Basic Material

Schlumberger

Symbols Used in Log Interpretation

Gen-3

Gen
Resistivity of the zone Resistivity of the water in the zone Water saturation in the zone Mud Rm Adjacent bed Rs

hmc Rmc (Bed thickness) dh Mudcake h

Uninvaded zone Flushed zone Zone of transition or annulus Rt Rw Sw

R xo Rmf Sxo

di dj Adjacent bed (Invasion diameters) ∆rj dh Hole diameter

Rs

© Schlumberger

1-1

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Gen

Example: Bottomhole temperature (BHT) at 11,000 ft = 200°F (Point A) Temperature at 8000 ft = 167°F (Point B) Basic Material
© Schlumberger

Linear gradient assumed

Estimation of Formation Temperature

Gen-6

Basic Material

Schlumberger

Estimation of Rmf and Rmc

Gen-7

Direct measurements of filtrate and mudcake samples are preferred. When not available, filtrate resistivity, R mf , and mudcake resistivity, R mc , may be estimated from one of the following methods. Method 1 Lowe and Dunlap (Reference 36) For freshwater muds with mud resistivity, R m , in the range from 0.1 to 2.0 ohm-m at 75°F [24°C], and measured values of R m and mud density, ρm , in pounds per gallon: R  log  mf  = 0.396 − 0.0475 ρ m  Rm  Method 2 Overton and Lipson (Reference 1) For drilling muds with mud resistivity, R m , in the range from 0.1 to 10.0 ohm-m at 75°F [24°C], where K m is given as a function of mud weight in the table below:

Example: R m = 3.5 ohm-m at 75°F [24°C] Mud weight = 12 lbm/gal [1440 kg/m3] Therefore, K m = 0.584 R mf = (0.584)(3.5)1.07 = 2.23 ohm-m at 75°F R mc = 0.69(2.23)(3.5/2.23)2.65 = 5.07 ohm-m at 75°F The calculated value of R mf is more reliable than that of R mc.
Mud Weight lbm/gal 10 11 12 13 14 16 18 kg/m3 1200 1320 1440 1560 1680 1920 2160 Km 0.847 0.708 0.584 0.488 0.412 0.380 0.350

Gen

Method 3 R mf = K m ( R m )1.07 R  R mc = 0.69 ( R mf )  m   R mf 
2.65

A statistical approximation, for predominantly NaCl muds, is R mc = 1.5 R m , and R mf = 0.75 R m .

1-3

13 ohm-m at 85°C.e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? Gen The resistivity of a water sample can be estimated from its chemical analysis.000 ppm and 75°F (24°C). but if necessary. we find 0. what is the resistivity at 85°C? Enter the chart with 25°C and 0. Their intersection indicates a salinity of approximately 20. Basic Material © Schlumberger Resistivities of Solutions ion is multiplied by its weighting multiplier. For more information see Reference 2.000 ppm Na plus Cl. Concentrations are expressed in ppm or mg/kg. 1400 ppm SO4 and 19.3 ohm-m. An equivalent NaCl concentration determined by use of the chart below is entered into Chart Gen-9 to estimate the resistivity of the sample. Entering the chart below with this total solids concentration. Total solids concentration is 460 + 1400 + 19. Actual resistivity measurements are always preferred. Multiplying the concentration by the corresponding multipliers.000 = 20. The chart is entered in abscissa with the total solids concentration of the sample in ppm (mg/kg) to find weighting multipliers for the various ions present.81 as the Ca multiplier and 0. These units are numerically equal. and the products for all ions are summed to obtain equivalent NaCl concentration. It may also be used to convert resistivity from one temperature to another temperature. .3 ohm-m at 25°C. Example: A formation-water sample analysis shows 460 ppm Ca.81 + 1400 × 0. or to estimate the salinity when resistivity and temperature are known. the resistivity is found to be 0. the chart on the opposite page may be used to estimate the resistivity of a water sample at a given temperature when the salinity (NaCl concentration) is known. The concentration of each Example: Resistivity of a water sample is 0.3 at 75°F.000 ppm.860 ppm. the equivalent NaCl concentration is found as approximately 460 × 0. Gen-8 Entering the NaCl resistivity-salinity nomograph (Gen-9) with 20.45 + 19.45 as the SO4 multiplier. both by weight.000 × 1 ≈ 20. Moving along this constant salinity line yields a water sample resistivity of 0.000 ppm.

00 20. 00 00 80.3 0.00 0 0.0 120 00 . 250 000 280.77)/(T2 + 6. 000 40. 0 70.000 15. 140 000 .5)]°C Gen 100 300 0 400 0 500 0 600 0 700 0 800 0 10.02 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 4000 5000 300 .000 .6 0. 000 12.000 75 20 30 100 40 125 150 200 50 60 70 80 90 100 Temperature (°F or °C) 250 300 350 400 120 140 160 180 200 © Schlumberger NaCl concentration (ppm or grains/gal) 1-5 .5 0. 0 000 17.5)/(T2 + 21.01 °F 50 °C 10 10. 0 000 30.06 0.77)]°F or R2 = R1 [(T1 + 21. 200 000 .05 0.000 20.0 170 00 . 00 14. 0 00 100 0 .04 0.8 Resistivity of solution (ohm-m) 0. 000 50.2 700 800 100 0 120 0 140 0 170 0 200 0 Grains/gal at 75°F Conversion approximated by R2 = R1 [(T1 + 6.Basic Material Schlumberger Resistivity of NaCl Solutions Gen-9 10 8 6 5 4 3 2 ppm 200 10 300 400 500 600 15 20 25 30 40 50 1 0.00 0 150 200 250 300 400 500 0.08 0.1 0.03 0.4 0. 000 60.

resulting in a correction factor of 1. t 111 ⁄16 GR Correction factor 3. t 3 ⁄8-i 3 ered cent ool.3 0 © Schlumberger 5 10 15 20 t (g/cm ) 2 25 30 35 40 Log interpretation Charts GR-1 and GR-2.6. are based on laboratory work and Monte Carlo calculations to provide improved corrections for 3 3⁄8. Although these charts are more difficult to use than the ones they replaced. the results are more exact since they are normalized to current tools. is calculated as follows: t= Wmud  2.5 0. eccentered 1. and Sm is the standoff with the tool centered. t = 15. The tool is 3 3⁄8 in.345  2 2 The correction for standoff is  S − Sm  CF ′ = CFm + (CFo − CFm )  ′ ′ . borehole with 10-lbm mud. eccentered 111⁄16-in.8 g/cm2.  8. no interpolation is required. The corrections normalize the response of both tools to eccentered positions in an 8-in. and centered. Both are corrected for barite if it is present in the borehole.  Sm  CF m is the correction factor for centered tools.7 0. t. Therefore.54 (d hole ) 2. and mud weight is 12 lbm/gal.54 (d sonde )  − . SGT wireline gamma ray tools GR-1 10.0 7.0 0.0 2. ool n. d h is 12 in..and 111⁄16-in.Gamma Ray and Spontaneous Potential Schlumberger Gamma Ray Corrections for Hole Size and Mud Weight For 3 3⁄ 8-in.0 33⁄8-in. and the ranges are extended. S is the actual standoff. tool. in g/cm2. The corrected GR = 58 API units. tool. The input parameter.0 d tere cen . 2 2-1 . -in. while CF′ is the ′ o correction factor for eccentered tools. SGT gamma ray tools. Example: GR reads 36 API units.0 5. Chart GR-2 provides a correction for barite mud in small boreholes. replacing Chart Por-7. and 111⁄16-in.

8 1 6 11 ⁄1 .95. too 6-in 111 ⁄1 d ntere l.) 6 7 8 9 10 These charts correct for the barite mud effect in hole sizes smaller and larger than the 8-in. Bmud = 0. -in Bmud 0. ec l .t oo l Fbh 0.81 for a borehole correction of 1. ce . the correction factor from Chart GR-1 is multiplied by the borehole correction factor 1 + Bmud × Fbh. d centere tool.15 and Fbh = 0.8 33 ⁄81 11 in.2 1. The corrected GR = 38 API units. t = 4.4 d tere cen .0 0 © Schlumberger 1 2 3 4 5 dh – dsonde (in. ec 0.0 red nte ce l.6 0.06. ⁄16 too -in l .6 0.2 0.0 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Mud weight (lbm/gal) 1.0 0. too in 33 ⁄833 ⁄8-in.12 and a revised correction factor of 1.4 0. In these cases.2 GR 1. Using Chart GR-2.8 g/cm2. Example: With the same conditions shown in the example on Chart GR-1 except for a 6-in. too 0.2 0. 2-2 .Gamma Ray and Spontaneous Potential Schlumberger Gamma Ray Corrections for Barite Mud in Small Boreholes GR-2 1. hole. resulting in a correction factor of 0. standard.

0 Correction factor 111 ⁄16 2. and the density of cement is typically 2. 2-3 .. casing is 9 5⁄8 in.1. Example: GR reads 19 API units. is calculated as the sum of density-thickness products for the casing. t= 2. borehole with 10-lbm mud.0 ool -in. t 1.7 g/cm2 for a correction factor of 2.. Wm = 8. GR tool is 3 3⁄8 in.0 7. cement sheath and borehole fluid.54  Wm ( ID csg − d sonde ) 2  8. t. This chart is based on the openhole model in Chart GR-1.. 43. tool in an 8-in.50 lbm/ft.3 0 © Schlumberger 5 10 15 20 t (g/cm2) 25 30 35 40 Log interpretation Chart GR-3 is based on laboratory work and Monte Carlo calculations to provide gamma ray corrections in cased holes. The corrected GR = 40 API units. In this case. in g/cm2.7 0. t 3. d h is 12 in. and t = 21.Gamma Ray and Spontaneous Potential Schlumberger Gamma Ray Correction for Cased Holes GR-3 10.0 0.345 lbm/gal.0 g/cm3.5 0.96 g/cm3.345 + ρcsg (OD csg − ID csg ) + ρcement (d h − OD csg )  The chart correction factor provides a corrected gamma ray to the standard reference condition of an eccentered 3 3⁄8-in. The density of J-55 casing is 7.0 3 3 ⁄8-i GR ool n.0 5.

5-in. in.5 6.0 5.0 Correction factor tool 9.25 9.75 8. 8-.0 0. too 6.3 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 4 8 12 16 20 t (g/cm 2) 24 28 32 36 40 Chart GR-4 can be used to normalize gamma ray readings of the 9. 8. be careful not to duplicate the correction.Gamma Ray and Spontaneous Potential Schlumberger LWD Gamma Ray Correction for Hole Size and Mud Weight For gamma ray with CDR* Compensated Dual Resistivity tools GR-4 10 GR 7.156 2.25-.5 0.031 3. tool in 10-lbm/gal mud.5-.5-in 6 2.656 3. to .25ol l . t.5 ST 2.937 2-4 . in g/cm2.5-in.0 3. l tootool 8-in.7 0. CDR tools to the 6. 6.345 hole where ST varies with tool size as follows: Tool size (in.) 6. therefore.5 −ST) 8.0 8.and 6. The corrections illustrated by this chart are routinely applied to LWD data before delivery.75-in.125 2. is calculated from t= Wm (d − 3.0 1. 8.5-in. The input parameter.75.

pass through the R mfeq value to define R weq.01 0.6 1 0.0 1. R mfeq = 0.02 2 0.1 ohm-m. use Chart SP-2 to derive a value of R mfeq at formation temperature. If R mf at 75°F (24°C) is greater than 0.6 0. from the static spontaneous potential.1 0.001 SP Rmfeq /Rweq 0. Example: SSP = 100 mV at 250°F R mf = 0. R weq.1 ohm-m.06 2 aw /amf or Rmfe /Rwe 3 4 5 6 8 10 F 0° F 50 0° 40 0°F C C 0° 30 25 00° C 0°F 2 0° 20 15 0°C °F 10 100 C 50° 0°C 0.85 × 0. E SSP.24 T°C Rweq (ohm-m) 0. From this value.4 0. For predominantly NaCl muds.3 0. static spontaneous potential (mV) © Schlumberger 2-5 . Enter the nomograph with ESSP in mV.4 0.2 20 30 40 50 +50 0 –50 Formation temperature –100 –150 –200 ESSP. b.8 1 0.Gamma Ray and Spontaneous Potential Schlumberger Rweq Determination from ESSP Clean formations SP-1 This chart and nomograph calculate the equivalent formation water resistivity.04 0. measurement in clean formations.28 ohm-m at 250°F R weq = 0.133 T°F K C = 65 + 0.3 0.85 R mf.4 0.33 = 0.01 0.025 ohm-m at 250°F E SSP = –K c log(R mfeq /R weq ) K C = 61 + 0.005 Rmfeq (ohm-m) 0.0 0.02 0.5 0.70 ohm-m at 100°F or 0.2 0. and use R mfeq = 0.1 8 10 2 4 6 20 10 20 40 40 60 100 2.05 4 6 0. If R mf at 75°F (24°C) is less than 0.8 1 0.6 0. turning through the reservoir temperature in °F or °C to define the R mfeq /R weq ratio.33 ohm-m at 250°F Therefore.5 0. correct R mf to formation temperature using Chart Gen-9. determine R mfeq as follows: a.

002 300°F 200°F 150°F 0.03 0.2 0.1 0.0 2. Use the solid lines for predominantly NaCl waters.0 2 3 4 5 R w or Rmf (ohm-m) © Schlumberger These charts convert equivalent water resistivity.02 0.05 0.5 F 5° t7 la aC N 1. They may also be used to convert R mf to R mfeq in saline muds.1 0.2 500° F 400 °F 300 °F 200 °F 150 °F 100 75° °F F 0.05 0. they may be treated as regular mud types. R weq . R w. Example: R weq = 0.005 0.005 100°F 75°F 0. Lime-base muds usually have a negligible amount of Ca in solution.3 0.001 500°F 400°F 0.0 0.02 R weq or R mfeq (ohm-m) SP 0.5 1. 2-6 . The dashed lines are approximate for “average” fresh formation waters (where effects of salts other than NaCl become significant).01 0. The dashed portions may also be used for gyp-base mud filtrates.01 Saturation 0.031 ohm-m at 120°C Special procedures for muds containing Ca or Mg in solution are discussed in Reference 3.025 ohm-m at 120°C From chart. from Chart SP-1 to actual water resistivity. R w = 0.Gamma Ray and Spontaneous Potential Schlumberger Rw versus Rweq and Formation Temperature SP-2 (English) 0.

0 2.1 0.01 0.0 2 3 4 5 R w or Rmf (ohm-m) © Schlumberger 2-7 .5 C 5° t2 la aC N 1.02 R weq or R mfeq (ohm-m) SP 0.02 0.1 0.005 0.001 250°C 200°C 0.03 0.2 250° C 200 °C 150 °C 100 °C 75° C 50° C 25° C 0.Gamma Ray and Spontaneous Potential Schlumberger Rw versus Rweq and Formation Temperature SP-2m (Metric) 0.3 0.05 0.002 150°C 100°C 75°C 0.2 0.005 50°C 25°C Saturation 0.01 0.5 1.0 0.05 0.

interpolating between curves if necessary.0 0.1 0.8 10 20 ESP /ESPcor 0.2 Rxo /Rm 50 0.8 0.4 100 0.0 1 5 2 5 Rs =5 Rm h/dh 1.5 5 40 30 20 15 10 7.0 5 40 30 20 15 10 7.5 © Schlumberger 5 40 30 20 15 10 7.0 5 h/dh Rs = 20 Rm 1.0 1 2 5 2 5 1 5 10 20 2 0. Select row of charts for most appropriate value of R s /R m . Read E SP/ESPcor in ordinate scale.5 5 40 30 20 15 10 7.8 ESP /ESPcor 0.0 5 10 2 h/dh 1. Calculate E SPcor = E SP/(ESP/E SPcor).5 1 0.4 0. di /dh = 5 R xo = R t 1.5 1.2 0.8 5 10 20 0.2 0.2 Rxo /Rm 50 0.2 R t Rs =1 Rm 1.) For more detail on SP corrections.8 0.2 Rxo /Rm 100 200 500 100 200 500 40 30 20 15 10 7.5 1 2 0.2 0.4 10 0. see References 4 and 33.4 0.8 20 0.4 0.5 1.6 2 5 0.6 10 0.5 1.6 0.4 0.4 0. .4 100 0.2 100 100 200 R t /Rm Rxo /Rm 100 Rxo /Rm 200 Rxo /Rm 40 30 20 15 10 7.2 R t /Rm 0.5 5 h/dh h/dh 1.6 0.6 0.8 20 0. 5. Enter abscissa with value of h/d h (ratio of bed thickness to hole diameter). 3.6 10 20 0.2 R t /Rm 200 500 0.Gamma Ray and Spontaneous Potential Schlumberger SP Correction Charts For representative cases SP-3 No invasion R xo = 0.6 50 0.2 Rxo /Rm 100 0.0 5 10 2 h/dh 1.0 1 52 10 20 Invasion.0 5 40 30 20 15 10 7.8 0. Go vertically up to curve for appropriate R t /Rm (for no invasion) or R xo /R m (for invaded cases).6 0.0 0.5 5 40 30 20 15 10 7.8 0.8 10 20 0.4 50 100 200 50 0.2 Rxo /Rm 100 200 500 1000 200 500 1000 40 30 20 15 10 7.6 50 0.2 0.0 0.4 200 500 1000 20 50 100 200 500 0. Select chart for No Invasion or for Invasion of d i /d h = 5.6 20 0.5 5 40 30 20 15 10 7. whichever is appropriate.5 5 40 30 20 15 10 7.5 5 40 30 20 15 10 7.4 0.5 1.8 0.4 50 20 50 100 200 0.2 Rxo /Rm 0.5 21 5 10 1.6 50 0.2 2 5 10 20 50 0. 2.5 1 2 5 R xo = 5 R t 1.8 SP ESP /ESPcor 0.6 50 0.5 1 0. 2-8 4. (ESP is SP from log.0 0.

This chart considers only h.0 30 100 3. Hole diameter is set at 8 in. Enter the chart with bed thickness. Continued on next page 2-9 . tool. R i / R m.) 20 1.0 20 200 70 50 40 30 20 15 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 5. centered 100 di (in.5 3. bed thickness.0 Bed thickness. d i. 33⁄8 -in. h (ft) © Schlumberger This chart provides an empirical correction to the SP for the effects of invasion and bed thickness obtained by averaging a series of thin-bed corrections in Reference 37. and invaded zone resistivity/mud resistivity ratio. hole. and R i /R m and d i as parameters of fixed value. h.Gamma Ray and Spontaneous Potential Schlumberger SP Correction Chart (Empirical) SP-4 (English) 8-in.0 40 50 2. as variable.5 Correction factor 70 40 % ESSP 60 50 20 2.5 4. go to the appropriate invasion diameter.0 90 SP 30 Ri Rm 30 30 30 35 80 30 35 40 5 1. The recorded SP measurement is then corrected by the resulting correction factor.

Gamma Ray and Spontaneous Potential

Schlumberger

SP Correction Chart (Empirical)

SP-4m (Metric)

200-mm hole; 86-mm tool, centered 100 di (m) 90
0.5

1.0

SP
80
0.7

0.
75 0. 0.8 8 75 0.8 75 0. 5 1.0

Ri Rm

5 0.7

5 1.5 Correction factor

70

1.0

% ESSP

60

50

20

2.0

40

50

2.5 3.0

30

100

3.5 4.0

20 200 20
© Schlumberger

5.0

15

10

5

3

2

1

Bed thickness, h (m)

Example: SP = –80 mV in a 3-m bed R m = 0.5 ohm-m, and R i (invaded zone resistivity) = 10 ohm-m (both at formation temperature) Invasion diameter = 0.80 m

Therefore, R i /R m = 10/0.5 = 20 SP correction factor = 1.1 Corrected SP, E SSP = –80 (1.1) = –88 mV

2-10

Porosity

Schlumberger

Formation Resistivity Factor Versus Porosity

Por-1

50 2.5 40 30 25 20 15

5

10

20

50

100

200

500

1000

2000

5000

10,000

Por
FR = 1 φ2 Vugs or spherical pores FR = 0.62 φ2.15

φ, porosity (p.u.)

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3

m

FR =

1 φm

2.8 2.5

Fractures 2.2 1.8 2.0

2 FR = 0.81 φ2 1.4 1 2.5
© Schlumberger

1.6

5

10

20

50

100

200

500

1000

2000

5000

10,000

FR, formation resistivity factor

This chart gives a variety of formation resistivity factor-toporosity conversions. The proper choice is best determined by laboratory measurement or experience in the area. In the absence of this knowledge, recommended relationships are the following: For soft formations (Humble formula): FR = For hard formations: FR = 1 , φm 0.62 0.81 , or F R = 2 φ φ 2.15

Example: φ = 6% in a carbonate in which a cementation factor, m, of 2 is appropriate Therefore, from chart, FR = 280

with appropriate cementation factor, m.

3-1

Porosity

Schlumberger

Isolated and Fracture Porosity

Por-1a

3.0 12.5 5.0 Isolated pores 20 30 40 50 Fractures
2.5

7.5

10.0

2.5 1.5 m, cementation exponent 1.0 φiso = 0.5 2.0

2.0

2.5

Por

φ fr =

0.1

0.2

1.5

0.5
1.0 1.5 0 2.

5.0
1.0 0.5

.0 10

0.8

1

2

4

6

8

10

φ, porosity
© Schlumberger

Chart Por-1a is based on a simplified model that assumes there is no contribution to formation conductivity from vugs and moldic porosity, and that the cementation exponent, m, of fractures is 1.0. When the pores of a porous formation have an aspect ratio close to 1 (e.g., vugs or moldic porosity), the cementation exponent, m, of the formation will usually be greater than 2, while fractured formations generally have a cementation exponent less than 2. If a value of m is available (from the interpretation of a log suite including a microresistivity measurement, such as a MicroSFL* log, and a dielectric measurement, such as an EPT* log, for example), Chart Por-1a can be used to estimate how much of the measured porosity is isolated porosity. In fractured

formations, the apparent m obtained from a microresistivity measurement assumes total flushing and provides an upper limit for the amount of fracture porosity in the rock. Entering the chart with the porosity, φ, and cementation exponent, m, gives an estimate of either φ iso, the amount of isolated porosity, or φfr , the porosity resulting from fractures. Example: φ = 10 p.u. m = 2.5 Therefore, φ iso = 4.5 p.u. and intergranular porosity = 10 – 4.5 = 5.5 p.u. See Reference 39 for more information about the use of this chart, and Reference 40 for a discussion of spherical pores.
*Mark of Schlumberger

3-2

Bcp . For both.u.) ( ua r tz ne to ds n sa 1.1 1. it can be determined by working backward from a nearby clean water sand whose porosity is known. Go to the appropriate matrix velocity or lithology curve and read the porosity on the ordinate.6 Bcp 30 20 vma(ft/sec) 26 23 .u. φ. into porosity.00 0 0 10 0 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 t .5 1. t .3 e) on st e lim Q 40 Por 1. For rock mixtures such as limy sandstones or cherty dolomites. a lack-of-compaction correction. The blue set employs a weighted-average transform. Two sets of curves are shown. Continued on next page .4 φ.000 21 . To accomplish this.50 0 . If the compaction correction is unknown. intermediate matrix lines may be required. the saturating fluid is assumed to be water with a velocity of 5300 ft/sec (1615 m/sec). interval transit time (µsec/ft) © Schlumberger These two charts (Por-3) convert sonic log interval transit time.) 20 10 0 130 3-3 30 Do lo m ite Ca lc it e φ.00 19 . go to the appropriate compaction correction line.00 0 18 . porosity (p.2 1. enter the chart with the interval transit time. When using the weighted-average transform in unconsolidated sand.Porosity Schlumberger Porosity Evaluation from Sonic Por-3 (English) vf = 5300 ft/sec 50 Time average Field observation 50 40 1. and read the porosity on the ordinate. enter the chart with the interval transit time from the sonic log. porosity (p. must be made. To use. The red set is based on empirical observation (see Reference 20).

