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S03-04_USESFsheet

S03-04_USESFsheet

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Published by REBogart
Addendum to "Brittle Power"
Security for a typical year (2000)
Addendum to "Brittle Power"
Security for a typical year (2000)

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Published by: REBogart on Oct 21, 2008
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05/09/2014

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U.S.

Energy Security

facts
(for a typical year, 2000)

A MORY B. L OVINS , CEO, R OCKY M OUNTAIN I NSTITUTE
2 J UNE 2003
S UPPORTED B Y T HE O VERBROOK F OUNDATION , T HE J.M. K APLAN F UND , AND T HE C OMPTON F OUNDATION

★ Half of the oil used in the United States is imported. One-fourth of oil usage comes from OPEC countries, one-seventh from Arab OPEC countries, and one-eighth from Persian Gulf countries. ★ 15% of our net oil imports come from Saudi Arabia.
Of that, two-thirds rely on a single processing plant and two terminals. Each is vulnerable to sabotage or attack that would have long-lasting consequences.

★ OPEC’s cartel power to keep oil prices above competitive levels is estimated to
have cost the U.S. economy somewhere between $4 trillion and $14 trillion over the past 30 years. That’s roughly a year’s GDP .

★ Net oil imports cost the U.S. $109 billion in 2000.
In the 25 years from 1975 to 2000, the total was two trillion dollars.

★ The United States has 4.6% of the world’s population and produces 21% of Gross World Product. But it uses 26% of the world’s oil, produces 9%, and owns only 2–3%.
We can’t drill our way out of this one.

★ Americans pay as much for transportation fuels as for national defense. ★ U.S. light vehicles (cars and light trucks) use 70% of oil imports, or 2.9 times Persian Gulf imports, or nearly as much as Saudi
Arabia produces.

★ Model Year 2002 cars and light trucks hit a 22-year efficiency low.
Yet if they’d stayed the same in weight and peppiness as in 1981, they’d be 33% more efficient by now, displacing Persian Gulf oil 2.5 times over.

★ If the hydrogen now used to make gasoline and other fuels in U.S. refineries
instead fueled superefficient fuel-cell SUVs directly, they’d save a quarter of U.S. gasoline—twice as much as Persian Gulf oil supplies.

★ In peacetime, the cost of maintaining military forces earmarked for Persian Gulf intervention
costs approximately $60 billion a year — or $1.58 a gallon — paid through our taxes rather than at the pump.

U.S. Energy Security

facts
(for a typical year, 2000)

★ If forces with a Persian Gulf primary mission were motivated entirely by our
desire to protect access to Persian Gulf oil, the true cost of Persian Gulf oil would approach $100 per barrel.

★ Even in peacetime, the Pentagon is the world’s biggest buyer of refined oil products — enough to drive each U.S. car
coast-to-coast every 4 years. Fighting a Gulf war can use as much oil as we import from Kuwait or Iraq. For $7 billion—the amount of money spent by the United States on the 1991 Gulf War — we could have created energy efficiencies that would have eliminated our need for Persian Gulf oil.

★ Cost-effective windpower potential in the Dakotas
could make enough hydrogen to fuel (if efficiently used) all U.S. highway vehicles.

light vehicles (70%)
cars and light trucks

U.S. imported oil use
other uses (30%)

Source: EIA, Annual Energy Review 2001 (November 2002)

The Impact of Efficiency
★ Since 1975 the U.S. has doubled the economic activity wrung from each barrel of oil. ★ Overall U.S. energy savings, worth about $365 billion in 2000 alone, are effectively the nation’s biggest and fastest-growing major energy source — two-thirds bigger than total oil use, and
equivalent to 3 times oil imports or 12 times Gulf imports.

★ During 1977–1985, GDP rose 27%, oil use fell 17%, net oil imports fell 42%,
and imports from the Persian Gulf fell 87%. OPEC lost half its market, destroying its pricing power for a decade. If we’d repeated that 5.2% annual gain in oil productivity at the 2001 Presidential Inauguration, Persian Gulf

imports would have disappeared by May of 2003. ★ The key to the huge 1977–85 oil saving was Detroit’s 7.6-mile-per gallon improvement in new cars and light trucks, but in the 1990s light-vehicle
efficiency stagnated. A further improvement of 3.25 miles per gallon would displace all Persian Gulf imports. Two decades ago we were easily able to make that kind of gas mileage improvement, even as we improved safety, increased power, and reduced emissions.

★ If 27% of our nation’s cars were hybrid-electric models, all Persian Gulf imports would cease. The National Academy of
Sciences found in 2001 that our current 20.4-mpg fleet efficiency could be doubled with the adoption of safe, cost-effective, but efficient cars and light trucks.

★ Even at $1.25 a gallon, the lifetime fuel savings associated with trading
a 23 mile-per-gallon 1990 car for a new $21,000, 48-mpg, 5-seat compact hybrid car are equal to a lump-sum savings of $4,900 today. That $4,900 is equal to four times the trade-in value of the older car; by scrapping it we would gain cleaner air, a more stable climate, energy security, a reduced trade deficit, a stronger economy, and a reduced need for military expenditures in the Persian Gulf.
For more information contact: Rocky Mountain Institute • (970) 927-3128 • www.rmi.org

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