2010

Amity Institute Of Information Technology Saket Kumar Pathak M.Sc. NT & M

Optical Technology
An introductory detail of the topics – subtopics defined as well as designed throughout the syllabus with possible explanatory diagrams and pictorial representation.

Optical Fiber Communication

Q. No. 1. Difference Between LEDs and Lasers LEDs
LEDs are semiconductor diode that converts applied voltage to light and is used in lamps and digital displays. LEDs are made from compound semiconductor materials such as gallium arsenide (GaAs), gallium phosphide (GaP), gallium arsenide-phosphide (GaAsP). A LED is basically just a specialized type of P-N junction diode, made from a thin chip of fairly heavily doped semiconductor material. The color of the light emitted, in the case is visible light.

Lasers

Laser diode is formed from a p-n junction and powered by injected electric current.

The former devices are sometimes referred to as Injection Laser Diodes Laser diodes form a subset of the larger classification of semiconductor p-n junction diodes. The key parameter for a laser diode is the threshold current, which is the forward current level where lasing actually begins to occur. Another important parameter is the rated light output, which is the highest recommended light output level for reliable continuous operation. Laser’s light output is coherent; it is very low in noise and also more suitable for use as a carrier for data communications. Although most of the laser diodes used in electronic equipment are capable of causing damage to a human or animal eye, and particularly to its light-sensitive retina. Infra-red (IR) lasers are especially capable of causing eye damage, because their light is not visible. A laser diode is a laser where the active medium is a semiconductor similar to that found in a light-emitting diode.

LEDs are intended to operate only in forward conduction mode, and should not be subjected to reverse voltage. LEDs light output isn’t coherent, it is comparatively high in noise and hence not suitable for use as a carrier for data communications. The bandwidth also tends to be wider than Lasers, making them not suitable for optical systems. An LED is often small in area (less than 1 mm2), and integrated optical components may be used to shape its radiation pattern. LEDs present many advantages as lower energy consumption, longer lifetime, smaller size, faster switching, and greater durability and reliability. Light-emitting diodes or LEDs are now very widely used in almost every area of electronics, mainly as indicator and display devices in effect, solid state lamps.

A laser diode is formed by doping a very thin layer on the surface of a crystal wafer.

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Q. No. 2.Structures of LEDs and Differences
 LEDs (Light Emitting Diode) To achieve a high radiance and high quantum efficiency, the LED structure must provide a means of confining the charge carriers and the stimulated optical emission to the active region of the “pn junction” where radiative recombination takes place.

To achieve carrier and optical confinement, LED configurations such as “Homojunctions” and “Double Heterojunctions” have been widely investigated. The most effective of these predominantly in use at this time; is the configuration referred as “Double Heterojunctions”.

Homojunction LED:    Nonradiative recombination due to surface states Self-absorption with a thick p-layer Recombination not confirned

The processes occurring in a junction LED can be divided into three stages. The 1st is the excitation or injection process, in which the energy of carrier is raised by forward bias injection. Next is the recombination process, during which most of these carriers give up their excess energy photons. Finally, the generated photons must leave the semiconductor and provide the desired optical stimulus to the eye or produce a photocurrent in a

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detector. This is the extraction process. These processes have a characteristics efficiency, and the over all device efficiency, η(0), may then be expressed as η (0) = η(in) η(r) η(e) where; η(0) is external conversion efficiency, η(in) is injection, η(r) is radiative recombination, η(e) is extraction efficiency.

Double Heterojunctions:

 Top n+ -GaAs and bottom p+ -GaAs for ohmic contacts
  A well is etched into n+ -GaAs Back metal contact reflects backward light.

This configuration evolved from earlier studies on laser diodes. By means of this sandwich structure of differently composed alloy layers, both the carriers and the optical field are confirmed in the central active layer. The band-gap differences of adjacent layers confine the charge carriers (fig. b), while the differences in the indices of refraction of adjoining layer confine the optical field to the central active layer (fig. c). This dully confinement leads to both high efficiency and high radiance. Other parameter influencing the device performance includes, optical absorption in the active region (self-absorption), carrier recombination at the heterostructure interface.