Porosity Schlumberger Porosity Evaluation from Sonic Por-3m (Metric) vf = 1615 m/sec 50 Time average Field observation 50 40 1.3 47.) l Ca e c it ne sto nd sa 1.u.5 43. porosity (p.000–23.500 ft/sec [5950 m/sec]—sandstone Therefore. 19 and 20.000 23.6 Bcp 80 00 70 59 640 00 0 50 55 Do 00 C Qu em Calc lom art ent ite ite z s ed an qu ds ar ton tz e san ds ton e 20 vma (ft/sec) 20 10 10 0 100 0 150 200 250 300 350 400 t.4 1.5–51. φ = 18% (by either weighted average or empirical transform) For more information see References 18. interval transit time (µsec/m) © Schlumberger Example: t = 76 µsec/ft [249 µsec/m] Lithology Sandstones Limestones Dolomites vma (ft/sec) 18.u.6–43.5–38.500 21.000 t ma (µsec/ft) 55.5 vma (m/sec) 5486–5944 6400–7010 7010–7925 vma = 19.3 40 Por Do l ite om 30 φ.) Q ua r tz 1. porosity (p.2 1.000–26. 3-4 φ.5 30 t ma (µsec/m) 182–168 156–143 143–126 .1 1.000–19.

cit 65 e) (q ua rtz sa nd sto ne ) 1.0 0.9 0.1 (salt mud) Therefore. 1 (c ) 68 = al 2. corrected for borehole size.Porosity Schlumberger Formation Density Log Determination of Porosity Por-5 ρf 1. (d 83 ol o = ρ Por m a ρ 30 m a = ρ m a = φ. is converted to porosity with this chart. porosity.71 (calcite) ρf = 1. ρb .2 2. bulk density (g/cm3) Bulk density.31 2. as recorded with the FDC* Compensated Formation Density or Litho-Density* logs.8 2. 87 2.4 ρ ρma – ρb ρma – ρf m a 2.) 20 φ= 10 0 2. ρf .8 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 2. in abscissa.0 ρb. (ρf is the density of the fluid saturating the rock immediately surrounding the borehole—usually mud filtrate. go to the appropriate reservoir rock type and read porosity on the appropriate fluid density. m 7 ite 2.6 2. (p. φ D = 25 p. 3-5 .u.31 g/cm3 in limestone lithology ρma = 2. To use.1 1.u.) Example: ρb = 2. scale in ordinate.2 40 m a = ρ 2. enter bulk density.

03 –5 0 5 10 15 20 (d h – 8)(ρb – ρm) in English units 25 0 125 250 375 500 625 3 SNP Mudcake Correction Mudcake thickness (bit size minus caliper reading) (mm) (in.45 – 1. enter the bottom of the chart with the SNP apparent porosity. ρm .45 + 0. [200 mm] and the LDT density reading.) 30 35 40 3-6 . ρb (FDC log density reading).4 2. d h. For the FDC log.464 g/cm3 Note: If the borehole diameter from the FDC or LDT caliper is less than bit size.6 2.02 = 2.04 0. d h. Therefore. the correction to be added to the LithoDensity bulk density reading.03 0. Bit size = 7 7⁄ 8 in. less mud density. ρb . follow the diagonal curves to the top edge of the chart to obtain the corrected SNP apparent porosity. Read. and read. go vertically to the bit size minus caliper reading value. FDC Borehole Correction Por-15a Example: d h = 12 in. correction = 0.01 d h. in ordinate. and the SNP sidewall neutron log must be corrected for mudcake thickness.) 14 15 Litho-Density Borehole Correction (d h – 200)(ρb – ρm) in metric units –125 0.014 = 2. φSNPcor = 11.02 0.3 p. φSNP.05) = 175 Therefore. Por 0. use the bit size in the above charts.u.01 0 –0.u.u. Go to the apparent formation density. correction = 0.05 g/cm3 giving (d h – 200)(ρb – ρm ) = (325 – 200)(2. the correction to be added to the FDC log density reading.u. in ordinate.2 Apparent formation density Gas-filled holes Mud-filled holes 6–9 10 11 12 13 d h.06 g/cm3 to be added to FDC density 0.4 2.03 0. These charts provide those corrections.) 30 35 40 5 10 15 20 25 φSNP (p. then.014 g/cm3 ρbcor = 2. giving Bit size – caliper = 7 7⁄ 8 – 7 3⁄ 8 = 1⁄4 in. Example: d h = 325 mm ρb = 2.05 0.02 0. less 8 in. Note: The full borehole diameter reduction shown on the SNP caliper is used as mudcake thickness. ρb = 2.) 0 1⁄4 1⁄ 2 3⁄4 0 0 10 20 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 5 10 15 20 25 φSNPcor (p.20 + 0. enter the chart abscissa with the product of the borehole diameter.Porosity Schlumberger Environmental Corrections to Formation Density Log.6 2. Caliper = 7 5⁄ 8 in. the FDC* Compensated Formation Density log and Litho-Density log must be corrected for borehole size. For the SNP log.02 g/cm3 ρbcor = 2. borehole diameter (in.2 2.04 g/cm to be added to LDT density 0.20 g/cm3 (mud-filled borehole) Therefore.02 –0. borehole diameter (mm) 150– 225 250 275 300 325 350 375 2. Litho-Density* Log and Sidewall Neutron Porosity Log Under some circumstances. enter the chart with borehole diameter. since the SNP backup shoe usually cuts through the mudcake. Example: φSNP = 13 p.22 g/cm3 For the LDT log.45 g/cm3 ρm = 1.01 –0.

4 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 Apparent formation density 2. In case the FGT log was recorded without automatic borehole correction. Go to the apparent formation density and read in ordinate.03 –0.040 g/cm3 ρbcor = 2.03 d h.07 –0. “DISA” (for disallowed) indicates that no borehole corrections were made. the correction to be subtracted from the FGT log bulk density reading. this chart provides the correction. correction = –0. FGT formation density log can be made automatically by the logging unit.02 –0.06 –0.15 0.65 g/cm3 Therefore. “ALLO” (for allowed) following the constant “MWCO” indicates the FGT log was recorded with borehole correction.00 –0.07 –0.04 –0.07 –0.05 –0.05 2.09 –0.06 –0.00 –0.00 –0.04 –0.09 –0. To determine if corrections have been made.0 400 1.03 –0.04 –0.04 –0.25 –0.53 g/cm3 d h = 260 mm Mud density = 1. refer to the log.02 g/cm3 to be subtracted from FGT density –0.75 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 16 14 12 Mud weight (lbm/gal) *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger d h.06 –0.01 –0.08 –0.01 –0.5 2.02 –0.05 1. Example: ρb = 2.05 –0.9 0.10 2.01 0.01 –0.49 g/cm3 3-7 .Porosity Schlumberger Environmental Corrections to FGT Density Log FGT borehole correction Por-15b Mud density (g/cm3) 2.53 – 0.00 –0.08 Por –0. borehole diameter (in. borehole diameter (mm) 1.03 –0.) Borehole corrections of the slimhole 2 3⁄4-in.040 = 2.02 –0.06 –0.65 0. Enter the chart abscissa with borehole diameter. as a function of mud weight.08 –0.

If the CSU/MAXIS software has applied all corrections. NPHI is our “classic NPHI. 3. For more information on enhanced resolution processing. The accuracy of NPOR is equivalent to the accuracy of TNPH if the environmental effects on the near detector change less rapidly than the formation porosity. Enter corrected porosity in Chart Por-13b for conversion to sandstone or dolomite. -2c and -2cm to determine porosity and lithology. Enter TNPH or NPOR in Chart Por-13b for conversion to sandstone or dolomite. computed from instantaneous near and far count rates. and porosity and lithology determination. -2c and -2cm for porosity and lithology determination. CSU software (versions CP-30 and later) and MAXIS* software compute three thermal porosities: NPHI. 2. depth. For more information see Reference 32. Using the neutron correction charts For logs labeled NPHI: 1.Porosity Schlumberger Dual-Spacing CNL* Compensated Neutron Log Charts Por This section contains interpretation charts to cover the latest developments in CNL Compensated Neutron Log porosity transforms. Chart Por-14a should be used for environmental corrections. Enter Chart Por-14e with NPHI and caliper reading to convert to uncorrected neutron porosity. follow these steps: 1. TNPH and NPOR.” computed from instantaneous near and far count rates. Use Crossplots CP-1e.and resolution-matched count rates. Refer to Charts Por-14c and -14d to gain an appreciation for the relative importance of each correction prior to using crossplot charts. TNPH is computed from deadtime-corrected. -1f. NPOR is computed from the near-detector count rate and TNPH to give an enhanced resolution porosity. In this case. environmental corrections. Corrections are summed with the uncorrected porosity to give a corrected value. These corrections may be turned on or off by the field engineer at the wellsite. Use Crossplots CP-1e. using “Mod-8” ratio-to-porosity transform with a caliper correction. the CSU/MAXIS software has applied environmental corrections as indicated on the log heading. with a cased hole ratio-toporosity transform. see Reference 35. -1f. Cased hole CNL logs are recorded on NPHI. For logs labeled TNPH or NPOR. 4. *Mark of Schlumberger 3-8 . using an improved ratio-toporosity transform and performing a complete set of environmental corrections in real time. Enter Charts Por-14c and -14d to obtain corrections for each environmental effect. 2. TNPH or NPOR can be used directly with the crossplot charts.

First. (apparent limestone porosity) Bit size = 7 7⁄ 8 in. This chart can also be used to find apparent limestone porosity (needed for entering the various CP crossplot charts) if the APS or SNP recording is in sandstone or dolomite porosity units. true porosity for indicated matrix material 30 Por sa nd st on e 20 C al ci te e on st e m (li Q ua rtz ) ite m lo Do 10 APLC FPLC SNP 0 0 10 20 30 40 φSNPcor. SNP caliper = 7 5⁄ 8 in.) *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger When the APS or SNP log is recorded in limestone porosity units. this chart is used to find porosity in sandstones or dolomites. (corrected for mudcake) and φSNP (sandstone) = 14.) φAPScor.u. giving hmc = 1⁄4 in. 3-9 . apparent limestone neutron porosity (p.u. Accelerator Porosity Sonde (APS) Near-to-Array (APLC) and Near-to-Far (FPLC) logs Por-13a 40 φ. Example: Sandstone bed φSNP = 13 p. apparent limestone neutron porosity (p.u.u. correct the SNP log for mudcake thickness (Chart Por-15a).u. φSNP = 11.3 p.5 p.Porosity Schlumberger Epithermal Neutron Porosity Equivalence Curves Sidewall Neutron Porosity (SNP) log.

on the previous page. apparent limestone neutron porosity (p. to convert CNL porosity logs (TNPH or NPHI) from one lithology to another. 3-10 . the true porosity can be derived.u.u.) *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger Chart Por-13b can be used in the same way as Chart Por-13a.Porosity Schlumberger Thermal Neutron Porosity Equivalence Curves CNL* Compensated Neutron Log. C a i lc te ( li m e o st ne ) it e lom Do Example: Quartz sandstone formation TNPH = 18 p. TNPH and NPHI porosity logs Por-13b 40 Formation salinity 0 kppm 250 kppm TNPH NPHI φ. If a log is recorded in limestone porosity units in a pure quartz sandstone formation. true porosity for indicated matrix material 30 Por on e sa nd st 20 Q ua rtz 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 φCNLcor. (apparent limestone porosity) Formation salinity = 250 kppm giving True porosity in sandstone = 24 p.u.

Porosity

Schlumberger

LWD Neutron Porosity Equivalence Curves
6.5-in. CDN* Compensated Density Neutron and 6.75-in. ADN* Azimuthal Density Neutron tools

Por-21

40

35 φ, true porosity for indicated matrix material

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e on st ) nd ne sa sto z e rt ua (lim Q te lci te mi Ca olo D

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Por

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*Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger

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φ CDNcor, apparent limestone porosity (p.u.)

3-11

Porosity

Schlumberger

LWD Neutron Porosity Equivalence Curves
8-in. CDN* Compensated Density Neutron tool

Por-25

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35 φ, true porosity for indicated matrix material

30
ne ) sto ne nd sa sto e tz ar (lim e Qu t lci te Ca mi olo D

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*Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger

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3-12

Porosity

Schlumberger

LWD Neutron Porosity Equivalence Curves
6.75-in. ADN* Azimuthal Density Neutron tool

Por-27

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35 φ, true porosity for indicated matrix material

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ne to ) ds ne an sto zs t e ar (lim Qu e t te lci mi Ca olo D

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*Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger

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φADNcor, apparent limestone porosity (p.u.)

3-13

pressure and temperature corrections. enter the appropriate Chart Por-14a with the matrix-corrected CNL reading.u. and starting with the borehole salinity block. Casing thickness = 0. for each block. cement and borehole corrections for the cased hole CNL log. continue through the remaining blocks.255 in.5 + . . Then. Algebraically sum all the corrections to obtain the correction to the CNL reading. relative to the reference lines (dashed lines indicated with asterisks).0 + 0. draw a vertical line through the chart blocks.3 + 0. *Mark of Schlumberger 3-14 . . CNL log values must be corrected for matrix effect (Chart Por-13b). Σ∆φ = –1. go to Chart Por-14c. Cement thickness = 1. giving Por This provides casing. Cased hole (Chart Por-14a) For cased hole logs. Before using the nomographs.4 in. The nomographs of Charts Por-14 provide environmental corrections for the CNL Compensated Neutron Log when run in cased hole or openhole. Continue to Chart Por-14c for salinity. borehole fluid. (matrix corrected) Borehole size = 10 in. Find the corrections.Porosity Schlumberger Dual-Spacing CNL* Compensated Neutron Log Environmental Corrections for Cased Hole Example: φCNL = 27 p.

1 weight (lbm/ft) 41⁄2 14 17 20 23 20 26 32 7 OD (in.2 9.5 + … • Metric 0 Neutron log porosity index 100 Diameter of borehole 200 222 mm before running casing 300 (mm) Casing thickness (mm) 400 5 14 17 21.) 14 Casing thickness (in.4 0.) 16 0.3 0.6 Casing 13.5 Casing 7.) 2 1.3 + 0. 12 (in.304 in.0 Por 0.5 11.7 mm 23 9 weight 30. 3 +0.0 39 60 (kg/m) 34.) 29 40 47 95⁄8 Por-14a 10 20 30 40 50 • –1.Porosity Schlumberger Dual-Spacing CNL* Compensated Neutron Log Correction Nomograph for Cased Hole English 0 Neutron log porosity index 4 6 Diameter of borehole 8 3 before running casing 10 8 ⁄4 in.5 0 1 0.5 Net correction = –1.0 + 0.62 in.3 51⁄2 Cement thickness (in. • +0.5 15.0 30 7 43 20 25.5 11 48 70 13 114 140 178 245 OD (mm) 10 20 30 40 50 • • 0 25 50 41 mm 75 0 10 20 30 40 50 Cement thickness (mm) • Neutron porosity equivalence Calcite (limestone) Quartz sandstone Dolomite *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 0 0 0 10 10 20 10 20 30 20 30 40 30 40 50 50 • Reference lines indicated by bullets 3-15 .

u. Then. *Mark of Schlumberger 3-16 . the difference between the corrected and uncorrected porosity values. The porosity reading where the trend line intersects the standard conditions is the corrected porosity considering only that effect. the corrections are ∆φ –2 3⁄4 p. Since several environmental effects are usually made. The correction for other cases can be obtained by multiplying the WBM correction by the ratio of the OBM/WBM compressibilities. (apparent limestone units) 12-in. a net correction to the uncorrected log reading is computed by summing the individual ∆φ’s for all effects. 3. This gives an uncorrected TNPH of 34 p. 2.u. to intersect the 8-in. labeled “actual borehole size. = 31 3⁄4 p. for the borehole size correction. ≈0 +1 +11⁄ 2 +4 –1 –3 –2 –2 1⁄4 34 p. For each correction. With NPHI. (apparent limestone units) in a 12-in.u. which should be used to determine the rest of the environmental corrections. Example: Assume TNPH on the log was 32 p. enter the environmental parameter at the left of the nomograph and project a line to the right. and project a line downward through all the correction nomographs. (apparent limestone units) Borehole size Mudcake thickness Borehole salinity Mud weight Borehole temperature Pressure Formation salinity Standoff Net correction Corrected porosity The “oil mud” curves in the pressure correction panel are appropriate for liquid components whose compressibility is four times that of water.u. follow these steps: Por 1. To use Charts Por-14c and -14d. borehole. This value is the uncorrected TNPH value. it is added to the uncorrected log value to obtain the environmentally corrected neutron porosity in apparent limestone units. Refer to the CNL log heading to determine whether the log was run with or without automatic caliper correction. thick mudcake 100-kppm borehole salinity 11-lbm/gal mud weight (natural mud) 150°F borehole temperature 5-kpsi pressure (water-base mud) 100-kppm formation salinity 1 ⁄2-in.). and 34 p.Porosity Schlumberger Dual-Spacing CNL* Compensated Neutron Log Correction Nomograph for Openhole The CNL tool is normally run with only a caliper correction applied. represents the magnitude of the correction for each environmental effect. standoff Enter Charts Por-14c.u.u. line at 32 p. The rest of the example assumes the following: Uncorrected neutron porosity = 34 p. follow the trend lines from the intersection of the uncorrected porosity reading and the environmental parameter to the intersection of the trend line and the standard condition (for example. – 2 1⁄4 p. For TNPH or NPOR.” with the matrix-corrected CNL porosity. Follow the trend lines to the borehole size used to correct the log—usually the caliper reading. the correction is backed out with Chart Por-14e. the trend line would be followed downward from 12 in.u. The way the “automatic” borehole correction is “backed out” depends on whether the NPHI or TNPH and NPOR curves are used. Go to the 8-in. For the conditions listed above.u. standard condition borehole size indicated by the bullet (•). this borehole correction must be removed.u. Enter the top block of Chart Por-14c or -14d. Once the net correction has been determined. -14d and -14dm at the top with the uncorrected log reading in apparent limestone units. borehole 1 ⁄4-in. -14cm. or ∆φ.

Porosity Schlumberger Dual-Spacing CNL* Compensated Neutron Log Correction Nomograph for Openhole For CNL curves without environmental corrections Por-14c (English) Neutron log porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) 0 24 20 16 12 8 4 1.0 250 Borehole salinity (kppm) 0 13 12 11 10 9 8 18 16 14 12 10 8 300 Borehole temperature (°F) 50 Pressure (kpsi) Water-base mud Oil mud Limestone formation salinity (kppm) 25 Natural 10 20 30 40 50 Actual borehole size (in.0 Mudcake thickness (in.5 0.) 0.) • Por • • Mud weight (lbm/gal) Barite • • • 0 250 • 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 • *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger • Standard conditions 3-17 .

Porosity

Schlumberger

Dual-Spacing CNL* Compensated Neutron Log Correction Nomograph for Openhole
For CNL curves without environmental corrections

Por-14cm (Metric)

Neutron log porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) 0 600 500 400 300 200 100 25 Mudcake thickness (mm) 12.5 0.0 250 Borehole salinity (g/kg) 0 1.5 Natural 10 20 30 40 50

Actual borehole size (mm)

Por

Mud density (g/cm3) Barite

1.0 2.0

1.0 149 121 93 66 38 10

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172 138 103 Water-base mud 69 34 Oil mud 0 250

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*Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger

• Standard conditions

3-18

Porosity

Schlumberger

Dual-Spacing CNL* Compensated Neutron Log Standoff Correction Nomograph for Openhole
For CNL curves without environmental corrections

Por-14d (English)

Neutron log porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) 0 Actual borehole size 6 in. 1 0 2 8 in. 1 0 3 10 in. 2 1 0 4 3 12 in. 2 1 0 Standoff (in.) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 10 9 8 7 6 24 in. 5 4 3 2 1 0 0
*Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger

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3-19

Porosity

Schlumberger

Dual-Spacing CNL* Compensated Neutron Log Standoff Correction Nomograph for Openhole
For CNL curves without environmental corrections

Por-14dm (Metric)

Neutron log porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) 0 Actual borehole size 150 mm 25 0 50 10 20 30 40 50

Por

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50 25 0 Standoff (mm) 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 250 225 200 175 150

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50

*Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger

• Standard conditions

3-20

it must be converted using Chart Por-13 before it can be used in this chart. drop down to 7 7⁄ 8-in. From that point drop straight down to the TNPH scale and read the uncorrected TNPH = 17.u. If NPHI is recorded in units other than limestone units.) • Por TNPH porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger • Standard conditions Example: NPHI = 12.u. The NPHI scale is for use with logs recorded after January 1976..Porosity Schlumberger Dual-Spacing CNL* Compensated Neutron Log NPHI-TNPH Conversion Nomograph for Openhole Por-14e NPHI porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) –5 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 10 20 30 40 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 Borehole size (in. Caliper = 16 in.5 p. labeled with a bullet (•) for standard conditions. Follow the trend lines upward to 16 in.25 p.u. Enter the chart from the top at 12. hole size.5 p. 3-21 .

Continued on next page 3-22 . The near-to-array porosity measurement (APLU in apparent limestone porosity units) and the near-to-far porosity measurement (FPLU in apparent limestone porosity units) require different mud weight and borehole size corrections. The last part of the nomograph. Formation temperature. so there are two sets of splines— solid lines for light muds (8. pressure and formation salinity correction of both APLU and FPLU curves appears in Chart Por-23b. so there is only one set of nomographs for these corrections. so the automatic correction should be used. Chart Por-23a includes corrections for mud weight and borehole size for near-to-array and near-to-far porosity measurements in both English and metric units. The formation salinity correction is dependent on the amount of salt (NaCl) in the formation. pressure and salinity effects are. however. so there are individual sets of correction nomographs for each measurement. This is a function of both the salinity of fluid in the formation and its volume. applies to the correction a multiplier proportional to the true porosity of the formation. therefore.Porosity Schlumberger Accelerator Porosity Sonde (APS) Corrections Openhole APLU and FPLU logs Por Epithermal neutron detection with borehole-shielded detectors considerably reduces the environmental effects on the APS response and simplifies their correction. No standoff correction charts are currently available.345 lbm/gal) and dashed lines for heavy muds (16 lbm/gal). even with natural muds. This realtime standoff measurement allows realistic standoff corrections to be made to the porosity measurements for the first time. Standoff between the APS detectors and the formation is computed from measurements acquired while logging. the same on each measurement. Intermediate mud weights can be interpolated. The nomograph for formation temperature. The standoff correction is automatically applied during acquisition but is difficult to represent accurately on two-dimensional charts. The borehole size correction is slightly mudweight dependent.

