The QoS can be measured with special drive test equipment. For evaluation purposes the drive test equipment should use a predefined measurement sequence for each of the service types as given in the appendix of this document. In this chapter the QoS for the different service types are discussed as well as how to identify possible failures and quality degradations. It is assumed that the number of measurement samples is sufficient to get a reliable result;
7.2.1. QoS – general In this subsection general QoS KPIs are listed that are not linked to a particular service like voice, data or VT. These can act as trigger points for identifying non-optimal performance.
No network [%] Attach failure [%] Attach setup time [s] Location update success rate [%] SMS failure rate [%] MMS failure rate [%] SMS delivery time [s] MMS delivery time [s]
Counter / KPI
(1- NoCallAttwithNoNetworkDetected / NoAllCallAtt) * 100 NoUnsuccessfulAttachAtt / NoAllAttachAtt * 100 t_attach_complete – t_attach_request NoSuccessfullLU / NoAllLUAtt * 100 NoFailedSMSTasks / NoStartedSMSTasks * 100 NoFailedMMSTasks / NoStartedMMSTasks * 100 t_sms_delivered – t_sms_start t_mms_delivered – t_mms_start
Table 69: General QoS parameters measured on application level In ex-Lucent U04.03 QoS parameters as given in the PDP Context Activation Request message are used for the DBC feature, see also subsection 5.4.1 and  for details.
7.2.2. QoS – voice service Because of the uncorrelation of UMTS links it is necessary to measure the UL and DL voice quality separately. Using special drive test equipment provided by e.g. QVoice or SwissQual one can do this. This equipment is comparing the received voice samples with the transmitted voice samples. In that way the evaluation software can do a voice quality classification for both directions independently.
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delay.03 Rev: 2.800 and ITU P. The CN can check the requested QoS profile with entries from the HLR. Voice quality degradations like e.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Table 70 below is giving the QoS parameter for voice services.g. jitter etc. Mean Opinion Score (MOS) Below 2.1. The initially assigned PS RB at the beginning of a PDP session depends on the UTRAN configuration.0 to 3.0. The RB can be dynamically changed (or even the mobile is sent to idle mode/URA_PCH/CELL_PCH mode) depending on the data to be sent in the UL and/or DL. The CN makes these negotiated QoS parameters available to the UTRAN via the RAB Assignment Request .0 2.2.3.SetupFailedCallNoNetworkVoice) / NoCallAttVoice *100 NoDroppedCallsVoice / NoSuccSetupCallsVoice * 100 No3G2GHandoverSuccSeiz / No3G2GHandoverAtt * 100 No2G3G HandoverSuccSeiz / No2G3GHandoverAtt * 100 NoSuccCallSetupVoice / NoCallAttVoice * 100 NoVoiceSampleGoodExcellent / NoAllVoiceSamples * 100 Table 71: QoS of voice services – KPIs 7. QoS – data services 7.3. A good voice quality can be considered when the MOS is exceeding 3. Depending on the status of the RLC queue in the UE the mobile might send a Measurement Report “4a” (in case the transport channel traffic volume exceeds an absolute threshold) or Measurement Report “4b” (in case the transport channel traffic volume becomes smaller than an absolute UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 97 of 106 .862. Concept There are different metrics available defining the QoS of data services like throughput.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.0 3. The MOS is defined by the ITU and is ranging from 1 to 5.MOS Table 71 below is listing the formulas to retrieve the QoS KPIs for voice: KPI Call completion success rate voice [%] Block call rate voice [%] Dropped calls voice [%] HandoverSuccess3G2G [%] HandoverSuccess2G3G [%] Call setup success rate voice [%] Good voice quality [%] Counter / KPI NoSuccCompletedCallsVoice / NoSuccSetupCallsVoice * 100 (NoSetupFailedCallsVoice . echo or voice delay are reflected by this measure. For the voice quality evaluation the Mean Opinion Score (MOS) is used.0 Above 4.0 QoS value Poor Fair Good Excellent Table 70: QoS of voice services .2.0 to 4. Dedicated and common UTRAN resources can be dynamically assigned depending on traffic measurements or load. For further discussion on the MOS performance of various AMR codec rates see . for details see also ITU P. In the PDP Context Activation Request message the UE can optionaly request pre-defined QoS profiles as specified in .