Q. No. 3.Performance of LEDs (Distributed and Fabry-Perote)
 Fabry-Perote Resonator: In laser diode Fabry-Perot resonator, a pair of flat partially reflecting mirrors are directed toward each other to enclose to cavity. The mirror facets are constructed by making two parallel cleaves along natural cleavage planes of the semiconductor crystal. The purpose of these mirrors is to provide strong optical feedback in the longitudinal direction, thereby converting the device into an oscillator with a gain mechanism that compensates for optical losses in the cavity. The laser cavity can have many resonant frequencies. The device will oscillate (by emitting light) at those resonant frequencies for which the gain is sufficient to overcome the losses. The sides of the cavity are simply formed by roughening the edge of the device to reduce unwanted emissions in the directions.

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Fabry-Perote Laser Diode

Distributed Feedback Laser Diode  Distributed Feed-Back: Another laser diode type, commonly referred to as the distributed-feedback (DFB) laser, the cleaved facets are not required for optical feedback. The fabrication is obtained from Bragg reflectors (gratings) or periodic variations of refractive index called distributedFeedback corrugations which are incorporated into the multilayer structure along the length of the diode.

Q. No. 4.Principle of Laser diodes (population inversion)
 The term “laser” is an acronym for (L)ight (A)mplification by (S)timulated (E)mission of
(R)adiation. To understand the laser, one needs to understand the meaning of these terms. The term “light” is generally accepted to be electromagnetic radiation ranging from 1 nm to 1000 mm in wavelength. The visible spectrum (what we see) ranges from approximately 400 to 700 nm. The wavelength range from 700 nm to 10 mm is considered the near infrared (NIR), and anything beyond that is the far infrared (FIR). Conversely, 200 to 400 nm is called ultraviolet (UV); below 200 nm is the deep ultraviolet (DUV). Principles of Laser Diodes:

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The GaAIAs Laser Diode consists of a double hetero junction formed by a Gal-YAIYAs active layer surrounded by P-type and N-type Gal-, AlxAs cladding layers, where x y, when a bias voltage is applied In the forward direction, electrons and holes are Injected into the active layer. Since the band gap energy is greater in the cladding layers than in the active layer, the injected electrons and holes are prevented from diffusing across the junction by the potential barriers formed between the active layer and cladding layers. The electrons and holes confined to the active layer create a state of population Inversion, allowing the amplification of light by stimulated emission. The light amplification gains across the hetero action. The high refractive Index of the active layer, as compared to the cladding layers, serves to confine the emitted light to propagation within the active layer. The confinement of the charge carriers and the emitted light are the keys to highly efficient laser diodes. Population Inversion:  Non equilibrium distribution of atoms among the various energy level atomic system  To induce more atoms in E2, i.e. to create population inversion, a large amount of energy is required to excite atoms to E2  The excitation process of atoms so N2 > N2 is called pumping  It is difficult to attain pumping when using two-level-system.  Require 3-level system instead

As the above fig.

 In actual case, excite atoms from E1 to E3.  Exciting atoms from E1 to E3à optical pumping  Atoms from E3 decays rapidly to E2 emitting hυ
3

 If E2 is a long lived state, atoms from E2 will not decay to E1 rapidly  Condition where there are a lot of atoms in E2 àpopulation inversion
achieved! i.e. between E2 and E1.

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Q. No. 5. Power Launching and Coupling
Launching optical power from a source into a fiber entails considerations such as numerical aperture, core size, refractive-index profile, and core cladding index difference of the fiber, plus the size, radiance, and angular power distribution of the optical source. A measure of the amount of optical power emitted from a source that can be coupled into a fiber is usually given by the efficiency η defined as:

η =P(F)/P(S)

Here, P(F) is power coupled into fiber and P(S) is the power emitted from the light source. The launching and coupling efficiency depends on the type of fiber that is attached to the source and on the coupling process.

In practice, manysource suppliers offer deviceswith a short length optical fiber (1m or less) already attached in a optimum power coupling configuration. This section of fiber is generally referred as “Flylead” or “Pigtail”. The effect to be considered in this case include: • • • • • • Types of fiber attached to source. Coupling process. Fiber misalignment. Different core-size. Numerical aperture. Core refractive-index profile.

In case of numerical aperture difference with the source beam profile, B(θ) = Bo Cosθ Where, θ = Direction away from the axis, Bo = Intensity on the axis.

The power coupled into a step index fiber, Pf = Ps (NA)² ;if r<a

(a/r)² Ps (NA)² ; if r>a

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Where, r and a are the source and fiber radial dimensions.