2 1. enter the environmental parameter at the left of the nomograph if using English units or at the right if using metric units.0 1.) (g/cm3) • • 3-23 .0 1. ∆φ.4 1.) • APS near-to-far apparent limestone porosity uncorrected (FPLU) 18 16 14 12 10 8 16 14 12 10 8 6 0 © Schlumberger Mud weight 2. Make a note of this correction. including mud weight and borehole size using Chart Por-23a.Porosity Schlumberger Openhole APS Corrections for Mud Weight and Borehole Size For APLU and FPLU curves without environmental correction Por-23a APS near-to-array apparent limestone porosity uncorrected (APLU) 0 18 16 14 12 10 8 16 14 12 10 8 6 10 20 30 40 50 2.6 1. for each relevant environmental effect are added together. Continued on next page (mm) (in. you will have moved to the left (minus) or the right (plus) by a distance readable on the porosity scale.8 1.8 1. Since several small corrections are usually made for different environmental effects. then follow the direction of the trend lines downward to meet the standard condition (for example. for the borehole size correction). 8 in.0 400 350 300 250 200 (lbm/gal) Mud weight (g/cm3) • (mm) Por Actual borehole size (in.2 1. the small corrections. ∆φ.4 1.0 400 350 300 250 200 (lbm/gal) Actual borehole size 10 20 30 40 50 Charts Por-23a and -23b are used to apply environmental corrections to APLU and FPLU measurements. pressure and formation salinity using Chart Por 23b. Enter at the top of each nomograph on Chart Por-23a with the relevant uncorrected log reading in apparent limestone units and project a line down through the nomographs. Draw a horizontal line to meet the uncorrected log reading. For each correction to be applied.6 1. At this point. to be applied to the uncorrected log reading for that environmental effect. and formation temperature.

(apparent limestone units) –0. 3-24 . Draw another horizontal line to the left-hand edge of the porosity part of the nomograph.1 p. enter the bottom of the left-hand part of Chart Por-23b with formation temperature.u. A horizontal line from here to the right-hand scale gives the porosity correction.000 (MPa) 0 34 69 103 138 12 11 10 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 –1 Porosity correction (p. = 33.500 15. Example: Assume an uncorrected APLU = 34 p.) 9 Por Formation temperature © Schlumberger For pressure. Mud weight correction (none) Borehole size (interpolate mud weight) and using Chart Por-23b. then follow the trend lines to the correct formation salinity.) 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 –1 (°F) (°C) 50 10 100 38 150 66 200 93 250 121 300 149 350 177 50 150 250 50 30 10 0 Formation salinity (ppk or g/kg) Formation porosity (p. If this is a limestone formation.u. Draw a horizontal line to the left-hand edge of the formation salinity part of the nomograph.500 20.000 12. ∆φ.u. temperature and salinity corrections. If the correction.) Pressure (psi) 0 2500 5000 7500 10. using Chart Por-23a. the first estimate of porosity used in Chart Por-23b is good and no reiteration is required.7 –1 The overall correction is small. Mud weight = 11 lbm/gal Borehole temperature = 150°F Pressure = 5 kpsi Formation salinity = 100 kppm ∆φ Then.u. ∆φ. given by Chart Por-23b is large and the first estimate of porosity is incorrect.Porosity Schlumberger Openhole APS Corrections for Temperature.u. pressure and salinity effects. Temperature/pressure/salinity Net correction Corrected porosity +1. Pressure and Formation Salinity For APLU and FPLU curves without environmental corrections Por-23b 12 11 10 Porosity correction (p. and follow the trend lines to the approximate porosity.6 –0.000 17. and project a line up to the relevant pressure curve.u. it may be necessary to reiterate this correction with an improved porosity estimate. (apparent limestone porosity) Borehole size = 12 in.9 p.1 34 p.u. to be applied for temperature. – 0.

and read the corrected porosity there. (sandstone) Por The total formation Σ and salinity effect in this example is 2. 2.9 p. Do not use both charts. for hydrogen displacement in saltwater-filled formations. If at least some of the Σ reading is caused by salt water. Example: Given: Apparent neutron porosity Formation Σ from log Formation water salinity Results: Porosity corrected for Σ Final corrected porosity 37. 160. To use Chart Por-16. *Mark of Schlumberger 3-25 .u.0 kppm 32. Chart Por-16 may be used for correcting thermal neutron porosity from the CNL log for the effect of total formation capture cross section. an additional nomograph is provided to correct the resulting porosity for salt displacement in cases where elevation of formation Σ is due to salinity. For more information see Reference 38.u. (sandstone) 32. Follow the equiporosity trend lines down to the nominal Σ line. As an alternate approach. and read the final corrected porosity there.0 p. Chart Por-18 provides corrections for CNL thermal neutron porosity for Σ of the formation fluid and.u.Porosity Schlumberger Dual-Spacing CNL* Compensated Neutron Log Formation Σ Correction Nomograph for Openhole When measured formation Σ data are available.u. the amount of correction for formation Σ and formation salinity should be calculated by taking the difference between the final corrected and apparent porosity values. This difference can then be summed with corrections for other environmental effects to determine the total correction for all effects. with Chart Por-17 it is possible to correct the neutron porosity for the matrix capture cross section in freshwater-filled formations if matrix Σ is known from auxiliary measurements.7 c. (sandstone) 35.u. the sloping dashed line indicates the value of Σ for the formations filled with salt-saturated water. the nominal situation for freshwater pore fluid is drawn to correspond to the values of Σma of the formations used to calibrate the porosity response. Enter the top of the formation salinity box at 0 ppm with the corrected porosity from the previous step. If other environmental corrections are required. optionally. Follow the equiporosity trend lines down to the known water salinity value.9 p. This chart can be used instead of the salinity correction on Chart Por-14c or Por-14cm.9 p. At the bottom of the chart. For reference. a correction for salt displacement is made as follows: 1. enter the apparent porosity and measured Σ into the appropriate lithology box. In each of the lithology panels.

Porosity Schlumberger Dual-Spacing CNL* Compensated Neutron Log Formation Σ Correction Nomograph for Openhole Por-16 Neutron log porosity index 0 70 60 Sandstone formations Formation Σ (c.) 50 40 30 Fresh water 250-kppm water 20 10 0 0 Formation salinity (kppm) 250 10 20 30 40 50 Por *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 0 10 20 30 40 50 3-26 .u.u.) 50 40 30 Fresh water 250-kppm water 20 10 0 70 60 Limestone formations Formation Σ (c.u.) 50 40 30 Fresh water 250-kppm water 20 10 0 70 60 Dolomite formations Formation Σ (c.

) 120 100 80 Fresh water 250-kppm water 60 40 20 160 140 Limestone formations Fluid Σ (c.u.u.Porosity Schlumberger Dual-Spacing CNL* Compensated Neutron Log Fluid Σ Correction Nomograph for Openhole Por-18 Neutron log porosity index 0 160 140 Sandstone formations Fluid Σ (c.u.) 120 100 80 Fresh water 250-kppm water 60 40 20 160 140 Dolomite formations Fluid Σ (c.) 120 100 80 Fresh water 250-kppm water 60 40 20 0 Formation salinity (kppm) 250 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 10 20 30 40 50 Por 10 20 30 40 50 3-28 .

The neutron-density crossplot. enter the abscissa with the environmentally corrected apparent limestone porosity and the ordinate with the bulk density. 14 lbm/gal (barite mud) 100 kppm 150°F 5 kpsi 100 kppm Por First. Drop straight down to the 100-kppm value for formation salinity (point H) and follow the trend lines down to 0 kppm—the standard condition value (point I). Follow the trend lines up to the mud temperature of 150°F (point C).and 16-in. Project a line to the right until it intersects the line for barite mud (point A). go up to the appropriate matrix line.u. Enter the chart in abscissa with the environmentally corrected apparent limestone porosity as determined from Chart Por-20.Porosity Schlumberger CDN* Compensated Density Neutron Log Correction Nomographs This section contains log interpretation charts for the loggingwhile-drilling CDN neutron porosity measurement. To use this chart. 14. (apparent limestone units) 6. 10-. and read true porosity on the ordinate. then go straight up to the bottom of the top chart (point D). The porosity equivalence curves in Chart Por-21 are used to find the porosity of sandstones or dolomites. Then. The point of intersection defines the lithology (mineralogy) and the porosity. There. Assume the following: Uncorrected neutron log porosity Tool size Borehole size Mud weight Mud salinity Mud temperature Mud pressure Formation salinity mud.5.and 8-in. Second. Since the borehole size in the example is 10 in. and drop a line straight down to the 10-in.78— the corrected hydrogen index of the mud. From here (point D). can provide insight into lithology and permit the determination of porosity. Chart Por-20b is selected for the corrections. The following example illustrates the procedure for using the charts. Follow the trend lines to the standard conditions of 0 kppm. If the lithology is unknown. as determined from Chart Por-19. borehole size (point B). borehole sizes and for 6.5 in. Follow the sloping trend lines down to the standard conditions (8-in.u. Correction Nomographs Por-19 through Por-21 provide an environmentally corrected neutron porosity referenced to the appropriate lithology matrix. Chart CP-22. borehole). for this example. Since the hydrogen index of the 3-29 . drop straight down to the mud salinity value of 100 kppm (point F)..u. and the tool size is 6. Enter the left of the bottom chart of Nomograph Por-19 at the 14-lbm/gal mud weight. mud salinity and formation salinity effects is strongly dependent on the hole size. 12-. and then drop straight down to the H m value of 0. determine the environmental corrections with the appropriate Por-20 or -24 chart. the neutron-density crossplot. provides insight into the formation lithology and permits the determination of porosity. read the environmentally corrected apparent limestone porosity of 31 p.78. Enter the top of the chart with the uncorrected CDN neutron porosity of 40 p.5 in. tools. correction nomographs are provided for 8-. determine the temperature and pressure-corrected hydrogen index of the mud (H m). follow the trend lines to the standard conditions of H m = 1. From this point.0 (point E). Chart CP-22. 10 in. draw a line straight up until it intersects the bottom of the middle chart (point B). *Mark of Schlumberger 40 p. Follow the trend lines up to the line for 5-kpsi mud pressure (point E) and then straight up to the top of the chart to read the value of 0.

75 F 0.90 0.75 0.70 25 20 0.80 0.90 0.95 1 Por Mud pressure (kpsi) 15 10 5 0 300 250 D E 200 Mud temperature (°F) 150 100 50 16 15 14 Mud weight (lbm/gal) 13 12 11 10 9 8 C B A Barite Bentonite 0.85 0.95 1 3-30 .80 0. mud hydrogen index 0.Porosity Schlumberger CDN* Compensated Density Neutron Log and ADN* Azimuthal Density Neutron Log Correction Nomograph Mud hydrogen index determination Por-19 Hm.70 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 0.85 0.

0 250 200 Mud salinity (kppm) 150 100 50 0 250 200 Formation salinity (kppm) 150 100 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 Por • Hm.8 0. Tool 8-in.7 0.Porosity Schlumberger CDN* Compensated Density Neutron Log Correction Nomograph for 6. mud hydrogen index • • • 0 10 20 30 40 50 • Standard conditions *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 3-31 .9 1.) 12 10 8 0.5-in. borehole Por-20a CDN neutron porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) 0 16 14 Borehole size (in.

mud hydrogen index E • • • 40 50 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 10 20 30 • Standard conditions 3-32 . borehole Por-20b CDN neutron porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) 0 16 14 Borehole size (in.Porosity Schlumberger CDN* Compensated Density Neutron Log Correction Nomograph for 6.8 0.7 0. Tool 10-in.9 1.) 12 10 8 0.0 250 200 Mud salinity (kppm) 150 100 F 50 0 G 250 200 Formation salinity (kppm) 150 100 H 50 0 I D C B 10 20 30 40 A 50 Por • Hm.5-in.

mud hydrogen index • • • 0 10 20 30 40 50 • Standard conditions *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 3-33 .5-in.Porosity Schlumberger CDN* Compensated Density Neutron Log Correction Nomograph for 6.8 0. Tool 12-in.9 1.0 250 200 Mud salinity (kppm) 150 100 50 0 250 200 Formation salinity (kppm) 150 100 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 Por • Hm.) 12 10 8 0.7 0. borehole Por-20c CDN neutron porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) 0 16 14 Borehole size (in.

7 0.) 12 10 8 0. borehole Por-20d CDN neutron porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) 0 16 14 Borehole size (in. Tool 14-in. mud hydrogen index • • • 0 10 20 30 40 50 • Standard conditions *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 3-34 .5-in.0 250 200 Mud salinity (kppm) 150 100 50 0 250 200 Formation salinity (kppm) 150 100 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 Por • Hm.9 1.8 0.Porosity Schlumberger CDN* Compensated Density Neutron Log Correction Nomograph for 6.

7 0.9 1. borehole Por-24c CDN neutron porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) 0 18 17 Borehole size (in. mud hydrogen index • • • 10 20 30 40 50 • Standard conditions 3-35 .Porosity Schlumberger CDN* Compensated Density Neutron Log Correction Nomograph for 8-in. Tool 12-in.) 16 15 14 13 12 0.0 250 200 Mud salinity (kppm) 150 100 50 0 250 200 Formation salinity (kppm) 150 100 50 0 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 10 20 30 40 50 Por • Hm.8 0.

mud hydrogen index E • G • H I 10 20 30 40 • 50 • Standard conditions 3-36 . borehole Por-24d CDN neutron porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) 0 18 17 Borehole size (in. Tool 14-in.0 250 200 Mud salinity (kppm) 150 100 F 50 0 250 200 Formation salinity (kppm) 150 100 50 0 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 10 20 30 40 A 50 Por B • D Hm.) 16 15 14 13 12 C 0.8 0.Porosity Schlumberger CDN* Compensated Density Neutron Log Correction Nomograph for 8-in.9 1.7 0.

Tool 16-in.7 0.9 1.Porosity Schlumberger CDN* Compensated Density Neutron Log Correction Nomograph for 8-in. borehole Por-24e CDN neutron porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) 0 18 17 Borehole size (in.0 250 200 Mud salinity (kppm) 150 100 50 0 250 200 Formation salinity (kppm) 150 100 50 0 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 10 20 30 40 50 Por • Hm.) 16 15 14 13 12 0. mud hydrogen index • • • 10 20 30 40 50 • Standard conditions 3-37 .8 0.

and the tool size is 6. follow the trend lines to the standard conditions of H m = 1. Enter the top of the chart with the uncorrected CDN neutron porosity of 40 p. and read true porosity on the ordinate. The neutron-density crossplot. drop straight down to the mud salinity value of 100 kppm (point F). borehole). The following example illustrates the procedure for using the charts. Follow the trend lines up to the line for 5-kpsi mud pressure (point E) and then straight up to the top of the chart to read the value of 0. 14 lbm/gal (barite mud) 100 kppm 150°F 5 kpsi 100 kppm First. Drop straight down to the 100-kppm value for formation salinity (point H) and follow the trend lines down to 0 kppm—the standard condition value (point I). then go straight up to the bottom of the top chart (point D). It is assumed that the tool is stabilized in the borehole. Chart CP-24. Since the hydrogen index of the mud.Porosity ADN* Azimuthal Density Neutron Log Correction Nomographs This section contains log interpretation charts for the loggingwhile-drilling ADN azimuthal neutron porosity measurement. borehole size (point B). Follow the sloping trend lines down to the standard conditions (8-in. and then drop straight down to the H m value of 0. The porosity equivalence curves in Chart Por-27 are used to find the porosity of sandstones or dolomites. Second.and 10-in. Enter the chart in abscissa with the environmentally corrected apparent limestone porosity as determined from Chart Por-26b. can provide insight into lithology and permit the determination of porosity. the neutron-density crossplot. Chart CP-24. read the environmentally corrected apparent limestone porosity of 31 p. Then.78— the corrected hydrogen index of the mud. Chart Por-26b is selected for the corrections. The point of intersection defines the lithology (mineralogy) and the porosity. Follow the trend lines up to the mud temperature of 150°F (point C). draw a line straight up until it intersects the bottom of the middle chart (point B).5 in. correction nomographs are provided for 8. go up to the appropriate matrix line. for this example.u. If the lithology is unknown. Since the borehole size in the example is 10 in.u. Por-26a and Por-26b provide an environmentally corrected neutron porosity referenced to the appropriate lithology matrix. determine the environmental corrections with the appropriate Por-26 chart. (apparent limestone units) 10 in. and drop a line straight down to the 10-in. Correction Nomographs Por-19.78. provides insight into the formation lithology and permits the determination of porosity.. *Mark of Schlumberger 40 p. There. To use this chart.u. Follow the trend lines to the standard conditions of 0 kppm. as determined from Chart Por-19. Enter the left of the bottom chart of Nomograph Por-19 at the 14-lbm/gal mud weight. Por Assume the following: Uncorrected neutron log porosity Borehole size Mud weight Mud salinity Mud temperature Mud pressure Formation salinity mud salinity and formation salinity effects is strongly dependent on the hole size. Project a line to the right until it intersects the line for barite mud (point A).0 (point E). borehole sizes. enter the abscissa with the environmentally corrected apparent limestone porosity and the ordinate with the bulk density. From here (point D). e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? . determine the temperature and pressure-corrected hydrogen index of the mud (H m). From this point.

9 1.75-in. Tool 8-in.7 Hm.Porosity Schlumberger ADN* Azimuthal Density Neutron Log Correction Nomograph for 6.0 250 200 Mud salinity (kppm) 150 100 50 0 250 200 Formation salinity (kppm) 150 100 50 0 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger Por-26a 10 20 30 40 50 Borehole size (in. borehole ADN neutron porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) 0 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 300 250 Mud temperature (°F) 200 150 100 50 0.) • Por • • • • 10 20 30 40 50 • Standard conditions .8 0. mud hydrogen index 0.

0 G 250 200 Mud salinity (kppm) 150 100 50 0 I 250 200 Formation salinity (kppm) 150 100 50 0 K 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 10 20 30 40 A 50 Borehole size (in.) Por B • D E • F • H • J • 40 50 10 20 30 • Standard conditions . mud hydrogen index 0.9 1.7 Hm . borehole Por-26b ADN neutron porosity index (apparent limestone porosity) 0 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 C 300 250 Mud temperature (°F) 200 150 100 50 0.8 0.75-in.Porosity Schlumberger ADN* Azimuthal Density Neutron Log Correction Nomograph for 6. Tool 10-in.

bulk density (g/cm ) 3 2. calcite (limestone) and dolomite] and shale and some evaporites.) (ρma = 2.71. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Porosity and Lithology Determination from Formation Density Log and SNP Sidewall Neutron Porosity Log CP-1a Fresh water.0) 25 35 30 CP 4-1 . liquid-filled holes (ρf = 1.7 0 0 5 2. Sonic-density can be used to differentiate between a single known reservoir rock and shale and to identify evaporate minerals.u.4 10 2.9 45 45 40 2.Crossplots for Porosity.8 Polyhalite Langbeinite 0 –5 2. ρf = 1. Continued on next page φD. Neutron-density can be used to differentiate between the common reservoir rocks [quartz sandstone.0) 1.1 Ap pro xim co gas ate rre ctio n ity os or P 20 15 40 35 40 35 30 Trona 30 35 2.6 0 10 5 2.3 ρb.0 Sulfur Salt 2.2 2.) (apparent limestone porosity) © Schlumberger The neutron-density-sonic crossplot charts (Charts CP-1. Chart selection depends on the anticipated mineralogy.u. neutron porosity index (p.5 5 25 e n sto nd ) sa 20 ne to tz ar es Qu (lim e cit al 15 C 20 30 25 25 20 15 10 15 5 ite m lo o D 10 2. Sonic-neutron can be used to differentiate between the common reservoir rocks when clay content is negligible.9 –10 0 3.0 0 ite dr hy An 10 20 30 40 –15 φSNPcor. CP-2 and CP-7) provide insight into lithology and permit the determination of porosity. density porosity (p.

) (apparent limestone porosity) © Schlumberger To use any of these charts.1) 1.5 5 10 10 25 e n sto nd ) sa 20 ne to rtz a es Qu (lim te lci 15 Ca 20 ite m lo Do 25 20 25 15 10 2.7 0 5 0 Polyhalite 2. and that the sonic charts contain curves assuming weighted average response (blue) and empirical observation response (red). neutron porosity index (p.u. liquid-filled holes (ρf = 1. enter the abscissa and ordinate with the required neutron.1 Ap pro xim co gas ate rre ctio n ity os or P 20 15 45 40 40 40 Trona 35 35 30 40 35 CP 2. ρf = 1. Note that all neutron input is in apparent limestone porosity.4 2.9 0 ite dr hy An 0 10 20 30 40 –15 3. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Porosity and Lithology Determination from Formation Density Log and SNP Sidewall Neutron Porosity Log CP-1b Salt water.3 ρb. 4-2 φD.u.9 45 45 2.71. bulk density (g/cm3) 2.1 g/cm3) invasion exist.0 φSNPcor.0 g/cm3) and saline water (ρf = 1.0 Sulfur Salt 2. that charts for fresh water (ρf = 1.8 Langbeinite 0 –5 –10 2.6 0 5 10 15 5 2. density or sonic value.Crossplots for Porosity.1) 35 30 .2 30 25 30 2. φ.) (ρma = 2. density porosity (p. The point of intersection defines the lithology (mineralogy) and the porosity.

density porosity (p.8 0 –5 2. Cf = 0 ppm) 1. ρf = 1.000 g/cm3.6 0 5 5 10 0 2.3 ρb.u.) (ρma = 2.u.2 ity os or P 30 30 25 35 30 φD. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Porosity and Lithology Determination from Litho-Density* Log and CNL* Compensated Neutron Log For CNL curves after 1986 labeled TNPH CP-1e Liquid-filled holes (ρf = 1.5 10 5 15 15 10 2.4 15 15 ne to ds n 25 sa tz ) ar ne to Qu es (lim 20 ite 25 alc C 20 ite lom Do 30 25 20 10 2.9 45 45 2.7 0 5 2.0) CP 2.71.0 Sulfur Salt 2.1 Ap pro xim co gas ate rre ctio n 40 40 40 35 35 35 2. neutron porosity index (p.0 Anhydrite 0 10 20 30 40 –15 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger φCNLcor.9 –10 3.Crossplots for Porosity.) (apparent limestone porosity) 4-3 . bulk density (g/cm3) 20 2.