In case of real time applications like video streaming or web radio the drop will be noticed by the user if the buffer of the application is emptied and no new data is received.3. For the user the drop of the RRC and RAB is visible by stalling of the FTP transfer for the particular timeframe and because of low throughput rates. Another difference when describing the PS data user perceived QoS is that a drop of the RAB and RRC connection does not (necessarily) mean that the PDP Context is removed from the GGSN or the FTP session drops. UDP.1) TCP configuration like TCP window size or MSS (see subsection 6. For most Microsoft platforms.2. identification and fixes for improvement UE state Chosen RB Reported failures of the transport network (subsection 6.14. After the new establishment of the RRC connection and the new establishment of the RAB the FTP session can be resumed in case the session has not timed out in between. It might be that the application will re-start with codecs requiring lower bandwidth to fill the internal buffer again.5).14) Reported BLER in UL and/or DL (subsection 7.1 and 6. the PPP compression is an available option in the PPP settings of the dial-up networking.g.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.13) Problems detected on the RLC layer e.1 Date: 2007-06-08 threshold). The throughput of a FTP transfer is measured by Ethereal  and visualised by tcptrace  is low. RTP and IP header . In addition also the PDCP layer is providing header compression for e. Furthermore a smaller RB can be assigned in case of overload estimations done by the RNC (subsection 6. • • • • • • • • Failure symptoms. Simple FTP-download tests of files with the size of 1MB in the UMTS networks has shown that the throughput for zipped binary files is around 25% less compared with the ASCII files.1).17. On the PPP link of the PS data session the TCP/IP header and data can be compressed resulting in a throughput increase. The RNC may or may not react on this Measurement Report by doing a RB reconfiguration (see subsection 5.) One example of an (graphical) analysis is shown in Figure 35 below.4. delay due to non-optimal RLC queue. retransmission on RLC etc.2. TCP.1 and the remarks in the appendix of this document) Retransmission on TCP layer PPP/PDCP compression used/not-used. . RLC retransmission or RLC resets (subsection 6. 7. Usage of zipped files/unzipped ASCII files For analysing low PS data performance the following has to be considered: The analysis should follow a top-down-approach: • • First the end-to-end data performance should be investigated Then delay measurements should be done indicating the source of the performance degradation (e.g.03 Rev: 2.g. The root cause for the non-optimal performance is ConC: UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 98 of 106 .
Iu and Gn interface it is possible to make similar delay plots for the particular interfaces. using Actix . It is possible to cross-correlate the UE Ethereal traces with Ethereal traces recorded at the FTP server and also with RF data like Ec/No or Active Set Update messages recorded by the UE by e. Another example for an end-to-end analysis is shown in Figure 36 below. In that way FTP performance degradations can be linked to handover problems. in addition TCP retransmission caused by SDU discards on RLC are shown in the right part of the picture (see also subsection 6.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Figure 35: FTP performance degradation caused by ConC The FTP throughput is the gradient of the curve.1). When the traces are recorded by different mechanisms.03 Rev: 2.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. the picture is visualising the delay of an ICMP ping between Internet server and PC client for UL and DL separately. The trace was recorded with Ethereal .g. bad radio conditions in terms of Ec/No or neighbour definition problems. This will unveil where the high delay peaks are coming from and will give indications of how to improve the end-to-end performance. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 99 of 106 . Furthermore by tracing on the Iub. Otherwise tools like Actix can do event-based cross correlation.14. it might be necessary to correlate the PC clocks by using time synchronisation see also subsection B in the appendix.
03 Rev: 2. As expected the delay is very small and don’t have a big impact on the overall delay.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. This trace was recorded using a Tektronix K12 protocol tracer.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Figure 36: end-to-end delay of an ICMP ping For the same measurement the delay on the Gn interface were also measured as shown in Figure 37 below. Figure 37: delay measured on the Gn interface Table 72 below is listing the identification triggers in network interface traces: UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 100 of 106 .