When the size of the source is smaller than that of the fiber and is in close contact with the fiber and the coupling efficiency becomes,

η =P(F)/P(S) = (NA)²

Q. No. 6. Types of photo detectors, Avalanche and Pin Photo-diode  Avalanche photodiodes (APDs):
APDs internally multiply the primary signal photocurrent before it enters the input circuitry of the following amplifier. This increase receiver sensitivity, since the photocurrent is multiplied before encountering the thermal noise associated with the receiver circuit. In order for carrier multiplication to take place, the photo generated carriers must traverse a region a photo generated electron or hole can gain enough energy so that it ionizes bound electrons in the valence band upon colliding with them. This carrier multiplication mechanism is known as “Impact Ionization”. The newly created carriers are also accelerated by the high electric field, thus gaining enough energy to cause further impact ionization. This phenomenon is the “Avalanche Effect”.

Reach-Through Avalanche Photo-Detector The term “reach-through” arises from the photodiode operation. When a low reverce-bias voltage is applied, most of the potential drop is across the pn+ junction. The depletion layer widens with increasing bias until a certain voltage is reached at which the peak electric field at the junction is about 5% to 10% below that needed to cause avalanche breakdown. At this point depletion layer just “reaches through” to the nearly intrinsic region.

 pin – Photodiodes Amity Institute Of Technology Page 8

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The most common semiconductor photo detector is the pin photodiode. The device structure consists of p and n regions separated by a very lightly n-doped intrinsic (i) region. In normal operation a sufficiently large reverse-bias voltage is applied across the device so that the intrinsic region is fully depleted of carriers. That is, the intrinsic n and p carrier concentration are negligibly small in comparison with the impurity concentration in this region.

When an incident photon has energy greater than or equal to the band-gap energy of the semiconductor material, the photon can give up its energy and excite an electron from the valence band to the conduction band. This process generates photon-carriers. The photo detector is normally designed so that these carriers are generated mainly in the depletion region where most of the incident light is absorbed. The high electric field present in the depletion region causes the carriers to separate and be collected across the reverse-bias junction. This gives rise to a current flow in an external circuit, with one electron flowing for every carrier pair generated. This current flow is known as the photocurrent.

Q. No. 7. Optical Receiver (Design and Diagram)

 The main component of an optical receiver is a photo detector, which converts light into electricity using the photoelectric effect. The photo detector is typically a semiconductor-based photodiode. Several types of photodiodes include p-n photodiodes, a p-i-n photodiodes, and avalanche photodiodes. Metalsemiconductor-metal (MSM) photo detectors are also used due to their suitability for circuit integration in regenerators and wavelength-division multiplexers.
Basic Optical Receiver Front-End

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Requirements  General:    Low-noise electronics for optical to electrical signal conversion Short to medium haul application 2+ Gbps data rate

 Input side:

 InGaAs Photodiode with junction capacitance ~ 100 ff’s
 Optical powers ranging from -20 to +10 dBm, causing input currents from 10uA to 10mA

 Output side:   Drive a capacitive load representing subsequent MOSFET gate Digital signal RZ-type output

Photo detection is the process of conversion from optical to electrical domain. A block diagram of the GMRT optical receiver is shown in following fig.. The basic detector is a reverse biased p-n junction diode. In this bias condition a reverse leakage current (the dark current) flows. The other important characteristic of a photo-detector is its responsively . The responsively is a measure of the efficiency with which light is converted to electrical current and it is related to the width of the depletion region of the diode and to the spectral response of the receiver. A larger depletion region leads to a better responsively. PIN diode detectors made of InGaAsP and grown on InP are popular photo-detectors as they have low dark currents and high responsively.

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Q. No. 8.Sonet (OC1, OC3, TDM, Frame size (9*9*8)), Sonet SDH
 With the advent of fiber optic transmission lines, the next step in the evolution of the TDM scheme which was the standard signal format called SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) or SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy).

Sonet frame are 2D structure consisting of 90 columns by 9 bytes, where one byte is 8 bits. Here, in standard SONET technology, a section connects adjacent pieces of equipment, a line is a longer link that two SONET devices, and a path is a complete endto-end connection. The fundamental SONET frame has a 125 µs duration. Thus the transmission bit rate of the basic SONET signal is;

STS-1

= (90 bytes/row) (9 rows/frame) (8 bits/byte)/(125 µs/frame)

= 51.84 Mb/s

9 rows Of Bytes

3 Columns Section and line overhead

90 Columns of Bytes 1 Column Path overhead Synchronous payload envelope (SPE)

87 Columns

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This is called an STS-1 signal, where STS stands for synchronous transport signal. All other SONET signals are integer multiples of this rate, so that STS-N signal modulate an optical source, the logical STS-N signal is first scrambled to avoid long string of ones and zeros and to allow easier clock recovery at the receiver. After under going electrical-tooptical conversion the resultant physical layer optical-signal is called OC-N, where OC stands for Optical carrier.