190 g/cm3.0 Sulfur Salt 2.4 15 2. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Porosity and Lithology Determination from Litho-Density* Log and CNL* Compensated Neutron Log For CNL curves after 1986 labeled TNPH CP-1f Liquid-filled holes (ρf = 1.u.) (ρma = 2.9 –15 3.Crossplots for Porosity.) (apparent limestone porosity) 4-4 φD.0 Anhydrite 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 10 20 30 40 φCNLcor.8 –5 0 –10 2. bulk density (g/cm ) 3 20 2. Cf = 250 kppm) 1.2 2.3 ρb.71.u.9 2.1 Ap pro xim co gas ate rre ctio n 40 45 45 45 40 40 35 35 CP 2.5 5 10 10 15 ne to ds n sa 25 rtz a e) Qu ton es 20 lim e( t lci Ca 20 30 35 30 30 25 25 20 15 ite lom Do 10 2. neutron porosity index (p. density porosity (p.19) ity os or P 25 35 30 . ρf = 1.7 0 0 5 2.6 0 15 5 10 5 2.

1 2.5 10 5 15 5 0 10 0 5 ite lom Do 2. liquid-filled holes (ρf = 1.4 e on st nd sa z 25 rt ua Q ) ne to es 20 (lim e cit al C 20 35 CP 30 25 2.0 2.Crossplots for Porosity.0 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 10 20 30 40 φCDNcor. bulk density (g/cm3) 20 15 15 10 2. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Porosity and Lithology Determination from Formation Density Log and CDN* Compensated Density Neutron Log for 6.u. Tool CP-22 Fresh water.6 2.0) 1.8 0 2.9 40 40 35 35 30 30 2.2 ity os or 25 P 2.5-in.3 ρb.7 2.9 3.) 4-5 . apparent limestone porosity (p.

0) 1. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Porosity and Lithology Determination from Formation Density Log and CDN* Compensated Density Neutron Log for 8-in.0 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 10 20 30 40 φCDNcor.6 0 2.9 3.1 CP 2. bulk density (g/cm3) 20 15 15 10 2.8 0 2.u.4 ne to 25 ds n sa 25 rtz a Qu e) on st 0 e 2 (lim e t lci Ca ite lom Do 35 30 25 20 2.3 ρb.9 40 40 35 35 30 30 2.0 2. Tool CP-23 Fresh water. apparent limestone porosity (p. liquid-filled holes (ρf = 1.5 5 10 15 5 10 0 5 2.Crossplots for Porosity.2 ity os or P 2.) 4-6 .7 2.

5 5 15 5 0 10 0 5 2.2 2. liquid-filled holes (ρf = 1.Crossplots for Porosity. bulk density (g/cm3) 15 10 15 10 20 2.) 4-7 .9 3. Tool CP-24 Fresh water.8 0 2.u.3 ρb.4 ne to ds n sa 25 rtz ua Q e) on st 0 e 2 (lim e t lci Ca 20 ite lom Do 25 30 35 CP 30 25 2.6 2.7 2.1 30 y sit ro Po 2.0 35 40 35 2. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Porosity and Lithology Determination from Formation Density Log and ADN* Azimuthal Density Neutron Log for 6.0) 1.0 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 10 20 30 40 φADNcor.75-in. apparent limestone porosity (p.9 40 2.

u. neutron porosity index (p. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Porosity and Lithology Determination from Sonic Log and SNP Sidewall Neutron Porosity Log CP-2a (English) t f = 189 µsec/ft Time average Field observation 40 40 110 35 CP 30 30 35 25 90 Po ro sit y 30 35 t . sonic transit time (µsec/ft) 18 .Crossplots for Porosity.00 20 0f t/s ec 20 20 ) 25 25 80 25 30 Sa lt 70 0 Qu ar tz sa nd sto 15 ne (v ma 15 15 = Ca lci te (lim es ton 20 e) 20 Do lom ite 25 10 10 5 15 15 60 10 5 An hy 0 dr ite 5 10 0 15 5 50 10 0 0 0 0 5 0 40 0 10 20 30 40 φSNPcor.) (apparent limestone porosity) © Schlumberger 4-8 20 25 30 35 35 100 40 40 .

neutron porosity index (p.) (apparent limestone porosity) © Schlumberger 4-9 .u. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Porosity and Lithology Determination from Sonic Log and SNP Sidewall Neutron Porosity Log CP-2am (Metric) t f = 620 µsec/m Time average Field observation 40 340 35 40 30 30 35 320 35 35 40 40 CP 300 25 30 Po ro sit y 280 t . sonic transit time (µsec/m) 54 20 86 m/ se c) 20 20 25 25 260 25 30 Qu ar tz sa nd 15 sto ne (v 15 15 ma = 240 Sa lt Ca lci te (lim es t 20 20 one ) Do lom ite 25 10 10 5 15 15 220 200 10 5 180 0 An hy 0 dr ite 5 10 0 15 5 10 160 0 0 0 5 140 0 0 10 20 20 25 0 30 30 35 40 φSNPcor.Crossplots for Porosity.

Lithology and Saturation *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger Porosity and Lithology Determination from Litho-Density* Log and Array Porosity Sonde (APS) CP-1g .e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? CP Crossplots for Porosity.

e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? e@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@? Crossplots for Porosity. Lithology and Saturation *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger Porosity and Lithology Determination from Litho-Density* Log and Array Porosity Sonde (APS) CP-1h CP .

Cf = 0 ppm Time average Field observation 35 40 100 30 30 sa nd sto ne CP Po ro sit y 25 25 3535 40 110 Qu ar tz 90 30 t . Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Porosity and Lithology Determination from Sonic Log and CNL* Compensated Neutron Log For CNL logs after 1986 labeled TNPH CP-2c (English) t f = 190 µsec/ft.) (apparent limestone porosity) 4-12 35 35 40 . sonic transit time (µsec/ft) 20 80 20 20 Ca lci te 20 (lim es 25 tone Do ) lom ite 25 25 30 10 15 Sa lt 10 10 5 60 0 0 10 10 15 10 An hy dr ite 0 50 0 5 0 40 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 0 5 5 5 10 20 20 15 5 15 20 25 70 15 15 30 30 30 φCNLcor .Crossplots for Porosity. neutron porosity index (p.u.

Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Porosity and Lithology Determination from Sonic Log and CNL* Compensated Neutron Log For CNL logs after 1986 labeled TNPH CP-2cm (Metric) t f = 620 µsec/m. neutron porosity index (p.u. sonic transit time (µsec/m) 20 260 15 Ca lci te Do 25 25 (lim lom es ton ite e) 25 20 30 240 10 15 20 15 20 20 220 Sa lt 10 10 200 0 5 10 10 15 10 180 0 An hy dr ite 5 5 0 160 0 0 140 0 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 5 5 10 20 20 15 5 15 25 30 30 30 φCNLcor . Cf = 0 ppm Time average Field observation 35 40 360 340 320 Qu 30 30 ar tz sa nd sto ne 30 3535 35 40 CP Po ro sit y 25 25 300 280 t .Crossplots for Porosity.) (apparent limestone porosity) 35 40 4-13 .

bulk density (g/cm3) 2.6 2.8 Sylvite 1.2 ity os or P ρb.4 20 10 10 2.7 Qu ar tz 2. ρf = 1.3 20 Gypsum 2. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Lithology Identification from Formation Density Log and Sonic Log CP-7 (English) t f = 189 µsec/ft.0 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 © Schlumberger 4-14 20 t .5 0 C 0 alc ite sa (lim nd es sto to ne 10 ne ) 1 0 0 0 10 10 20 2. sonic transit time (µsec/ft) 20 20 30 30 30 30 30 40 .8 Do lom ite Polyhalite 2.0 Salt 40 Sulfur CP 2.1 Trona 40 2.9 00 Anhydrite 3.Crossplots for Porosity.0 1.9 Time average Field observation 40 40 2.

0 Salt 40 40 Sulfur CP 2. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Lithology Identification from Formation Density Log and Sonic Log CP-7m (Metric) t f = 620 µsec/m.9 Time average Field observation 40 2.2 ty si ro Po ρb.4 20 10 10 2.9 Anhydrite 3. sonic transit time (µsec/m) 20 20 30 30 30 30 40 4-15 .7 2.0 1.5 Qu 0 0 C ar 0 alc 0 D tz olo ite sa m (lim nd ite sto es to n ne 10 e ) 10 0 0 10 10 20 2.3 20 Gypsum 2.1 Trona 40 30 2.6 2.8 Sylvite 1. ρf = 1.0 150 200 250 300 350 400 © Schlumberger 20 t .8 Polyhalite 2. bulk density (g/cm3) 2.Crossplots for Porosity.

5 D ol om ite 10 5 2.u.3 2. liquid-filled holes (ρf = 1. bulk density (g/cm3) 30 2.6 15 20 10 5 0 5 10 2.) (ρma = 2.4 10 15 ne sto 25 d an s 20 ) tz ar ne u to Q es 20 (lim ite alc C 15 25 20 25 15 2.u. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Porosity and Lithology Determination from Formation Density Log and CNL* Compensated Neutron Log For CNL logs before 1986. or labeled NPHI CP-1c Fresh water.7 0 5 0 2.0) 1. density porosity (p.) (apparent limestone porosity) 4-16 .0 0 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger φCNLcor .0 Sulfur Salt 2.Crossplots for Porosity.9 45 2.71.8 Langbeinite Polyhalite –5 0 2.1 Ap pro xim co gas ate rre ctio n 35 30 y sit ro Po 25 45 40 40 40 35 CP 2.2 30 40 35 35 30 φD. neutron porosity index (p. ρf = 1.0) ρb.9 An hy dr ite –10 –15 10 20 30 40 3.

5 10 10 5 2.9 e rit yd h An –10 –15 3.9 45 2. liquid-filled holes (ρf = 1.7 0 10 0 5 2.Crossplots for Porosity.0 Sulfur Salt 2.1) 1.3 20 ρb.u. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Porosity and Lithology Determination from Formation Density Log and CNL* Compensated Neutron Log For CNL logs before 1986.4 rtz ua Q 20 ne to ds n sa 25 30 25 15 25 15 10 te lci Ca ) ne to es (lim 20 15 D 20 ol om ite 2.1 Ap pro xim co gas ate rre ctio n ity os or P 25 35 45 45 40 40 35 30 40 40 35 2.1) 4-17 30 2.) (apparent limestone porosity) .8 Langbeinite –5 Polyhalite 0 2.71. neutron porosity index (p.6 5 15 0 5 2.u.) (ρma = 2. ρf = 1.0 0 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 10 20 30 40 φCNLcor . density porosity (p. or labeled NPHI CP-1d Salt water. bulk density (g/cm3) 2.2 30 35 CP φD.

) (apparent limestone porosity) 4-18 35 40 40 40 . neutron porosity index (p. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Porosity and Lithology Determination from Sonic Log and CNL* Compensated Neutron Log For CNL logs before 1986.Crossplots for Porosity. sonic transit time (µsec/ft) 80 Po ro Qu sit y ar tz 20 sa nd sto ne 20 20 Ca lci te (lim 2 es 25 5 ton e) 20 25 Do lom ite 25 30 30 15 Sa lt 10 70 0 1 15 5 1 10 0 5 15 15 20 60 0 10 10 5 0 0 An hy dr ite 5 5 5 10 50 0 0 0 0 5 40 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 10 20 15 20 30 25 30 40 φCNLcor .u. or labeled NPHI CP-2b (English) t f = 189 µsec/ft Time average Field observation 35 40 110 30 30 35 CP 90 30 25 35 35 100 t .

Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Porosity and Lithology Determination from Sonic Log and CNL* Compensated Neutron Log For CNL logs before 1986.Crossplots for Porosity. sonic transit time (µsec/m) 25 25 Ca lci te (lim es ton e) 260 15 25 30 30 Sa lt 20 Do lom ite 240 15 15 10 25 220 0 5 10 10 15 15 20 200 5 10 0 10 180 An hy dr ite 5 5 5 10 160 0 0 0 0 5 0 140 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 10 20 15 20 30 25 30 40 φCNLcor . neutron porosity index (p.) (apparent limestone porosity) 35 4-19 . or labeled NPHI CP-2bm (Metric) t f = 620 µsec/m Time average Field observation 35 40 340 40 30 30 35 320 35 35 40 40 CP 300 25 30 Po ro sit Qu y ar tz 20 sa nd sto 20 ne 20 280 t .u.

.1 Gypsum 1.7 0. etc.5 Salt mud ρf = 1. 2) φ = 0 to 12 p.8 Dolomite M 324 1 1 2 34 Quartz sandstone vma = 5486 m/sec = 18.7 Anhydrite Sulfur Approximate shale region Fresh mud ρf = 1. 3) φ = 12 to 27 p. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger M-N Plot for Mineral Identification For CNL* curves that have been environmentally corrected CP-8 1.. is to shift data points in the directions shown by the arrows. density and neutron logs.500 ft/sec Calcite (limestone) 0.0 g/cm3. The effect of gas.4 0.9 vma = 5943 m/sec = 19. M and N are practically independent of porosity.0 Mg/m3. f = 620 µsec/m ρf = 1. Ternary mixtures plot within the triangle defined by the three constituent minerals.5 N 0.u.u. f = 189 µsec/ft 0.u.3 © Schlumberger This crossplot may be used to help identify mineral mixtures from sonic. They are defined as: M= ρb − ρf N= (φ N ) f − φ N ( English or metric) ρb − ρf tf − t × 0.0 s Ga or lt sa Secondary porosity CP 0.1 g/cm3.1 Mg/m3. secondary porosity. the time average sonic response is assumed. f = 185 µsec/ft 0.6 t t t t 0.000 ft/sec 0. f = 607 µsec/m ρf = 1.. The dolomite and sandstone lines on Chart CP-8 are divided by porosity range as follows: 1) φ = 0 (tight formation).003 (metric) ρb − ρf Points for binary mixtures plot along a line connecting the two mineral points..6 0.01 (English) M= 4-20 t f − t × 0. and 4) φ = 27 to 40 p. (The CNL neutron log is used in the above chart.8 0. shaliness.Crossplots for Porosity.) Except in gas-bearing formations.

Since there is negligible dolomite spread.500 ft/sec CP Calcite (limestone) 0.9 vma = 5943 m/sec = 19.4 0.1 g/cm3.0 s Ga or lt sa Secondary porosity 0. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger M-N Plot for Mineral Identification For APS curves that have been environmentally corrected CP-8a 1.000 ft/sec 0. f = 620 µsec/m ρf = 1. a single dolomite point is plotted for each mud.0 g/cm3.5 Salt mud ρf = 1. 4-21 . f = 189 µsec/ft 0.7 0.6 t t t t 0.0 Mg/m3. f = 607 µsec/m ρf = 1. f = 185 µsec/ft 0.6 0.5 N 0.3 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger On Chart CP-8a.1 Gypsum 1.7 Anhydrite Sulfur Approximate shale region Fresh mud ρf = 1. the APS apparent limestone porosity (APLC) replaces the CNL* apparent limestone porosity (NPHI) used on Chart CP-8.Crossplots for Porosity.1 Mg/m3.8 M Dolomite 12 3&4 Quartz sandstone vma = 5486 m/sec = 18.8 0.

Crossplots for Porosity.7 2. three steps are required. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Determination of Apparent Matrix Parameters from Bulk Density or Interval Transit Time and Apparent Total Porosity CP-14 (English) Fluid density = 1.6 20 90 2. Continued on next page 4-22 t .9 2. the apparent crossplot porosity is defined by a vertical projection to the sandstone curve. To use the MID plot. bulk density (g/cm3) N eu tro nso ni c 100 2.3 2.0 t maa.5 2. apparent matrix transit time (µsec/ft) 130 3 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 130 2. an apparent crossplot porosity must be determined using the appropriate neutron-density and empirical (red curves) neutron-sonic crossplot (Charts CP-1 through CP-7).8 2.2 2.7 30 ρb.3 20 60 2.2 30 50 2.1 40 40 2 3 2.6 2.9 120 2. density and sonic measurements.8 110 40 CP 2. apparent matrix density (g/cm3) © Schlumberger 30 The MID plot permits the identification of rock mineralogy or lithology through a comparison of neutron. For any data plotting above the sandstone curve on these charts.5 D en si ty -n eu tro n 10 80 2. interval transit time (µsec/ft) Apparent crossplot porosity .4 10 70 2. First.1 2 ρmaa.4 2.

This defines an apparent matrix grain density. interval transit time (µsec/m) Apparent crossplot porosity CP 275 4-23 . apparent matrix density (g/cm3) © Schlumberger 100 Next. enter the appropriate CP-14 chart with the interval transit time. The presence of secondary porosity in the form of vugs or fractures produces displacements parallel to the t maa axis. t maa.5 2.1 40 125 2 3 2.5 D en si ty -n eu tro n 10 225 2.9 40 325 2.7 ρb. Continued on next page t .2 2.8 2. the crossplot of the apparent matrix interval transit time and apparent grain density on the MID plot (Chart CP-15) identifies the rock mineralogy by its proximity to the labeled points on the plot. ρmaa. The presence of gas displaces points as shown on the MID plot.3 20 175 2. Similarly.1 2 ρmaa. Go to the apparent crossplot porosity previously found on the appropriate neutron-sonic crossplot chart. enter the same chart with the bulk density. apparent matrix transit time (µsec/m) 350 3 325 300 275 250 225 200 175 150 125 100 350 2.0 t maa.2 30 150 2. bulk density (g/cm3) 30 N eu tro nso ni c 2.7 2.9 2.Crossplots for Porosity.4 10 200 2.6 2.8 300 2. ρb . Finally. This defines an apparent matrix interval transit time.4 2.3 2. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Determination of Apparent Matrix Parameters from Bulk Density or Interval Transit Time and Apparent Total Porosity CP-14m (Metric) Fluid density = 1. Go to the apparent crossplot porosity previously found on the appropriate density-neutron crossplot chart.6 20 250 2. Identification of shaliness is best done by plotting some shale points to establish the shale trend lines.

6 Quartz 2.85 g/cm3 From the MID plot.03 g/cm3 t maa = 43.7 Calcite 2.u.1 30 40 50 60 70 t maa (µsec/ft) © Schlumberger Examples: Level 1 t = 67 µsec/ft ρb = 2.04 g/cm3 φ CNL = –3 ρf = 1.0 g/cm3 Level 2 t = 63 µsec/ft ρb = 2.9 Anhydrite 3.2 2.3 CP 2. giving and φaND = –1 φaNS = –1 φaND = 21 φaNS = 21 t maa = 66 µsec/ft ρmaa = 2.0 t maa Salt CNL* Salt SNP 2. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Matrix Identification (MID) Plot CP-15 (English) ρmaa versus 2.5 ρmaa (g/cm 3) n tio ec dir s Ga 2. Level 1 is identified as salt and Level 2 as dolomite.4 2.Crossplots for Porosity.5 µsec/ft ρmaa = 2.8 Dolomite 2.46 g/cm3 φ CNL = 24 p.1 2.0 3. Continued on next page 4-24 .

00 0.4 2. correct (multiply) the apparent total porosity by the multiplier in the table before entry into the density portion of the chart.1 100 © Schlumberger 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 t maa (µsec/m) For fluid density.0 1. For more information see Reference 8.5 ρmaa (g/cm 3) n tio ec dir s Ga 2.1 1.9 3.15 Multiplier 1. ρf (other than 1.0 g/cm3). Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Matrix Identification (MID) Plot CP-15m (Metric) ρmaa versus 2.0 t maa Salt CNL* Salt SNP 2.1 2.95 0.6 Quartz 2.Crossplots for Porosity.8 Dolomite 2.7 Calcite 2.05 1. ρf 1.0 Anhydrite 3.98 0.2 2.93 4-25 .3 CP 2.

8 Anhydrite 0 1 2 3 P .0 6 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger For more information see Reference 27.0) 1. 4-26 0 0 2.9 0 3. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Porosity and Lithology Determination from Litho-Density* Log CP-16 Fresh water.6 0 2.1 30 CP Quartz sandstone 40 2.Crossplots for Porosity. bulk density (g/cm3) 2. photoelectric factor e 4 5 2.9 40 Salt 2.2 20 30 2.4 Dolomite 2.0 40 2. liquid-filled holes (ρf = 1.3 ne) (limesto Calcite 30 10 ρb.5 20 20 10 2.7 10 0 .

9 0 3.1) 1. bulk density (g/cm3) ne) (limesto Calcite 20 30 30 10 2. photoelectric factor e 4 5 2.0 2.4 2.7 10 . liquid-filled holes (ρf = 1.8 Anhydrite 0 1 2 3 P .3 ρb.6 0 2. 4-27 0 0 2.9 40 Salt 2.1 40 0 Quartz sandstone 2.2 30 40 CP 2.Crossplots for Porosity.5 Dolomite 20 20 10 2.0 6 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger For more information see Reference 27. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Porosity and Lithology Determination from Litho-Density* Log CP-17 Salt water.

the appropriate parameters are plotted to provide qualitative information about the mineralogy. Because the porosity and the composition of many clay minerals may vary.2 Th/K = 10. After environmental correction.Crossplots for Porosity.9% Pe = 3. Example: Th NGScor = 10.7 giving Plotting these parameters on Chart CP-18 suggests that the clay mineral is illite.6 ppm UNGScor = 4.9 = 2.5 ppm K NGScor = 3. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Mineral Identification from Litho-Density* Log and NGS* Natural Gamma Ray Spectrometry Log Chart CP-18 provides clay mineralogy information using NGS Natural Gamma Ray Spectrometry and Litho-Density measurements.6/3. *Mark of Schlumberger CP 4-28 . the minerals plot on these crossplots not as unique points but as general areas.

1 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 0. thorium/potassium ratio 4-29 .3 0. photoelectric factor e Chlorite 6 Biotite CP 4 Illite Muscovite Montmorillonite 2 Kaolinite 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 K. photoelectric factor e Biotite 6 Chlorite 4 Mixed layer Illite Muscovite 2 Montmorillonite Kaolinite 0 0. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Mineral Identification from Litho-Density* Log and NGS* Natural Gamma Ray Spectrometry Log CP-18 10 8 Glauconite P .6 1 2 3 6 10 20 30 60 100 Th/K.2 0. potassium concentration (%) 10 8 Glauconite P .Crossplots for Porosity.

4-30 . Th/K—does not vary with mineral concentration.3 te lori Ch 0 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger Feldspar 3 4 Potassium evaporites. with illite as the principal clay mineral.5. ~30% feldspar 1 2 Potassium (%) 5 Radioactive minerals often occur in relatively small concentrations in sedimentary rocks. illite “clay line” 100% illite point Kaolinite . Chart CP-19 can be used to identify the more common ones. with Th/K between 2.0 and 2. A sandstone reservoir with varying amounts of shaliness. Unless there is a complex mixture of radioactive minerals in the formation. The ratio of thorium to uranium activity—the thorium/potassium ratio. Even shales typically contain only 30 to 70% radioactive clay minerals. usually plots in the illite segment of the chart.6 Th/K: 0. montmorillonite. and more shaly parts plot closer to the 70% illite area. Less shaly parts of the reservoir plot closer to the origin.5 K: 3 Th/ CP Thorium (ppm) 15 ~70% illite 10 M on tm or illo nit e y r cla laye ed Mix Illite s Mica : 2.Crossplots for Porosity. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Mineral Identification from NGS* Natural Gamma Ray Spectrometry Log CP-19 25 Th/K : 25 Th /K :1 2 Hea vy th oriu m-b eari ng m iner als 20 Possible 100% kaolinite.0 Th/K ~40% mica 5 ~30% glauconite Glauconite Th/K: 0.