is exLucent’s LVAT. it does not layout the algorithm and calibration of the MOS and hence that remains vendor propriatry.2. For voice QoS parameter the metric of subsection 7. Table 74 below is listing the formulas to retrieve the other QoS parameters for VT: KPI Call completion success rate VT [%] Block call rate VT [%] Dropped calls VT [%] Call setup success rate VT [%] Counter / KPI NoSuccCompletedCallsVT / NoSuccSetupCallsVT * 100 (NoSetupFailedCallsVT . One Tool that can provide the quality assessment of the video samples.2. Statistic counted per TCP session Table 72: Identification of QoS issues for data service Table 73 below is listing the data QoS parameter including the trigger points for identifying non-optimal performance: KPI PDP context activation failure [%] PDP context activation time [s] PDP context cut off rate [%] FTP cut off rate [%] FTP throughput [kbit/s] Ping delay [s] HTTP failures [%] RB Assignment Success Rate [%] Counter / KPI NoUnsuccessfulPDPActivation / NoPDPActivationAtt * 100 t_pdp_activation_complete – t_pdp_request NoPDPLosses / NoSuccessInitiatedPDP * 100 NoFTPLosses / NoSuccessStartedFTP * 100 UserDataTransferred [kbit] / (t_ftpend – t_ftpstart) RTT of a ICMP with a payload of 32 bytes NoSuccHTTPTasks / NoHTTPTasksStarted *100 NoSuccAssignedRB / NoRequestedRB * 100 Table 73: QoS of data services – KPIs 7. Statistic counted per TCP session Number of occurrences of TCP retransmissions.4.03 Rev: 2.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. QoS – VT service For VT calls the QoS consists of voice and video quality.SetupFailedCallNoNetworkVT) / NoCallAttVT *100 NoDroppedCallsVT / NoSuccSetupCallsVT * 100 NoSuccCallSetupVT / NoCallAttVT * 100 Table 74: QoS of VT services – KPIs UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 101 of 106 .1 Date: 2007-06-08 Problem TCP reset TCP retransmission TCP SACKs Trace TCP TCP TCP Trigger Number of occurrences if the REST flag of the TCP options is set to TRUE. Although there is an ITU standard that defines the framework of video quality measurement . as a MOS value. Statistic counted per TCP session Number of SACK.2 is used.
Measurement definition A. Network detach and pause of around 10 seconds Network attach Mobile Terminating Call (MTC). It is recommended to do testing via scripts. The data test call sequence should be as follows: • • • • • 19 Network attach and PDP context activation FTP download of three times 2 MB file. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 102 of 106 .g. A. duration 2 minutes. big hotels or airports. Measurement definition – voice For voice services the UMTS UE in the drive test van should call an ISDN line in the PLMN because otherwise it is hard to distinguish if the first or the second mobile is responsible for observed failures or also for voice quality degradations. but can also be made with tools like 19 cygwin providing a full Linux command shell environment  .03 Rev: 2. Data scripts are supported by most of the drive test tools. For security reasons a special test APN should be used. alternating speech sample from the UE to the PLMN and vice versa. 5 seconds pause in between Pause of 20 seconds The original DOS FTP client should be used instead the FTP client from cygwin (/usr/bin/ftp). In parallel the RF conditions of the UE and the neighbouring cells should be recorded using the drive test tool and a 3G and 2G scanner in parallel. The voice test call sequence for the UMTS UE in the drive test van should be as follows: • • • • • • Network attach Mobile Originating Call (MOC). The FTP throughput should be measured in motion and in addition also stationary in case that there are some “Hot Spots” inside the UMTS cluster e.exe” in the scripts.1. duration 2 minutes. This will help the RF planner to analyse the failure and propose additional network changes.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. 5 seconds pause in between Pause of 20 seconds FTP download of three times 2 MB file. Network detach and pause of around 10 seconds The used drive test equipment should be capable of do generating this measurement sequence automatically. the advantage being the repeatability leading to ease of comparison and analysis. railway stations.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Appendix A. alternating speech sample from UE to the PLMN and vice versa.2. This can be achieved by defining a variable called FTP_CMD = “c:\winnt\system32\ftp. Measurement definition – data When doing KPI performance verification of data services the FTP server should be directly connected to the GGSN to avoid any latency and delay caused by the Internet.