In SDH the basic rate is equivalent to STS-3 or 155.52 mb/s, this is called “Synchronous transport module – level-1”. Higher rates are designated by STS-M. Values of M supported by IUT-T as, M = 1, 4, 16, 64. These are equivalent to SONET OC-N signals, where N = 3M. Analogous to SONET, SDH first scrambles the logical signal. In contrast to SONET, SDH doesn’t distinguish between a logical electrical signal and a physical optical signal, so that both signal types are designated by STM-M. Following we have a list of commonly used values. SONET level Electrical level OC-1 OC-3 OC-12 OC-24 OC-48 OC-96 OC-192 STS-1 STS-3 STS-12 STS-24 STS-48 STS-96 STS-192 Line rate (Mb/s) 51.84 155.52 622.08 1244.16 2488.32 4976.64 9953.28 SDH equivalent STM-1 STM-4 STM-8 STM-16 STM-32 STM-64

Optical Interfaces: The SONET/SDH specifications provide details for the optical source characteristics, the receiver sensitivity and transmission distances for various types of fibers. 6 Transmission ranges are defined as following, with different terminology for SONET/SDH.

Transmission Distance ≤ 2 km 15 km 40 km at 1310 nm 80 km at 1550 nm 120 km at 1550 nm

SONET Technology Short – reach Intermediate reach Long – reach

SDH Terminology Intra-office Short – Haul Long Haul

Very Long – Haul

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160 km at 1550 nm Ultra long – Haul

The optical fiber generally fall into the following 3 categories and operation windows:

1.

Graded – Index multimode in the 1310-nm window.

2. Conventional non-dispersion-shifted single-mode in 1310 nm and 1550 nm window. 3. Dispersion-Shifted single – mode in the 1550 nm window.

SONET/SDH Networks: An important SONET/SDH network element is the add/drop multiplexer (ADM). This piece of equipment is a fully synchronous, byte-oriented multiplexer that is used to add and drop sub channels within an OC-N signals.

As in the following figure, various OC-12 and OC-3 are multiplexed into an OC-48 stream. Upon entering an ADM, these sub-channels can be individually dropped by the ADM and others can be added. One OC-12 and two OC-3 channels enter the left-most ADM as part of an OC-48 channel. The OC-12 is passed through and two OC-3 are dropped by the first ADM. Then, two more OC-12 and one OC-3 are multiplexed together with the OC-12 channel that is passing through and the aggregate OC-48 is sent to another ADM node downstream.

Q. No. 9. WDM, Types of coupling, Operational Principle, 2x2 coupler

(Splitting Ration), Start Coupler, Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Multiplexers.
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 The technology of combining a number of wavelengths onto the same fiber is known as “Wave-Length Division Multiplexing” or WDM. Conceptually, the WDM scheme is the same as FDM used in microwave radio and satellite systems. The key system features of WDM are as follows:

o

Capacity Upgrade: - The classical application of WDM has been to upgrade the capacity of existing point-to-point fiber optic transmission links that can increase the capacity of fiber network dramatically. Transparency: - An important aspect of WDM is that, each optical channel can carry any transmission format. Thus, by using different wavelengths, fast or slow asynchronous or synchronous digital data and analog information can be sent simultaneously and independently, over the same fiber channel. Wavelength routing: - wavelength sensitive optical routing devices using multiple wavelengths to increase link capacity and flexibility, and treats wavelength as another dimension in addition to time and space. Wavelength routed networks use the actual wavelength of a signal as the intermediate or final address. Wavelength Switching: - Wavelength routed networks are based on a rigid fiber infrastructure, wavelength-switched architectures allow reconfigurations of optical layers. Key components for implementing these networks include optical add/drop multiplexer, optical cross connects and add/drop multiplexers.

o

o

o

Operational Principle In standard point-to-point links a single fiber line has one optical source at its transmitting end and one photo detector at the receiving end. Signal from different light sources use separate and uniquely assigned optical fiber. Since an optical source has narrow line width, these types of transmission make use of narrow portion of the transmission bandwidth capacity of a fiber.