U f = 1.36 2. bulk density (g/cm3) CP 6 5 4 3 2 1 4 6 8 10 12 14 P .0 20 30 40 φ ta. U f = 0.0 Fresh water (0 ppk). apparent total porosity (%) ρb. apparent matrix volumetric photoelectric factor 4-31 .5 % 0 10 2.398 Salt water (200 ppk). Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Determination of Apparent Matrix Volumetric Photoelectric Factor CP-20 3. ρf = 1. photoelectric factor e © Schlumberger Umaa.11.Crossplots for Porosity.0. ρf = 1.

and apparent volumetric photoelectric factor. for example. a neutrondensity crossplot).65 ρb = 2. For more information see Reference 27. to define the apparent matrix grain density. enter Nomograph CP-20 with the photoelectric factor. on Plot CP-21. ρmaa. To use. Rock mineralogy is identified by the proximity of the plotted data point to the labeled points on the plot.0 g/cm3) φta = 16% giving ρmaa = 2. are entered in ordinate and abscissa. Chart CP-14 may be used with bulk density.Crossplots for Porosity. Example: Pe = 3. Then. To find the apparent matrix volumetric photoelectric factor. To determine apparent matrix grain density. go vertically to the bulk density. and finally. Umaa. go vertically downward to define the matrix volumetric photoelectric factor. ρmaa.81 g/cm3 (from Chart CP-14) and Umaa = 10. Umaa. ρb. Umaa.52 g/cm3 (ρf = 1. φ t. an apparent total porosity must first be determined (using. ρb. 4-32 . apparent matrix grain density. respectively. then.9 Plotting these values indicates the level to be a mixture of approximately 60% dolomite and 40% limestone. go horizontally across to the total porosity. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Lithology Identification Plot CP Plot CP-21 identifies rock mineralogy through a comparison of apparent matrix grain density and apparent volumetric photoelectric factor. Pe.

3 Salt tion Gas direc 2.0 Kaolinite Illite 3. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Lithology Identification Plot CP-21 ρmaa versus Umaa 2.4 CP ρmaa.5 2.1 2 © Schlumberger Anhydrite 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Umaa.2 2.9 Dolomite Heavy minerals 3.Crossplots for Porosity.8 40 20 60 80 40 % rtz ua Q Barite % ite lom Do 2.6 Quartz 2. apparent matrix grain density (g/cm3) 2.7 80 60 K-Feldspar 20 % Calcit e 40 60 80 Calcite 20 2. apparent matrix volumetric photoelectric factor 4-33 .

2 – 1. Example: φ CNLcor = 12 p. and for Shr ≈ 100% for medium to high values of porosity. Shr.25 (gases). Therefore. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Porosity Estimation in Hydrocarbon-Bearing Formations From neutron. but if ρh < 0.u. (Shr = 1 – Sxo) defines a porosity correction factor ∆φ.u. The neutron and density logs must be corrected for environmental effects and lithology prior to entry into the nomograph.6 p. To use. This correction factor algebraically added to porosity. gives the true porosity. connect the apparent neutron porosity point on the appropriate neutron stem with the apparent density porosity on the density stem with a straight line.6 p.u.u.Crossplots for Porosity.6 = 30. The chart includes an approximate correction for excavation effect. φ Dcor = 38 p. φ1.u. density and Rxo logs CP-9 φ cor (CNL*) 50 φ cor (SNP) 50 (p.u.2 p. draw a line to the origin of the Shr versus ∆φ chart. Entering this chart with the hydrocarbon saturation. 30 30 30 30 –5 20 20 20 20 –4 –3 ∆φ (p. Shr = 50% giving φ1 = 32. φ = 32. From the intersection of this line with the porosity.) 10 10 10 10 –2 –1 0 0 0 0 100 80 60 40 20 0 Shr (%) 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 4-34 .) φ1 50 φ Dcor 50 CP 40 40 40 40 This nomograph estimates porosity in hydrocarbon-bearing formations using neutron. the chart may not be accurate in some extreme cases: very high values of porosity (> 35 p. density and Rxo logs. φ1. stem.) coupled with medium to high values of Shr. and ∆φ = –1.u.u.

4 0.2 0. 4-35 . enter the appropriate chart with the ratio of neutron porosity to density porosity.28 g/cm3 Charts CP-9 and CP-10 have not been updated for CNL logs run after 1986 or labeled TNPH.6 0.u. and Shr = 30% Therefore.2 0. approximations may therefore be greater with more recent logs.5 CP ρh 0. φDcor = 25 p. To use.2 0 0 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 0. and the hydrocarbon saturation in the portion of the rock investigated by the neutron and density logs (invaded or flushed zone).4 0. For approximate results with APLC porosity (from IPL* logs).3 0.4 0. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Estimation of Hydrocarbon Density From neutron and density logs CP-10 1.8 0.7 0.1 20 40 Shr 60 80 100 These charts estimate the density of the saturating hydrocarbon from a comparison of neutron and density measurements.1 0.6 φCNLcor φ Dcor 0.u.8 0.3 0.Crossplots for Porosity.0 0.8 0. use Charts CP-9 and CP-10 for SNP logs.4 0.8 0.6 0.6 φSNPcor φ Dcor 0. ρh = 0.5 0. The neutron log (either CNL* or SNP log) and the density log must be corrected for environmental effect and lithology before entry into the charts. Example: φCNLcor = 15 p.2 0 0 0 20 40 Shr 60 80 100 1. The intersection defines the hydrocarbon density in g/cm3.7 0.0 ρh 0. and the hydrocarbon saturation.

Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Gas-Bearing Formations— Porosity from Density and Neutron Logs CP-5 50 40 0 20 40 35 35 40 Porosity 30 30 60 CP φD. and φ N reads 10% in a low-pressure. 5 5 For deep reservoirs.00 1. Pw 1. Average water saturation in the flushed zone.00 Pg 0 0. Example: φ D reads 25%.000 kPa] ~7000 psi [~48. Depth Shallow reservoirs (blue) Deep reservoirs (red) Pressure ~2000 psi [~14.00 1. Therefore. and it includes correction of the neutron log for “excavation effect.54 Temperature ~120°F [~50°C] ~240°F [~120°C] 4-36 .u. neutron-derived porosity (p. Sxo.1H4.) 30 0 20 25 40 25 80 60 20 20 80 100 20 15 15 Sxo 100 Sxo 10 10 10 For shallow reservoirs. density-derived porosity (p.) 30 40 Based on reservoir depth and conditions. φ = 20%. use red curves. enter the appropriate chart with matrix-corrected porosity values. and porosity are derived.000 kPa] The conditions represented by the curves are listed in the table below. 0 0 © Schlumberger 10 20 φ N.00 IHw 1.Crossplots for Porosity. use blue curves.u.2. shallow (4000-ft) reservoir.25 IHg 0 0. and Sxo = 62%.” For more information see Reference 6. This chart assumes fresh water and gas of composition C1.

5 2.90 Sandstone Limy sandstone Limestone Dolomite 2.65 Grain density (ρma) 2. can be determined from this chart using either the combination of density-neutron measurements or density-resistivity measurements.85 2.4 2. To do so. S 50 Rt Rw Sw g 20 2. Sg = 25% Sh = 70% (total hydrocarbon saturation) So = 70 – 25 = 45% Sw = 100 – 70 = 30% 4-37 .1 2.u.9 1.6 2.68) ρb = 2. R t = 74 R w = 0.9 © Schlumberger Apparent bulk density from density log Porosity.0 1. Sg.7 2. For more information see Reference 14. enter the chart vertically from the intersection of the apparent bulk density and appropriate grain density values.2 2. R t /R w = 740 and φ = 12 p.70 2.8 10 20 15 14 13 12 11 φ. To use.2 0 2.1 2. Example: In a limy sandstone (ρma = 2. With all three measurements (density.5 2.000 4000 2000 1000 400 300 200 150 100 70 60 50 40 30 (% ) 40 30 Ga ss atu rati on.6 2.44 g/cm3 φ N = 9 p.Crossplots for Porosity.) 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 Use only if no oil is present 28 30 100 90 80 70 60 10. and gas saturation. The intersection of this line with either the neutron porosity (corrected for lithology) or the R t /R w ratio (true resistivity/connate water resistivity) defines actual porosity and gas saturation.80 2.3 2. porosity (p.4 2.u.1 Therefore.8 2. enter the chart with apparent bulk density and neutron porosity (as described above) to define porosity and gas saturation.75 2. oil saturation can be determined as well. Moving along the defined porosity to its intersection with the R t /R w ratio gives the total hydrocarbon saturation.3 2.u. neutron and resistivity). Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Porosity and Gas Saturation in Empty Holes Sw-11 Density and hydrogen index of gas assumed to be zero Use only if no shale is present 0 2 4 Neutron porosity index (corrected for lithology) 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 2.0 1. φ.

06 0. Example: φ = 23% Swi = 30% Gas saturation (ρh = 0.u.04 K 0.12 0.08 Corrected S′wi for chart entry = 1.08 200 15 100 50 20 10 10 5 0. 4-39 . thus. Lithology and Saturation Schlumberger Permeability from Porosity and Water Saturation K-4 40 35 5000 30 2000 25 φ. and elevation above the free water level. The inset figure provides this correction factor. h.01 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Swi.3 g/cm3.01 1 0. Pc = h (ρw − ρ h ) 120 (1. A medium-gravity oil is assumed. should be applied to the irreducible water saturation prior to entry into Chart K-3 or K-4. 21 and 22. For more information see References 16. the product of porosity and water saturation is generally a constant. 17. ρw = 1. a correction factor based upon fluid densities. ρw and ρh . Over intervals at irreducible water saturation.10 0.4% giving or k ≈ 130 md (Chart K-3) k ≈ 65 md (Chart K-4) These charts can also be used to recognize zones at irreducible water saturation. porosity (p. data points from levels at irreducible water saturation should plot in a fairly coherent pattern on or parallel to one of the φ • Sw lines. p φ Swi 0.1 g/cm3) h (elevation above water) ≈ 120 ft Therefore.10 0.1 − 0. If the saturating hydrocarbon is other than a medium-gravity oil.) 1000 500 20 ) md ty ( bili ea erm k.3) = = 42 C′ correction factor = 1.08 (30) = 32. water saturation above transition zone (%) © Schlumberger permeability.Crossplots for Porosity.02 5 0.

Electromagnetic Propagation and Microresistivity Schlumberger EPT* Propagation Time for NaCl Solutions EPTcor-1 90 80 120°C 250°F 100°C 200°F 70 80°C 175°F 150°F 60°C tpw (nsec/m) 60 125°F 40°C 100°F 50 75°F 20°C 40 EPT 30 20 0 50 100 150 200 250 Equivalent water salinity (kppm or g/kg NaCl) EPT Matrix Propagation Travel Time 2.8 Dolomite 2.0 7 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 8 9 Matrix propagation time (tpma) .9 Anhydrite 3.7 Calcite 2.6 Quartz Apparent matrix density (ρmaa) 5-1 2.

when the apparent matrix density.Electromagnetic Propagation and Microresistivity Schlumberger Flushed Zone Saturation from EPT* Propagation Time Sxo-1 tpma 7 21 20 19 8 9 10 7 8 tpma 9 10 Sxo (%) 100 90 18 17 16 15 tpl (nsec/m) 14 13 12 11 10 9 10 5 50 4 40 5 35 30 25 20 15 80 s Ga il O 21 t pw 25 30 35 40 50 60 70 80 90 70 60 53% 50 40 30 20 10 0 10. using the EPT* propagation time measurement. porosity and the expected hydrocarbon type. extend a straight line through the intersection of t pw and hydrocarbon type point to the Sxo axis. t pl is entered on the left grid. follow the diagonal lines to the appropriate t pma value. a straight line is extended through the porosity to the center grid. can be estimated from the appropriate chart on the previous page as a function of equivalent water salinity and formation temperature.8 nsec/m (sand-lime mixture) t pw = 32 nsec/m and Sxo = 53% . Example: t pl = 10. Rock lithology must be known from other sources. For more information see Reference 25. To use the nomograph.9 Sxo 8 7 6 5 SD DOL LS Lithology *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger Fo rm ati on Po ros ity SD DOL LS Lithology This nomograph defines water saturation in the rock immediately adjacent to the borehole. then horizontal to the right edge of the grid. t pma . The estimation requires some knowledge of the expected mineral mixture. ρmaa.67 g/cm3 Water salinity ≈ 20 kppm BHT = 150°F Gas saturation expected giving t pma = 7. From this point.9 nsec/m φ = 28% Limy sandstone with ρmaa = 2. Water propagation time. is known. then horizontal to the right edge of the grid. It requires knowledge of reservoir lithology or matrix propagation time (t pma). From this point. For rock mixtures the chart on the previous page can be used to estimate matrix propagation time. t pw. the saturating water propagation time (t pw). Sxo. t pl. again follow 5-2 the diagonal lines to the appropriate t pma value.

Electromagnetic Propagation and Microresistivity Schlumberger EPT* Attenuation for NaCl Solutions EPTcor-2 5000 4000 120°C 250°F 100°C 200°F 80°C 175°F 150°F 60°C 125°F 40°C 100°F 75°F 20°C Aw (dB/m) 3000 2000 1000 EPT 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 Equivalent water salinity (kppm or g/kg NaCl) EPT-D Spreading Loss –40 –60 –80 –100 –120 –140 –160 –180 –200 30 Correction to AEPT (dB/m) 5-3 0 5 10 15 20 25 Uncorrected tpl (nsec/m) *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger .

) The charts also correct the log attenuations for spreading losses so that no further corrections are required. (Caution: Do not use TPPW and EAPW as inputs into these charts. [1. which are used to evaluate the flushed zone. The chart outputs are the true formation travel times (t pl) and attenuations (A c). For example. Continued on next page 5-4 .Electromagnetic Propagation and Microresistivity Schlumberger EPT-G Mudcake Correction Charts for Water-Base Mud EMD-L (endfire array) EPTcor-3a 25 tpl (nsec/m) 22 Smf = 27 kppm.2 0 A c (dB/m) 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 5 100 © Schlumberger 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 EATT (dB/m) The EPT-G mudcake charts are used to correct the raw log travel times (TPL) and log attenuations (EATT) for the effects of mudcakes on the tool responses. these latter quantities are the inputs to petrophysical models such as the Complex Refractive Index Method (CRIM). temperature = 125°F [52°C] hmc = 0.635 cm] 20 TPL (nsec/m) 20 18 16 15 14 12 400 450 500 10 10 8 7.5 in.25 in.2 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 A c (dB/m) 5 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 EPT 25 tpl (nsec/m) 22 EATT (dB/m) hmc = 0. [0.27 cm] 20 TPL (nsec/m) 20 18 16 15 14 12 400 450 500 10 10 8 7.

2 5 100 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 400 450 500 A c (dB/m) 200 EATT (dB/m) 25 tpl (nsec/m) 22 20 20 18 TPL (nsec/m) 15 16 14 12 10 10 8 7.2 0 5 100 200 50 100 300 150 200 400 250 300 500 350 600 700 800 400 450 500 A c (dB/m) hmc = 0.27 cm] 25 tpl (nsec/m) 22 20 TPL (nsec/m) 15 20 18 16 14 12 10 10 8 7.25 in.67°C] 30 hmc = 0. Continued on next page 5-5 . Sxo.635 cm] EPT EATT (dB/m) © Schlumberger The true travel times.Electromagnetic Propagation and Microresistivity Schlumberger EPT-G Mudcake Correction Charts for Water-Base Mud EMD-L (endfire array) EPTcor-3b Smf = 10 kppm. as indicated. [1. [0. The mudcake effects depend on h mc and the contrast between the mudcake and formation dielectric properties. can also be used in nomograms such as Sxo-1 to determine flushed-zone water saturations. t pl. The charts displayed here are for water-base muds and are applicable. temperature = 125°F [51.5 in. borehole temperatures and mud-filtrate salinities in kppm by weight NaCl (Smf). for the EMD-L and BMD-S arrays. The charts are valid for the indicated mudcake thicknesses (h mc).

2 0 5 100 400 450 500 A c (dB/m) 18 22 hmc = 0. The charts displayed here assume a mudcake porosity of 40 p. mudcake porosity and salinity generally reduce the mudcake effects. [0.635 cm] 10 50 200 100 300 150 200 400 250 300 350 500 600 700 800 EATT (dB/m) © Schlumberger In general.27 cm] 10 0 50 100 EPT 5 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 EATT (dB/m) 25 tpl (nsec/m) 20 20 16 TPL (nsec/m) 15 14 12 10 8 7.) The mudcake thicknesses are estimated from a caliper or a Microlog using Chart Rxo-1.2 300 350 200 250 150 400 450 500 A c (dB/m) 16 20 22 hmc = 0. temperature = 125°F [51.25 in.Electromagnetic Propagation and Microresistivity Schlumberger EPT-G Mudcake Correction Charts for Water-Base Mud BMD-S (broadside array) EPTcor-4a Smf = 27 kppm.5 in. Continued on next page .67°C] 30 tpl (nsec/m) 25 18 20 TPL (nsec/m) 15 14 12 10 8 7.u. [1. (For more information see 5-6 Reference 31. low-conductivity muds produce the largest effects so that increases in temperature.

5-7 .Electromagnetic Propagation and Microresistivity Schlumberger EPT-G Mudcake Correction Charts for Water-Base Mud BMD-S (broadside array) EPTcor-4b Smf = 200 kppm.000 ppm NaCl Log TPL = 20 nsec/m Log EATT = 500 dB/m Entering Chart EPTcor-3a with the above log values. A c = 307 dB/m. and true formation attenuation. temperature = 200°F [93.25 in. [1.2 50 0 5 100 200 EATT (dB/m) © Schlumberger Example: EMD-L array h mc = 0. (estimated from bit size and caliper) Borehole temperature = 125°F Mud filtrate salinity = 27.2 0 200 400 450 500 700 550 600 650 A c (dB/m) 5 50 300 100 400 150 500 200 250 300 350 hmc = 0.7 nsec/m. [0.5 in.635 cm] 100 150 200 250 300 350 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 10 10 8 7. one reads a true formation travel time.27 cm] 900 1000 1100 1200 0 100 600 700 800 EATT (dB/m) EPT 25 22 tpl (n sec/ m) 20 18 550 600 650 700 A c (dB/m) 20 16 TPL (nsec/m) 15 14 12 400 450 500 hmc = 0.5 in.33°C] 30 tpl (nsec/m) 25 22 20 20 18 16 TPL (nsec/m) 15 14 12 10 10 8 7. t pl = 19.

Example: A EPT = 250 dB/m t pl = 10. together with porosity. The spreading loss correction algebraically added to the EPT-D attenuation measurement gives the corrected EPT attenuation. These values.) 1 2 1000 900 800 700 600 3 4 5 10 15 20 30 40 2 3 4 6 8 10 40 20 30 40 60 80 100 50 60 70 80 90 100 20 AEPTcor (dB/m) 1 6 7 8 9 10 2000 30 Sxo 500 400 300 200 200 300 400 100 90 80 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 600 800 1000 The nomograph defines water saturation in the rock immediately adjacent to the borehole. A EPTcor. Sxo .Electromagnetic Propagation and Microresistivity Schlumberger Flushed Zone Saturation from EPT* Attenuation Sxo-2 Sxo (%) 5 Aw (dB/m) 6000 5000 4000 3000 φ (p. using the EPT attenuation measurement. Fluid attenuation (Aw) can be estimated from Chart EPTcor-2 by knowing the equivalent water salinity and formation temperature.9 nsec/m φ = 28% Water salinity = 20 kppm BHT = 150°F giving Spreading loss = –82 dB/m A EPT = 250 – 82 = 168 dB/m Aw = 1100 dB/m and Sxo = 56% 5-8 . EPT-D spreading loss is also determined from Chart EPTcor-2 based on the uncorrected EPT t pl measurement.u. inserted into the nomograph lead to the flushed zone water saturation. porosity and the EPT attenuation (A EPTcor) corrected for spreading loss. Sxo . It requires knowledge of saturating fluid (usually mud filtrate) attenuation (Aw).

[203 mm]. and 0.4 mm] 1 1 1. The point of intersection defines the R xo /R mc ratio and the mudcake thickness. Note: An incorrect R mc will displace the points in the chart along a 45° line. read R xo /R mc from the chart and R 2 /R mc from the bottom scale of the chart.4 mm] 5 4 38 ⁄ in.5 mm] 3 3 3.5 1 in. [203-mm] hole 20 Ze ro 15 hm c 15 12 10 8 9 9 10 Va lu es 4. [6. [25. [152-mm] hole.5 mm] 20 30 Ze 2 2 58 34 ⁄ in. For hole sizes other than 8 in. [3 mm] 14 ⁄ in. [16 mm] ro Rxo h ⁄ in.5 2 3 4 R2 Rmc © Schlumberger 1.15 for 43⁄4-in.93 for 10-in.Electromagnetic Propagation and Microresistivity Schlumberger Microlog Interpretation Chart Rxo-1 8-in. 1. [1. [13 mm] m c 2. Knowing R mc . To correct. 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 Enter the chart with the ratios R 1×1 /R mc and R 2 /R mc. 5 50 20 0 100 00 1⁄16 in.05 for 6-in. h mc. [9.  R / R mc  R xo = R 2  xo   R 2 / R mc  5-9 . [19 mm] 5 1. move the plotted point at 45° to intersect the known h mc. For this new point. [254-mm] hole. R xo can be calculated. 12 ⁄ in. In certain cases this can be recognized when the mudcake thickness is different from direct measurement by the microcaliper. of 5 R xo / 5 R 6 5 R1 × 1 Rmc 4 m c 6 7 7 8 18 ⁄ in. multiply R 1×1 /R mc by the following factors before entering the chart: 1. [120-mm] hole.

1.4 mm] 34 Rxo ⁄ in. Continued on next page 5-10 .7 mm] 50 100 0. enter the ratio of the microresistivity log reading divided by the mudcake resistivity into the abscissa of the appropriate chart.0 Rpcor /Rp hmc 1 in.0 1 in.4 – 12.0 0. Multiplication of this ratio by the microresistivity log reading yields the corrected microresistivity.5 mm] 0 – 1⁄4 in. [9. [19 mm] 0 in. [19 mm] ⁄ in.4 mm] 2. [0 – 6.0 RMLLcor /RMLL hmc 38 (Type VIII hydraulic pad) 34 ⁄ in.0 20 50 100 2. the ratio of the corrected microresistivity value to the microresistivity log reading is then given on the ordinate.Electromagnetic Propagation and Microresistivity Schlumberger Microlaterolog and Proximity Log Mudcake Correction Rxo-2 Microlaterolog 3. [25.8 1 © Schlumberger 2 5 10 Rp /Rmc 20 Charts Rxo-2 and Rxo-3 correct microresistivity measurements for mudcake effect. [6.7 1 2 5 10 RMLL/Rmc Proximity Log (Isotropic mudcake) 3.0 14 ⁄ – 1⁄2 in. [25. Go vertically to the mudcake thickness.4 mm] 1. To use.