For measuring the maximum possible throughput on a radio link UDP shall be used because TCP retransmission might give an incorrect picture of the bandwidth capability. Gn and Gi there is no compression and ciphering used so using the particular tracing equipment can identify the ASCII payload. In parallel the RF conditions should be recorded.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. Note that on Iu. The settings can be set for Windows PCs in the registry or with help of shareware tools like . Iub or Iu traces to detect retransmission on TCP or RLC. TCP window size of the sending entity should be large enough so the RLC queue in the RNC is not going into underrun. Table 75 below is listing the default TCP/IP parameter that should be used during the testing: Entity Client Server Feature SACK TCP window size PDCP compression PPP compression Starting MSS ICMP packet size MSS Setting Set to TRUE 35 kbyte Short description SACK allows the receiver to inform the sender about all segments that are successfully received The TCP window is the amount of outstanding data a sender can send before it gets an acknowledgment for the receiving entity When doing root cause analysis the feature should be disabled When doing root cause analysis the feature should be disabled The amount of TCP/IP packets sent by the sending entity at the beginning. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 103 of 106 . The actual TCP/IP packet size used might be smaller if Internet router is segmenting the packets Client/server Client/server Server Disable Disable 4 packets Client 40 byte Client/server 960 byte Table 75: Default TCP/IP parameter settings used for testing The TCP/IP settings can be verified using Ethereal. For that reason it is helpful to measure the amount of “in-flight-packets” to calculate the right settings for the TCP window size. special prepared ASCII files shall be used.03 Rev: 2. Further packets will be send after reception of the first TCP ACK To measure the ICMP RTT an IP packet should be sent with the size of 40 byte (8 byte header plus 32 byte payload) The MSS should be 960 byte resulting in a MTU of 1000 byte (= MSS + 20 byte TCP header + 20 byte IP header). The TCP configuration of the client PC and the server should be comparable with the settings most common used by “normal” UMTS subscribers and in the Internet. PDP context deactivation and pause of around 10 seconds For troubleshooting purposes it might be necessary to record the TCP/IP protocol analyser as Ethereal on both the UE and the FTP server side . 5 seconds pause in between Network detach. This will ease the identification of each single packet in Ethereal. For UNIX and Linux operating systems the settings can be set in the corresponding configuration files. In case ciphering on RLC/MAC and data compression on PPP/PDCP are not used.1 Date: 2007-06-08 • • FTP upload of three times 1 MB file.
zipped data shall be used to avoid irregular throughput measurements. Figure 38 below is showing a snapshot of the Ethereal protocol analyser: Figure 38: Ethereal protocol analyser UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 104 of 106 . Finally care should be taken that no other application on the PC are generating any unnecessary network traffic.1 Date: 2007-06-08 The special ASCII files should contain only one (!) line and as an example the following sequence: “umts000000000umts000000001umts000000002umts000000003umts0000000 04umts000000005umts000000006 …” In case PPP data compression is on.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.03 Rev: 2.
duration 2 minutes. alternating speech sample from UE 1 to UE 2 and vice versa. Pause of around 10 seconds Mobile Terminating Call (MTC). There are many possibilities to synchronise clocks of the particular measurement PC like NTP.3. this will minimise possible failure causes for this second UE and help the RF planner at the root cause analysis. Measurement definition – VT For VT one mobile should be located in the drive test van. It has to be verified if the application running on the PC has to be restarted in order to retrieve the updated time. Furthermore it is possible to configure the Tardis2000 NTP client that it adjusts its internal clock within a predefined time frame.Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04. One software that can be used for time synchronisation is Tardis2000 . the other mobile should be stationary located close to a UMTS site outside the UMTS cluster under test. So the full measurement sequence for the VT should be as follows: • • • • Mobile Originating Call (MOC). Figure 39 below is showing the measurement setup for analysing PS data services when doing drive testing in a van. UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 105 of 106 . The measurement sequence should be the same as defined for voice calls except that a network attach/detach is not necessary because this is service independent. duration 2 minutes. It can be configured as a NTP server and NTP client or using GPS. Under no circumstances NTP should be used via an UMTS link because NTP is not designed for wireless network showing a high variance on the lower protocol layer like RLC. Figure 40 for doing VT testing in a lab. alternating speech sample from UE 1 to UE 2 and vice versa Pause of around 10 seconds. B.1 Date: 2007-06-08 A.03 Rev: 2. GPS or also using a radio clock available in some European countries. Time synchronisation of measurement traces When collecting traces from different interfaces it might be necessary to ensure rd time synchronisation to enable a 3 party software like Actix to do the crosscorrelation.
Document name: UMTS RF Troubleshooting Guideline U04.1 Date: 2007-06-08 Figure 39: Measurement setup for PS data analysis in a van Uu (cabled) Stationary voice/VT evaluation drive test equipment 2nd mobile in shadowing box Uu (cabled) Iub Iu Mobile voice evaluation drive test equipment Fading simulator NodeB RNC CN UMTS protocol analyser Local NTP server Figure 40: Measurement setup for VT testing in the lab UMTS Network Performance Engineering Page 106 of 106 .03 Rev: 2.
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