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The above fig. depicts the attenuation of light in a silica fiber as a function of wavelength. The curve shows that the two low-loss signal regions of a single mode fiber extends over the wavelength ranging from about 1270nm to 1350nm (i.e. 14 THz, the 1310-nm secondwindows) and 1480nm – 1600nm (i.e. 15 THz, the 1550nm third-windows).

In the above fig. various type of optical amplifiers are used. At the transmitting end, there are several independently modulated light sources each emitting signals at a unique wavelength. Here a multiplexer is needed to combine these optical outputs into a serial spectrum of closely spaced wavelength signals and couple them onto a single fiber. At the receiving end, a de-multiplexer is required to separate the optical signals into appropriate detection channels for signal processing.

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The 2X2 fiber couplers On discussing couplers and splitters, it is to refer in terms of the number of input and output ports on the device. Hence a device with 2 inputs and 2 outputs would be called as “2X2 coupler”, similarly N*M coupler has N inputs and M outputs.

In following fig. a common construction is the fused fiber coupler. This is fabricated by twisting together, melting and pulling two single mode fibers so they get fused together over a uniform section of length ‘W’. Each input and output fiber has a long tapered section of length ‘L’, since the transverse dimensions are gradually reduced down to that of coupling region when the fibers are pulled to fusion process. The total draw length is L+W. This device is known as fused bi-conical tapered coupler. Here P0 is the input power, P1 is the throughput power and P2 is the power coupled into the second fiber. The parameter P3 and P4 are extremely low signal level resulting from backward reflections and scattering due to bending in and packaging of the device.

Splitting Ratio: To specify the performance of optical coupler one usually indicates the percentage division of optical power between the output ports by means of ‘splitting ratio’. i.e. Splitting Ratio = (P2 / (P1 + P2)) * 100%

Excess Loss: It is defined as the ratio of input power to the total output power. i.e. Excess Loss = 10 log (P0 / (P1 + P2))

Insertion Loss: It refers to the loss for a particular port-to-port path. If the path of input has port ‘Pi’ to the path of output has port ‘Pj’, then

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Insertion Loss = 10 log (Pi / Pj)

Crosstalk: It measures the degree of isolation between the input at one port and the optical power scattered or reflected back into other the other input port. Hence the optical power level P3 as; Crosstalk = 10 log (P3 / P0)

Star Coupler: The principle role of star coupler is to combine the powers from N inputs and divide them equally among M output ports. The fiber-fusion technique has been a popular construction method for N X N star couplers. Following fig. shows, 8 X 8 device formed by using 12, 2 X 2 couplers. This device could be made from either fused fiber or integrated optic components. Similarly as to construct 16 X 16 coupler we need 24, 2 X 2 interconnected couplers.

Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Multiplexers: Wavelength-dependent multiplexers can also be made using Mach-Zehnder interferometer technique. These devices either passive or active. As the following fig. of passive 2 X 2 MZI consists of three stages: an initial 3Db directional coupler which splits the input signals, a central signal where one of the waveguides is longer by ∆L to give a wavelength dependent phase shift between the two arms, and another 3Db coupler, which recombines the signal at the output. The function of this arrangement is that, by splitting the input beam and introducing a phase shift in one of the paths, the recombined signals with interfere constructively at one output and destructively at the other. The signals then finally emerge from only one output port.

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Q. No. 10.

Optical Attenuators, Optical Power meter and OTDR

 Optical Attenuators: Whenever a high optical signal level may need to be measured and the level is so high such that an strong output coming from the amplifier needs to be precisely attenuated before being measured. This is done to prevent instrument damage and to avoid overload distortion in measurements. Optical attenuators allow a user to reduce an optical signal level up to 60 dB in presice steps at a specified wavelength, which is usually 1310 nm or 1550 nm.

 Optical Power meter: Optical power measurement is the most basic function in fiber optic metrology. Handheld instruments come in wide variety of types in different levels of capabilities. Multi wavelength optical power meters that use photo-detectors are the most common instrument for measuring optical signal power level. In this versatile instrument various photo-detector heads that have different performance characteristics are available. As example, GE detector allows a measuring range of + 18 dBm to -60 dBm in 780 nm to 1600 nm wavelength band whereas an InGaAs detector allows a measuring range of + 3dBm to – 73 dBm in 840 nm to 1650 nm wavelength band.