6 1 2 5 10 RMSFL/Rmc 20 0 in.5 2.8 0. [6. [6.0 2.15 ohm-m at formation temperature h mc = 9.2 mm] 50 100 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger Example: R MLL = 9. [19 mm] ⁄ in.7 0. 8-in.0) = 18 ohm-m 5-11 .5 14 34 ⁄ in.5 1 in.7 0. [19 mm] Rxo ⁄ in.5 14 hmc 1 in. 8-in.0 RMSFLcor /RMSFL 1.7 mm] 1.4 mm] 12 ⁄ in.4 mm] 34 ⁄ in.Electromagnetic Propagation and Microresistivity Schlumberger MicroSFL* Mudcake Correction Rxo-3 Standard MicroSFL MSFL version III mudcake correction.0 RMSFLcor /RMSFL hmc 1.0/0. [3. [25. borehole 3.9 0.15 = 60 Therefore.7 mm] 0 – 1⁄8 in.0 ohm-m R mc = 0.4 mm] 1.0 2.0 0. [0 – 3.9 0. borehole 3.4 mm] 2.5 mm giving R MLL /R mc = 9. [25. [12.2 mm] 50 100 Slimhole MicroSFL Slim MSFL mudcake correction. [12. 18 ⁄ in.6 1 2 5 10 RMSFL/Rmc 20 12 ⁄ in.8 0.0 0. R MLLcor /R MLL = 2 and R MLLcor = 2(9.

5 RLLDcor/RLLD Hole diameter (in.000 Rcor 1.5 1 10 100 RLLD/Rm Shallow Laterolog DLT-D/E (LLS) centered.5 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 RLLScor/RLLS 1 8 6 Hole diameter (in. thick beds 2 1000 10.) 30 28 26 24 22 20 18 1 16 14 12 10 8 6 0.) 0. thick beds 1.Resistivity Schlumberger Dual Laterolog (D/E) Borehole Correction Rcor-2b Deep Laterolog DLT-D/E (LLD) centered.5 1 10 100 RLLS/Rm © Schlumberger 1000 10.000 6-1 .

1 1.0 0.2 RLLDcor /RLLD 1.4 RLLScor /RLLS 1.Resistivity Schlumberger Dual Laterolog (D/E) Borehole Correction Rcor-2c Deep Laterolog DLS-D/E eccentered (standoff = 1.8 0.3 1.0 0.) 16 14 12 10 8 400 350 300 250 200 Hole diameter (mm) 200 500 1000 5000 10.9 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 RLLS /Rm © Schlumberger Hole diameter (in. thick beds 1. thick beds 1.3 1.000 Hole diameter (in.).5 in.000 Rcor 6-2 .4 1.5 in.1 1.).2 1.) 16 14 12 10 8 (mm) 400 350 300 250 200 200 500 1000 5000 10.5 1.7 1 2 5 10 20 50 100 RLLD /Rm Shallow Laterolog DLS-D/E eccentered (standoff = 1.9 0.6 1.

000 The high-resolution deep resistivity curve available from the ARI Azimuthal Resistivity Imager log is subject to borehole effects like any other laterolog measurement.Resistivity Schlumberger ARI* Azimuthal Resistivity Imager Borehole Correction For high-resolution LLhr curve Rcor-14 35⁄8-in.) 0. thick beds 1. LLD and LLS curves recorded with the ARI tool are identical to the curves recorded with a standard dual laterolog tool (type D or E) and may be corrected for borehole effects using Chart Rcor-2b or Rcor-2c.5 1 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 10 100 Ra /Rm 1000 10. active mode. Borehole correction is performed using Chart Rcor-14 in the same way as the deep and shallow laterolog borehole corrections and the microlog and MicroSFL* mudcake corrections (see Charts Rxo-2 and Rxo-3 for an explanation and illustration).5 Rcor /Ra 1 6 8 10 12 Hole diameter (in. tool centered. Rcor 6-3 .

Resistivity Schlumberger Dual Laterolog (D/E) Bed-Thickness Corrections Chart Rcor-10 corrects the Dual Laterolog (LLD and LLS) for bed thickness.0 ohm-m R S ≈ 30 ohm-m Bed thickness = 6 ft Given R LLD 4. Example: R LLD = 4.10 30 RS Therefore. R LLDcor = 0.4 ohm-m Rcor 6-4 . Then. To use.2 = = 0.88 R LLD R LLScor = 0.0 = = 0.80 R LLS and R LLDcor = 3. Read the ratio of the corrected laterolog value (R LLcor) to the apparent laterolog value (R LL) in ordinate.7 ohm-m R LLScor = 2. enter Chart Rcor-10 with the bed thickness and proceed upward to the proper R LL /R s ratio (apparent laterolog reading corrected for borehole/ adjacent-bed resistivity) curve.2 ohm-m R LLS = 3. laterolog readings should first be corrected for borehole effects (see Charts Rcor-2b and -2c).14 30 RS R LLS 3.

05 0.5 0.5 0.005 0.1 0.02 0.6 RLLS /RS 1. 8-in.05 0.6 0.0 1.2 2.2 0.4 1 2 1 4 6 2 8 10 3 4 5 20 6 7 8 9 10 40 60 20 80 100 30 (ft) (m) 500 200 100 50 20 10 5 2 1 0.1 0.8 RLLDcor /RLLD 1.8 RLLScor /RLLS 1.5 0.2 0.02 RLLD /RS 500 10 2 0.01 0. semi-infinite shoulder.5 0.0 0.2 2. antisqueeze: Rs/Rm ≈ 30 2. 8-in.1 0.005 Rcor 1 0.4 1 500 200 50 10 20 2 5 100 RLLS/RS 500 10 2 0.005 2 0.1 0. squeeze: Rt /Rm ≈ 30.Resistivity Schlumberger Dual Laterolog (D/E) Bed-Thickness Corrections DLS-D/E Rcor-10 Deep Laterolog No invasion. squeeze: Rt /Rm ≈ 30. antisqueeze: Rs/Rm ≈ 30 2.0 0.4 1.2 1.01 4 1 6 2 8 10 3 4 5 20 6 7 8 9 10 40 60 20 80 100 30 (ft) (m) Bed thickness © Schlumberger 6-5 .8 0.6 RLLD /RS 1.2 1.4 2.005 Bed thickness Shallow Laterolog No invasion. [203-mm] borehole.6 0. semi-infinite shoulder.4 2.4 1. [203-mm] borehole.0 1.8 0.

If SwA < SwR.45 0. for borehole effect and bed thickness using the appropriate Rcor.95 0. d i) are considered good. of the next several pages (labeled Rint-) are used to define the depth of invasion d i . SwA/SwR 0.0 Rint 6-6 . The point of intersection defines d i . an annulus-type invasion profile may be indicated.50 0. the assumption of a step-contact invasion profile is indicated to be correct.90 (SwA/SwR) 1⁄4 0. All assume a step-contact profile of invasion and that all resistivity measurements have been corrected. To use any of these charts. If SwA > SwR. R t .95 1. is found using the Archie saturation formula (or Chart Sw-1) with the Rt value and known values of FR and R w.55 0. either invasion is very shallow or a transition type of invasion profile is indicated. prior to entry. For more information see Reference 9. and all values found (Sw.70 0.75 0. Saturation determination in clean formations Either of the chart-derived values of R t and R xo /R t can be used to find values for Sw. R xo /R t and R t as a function of one resistivity measurement.60 0.Resistivity Schlumberger Invasion Correction Charts Rint-1 The invasion correction charts. An alternate Sw value.80 0.90 0. In this case a more accurate value of water saturation may be estimated using the relation: Swcor S 4 = SwA  wA   SwR  1 The correction factor (SwA /SwR)1 ⁄4 can be found from the scale below. R xo .65 0.chart. enter the abscissa and ordinate with the required resistivity ratios. where necessary.0 1.85 0. If SwA and SwR are equal. is found using R xo /R t with R mf /R w as in Chart Sw-2. and SwA is considered a good value for Sw. designated as SwR (Sw-Ratio). One value. sometimes referred to as “tornado” or “butterfly” charts. the R xo /R t ratio and the true resistivity R t.80 © Schlumberger 0.85 0. which is designated as SwA (Sw-Archie).

2 1.3 20 15 Rt RLLD 30 1.5 5 50 Rt Rxo 3.6 100 2.75 30 100 1.54 60 0.4 © Schlumberger 6-7 .6 0.4 0.52 40 30 1. no transition zone.75 0. no annulus.4 1.27 1.2 0. [203-mm] hole.50 0.50 0.0 1.2 0.1 20 15 1.04 di (in.3 0.5 1. use data corrected for borehole effect 100 80 60 70 40 30 1.Resistivity Schlumberger Dual Laterolog–Rxo Device DLT-D/E LLD–LLS–Rxo device Rint-9b Thick beds. Rxo /Rm = 50.5 2 3 4 RLLD /RLLS 6 8 10 15 20 30 40 50 0.) di (m) Rt Rxo 1.8 10 8 6 7 RLLD /Rxo 4 3 3 2 2 1.4 di (in.01 20 0.01 1. 8-in.) di (m) 20 0.8 0.52 2.8 1.03 40 50 60 80 100 120 10 Rint 1 0.6 1.

) 100 50 R16 Rm 20 10 5 2 1 1 2 5 10 20 50 R16cor Rm © Schlumberger 100 200 500 1000 Rcor 6-8 .Resistivity Schlumberger Borehole Correction for 16-in. Normal Recorded with induction-electrical log Rcor-8 1000 Hole diameter dh 500 150 200 200 250 300 350 400 (mm) 6 8 10 12 14 16 (in.

Charts Rcor-1 and Rcor-8 provide the borehole correction for the 16-in. Rcor 6-9 .) 10 20 200 150 (mm) 50 100 RSFL/Rm 200 500 1000 5000 10. Proceed to the proper borehole diameter. the ratio of the resistivity measurement divided by the mud resistivity. thick beds 11⁄2 -in. Normal and the SFL measurements. EA or equivalent Rcor-1 1.0 0.9 0. To use.3 RSFLcor /RSFL 1. [38-mm] standoff 400 350 300 250 16 14 12 10 8 6 Hole diameter 2 5 (in. R m .1 1. The chart contains curves for a centered tool and for a tool with 11⁄2-in.8 1 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger Tool centered.2 1. and read the correction factor from the ordinate. is entered in abscissa.5 1.Resistivity Schlumberger SFL Spherically Focused Resistivity Borehole Correction * Recorded with DIS-DB. standoff.4 1.000 Most resistivity measurements should be corrected for borehole effect.

) 38 1. Refer to the log heading. ) © Schlumberger The hole-conductivity signal is to be subtracted. and R m = 0.6-in. Dashed lines illustrate the use of the chart for a 6FF40 sonde with a 1.Resistivity Schlumberger Induction Log Borehole Correction Rcor-4a Hole diameter (mm) 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 0.2 (oh mm 0.5 64 1. R I = 1000/44. Rcor-4 gives corrections for 6FF40 or ID.5 12 2. especially in salty muds. where necessary.003 25 1.0 5 0. C I (conductivity) = 50 mS/m. The hole signal is found to be 5.5 64 0 . ID IM 6FF28 0 0.3 ) 0.004 20 2. from the induction log conductivity reading before other corrections are made.5 mS/m.006 10 Hole signal (mS/m) R m 0.0 0. If the log reads R I = 20 ohm-m.0 51 0. borehole.5-in.5 0. divide Rm scale by 10 and multiply hole signal scale by 10. 6-10 .5) = 44.002 30 0.0 51 0. –10 6FF40.005 15 0. standoff in a 14.009 –5 0 Borehole geometrical factor 2 5 0.5 mS/m.1 0. The corrected C I is then (50 – 5.† This correction applies to all zones (including shoulder beds) having the same hole size and mud resistivity.01 For very low mud resistivities.5 38 0.007 5 0 Standoff (in.0 25 2.5 2. † Some induction logs.35 ohm-m.001 35 Rcor 0 Hole signal = hole GF/Rm 40 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 –0.001 20 45 Hole diameter (in.5 = 22. IM and 6FF28 for various wall standoffs.008 0 1. are adjusted so that the hole signal for the nominal hole size is already subtracted out of the recorded curve.4 ohm-m.

5 0.8 3 0.2 ohm-m For the small-diameter 6FF28.5 ohm-m R IMcor = 6. Rcor 6-11 . R IDcor = 4. To use.5 0.8 2.43 = 10).4 RID /Rs 0.3 0.6 0. 6FF28 Rcor-7 Computed for a shoulder-bed resistivity (SBR) setting of 1 ohm-m (refer to log heading) 6FF40 or ID Rt > 1 ohm-m ess hickn Bed t (m) (ft) 1.8 RIDcor /RID 0. in a 7-ft bed.4 0.Resistivity Schlumberger Induction Log Correction for Thin Conductive Beds 6FF40.05 0 © Schlumberger 0.6 Charts Rcor-5.0 ohm-m R S = 2. Example: R ID = 4.9 0.5 Rt /Rs 0 2 .8 1. Read the correction factor (R IDcor /R ID) in ordinate. For example. Read the corrected resistivity value (R t) in ordinate.2 0.43 before entering these correction charts. enter the bed thickness and proceed upward to the proper R a curve.2 4 1 . For Charts Rcor-5 and Rcor-6. from the R S = 2 ohm-m charts.0 0.0 0.7 0. ID. select the chart appropriate for the tool type and for the adjacent bed resistivity (R S).1 3.1 0. ID.2 ohm-m R IM = 6. For Chart Rcor-7. 6FF28 and IM) for bed thickness. the bed thickness used in correcting the 6FF28 reading is 10 ft (7 × 1.9 1. Rcor-6 and Rcor-7 correct the induction logs (6FF40.6 0. multiply the bed thickness by 1.0 ohm-m Bed thickness = 3 m giving. A skin-effect correction is included in these charts. enter the chart with the R ID /R S ratio (apparent ID reading/adjacent bed resistivity) and go upward to the bed thickness.2 0.6 0.

6 0.1 Bed thickness Bed thickness For the small-diameter 6FF28 sonde.5 0. .3 0.8 0.6 0.43 before entering these correction charts.1 0 0 1 Rs = 1 ohm-m 4 2 8 3 12 4 16 5 20 6 7 1 0.6 0.8 0.3 0.4 0. in 6-12 a 7-ft bed.4 0.3 0.2 Ra (ohm-m) 24 8 28 (ft) (m) 1 0.2 Ra (ohm-m) 24 8 28 (ft) (m) 0.2 Rs = 2 ohm-m 0 0 4 1 2 8 3 12 4 16 5 20 6 7 1 0.5 0.4 0. multiply the bed thickness by 1.8 0.Resistivity Schlumberger Induction Log Bed-Thickness Correction 6FF40 (ID) and 6FF28 Rcor-5 Computed for a shoulder-bed resistivity (SBR) setting of 1 ohm-m (refer to log heading) 200 100 80 60 40 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 20 15 10 8 6 4 20 200 100 80 60 40 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 8 6 10 8 6 10 8 6 4 RIDcor 4 3 2 RIDcor 4 3 2 2 2 1 0. the bed thickness used in correcting the 6FF28 reading is 10 ft (7 × 1.5 0.1 Bed thickness 200 200 Bed thickness 100 80 60 Rcor 40 20 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 100 80 60 40 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 20 15 10 8 6 10 8 6 4 10 8 6 10 8 6 4 RIDcor 4 3 2 RIDcor 4 3 2 2 2 1 0.43 = 10).8 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.1 0 0 © Schlumberger 1 Rs = 4 ohm-m 4 2 8 3 12 4 16 5 20 6 7 1 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.2 Ra (ohm-m) 24 8 28 (ft) (m) 0.3 0.2 Ra (ohm-m) 24 8 28 (ft) (m) 1 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 Rs = 10 ohm-m 0 0 1 4 2 8 3 12 4 16 5 20 6 7 1 0. For example.

5 0.1 0 0 1 Rs = 4 ohm-m 4 2 8 3 12 4 16 5 20 6 7 1 0.8 0.6 0.3 0.4 2 1 1 0.2 0.3 0.2 Ra (ohm-m) 24 8 28 (ft) (m) 0.1 0 0 1 Rs = 10 ohm-m 4 2 8 Bed thickness © Schlumberger Bed thickness 6-13 .5 0.Resistivity Schlumberger Induction Log Bed-Thickness Correction IM medium induction Rcor-6 200 100 200 90 80 70 60 100 80 60 40 70 60 50 40 30 20 15 100 80 60 40 70 60 50 40 30 20 15 20 20 10 8 6 10 8 6 4 10 8 6 10 8 6 4 RIMcor 4 3 2 RIMcor 4 3 2 2 2 1 0.1 0 0 1 4 2 Rs = 2 ohm-m 8 3 12 4 16 5 20 6 7 1 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.2 Ra (ohm-m) 12 3 4 16 5 20 6 7 24 8 28 (ft) (m) 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.6 0.3 0.8 0.1 0 0 1 Rs = 1 ohm-m 4 2 8 3 12 4 16 5 20 6 7 1 0.8 0.4 0.6 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.4 0.2 Ra (ohm-m) 24 8 28 (ft) (m) 1 0.2 Ra (ohm-m) 24 8 28 (ft) (m) Bed thickness 200 100 80 60 40 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 15 10 8 6 10 8 6 4 2 10 8 6 200 100 80 60 40 Bed thickness 100 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 20 15 10 8 6 4 Rcor 20 RIMcor 4 3 2 RIMcor 4 3 2 1 0.

where necessary. The point of intersection defines d i ..95 1. If SwA and SwR are equal. R t = R ID (R t /R ID) = 4.90 0.e. for borehole effect and bed thickness using the appropriate Rcor.65 0. All assume a step-contact profile of invasion and that all resistivity measurements have been corrected. If SwA > SwR. an annulus-type invasion profile may be indicated.60 0.97 = 4.75 0. as in Chart Sw-2.8 ohm-m R m = 0. To use any of these charts.8 × 0.6 ohm-m Use of Chart Rint-2c is confirmed since R xo /Rm = 75 (i. either invasion is very shallow or a transitiontype invasion profile is indicated.5 ohm-m Entering the R xo /R m ≈ 100 chart (Chart Rint-2c) with R SFL/R ID = 25/4.97 Therefore.85 0.8 = 1. the R xo /R t ratio and the true resistivity R t.80 © Schlumberger 0.95 0. SwA/SwR Rint 0. is found using the Archie saturation formula (or Chart Sw-1) with the Rt value and known values of FR and Rw. Example: R SFL = 25 ohm-m After correction R IM = 5.7 ohm-m R xo = R t (R xo /R t) = 4. is found using R xo /R t with R mf /R w. designated as SwR (Sw-Ratio). Saturation determination in clean formations Either of the chart-derived values of R t and R xo /R t can be used to find values for Sw. of the next several pages (labeled Rint-) are used to define the depth of invasion d i . In this case a more accurate value of water saturation may be estimated using the relation: Swcor S 4 = SwA  wA   SwR  1 } The correction factor (SwA/SwR)1 ⁄4 can be found from the scale below.9/4.45 0.0 6-14 . which is designated as SwA (Sw-Archie). prior to entry.80 0.50 0. R xo /R t and R t as a function of one resistivity measurement.70 0.7 × 8 = 37. and all values found (Sw.0 1.chart. sometimes referred to as “tornado” or “butterfly” charts. An alternate Sw value.8 = 5. enter the abscissa and ordinate with the required resistivity ratios. For more information see Reference 9. If SwA < SwR. One value.55 0.9 ohm-m for borehole effect and bed thickness R ID = 4.2 yields R xo /R t = 8 d i = 39 in. or 1 m R t /R ID = 0.2 R IM /R ID = 5.90 (SwA/SwR) 1⁄4 0. and SwA is considered a good value for Sw. the assumption of a step-contact invasion profile is indicated as correct. R xo /R m ≈ 100).Resistivity Schlumberger Invasion Correction Charts Rint-1a The invasion correction charts. R xo and d i) are considered good.85 0. R t .

skin-effect corrected.63 4 0.0 10 15 15 0. 8-in.50 5 3 0. [203-mm] hole.01 1.9 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 6-15 .5 1.2 RIM /RID 1.Resistivity Schlumberger DIL Dual Induction–SFL* Spherically Focused Resistivity Log * ID–IM–SFL Rint-2b Thick beds.3 1.7 1.0 1.78 Rint 3 2 2 1 1.27 1.) (in 40 50 60 70 20 ) d i (m 7 1. DIS-EA or equivalent Rxo /Rm ≈ 20 Rxo Rt 30 25 80 20 10 9 8 7 6 RSFL /RID 5 0.95 0.52 1.4 1.75 90 20 30 25 di .85 0.1 1.38 0.75 Rt RD 1.

90 0.95 Rt RID 0.0 7 10 0.9 6-16 .80 5 0.5 1.27 1.03 ) d i (m 0.75 0.7 1.) d i (i 25 20 30 Rxo Rt 30 25 20 40 50 60 70 80 90 10 9 8 7 RSFL/RID 6 15 15 1.38 Rint 3 5 3 2 2 1 1.Resistivity Schlumberger DIL Dual Induction–SFL* Spherically Focused Resistivity Log * ID–IM–SFL Rint-2c Thick beds.52 2.01 1.2 RIM /RID 1.50 4 0.63 1. DIS-EA or equivalent 40 Rxo /Rm ≈ 100 30 20 n.3 1.4 1. skin-effect corrected.1 1.0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 1. [203-mm] hole. 8-in.

2 0.3 0.78 50 40 di (m) 30 di (in.75 di (m) 1.) 10 30 40 20 0.6 0.01 0.1 0.4 0. induction log is skin-effect corrected 0.50 0.2 di (in.5 0.4 0.3 0.25 m 15 10 in.2 0.27 15 30 25 20 1.75 1.8 0.38 1. no transition zone.5 Rxo Rt 0.54 Rxo Rt 50 40 30 25 20 0.6 0.01 0. no annulus. 50 40 10 8 7 6 5 4 Rxo /RID 3 3 2 5 10 2 1 0.25 0.1 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger N o in va si on Rint 0. [203-mm] hole.Resistivity Schlumberger Deep Induction–SFL* Spherically Focused Resistivity Log– Rxo Device ID–SFL–Rxo device Rint-5 Thick beds.33 0.) 20 100 70 2. 8-in.63 0.8 1 Rxo /RSFL 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 6-17 .50 0.

5 RIM /RID 1.3 1.9 2.2 1. [203-mm] hole. Rxo ≈ 20.78 20 100 20 2.54 10 3. no annulus.Resistivity Schlumberger DIL Dual Induction–Rxo Device * ID–IM–Rxo device Rint-10 Thick beds. induction log is skin-effect corrected 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 0. 6-18 .27 20 30 70 40 50 di ( in. no transition zone.52 1. use synthetic R xo calculated from EPT* or TDT* logs.03 1.0 To use this chart in an oil-base mud environment.1 1.75 1. 8-in.4 1.01 50 Rxo Rt 30 1.6 1.8 1.7 1.0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 1.5 1 1.) 60 70 80 30 15 120 Rxo /RID 10 9 8 7 6 5 5 2.04 7 di (m) Rint 4 3 3 2 2 1.50 0.

5 1.3 1.9 0.Resistivity Schlumberger SFL Borehole Correction * DIT-E Phasor* Induction tool Rcor-3 Tool centered.8 Hole diameter 1.8 0.) (mm) 600 1 10 100 RSFL /Rm 1.7 1.000 10.4 Rcor /RSFL 1.1 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 150 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 (in. thick beds 1.6 24 1.1 1 0.2 1.000 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger Rcor 6-19 .000 100.

both Charts Rcor-4b and Rcor-4c are needed. correction of Phasor Induction logs may be based on Charts Rcor-4b and Rcor-4c. borehole diameter (D) and standoff (S).Resistivity Schlumberger Phasor* Induction Borehole Correction Borehole corrections can now be based on exact modeling as well as on traditional experiments. Borehole corrections for the Phasor Induction tool are usually made in real time. Any discrepancy between real-time (or Data Services Center) and manual chart-based corrections should normally be resolved in favor of the real-time corrections. The parameter A M is derived from the formation and mud conductivities through the formula A M = −2.49684 F 2 and A D = 0. Each chart gives the borehole geometrical factor (G B) as a function of borehole diameter and standoff. All conductivities are expressed in mS/m and are calculated through the formula C= 1000 R (2) where R is the resistivity in ohm-m. For cases when R t /R m < 100. Borehole correction requires four inputs: borehole conductivity (C B). Note: All resistivity logs are limited near 2000 ohm-m. These charts provide only approximate corrections for specific cases of R t /R m and unique hole diameters.663813F 2 where F= CB − Cf CB + CF (7) (6) (5) G B is obtained from the charts for the appropriate borehole and standoff. 1. the following formula for interpolation between charts gives the approximate borehole geometrical factor: G B IM = A M G B M 4 c + (1 − A M )G B M 4 b Rcor G B ID = A D G B D 4 c + (1 − A D )G B D 4 b (3) (4) Since C f represents the formation conductivity just inside the borehole. When the formation-to-borehole contrast is low and the boreholes are large enough to warrant correction. formation conductivity (C f). G B is used to get from apparent conductivity (C a) to corrected conductivity (C cor) through the correction formula C cor = C a − C BG B 1 − GB (1) where G BD4b is the ID GF from Chart Rcor-4b and G BD4b is from Chart Rcor-4c (D refers to ID and M refers to IM). Borehole conditions can cause legitimate negative conductivity readings in conditions such as very resistive formations. Chart Rcor-4b is used alone.994584 − 1.59245F + 0.58414 + 3. SFL is the best estimator of this conductivity. For smooth round holes. *Mark of Schlumberger 6-20 . For cases when R t /R m > 100. The conductivity channels CIDP and CIMP are not limited and are better choices for borehole correction.59087F − 1. All Phasor Induction borehole corrections are applicable to ERL* Enhanced Resolution Logging and ERA* Enhanced Resolution Analysis presentations. The interpolated borehole geometrical factor is used in Eq.

5 4 3 2. 6-21 .007 1.5 0.005 2.5 3 0.5 4 0.Resistivity Schlumberger Phasor* Induction Borehole Correction Rcor-4b Rt /Rm > 100 Hole diameter (mm) 100 0.5 0.013 5 3.003 IDPH IMPH Centralized –0.) The borehole geometrical factor obtained from this chart or Chart Rcor-4c can be inserted into Nomograph Rcor-4a with the mud resistivity (R m) to determine the hole signal (in mS/m).003 1 3.015 200 300 400 Centralized 0.001 –0.001 5 2 1.) 700 0 0.009 1 2 Borehole geometrical factor 0.005 4 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 Hole diameter (in.011 Rcor –0.5 0.5 0.5 0 500 600 Standoff (in.

Resistivity Schlumberger Phasor* Induction Borehole Correction Rcor-4c Rt /Rm = 1 Hole diameter (mm) 100 0.035 1 0.010 4 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 Hole diameter (in.040 0 0.) 6-22 .030 Borehole geometrical factor 2 0.000 –0.025 3 4 0.005 IDPH IMPH –0.045 700 0.005 0.) 0.015 0 1 2 3 Rcor 0.050 200 300 400 500 600 Standoff (in.010 4 5 0.020 5 0.

To use.05 0.125 0.5 0.5 2 1.25 0.075 0.5/2 = 3.5 0.03 0 0 4 1 2 8 12 (ft) 16 3 4 (m) 5 Bed thickness 20 6 0.2 0. At this resulting intersection.06 0.08 0.5 5 3.4 0.75 R IMP/R s = 6/2 = 3 Therefore.05 50 40 30 20 10 8 6 5 4 3 RIDPcor /Rs 2 1 0.04 0.8 0.1 0.6 0. enter the appropriate chart with the ratio of the apparent resistivity (R IMP or R IDP) divided by the adjacent bed resistivity (R s) and the bed thickness.06 0.05 4 1 2 8 3 12 (ft) 16 4 (m) 5 Bed thickness 20 6 24 7 8 28 24 7 8 28 Rcor These charts (Rcor-9) correct the DIT-E Phasor Induction (IM and ID) measurements for bed thickness. Example: R IDP = 7.6 0.1 and R IDPcor = 8 ohm-m R IMPcor = 6 ohm-m 6-23 .5 5 3.5 ohm-m R IMP = 6 ohm-m R s = 2 ohm-m Bed thickness = 6 ft giving R IDP/R s = 7.3 RIDP Rs 25 20 15 10 7.75 2.5 1 0.3 0.04 0.03 0 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger ID Deep Phasor Induction RIMP Rs 20 15 10 7.075 0.1 0.05 0.Resistivity Schlumberger Phasor* Induction Bed-Thickness Correction DIT-E Phasor Dual Induction–SFL Rcor-9 IM Medium Phasor Induction 50 40 30 20 10 8 6 5 4 3 RIMPcor /Rs 2 1 0.2 0. R IDPcor /R s = 4 R IMPcor /R s = 3.125 0.5 2 1.8 0.08 0.5 0.25 0.5 1 0.75 2.4 0. the ratio of the corrected resistivity to the adjacent bed resistivity is read on the ordinate.5 0.

Resistivity Schlumberger Phasor* Dual Induction–SFL* Spherically Focused Resistivity Log ID Phasor–IM Phasor–SFL Rint-11a Thick beds.4 0.5 0.9 R IDPH 0. 6-24 .95 50 Rt 0. [203-mm] hole.) 60 70 80 100 90 100 120 0.). 8-in. The 20-kHz charts provide reasonable approximations of R xo /R t and R t /R IDPH for tool operation at 10 kHz and 40 kHz when only moderately deep invasion exists (less than 100 in. All Phasor Induction invasion correction charts are applicable to ERL* Enhanced Resolution Logging and ERA* Enhanced Resolution Analysis presentations. Rint-13 and Rint-15 apply to the Phasor Induction tool when operated at a frequency of 20 kHz. Similar charts (not presented here) are available for tool operation at 10 kHz and 40 kHz. frequency = 20 kHz 200 25 20 15 200 140 20 RSFL/RIDPH 10 100 70 50 40 30 5 20 15 10 7 5 Rxo 3 2 Rt 1 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 30 40 50 di (in. Rint-12. DIT-E or equivalent.7 0. skin-effect and borehole corrected Rxo /Rm ≈ 100.6 0.8 0.3 200 160 1 2 1 2 RIMPH /RIDPH 3 4 5 Rint Charts Rint-11.

9 Rt 0.7 0. skin-effect and borehole corrected Rxo /Rm ≈ 20. DIT-E or equivalent. [203-mm] hole.) 30 20 20 15 50 0.8 RIDPH 0.5 0. 8-in.95 0.3 200 160 25 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 10 30 RSFL/RIDPH 5 20 14 10 8 2 6 4 Rxo 3 Rt 2 1 1 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 1 2 RIMPH /RIDPH 3 4 Rint 6-25 .Resistivity Schlumberger Phasor* Dual Induction–SFL* Spherically Focused Resistivity Log ID Phasor–IM Phasor–SFL Rint-11b Thick beds. frequency = 20 kHz 40 di (in.6 0.4 0.

1 1 3 Rxo Rt 0.4 0.2 1.01 1. skin-effect and borehole corrected Rxo < Rt .1 0.5 0.005 2 1.3 0.9 0.08 0.5 0.04 0.3 20 0.07 0.) RSFL/RIDPH 0.05 0.2 RIMPH /RIDPH 0.3 0.7 1 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger Rint 6-26 . frequency = 20 kHz 2 40 7 50 5 1 30 0.015 0.06 60 70 80 0. 8-in.2 0.8 0.7 25 Rt RIDPH 0.8 di (in.03 0.Resistivity Schlumberger Phasor* Dual Induction–SFL* Spherically Focused Resistivity Log ID Phasor–IM Phasor–SFL Rint-11c Thick beds. [203-mm] hole.2 0.4 0. Rxo < 2 ohm-m.6 0.5 0.7 0.02 0.0075 0.4 0.

5 R IIM/R IDP = 2.5 0.6 = 1.94 R t = 0. unboosted medium induction signal (IIM) and the deep Phasor induction (IDP) is entered in abscissa.6 = 1. the ratio of the raw.8 RIDP 0.4/1.6) = 1.5 ohm-m 6-27 . frequency = 20 kHz 3 15 20 di (in.6 0.4 RIID /RIDP 1 1 2 RIIM /RIDP *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 3 4 Rint This chart uses the raw. To use the chart. [203-mm] hole RIDP < 10 ohm-m. 8-in. R xo /R t = 15 R t /R IDP = 0.7 0.) 25 40 50 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 160 2 Rxo Rt 30 0.0 10 8 6 4 3 2 0.4/1.94 (1.95 20 14 1. d i = 50 in.4 ohm-m giving R IID/R IDP = 2. unboosted induction signals and the ID Phasor value to define the invasion profile in a rock drilled with oil-base mud. unboosted I signals Rint-12 Thick beds.9 Rt 0. Their intersection defines d i . The ratio of the raw.5 Therefore. R xo /R t and R t /R IDP.Resistivity Schlumberger Phasor* Dual Induction in Oil-Base Mud ID Phasor–IM Phasor–Raw. Example: R IDP = 1.6 ohm-m R IID = 2. unboosted deep induction signal (IID) and the deep Phasor induction (IDP) is entered in ordinate. DIT-E or equivalent.4 ohm-m R IIM = 2.

Rxo /Rm = 100.) 50 60 70 80 0. frequency = 20 kHz 400 200 100 50 15 20 25 30 200 140 100 70 50 40 30 20 15 10 7 5 5 Rxo Rt 3 2 2 1 1 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 40 di (in.9 90 Rt 0.95 0. 8-in.7 0.6 0. [203-mm] hole.4 160 0. skin-effect and borehole corrected Rxo = 50.Resistivity Schlumberger Phasor* Dual Induction–Rxo Device ID Phasor–IM Phasor–Rxo device Rint-13a Thick beds.5 0.3 200 1 Rxo /RIDPH 20 10 2 RIMPH /RIDPH 3 4 5 Rint 6-28 .8 RIDPH 100 120 0.

8 80 90 100 120 0. 8-in. frequency = 20 kHz 70 50 15 20 25 30 50 30 20 20 14 10 Rxo /RIDPH 5 4 3 2 Rxo Rt 2 10 8 6 1 200 0.5 0.3 160 1 1 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 2 RIMPH /RIDPH 3 4 Rint 6-29 .95 40 0. Rxo /Rm = 20.) 60 0.Resistivity Schlumberger Phasor* Dual Induction–Rxo Device ID Phasor–IM Phasor–Rxo device Rint-13b Thick beds.4 0. skin-effect and borehole corrected Rxo = 10.6 0. [203-mm] hole.7 70 0.9 Rt RIDPH 50 di (in.

2 0. frequency = 20 kHz 1 0. 8-in.1 0.02 30 25 0.10 d .) (in i 0.20 60 Rxo /RIDPH 0.3 0.02 15 0.04 0.05 40 0.50 90 80 70 0.4 0.01 0.4 0.7 1 2 RIMPH /RIDPH Rint 6-30 .1 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 20 0.Resistivity Schlumberger Phasor* Dual Induction–Rxo Device ID Phasor–IM Phasor–Rxo device Rint-13c Thick beds.015 0.3 0.5 0.06 Rxo Rt 50 0.6 0.8 0. [203-mm] hole.14 0. skin-effect and borehole corrected Rxo < R t.03 0.2 0.

Resistivity Schlumberger Phasor* Dual Induction–SFL*–Rxo Device ID Phasor–SFL–Rxo device Rint-15a Rxo = 50.95 Rt R IDPH 1 100 70 50 40 30 20 15 10 7 5 3 2 1 1 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 70 80 90 100 0. Rxo /Rm = 100.5 160 0.9 0.3 Rxo /RIDPH 20 10 5 R xo Rt 2 2 Rxo /RSFL 3 4 5 Rint 6-31 .6 0. frequency = 20 kHz 400 200 100 50 di (in.7 0.4 0.8 120 0.) 60 50 40 30 25 20 15 200 140 0.

9 0.Resistivity Schlumberger Phasor* Dual Induction–SFL*–Rxo Device ID Phasor–SFL–Rxo device Rint-15b Rxo = 10.) 50 40 30 25 20 15 50 30 0. Rxo /Rm = 20.4 0.6 0.3 1 1 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 2 Rxo /RSFL 3 4 5 Rint 6-32 .8 20 0.95 Rt RIDPH 1 14 10 8 6 Rxo Rt 20 di (in. frequency = 20 kHz 70 50 60 80 90 100 120 10 Rxo /RIDPH 5 200 4 3 2 2 160 0.5 70 0.7 0.

5 8 0. Tool Rcor-11a Rm = 1.0 1.0 1.2 Borehole diameters (in.9 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.4 1.0 1.) Rm = 1.2 14 12 10 RADcor / RAD 1.5-in.6 1.2 Borehole diameters (in.1 1 10 100 1000 RPScor / RPS 1.5 0.9 0. The phase shift and attenuation of 2-MHz electromagnetic waves are independently transformed into two apparent resistivities—providing two depths of investigation.2 Borehole diameters (in.) 18 16 8 RADcor / RAD 1.0 1.0 0.) 18 16 1.4 1. a logging-whiledrilling (LWD) electromagnetic propagation tool.6 0.) 18 16 14 12 18 16 1.9 0.0 ohm-m 2.6 0.0 0.1 1 10 100 1000 0.8 0.8 1.6 0.2 10 14 Borehole diameters (in.8 14 12 10 8 Borehole diameters (in.6 1.0 0.8 1.7 0.9 0.2 ohm-m 2.1 1 10 100 1000 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger RAD RPS The CDR Compensated Dual Resistivity tool.6 0.0 0.6 1.8 0.9 0.2 10 8 RADcor / RAD 1.8 18 16 14 8 Borehole diameters (in. Continued on next page 6-33 .7 0.5 10 12 RPScor / RPS 1.4 12 1.2 ohm-m 2.8 Rcor 18 16 14 12 10 8 1.5 0.1 1 10 100 1000 RAD Rm = 0.7 0. provides measurements with similarities to the medium (IM) and deep (ID) wireline induction logs.0 0.0 1.8 0.6 1.5 0.6 0.6 1.) RPS Rm = 0.4 1.7 0.6 0.0 ohm-m 2.0 0.4 1.6 1.5 0.) RPS Rm = 0.05 ohm-m 2.05 ohm-m 2.1 1 10 100 1000 RAD Rm = 0.4 1.1 1 10 100 1000 RPScor / RPS 1.9 0.Resistivity Schlumberger CDR* Compensated Dual Resistivity Borehole Correction for 6.8 1.0 1.

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Rcor

RPS is the apparent resistivity from the phase shift-shallow, and RAD is the apparent resistivity from the attenuation-deep. Charts Rcor-11a, -11b and -11c provide borehole corrections for the 6.5-, 8- and 9.5-in. CDR tools run in mud resistivities Resistivity
*Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger

CDR* Compensated Dual Resistivity Borehole Correction for 8-in. Tool

of 0.05, 0.2 and 1 ohm-m. To use, select the chart appropriate for the tool size, the measurement (RPS or RAD) and the proper mud resistivity. Enter the chart in abscissa with the apparent resistivity. Proceed upward to the proper hole diameter curve and read the correct/apparent resistivity value on the ordinate. Rcor-11b

Resistivity

Schlumberger

CDR* Compensated Dual Resistivity Borehole Correction for 9.5-in. Tool

Rcor-11c

Rm = 1.0 ohm-m
2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2
Borehole diameters (in.)

Rm = 1.0 ohm-m
2.0 1.8
22 18 16 14 12 Borehole diameters (in.) 22

1.6 1.4 1.2

18 16 14 12

RADcor / RAD

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.1 1 10 100 1000

RPScor / RPS

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.1 1 10 100

1000

RAD Rm = 0.2 ohm-m
2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2
Borehole diameters (in.)

RPS Rm = 0.2 ohm-m
2.0 1.8
22 18 16 14 12 Borehole diameters (in.) 22 18 16 14

1.6 1.4 1.2

12

RADcor / RAD

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.1 1 10 100 1000

RPScor / RPS

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.1 1 10 100 1000

RAD Rm = 0.05 ohm-m
2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2
Borehole diameters (in.)

RPS Rm = 0.05 ohm-m
2.0 1.8
14 16 12

Rcor

18 22 14

12

1.6 1.4 1.2

RADcor / RAD

16

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.1 1 10 100 1000

RPScor / RPS

18

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.1 1

Borehole diameters (in.)

22

10

100

1000

*Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger

RAD

RPS

6-35

Resistivity

Schlumberger

CDR* Bed-Thickness Correction

Rcor-12

RPS
200 100 80 60 40 20 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 Rs = 1 ohm-m 2 1 4 6 2 8 10 3 12 14 4 16 5 18 20 6 22 (ft) (m) Ra (ohm-m) 200 100 80 60 40 20 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 0 Rs = 2 ohm-m 2 1 4 6 2 8 10 3 12 14 4 16 5 Ra (ohm-m)

50 40 30 20 15 10 8 6 4 2 1 0.5 0.3 0.2

50 40 30 20 15 10 8 6 4 2 1 0.5 0.3 0.2
©Schlumberger

Rt (ohm-m)

Rt (ohm-m)

18

20 6

22

(ft) (m)

Bed thickness
200 100 80 60 40 20 Ra (ohm-m) 200 100 80 60 40 20 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 6 2 8 10 3 12 14 4 16 5 18 20 6 22 (ft) (m) 0 0 Rs = 10 ohm-m 2 1 4 6 2

Bed thickness

Ra (ohm-m)

50 40 30 20 15 10 8 6 4 2 1 0.5 0.3 0.2 Rs = 4 ohm-m 0 0 2 1 4
©Schlumberger

50 40 30 20 15 10 8 6 4 2 1 0.5 0.3 0.2

Rcor
Rt (ohm-m)
10 8 6 4 3 2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

Rt (ohm-m)

8

10 3

12

14 4

16 5

18

20 6

22

(ft) (m)

*Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger

Bed thickness

Bed thickness

Charts Rcor-12 and Rcor-13 correct the CDR tool resistivities for bed thickness. To use, select the chart appropriate for the measurement (R PS or R AD) and for the adjacent bed resistivity (R S). Enter the chart with the bed thickness, which can be determined from the distance between the crossovers of R PS and R AD.
6-36

Proceed upward to the R a curve corresponding to the center bed resistivity value. Read the corrected resistivity value (R t) on the ordinate. For more information see Reference 37.

Resistivity Schlumberger CDR* Bed-Thickness Correction Rcor-13 RAD 200 100 80 60 40 20 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 0.3 0.1 0 0 2 1 Rs = 10 ohm-m 4 6 2 Bed thickness Ra (ohm-m) 50 40 30 20 15 10 8 6 4 2 1 0.1 18 20 6 22 (ft) (m) 0 0 2 1 Rs = 2 ohm-m 4 6 2 8 10 3 12 14 4 16 5 18 20 6 22 (ft) (m) Ra (ohm-m) 50 40 30 20 15 10 8 6 4 2 1 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.2 ©Schlumberger Rt (ohm-m) Rt (ohm-m) Bed thickness 200 100 80 60 40 20 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.3 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.1 0 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 2 1 Rs = 4 ohm-m 4 6 2 8 10 3 12 14 4 16 5 18 20 6 22 (ft) (m) Ra (ohm-m) 200 100 80 60 40 20 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 0.8 0.1 0 0 2 1 Rs = 1 ohm-m 4 6 2 8 10 3 12 14 4 16 5 Ra (ohm-m) 200 100 80 60 40 20 10 8 6 4 3 2 1 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.6 0.2 Rcor Rt (ohm-m) Rt (ohm-m) 8 10 3 12 14 4 16 5 18 20 6 22 (ft) (m) Bed thickness Bed thickness 6-37 .6 0.2 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.8 0.3 0.2 50 40 30 20 15 10 8 6 4 2 1 0.8 0.2 50 40 30 20 15 10 8 6 4 2 1 0.

1 1.5-in. Borehole corrections are dependant upon the bottomhole assembly and are normally applied in the software. bit. This chart is for illustration purposes only. Tool 8.000 Rcor Chart Rcor-15 demonstrates the relative size of the borehole corrections for RAB measurements as a function of mud resistivity.0 0.1 100 1000 10. 6-38 . borehole Rcor-15 1.7 Bit Ring Shallow button Medium button Deep button 1 10 Rapp /Rm *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 0.Resistivity Schlumberger RAB* Resistivity-at-the-Bit Borehole Correction for 6.5 0.75-in.9 R t /Rapp 0.2 1.8 0.6 0. This example was generated for a RAB tool running behind a 12-in.

9 0.0 0.000 4.5 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 FR = FR 2000 1000 800 600 400 300 200 100 80 60 50 40 30 20 10 8 6 5 4 1 φ2.05 ohm-m at formation temperature φ = 20% (FR = 25) Rt = 10 ohm-m Therefore.18 0. with the formation resistivity factor.10 R0 = FRRw 1.5 2 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Sw = R0 √ Rt © Schlumberger This nomograph solves the Archie water saturation equation Sw = R0 Rt = FR R w Rt . FR .3 0.12 0.4 0.8 0.05 0.4 0. Sw = 35% For other φ/F relations.2 0.0 0.Resistivity Schlumberger Saturation Determination Sw-1 Clean formations. R w. Example: Rw = 0.7 0.9 1 1.0 0.7 0.3 0.000 800 600 500 400 300 200 100 80 60 50 40 30 20 10 8 6 5 4 3 2 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 20 25 30 0.03 0.000 3. If R 0 is unknown.5 0. it may be determined by .8 1.6 0. or porosity. φ.000 8.6 1.5 0.2 0.6 0.3 0. m = 2 Sw (%) R0 (ohm-m) Rw (ohm-m) 0.09 0.000 5.01 φ (%) 2.07 0. the porosity scale should be changed according to Chart Por-1. Sw.6 0.2 0.04 0.4 1.8 0.1 Sw 0.16 0.06 0.02 0.000 2.4 m = 2.1 Rt (ohm-m) 10.2 1. 6-39 It should be used in clean (nonshaly) formations only. If R 0 (resistivity when 100% water saturated) is known.0 30 20 18 16 14 12 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.8 0. connecting the formation water resistivity.000 1. a straight line from the known R 0 value through the measured R t value gives water saturation.14 0.5 0.08 0.000 6.