 Optical Time-Domain Reflectometer (OTDR):
The long term workshop instrument in fiber optic system is the OTDR. In addition to locating faults, within an optical link, these instrument measures parameter such as attenuation, length, connector, splice losses and reflectance level. A typical OTDR consists of optical source and receiver, a data acquisition module, a CPU, an information

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storage unit for retaining data either in the internal memory or on an external disk and a display. An OTDR is fundamentally optical radar. It operates by periodically launching narrow laser pulses into one end of fiber under test by using either a directional coupler or a beam splitter. The properties of optical fiber link are then determined by analyzing the amplitude and temporal characteristics of waveform of the back scattering light.

Q. No. 11.

Fiber to Fiber joints and types, Fiber end Face

Preparation, Fiber-Related Losses
 Significant factor in any fiber optic system installation is the requirement to interconnect fibers in low – loss manner. A particular technique selected for joining fibers depends on whether a permanent bond or easily demounted connection is desired. A permanent bond is generally referred as to as a splice, whereas the demounted joint is known as a connector. These connections occurs at the following cases of interconnection: o o o o At the optical source. At the photo-detector. At the intermediate point within a cable, where two fibers are joined. At intermediate point within a link, where two cables are connected.

Every joining technique is subject to a certain conditions which can cause various amount of optical power loss at the joint. The parameters of these losses are: o o o o Input power distribution to joint. Length of fiber between optical source and joints. The geometric and waveguide characteristics of two fiber end at the joints. The fiber end faces quality.

Mechanical alignment is a major problem when joining two fibers, owing to their microscopic size. Radiation losses results from mechanical misalignment, because the radiation cone of the emitting fiber doesn’t match the acceptance cone of the receiving

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fiber. The magnitude of the radiation loss depends on the degree of misalignment. The three fundamental type of misalignment between fiber are:

o o o

Longitudinal separation, when the fibers have same axis and the gaps between them. Angular Alignment, when the two axis forms an angle so that the fiber end faces are no longer parallel. Axial displacement, when the axis of two fibers is separated by a distance. This is also known as lateral displacement.

Fiber End-Face Preparation: Before fibers are connected or spliced to each-other, it is necessary to prepare fiber end faces properly. In order not to have light deflected or scattered at the joint the fiber end must be flat, perpendicular to fiber axis and smooth. This end-face preparation technique that have been extensively used, include: o o o Sawing Gridding and Polishing Controlled fracture.

Conventional Gridding and Polishing techniques can produce a very smooth surface that is perpendicular to the fiber axis. This procedure employed is to use successively finer abrasives to polish the fiber. Each successive abrasive polish the end face of the fiber, until the scratches created by previous abrasive material are replaced by finer scratches of present abrasive. The number of abrasive used depends on the degree of smoothness that is desired.

Controlled fracture techniques are based on score-and-break methods for cleaving fibers. As in the following fig. in this operation, the fiber to be cleaved is first scattered to create stress concentration at the surface. The fiber is then bent over the curve form, while tension is simultaneously applied. This action is produces a stress distribution across the

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fiber. The maximum stress occurs at the scratch point so that a crack starts to propagate through the fiber. If the stress distribution across the crack is not properly controlled, the fracture propagating across the fiber can fork into several cracks and can produce following action:

o o o o o o o

LIP: This is a sharp protrusion from the edge of cleaved fiber, that prevents the core from coming in close contact. Roll-Off: This rounding off of the edge of a fiber is opposite condition to lipping. Chip: A chip is a localized fracture or break at the end of a cleaved fiber. Hackle: This serve as irregularities across a fiber end face. Mist: This is similar to hackle but much less serve. Spiral or step: these are abrupt changes in the end-face surface topology. Shattering: This is the result of an uncontrolled fracture and has no definable cleavage or surface characteristics.

Q. No. 12.

Fiber Splicing, Fiber Connectors

 Fiber Splicing A fiber splice is a permanent or semi permanent joints between two fibers. These are typically used to create long optical links or in situation where frequent connection and disconnection is not needed. In making and evaluating such splices, one must consider following factors: o o o The geometrical distances between two fibers. Fiber misalignment at the joint. The mechanical strength of the splice.

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Splicing Techniques include: o o o The fusion splice The V-Groove mechanical splice. The elastic tube splice.

The fusion splice are made by thermal bonding together prepared fiber ends, as in following fig.. Here the fiber ends are first pre-aligned and butted together, by microscope and micro-manipulators. The Butt-joint is heated with an electric arc or a laser pulse, so that a fiber laser are momentarily melted and hence bounded together. This technique can produce very low splice losses (less than 0.06dB).

The V-Groove mechanical splice technique, the prepared fiber ends are first butted together in a V-shaped groove, as shown in following fig.. They are then bounded together by means of a cover plate. The V-shaped channel can be either a grooved silicon, plastic ceramic or metal sub-striate. The splice loss depends on the fiber size and electricity.

The elastic tube splice is a unique device that automatically performs lateral, longitudinal, and angular alignment. This mechanism is basically elastic material. The central hole diameter is slightly smaller than that of fiber to be spliced and is tapered in each end for easy fiber insertion. When a fiber is inserted, it expands the whole diameter so that the elastic material exerts a symmetrical force on the fiber. This symmetry feature allows an accurate and automatic alignment of axes of the two fibers to be joined. Thus the fiber to be spliced does not have to be equal in diameter, since each fiber moves into position independently and relative to the tube axis.

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 Fiber Connectors A wide variety of optical fiber connectors has evolved for numerous different applications. Some of the principle requirements of a good connector design are as:

o

Low coupling losses: The connector assembly must maintain stringent alignment tolerance to assure low mating losses. These low losses may not change frequently. Interchangeability: Connectors of the same type must be from one manufacturer to another. Easy to assembly: A service technician should readily be able to install the connectors in field environment. Low Environmental sensitivity: Conditions such as temperature, dust, and moisture, should have a small effect on connector loss variation. Low cost and reliable connection: the connector must have a precision suitable to the application, but its cost must not be major factor in the fiber system. Easy to connect: One should be able to connect or disconnect the connectors simply by hand.

o o o o

o

Connector are available in screw–on, bayonet-mount and push pull configuration. The basic coupling mechanisms used in these connectors belong to either “the butt-joint” or “the expanded-beam classes”.

Butt-joint connectors employ a metal, ceramic or molded plastic ferrule for each fiber and precision sleeve into which the ferrule fit. The fiber epoxies into a precision hole which has been drilled into the ferrule. As in the following fig. two popular butt joined alignment designed in both multimode and single mode fiber systems. These are “straight sleeve” and “tapered sleeve” mechanism.

o

In fig.(a) straight-sleeve connector the length of the sleeve and the guide ring of the ferrule determine the end separation of the fibers.

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o
The tapered sleeve or bi-conical connector i.e. fig.(b) uses a tapered sleeve to accept or guide tapered ferrules. Again the sleeve length and the guide rings maintain a given fiber end separation.

An expanded-beam connector as in the following fig., employs lens on the end of fiber. These lenses focus the expanded beam onto the core of receiving fiber. The fiber-to-lens distance is equal to the focal length of the lens. The advantage is that, since the beam collimated, the separation of fiber ends may take place within the connector.

Q. No. 13.

Eye Pattern

 Eye Patterns are used to detect and access data handling capacity of digital
transmission system. they are made in time domain and allows the effect of waveform distortion to be shown immediately on the oscilloscope the key features of eye pattern including the following opening and width of eye 20 to 80 % rise and all times over shoot (spike) on logic 1's and 0's under shoot on a logic 0 and jitter in the eye pattern pseudo random generator means that the signals are generated 1's and 0's at a uniform rate but in a random manner. This sequence of generated 1's and 0's are repeated randomly for test purposes.

Width of eye: width of an eye defines the time interval over which the received signal can be sampled without error

Height of eye: it is the vertical distance between the top of the eye opening and the maximum signal level. it is because of amplitude distortion.

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Optical Fiber Communication
Noise Margin: it is the percentage ratio of the peak signal voltage V1 for the alternative bit sequence as defined by the height of the eye opening to V2 so V1/V2 X 100%. V2 is the maximum threshold level time jitter or phase distortion. It arises from noise in the receiver and pulse distortion in the optical fiber. It is given by ∆T/Tb*100% Where, the ∆T is the amount of jitter time and Tb time taken by bit signal.

Rise time: defined as the time interval between the 10% of the final amplitude to the time taken by the pulse to reach 90% of the final amplitude.

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