If R mf /R w is unknown. Draw a line from the chart’s origin (the small circle located at R xo /R t = R mf /R m = 1) through this point. proceed diagonally upward. that the SP portion of the chart does not provide for any water activity (Chart SP-2) correction. to the edge of the chart.8 R mf /R w = 25 EpSP = –75 mV ESSP = –120 mV K = 80 (formation temperature = 150°F) Therefore. Extend this line to intersect with the value of ESSP to obtain a value of R xo /R t corrected for shaliness. Sw = 40%) For more information see Reference 12. plot R xo /R t against EpSP (the SP in the shaly sand). plot the ratio R xo /R t against R mf /R w to find water saturation at average residual oil saturation. Sw = 43% (after ROS correction) In shaly sands. go horizontally to the known Sxo (or Sor) value to obtain the corrected water saturation Sw. It may also be used to verify the water saturation determination from another interpretation method. parallel to the constant Swa lines. Sw = 38% (If Sor were known to be 10%. Example: R xo = 12 ohm-m R t = 2 ohm-m R mf /R w = 20 Sor = 20% Therefore. the chart may be entered with the SP value and the formation temperature. Note. Then. Sw 6-40 . For clean sands. too. If R mf /R w is unknown. If Sxo is known. Use the diagram at right to further refine Sw if Sor is known.Resistivity Schlumberger Saturation Determination Ratio method Chart Sw-2 (next page) is used to determine water saturation in shaly or clean formations when knowledge of porosity is unavailable. Plot this value of R xo /R t versus R mf /R w to find Sw. This point gives an apparent water saturation. the point defined by R xo /R t and ESSP is a reasonable approximation of Sw. Example: R xo /R t = 2. The main chart assumes Sxo = 5 Sw however. the small chart to the right provides an Sxo correction when Sxo is known.

For more information see Reference 12.2 25 30 % % 40 % Sxo = √ Sw 10 1.6 0.Resistivity Schlumberger Saturation Determination Ratio method Sw-2 Sor (%) Rmf /Rw 0.0 50 40 30 20 EpSP = –Kc log Sxo = √ Sw 5 0 8 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 80 70 10 20 30 40 1.5 3 4 5 6 8 10 Rmf /Rw 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 25 50 75 100 150 –20 –40 –60 –80 –100 –120 –140 EpSP or ESSP (mV) °F 10 % 15 % Sxo Sw = Sxo (Swa)0.8 °C © Schlumberger See instructions on previous page.7 0.5 3 4 5 6 60 50 40 S Rxo – 2Kc log xo Rt Sw 60 50 Sw ) (% 30 25 20 40 10 8 6 5 4 3 Rxo Rt 2 Sw a = 0% 10 30 A C′ C 25 Sw 50 60 70 % % % 15 20 B 15 1 0.5 0.1 0.5 2 2.6 5 20 % 0.0 75 100 150 200 300 Kc 70 80 90 100 20 10 0 1.8 0.8 1.0 0.08 0.9 0.8 0.8 1.5 2 2.6 0. 6-41 .3 0.6 0.4 0.

5 22 5.000 16.94 mg/m3 Co nd en sa te 200 Σ h (c.u.0 12. 60° API Co nd en sa te 200 Σ h (c.5 15.) 18 τ (µsec) 250 300 1000 2000 4000 Methane 8000 12.0 7.u.000 68 125 200 300 400 500 English Tcor Temperature (°F) Liquid hydrocarbons 30°. 50° API 20°.0 20 2.74 or 0.5 15.000 20.) 10.0 0 17.0 12.u.0 7.) 18 τ (µsec) 250 100 1000 Solution GOR (ft3/bbl) 300 10.0 20 2.5 Σ h (c.Through-Pipe Evaluation Schlumberger TDT* Thermal Decay Time Log Hydrocarbon Corrections Reservoir pressure (mPa) 20.) 10.88 mg/m3 0.5 0.000 For more information see References 10 and 11.u. 7-1 .0 16 10 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger Tcor-1 0 14 28 41 55 69 83 97 110 124 138 Methane 20 52 93 150 205 260 Metric Temperature (°C) Liquid hydrocarbons 0. 40°.0 16 2 10 100 Solution GOR (m3/m3) Reservoir pressure (psia) 20.0 17.5 0.5 22 5.78 to 0.5 Σ h (c.

u.000 psia. Knowledge of water salinity. 9 175 150 125 ] °C ] 05 °C [2 50 C] F [1 ° 0° F [93 C] 40 00° °F 20° 3 00 F [ 2 8° 6 300 275 250 225 200 175 150 125 50 25 0 Tcor 100 75 50 25 0 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 50 00 ps i( 34 M Pa ) 75 100 75 50 25 0 90 100 110 120 130 140 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Σw (c. These updated charts have an extended utility range to 500°F and 20. reservoir pressure.Through-Pipe Evaluation Schlumberger TDT* Thermal Decay Time Log Equivalent water salinity Tcor-2a 300 275 250 225 C] 3° [9 °C] F 0 0° [2 20 8°F 6 300 275 250 225 175 150 125 100 Equivalent water salinity (kppm NaCl) 75 50 25 0 125 100 150 175 Am bi en t 200 200 ] °C ] 05 °C [2 50 C] F [1 ° 0° F [93 C] 40 00° °F 20° 3 00 F [ 2 8° 6 300 275 250 M Pa ) 225 200 10 00 ps i( 6. Σ. for oil and methane. 7-2 .) Chart Tcor-1 provides the capture cross section. while Charts Tcor-2a and Tcor-2b give the Σ value for water salinity. GOR and reservoir temperature is required.

0 00 ps i( 13 8 M Pa ) 100 75 50 25 0 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 100 75 50 25 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Σw (c.Through-Pipe Evaluation Schlumberger TDT* Thermal Decay Time Log Equivalent water salinity Tcor-2b 300 275 250 225 ] °C ] 05 °C [2 50 C] F [1 ° 0° F [93 C] 40 00° °F 20° 3 00 F [ 2 8° 6 300 275 250 225 150 125 100 Equivalent water salinity (kppm NaCl) 10 . Σ o = 19 c. 7-3 .0 00 ps i( 10 3 175 150 125 ] °C ] 60 °C ] [2 05 °C ] F [2 0 0° F [15 °C 50 00° °F [93 °C] 4 00 °F 20 3 00 F [ 2 8° 6 75 M Pa ) 300 275 250 225 200 175 150 125 20 .0 00 175 ps i( 69 200 M Pa ) 200 ] °C ] 05 °C [2 50 C] F [1 ° 0° F [93 C] 40 00° °F 20° 3 00 F [ 2 8° 6 300 275 250 225 200 50 25 0 125 100 75 50 25 0 150 175 15 .u. 30° API oil with a gas/oil ratio of 2000 ft3/bbl and methane gas.u.000-ppm (NaCl) salinity.) Tcor Example: Given: A reservoir section at 90°C temperature and 25-MPa pressure contains water of 175.u.u. Results: Σ w = 87 c.9 c. Σ g = 6.

u. Matrix capture cross section. Procedure: Enter the value of Σ ma on Bar B.u. Example: Given: Σ LOG = 20 c. Average values commonly used are sandstone.u. From the value of Σ sh on Bar A. Σ w and porosity are known.u.. (oil) Σw = 80 c. are known. Practical values. see Tcor-2a or Tcor-2b See Tcor-1 From porosity-log crossplot or gamma ray Read from porosity log in adjacent shale From porosity log. depends on the type and abundance of the elements in solution. Vsh. by the formula Σ = 4550/τ. draw Matrix Line a from Σ ma to Pivot Point B. Example: Given: Σ LOG = 25 c. dolomite. LOG = 33 p.u.u.000 ppm or mg/kg) φ = 30 p. (sandstone) Σ h = 21 c. Vsh = 20% φ = φLOG – Vsh φ sh φ = 24 p. For more information see Reference 11. Solution: Sw = 43% Shaly formations Information required: Σ ma Based on lithology Σ sh Σw Σh Vsh φ sh φ Read from TDT log in adjacent shale From NaCl salinity. Σ sh = 45 c. A capture unit is equivalent to one-thousandth of a reciprocal centimeter (cm–1). φ. Σ ma . Σ. traces of certain elements in the water can increase Σ w beyond the value indicated by the chemically equivalent concentration of NaCl. The value of Σ w corresponding to the NaCl concentration can be considered a minimum value. Draw Line 3 from Σ cor to the value of Σ ma on the scale at left of Bar C. Σ w . see Tcor-2a or Tcor-2b Σw See Tcor-1 Σh Procedure: Enter the value of Σ ma on Bar B.u. empirically determined. φ. Enter Σ LOG on Bar B.Through-Pipe Evaluation Schlumberger Saturation Determination from TDT* Thermal Decay Time Logs Neutron capture cross section. are somewhat larger than those calculated for the pure rock minerals.. draw Line 4 through the intersection of Line 3 and φ to Σ f.u. φ sh = 45 p. Σ h = 21 c. the capture cross section of the formation water.u. It may be used in shaly formations if porosity. and the fraction of shale in the formation. 8 c.u. Σ ma = 8 c.u. 11 to 12 c.). and limestone. for neutron and density logs in liquid-filled formations. Chart Sw-12 may be used to determine water saturation.u. Draw Line 5 from Σf through the intersection of Σ h and Σ w to the value of Sw. draw Line b through the intersection of Line a and the value of φ to Σ f on Bar C. varies over a small range for each lithology. Sw Description and use of Chart Sw-12 If Σ ma .u. Σ ma = 8 c. From Σ f draw Line 5 through Σ h and Σ w to Sw. τ (in µsec).u.u. connect with Pivot Point A (Line 1). based on lithology Σ ma φ Porosity From NaCl salinity. is expressed in capture units (c. = φLOG – Vsh φ sh. Solution: Sw = 43% *Mark of Schlumberger 7-4 . Enter Σ LOG on Bar B.u. Σ w = 80 c.u. Clean formations Information required: Matrix capture cross section. draw Line 2 through the intersection of Line 1 and Vsh to determine Σ cor. Σ is related to thermal decay time. (150. 9 c. corrected for shaliness.

u.4 0.) B 50 100 40 120 τ (µsec) 140 30 160 Σ LOG 200 Σ cor 20 300 Sw 400 10 15 20 5 45 a 4 Σma (c.u.u.u.) C 0 5 10 15 20 3 Pivot point B 30 30 40 40 25 30 35 40 φ (p.5 0.3 Vsh 0.) 5 7-5 .Through-Pipe Evaluation Schlumberger Sw Determination from TDT* Thermal Decay Time Log Sw-12 Σsh (c.u.1 Σ ma 0 Σ (c.2 10 0.) b Σ f (c.) 20 A 200 150 120 τsh (µsec) 2 100 90 80 30 40 Σsh 50 60 Pivot point A 1 0.) 80 90 12 0 10 0 Sw (%) 100 D (Σ LOG – Σma) – φ(Σh – Σma) – Vsh (Σsh – Σma) φ(Σw – Σh) 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Sw = *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 0 10 15 21 Formation-water salinity (ppm × 1000) 0 20 0 25 Σh (c.u.u.) 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 50 50 20 40 60 60 70 Σ w (c.

1 above. The free (or connate/formation) water point is located on the left edge of the grid and can be obtained from measurement of a formation water sample. These water points define the Sw = 100% line. Σ w .u. the effective water saturation (water saturation of reservoir rock exclusive of shale) can be determined using Chart Sw-14.]. The Swt = 0% line originates from the hydrocarbon point. There must be some points from 100% water zones. Σ wb. .0 0. (medium-gravity oil with modest gas/oil ratio— Chart Tcor-1) Bound water point = 76 c. in abscissa. and there must be a good variation in porosity. this line intersects the zero-porosity axis at Σma. Swt = 72% and Sw = 63% (from Chart Sw-14) 7-6 S w t = 0. refer to the chart on this page. The bound water point. in clean formations by crossplotting Σ LOG in ordinate versus porosity. In one technique.u. to Σ = Σ h at φ = 100 p. (from Eq. when extrapolated. (from TDT log in a shale interval—Eq. The Sw = 0% line is drawn from Σ ma at φ = 0 p. (1) Σwa 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 4 Free water point Σ wf = 61 6 5 100% water line 90% Bound water point Σ wb = 76 7 80 70 60 50 8 S 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0. 1. Apparent water capture cross section. or from the TDT log in a clean water-bearing sand using the following equation: ∑ wa = Sw ∑ log − ∑ ma φ + ∑ ma . Σ ma. and the Swt = 100% line originates from the free water point. Example (see chart on this page): Free water point = 61 c. The water saturation of any plotted point can thereby be determined. Σ wa . It is located on the right edge of the grid. Chart Tcor-2 or measurement of a water sample) Hydrocarbon point = 21 c. need not be known but must be constant over the interval studied. apparent water capture cross section.0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 GR The grid can also be used to graphically determine water saturation.u.60 Swb 0.Through-Pipe Evaluation Schlumberger Graphical Determination of Total Water Saturation (Swt) from TDT* Thermal Decay Time Data Grid Sw-17 can be used for graphical interpretation of the TDT Thermal Decay Time log.80 1. a hydrocarbon point and a bound water point.u. applicable in shaly as well as clean sands. Three fluid points must be located: a free water point. can be obtained from the TDT log in shale intervals using Eq. To construct this grid. The vertical distance from Sw = 0% to Sw = 100% is divided linearly to define lines of constant water saturation. Bound water saturation can be estimated from the gamma ray or other bound water saturation estimator. Swb . is then plotted versus bound water saturation. φ.u.u. is plotted versus bound water saturation on a specially constructed grid. to give the total water saturation. 1) Analysis of Point 4: Σ wa = 54 c. from Eq. [or Σ = 1 ⁄ 2 (Σ ma + Σ h) at φ = 50 p. Sw. 1) Swb = 25% (from gamma ray) Therefore. The distance between the free water and hydrocarbon points is linearly divided into constant water saturation lines drawn parallel to a straight line connecting the free water and bound water points. Knowing the total water saturation and the bound water saturation.20 0.40 Hydrocarbon point Σ h = 21 3 2 1 w b 40 30 20 10 0 The hydrocarbon point is also located on the left edge of the grid.u. from Chart Tcor-2 if water salinity is known. The matrix capture cross section. It can be determined from Chart Tcor-1 based upon the known or expected hydrocarbon type. Σwa. (from TDT log in a water-bearing clean sand— Eq. 1. and the formation water capture cross section.

Through-Pipe Evaluation Schlumberger Graphical Determination of Water Saturation (Sw) or Total Water Saturation (Swt ) from TDT* Thermal Decay Time Log Sw-17 Sw Σ LOG or Σ wa φ or Swb *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 7-7 .

6 0.3 Sw 60 0.1 Swt (%) 50 0 40 30 20 10 0 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 10 20 30 40 50 Sw (%) 60 70 80 90 100 7-8 .2 0.Through-Pipe Evaluation Schlumberger Graphical Determination of Sw from Swt and Swb Sw-14 Sw = 100 Swt – Swb 1 – Swb 90 S wb 0.4 0.5 70 0.7 80 0.

” Continued on next page 7-9 .u. Water saturation is defined by the location of the plotted point within the appropriate matrix “fan chart.45 0. porosity (p. water-filled casing 0. 51⁄2-in. are entered in ordinate and abscissa.05 20 40 60 80 0. respectively.20 100 Sw = 0% 0. φ. carbon/oxygen ratio Sw = 0% 20 0.15 0.Through-Pipe Evaluation Schlumberger Saturation Determination from GST* Induced Gamma Ray Spectrometry Log GST-1 8-in. borehole. To use.40 0.) These charts permit the determination of water saturation from carbon/oxygen (C/O) ratio measurements made with the GST Induced Gamma Ray Spectrometry Tool in inelastic mode operation.35 0. the C/O ratio and the porosity.30 C/O.00 100 GST 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 φ. on the appropriate chart (dependent upon borehole and casing size).25 Calcite (limestone) 40 60 80 0.10 Quartz sandstone 0.

water-filled casing cemented in 7 7⁄ 8-in.00 100 GST 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 φ. borehole. 75⁄8-in.10 φ = 28 p.35 0.30 0.) Example: 5 1⁄2-in. Sw = 30% .15 80 100 0.10 Sw = 0% 20 40 0. Lithology is quartz sandstone 7-10 Therefore. porosity (p. water-filled casing 0. borehole (use Chart GST-1) C/O ratio = 0.20 Calcite (limestone) 40 60 0. carbon/oxygen ratio 20 0.u.Through-Pipe Evaluation Schlumberger Saturation Determination from GST* Induced Gamma Ray Spectrometry Log GST-2 10-in.25 Sw = 0% C/O.05 Quartz sandstone 60 80 0.u.

40-lbm/ft casing 0.) GST 7-11 .25 C/O. porosity (p. 95⁄8-in.u.10 Quartz sandstone 0.05 0. carbon/oxygen ratio 0.Through-Pipe Evaluation Schlumberger Saturation Determination from GST* Induced Gamma Ray Spectrometry Log GST-5 121⁄4-in.15 0.00 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 φ. borehole.20 Sw = 0% 20 40 60 80 100 Sw = 0% 20 40 60 80 100 Calcite (limestone) 0..30 0.35 0.

Chart GST-4 applies when the tool is operated in capture-tau mode. Example: Cl/H ratio = 5 φ = 30% Borehole fluid salinity ≈ 25. Interpolation between curves may be necessary. casing in a 7 7⁄ 8-in. Two sets of charts are presented. sandstone 16-p. Apparent water salinity = 80. chlorine-hydrogen salinity ratio GST Charts GST-3 and GST-4 permit the determination of an apparent water salinity from the chlorine-hydrogen ratio (Cl/H) as recorded with the GST Induced Gamma Ray Spectrometry Tool.u. sandstone 0 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 2 4 6 8 200k 10 12 50k 0 200 k 200k 100k 0 14 16 Cl/H. The apparent water salinity is given in ordinate. chlorine-hydrogen salinity ratio Cl/H. The apparent water salinity value can then be compared to the known connate water salinity to provide water saturation in clean formations.000 ppm 5 1⁄2-in. 51⁄2-in.000/200.u. Proceed upward to the appropriate combination of borehole fluid salinity and formation porosity conditions.u. Chart GST-3 applies when the GST tool is operated in inelastic mode. enter the chlorine-hydrogen (Cl/H) ratio into the chart that most nearly matches the borehole and casing size conditions and matches the tool operating mode.000). [255-mm] borehole. water saturation would be 40% (Sw = 80. 7-12 . sandstone 16-p. To use. [203-mm] borehole. [194-mm] casing Borehole fluid salinity (ppm) 0 25k 50k 100 k 200 k 25k 50k Apparent water salinity (ppm) 0 25k 50k 100 k 200 k 100k 25k 150k 100k 32-p.000 ppm If the connate water salinity were 200.Through-Pipe Evaluation Schlumberger Apparent Water Salinity Determination from GST* Induced Gamma Ray Spectrometry Log Inelastic mode GST-3 8-in. borehole Tool operating in capture-tau mode From Chart GST-4. sandstone 50k 32-p. 75⁄8-in.000 ppm. [140-mm] casing 250k Borehole fluid salinity (ppm) 10-in.u.

[140-mm] casing 250k Borehole fluid salinity (ppm) 10-in. sandstone 50k 50k 32-p. chlorine-hydrogen salinity ratio Cl/H. sandstone 16-p. sandstone 16-p. chlorine-hydrogen salinity ratio GST 7-13 . [203-mm] borehole. 75⁄8-in.u.Through-Pipe Evaluation Schlumberger Apparent Water Salinity Determination from GST* Induced Gamma Ray Spectrometry Log Capture-Tau mode GST-4 8-in. 51⁄2-in.u. [255-mm] borehole.u. sandstone 0 0 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 0 2 4 6 8 200 k 25k 0 0 10 12 20 0k 200k 10 0k 0 0 14 16 Cl/H. [194-mm] casing Borehole fluid salinity (ppm) 10 0 20 k 0k 25k 25k 50k 50k Apparent water salinity (ppm) 25k 50k 10 0k 20 0k 100 k 150k 100k 32-p.u.

Known formation and borehole data define the expected values of carbon/oxygen ratio for each detector using water saturation and borehole holdup values ranging from 0 to 1. water in formation OO: oil in borehole. Each set of near-detector and far-detector carbon/ oxygen ratios represents a formation oil saturation and a borehole oil holdup. should lie within the trapezoidal area bounded by the limits on oil saturation. and oil holdup.u. Additional trapezoid charts can be constructed for alternative casing and borehole sizes. water in formation OW: oil in borehole. Oil saturation and oil holdup can be estimated for each level by interpolation within the trapezoid. oil in formation WO: water in borehole. yo. If data fall consistently outside the trapezoid. help to ensure that the measured near-detector and far-detector carbon/oxygen ratio data are consistent with the interpretation model. Dual-Detector COR Model for 111⁄16-in.Through-Pipe Evaluation Schlumberger RST* Reservoir Saturation Tool Carbon/Oxygen Ratio Response Charts RST-1. the interpretation model may require revision. oil in formation *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger RST 7-14 Fo rm at io n wo oi l Far-detector carbon/oxygen ratio oil hole Bore oi l oo . RST-A Tool oo ow wo ww Near-detector carbon/oxygen ratio Dual-Detector COR Model for 21⁄2-in. drawn for specific cased hole and openhole cases. So. -2 and -3. RST-B Tool Fo rm at io n Far-detector carbon/oxygen ratio oil ole h re Bo yo So ow ww Near-detector carbon/oxygen ratio WW: water in borehole. All log data for levels with porosity greater than 10 p.

7 0.3 WO WO 0.9 RST-A. limestone RST-B. 8. quartz sandstone RST-B.7 Far detector carbon/oxygen ratio OO OW 0. casing 0.1 0. casing 0.9 Near detector carbon/oxygen ratio φ = 20%. 8. 7-in.5 OW OO OW 0.1 –0.9 RST-A.9 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger Near detector carbon/oxygen ratio 7-15 .3 0.5 OW OW OO OO OW OO RST 0. quartz sandstone OO 0. borehole. limestone RST-A.3 0.1 WO WW WO WO WW –0.1 WW 0.3 WO WO 0.1 WO WW WW WW –0.1 0. 7-in. limestone RST-B. limestone RST-A.7 Far detector carbon/oxygen ratio OO 0. borehole. quartz sandstone 0. quartz sandstone RST-B.Through-Pipe Evaluation Schlumberger RST* Reservoir Saturation Tool Carbon/Oxygen Ratio Response RST-A and RST-B in cased holes RST-1 φ = 30%.1 –0.5-in.5-in.5 OO OW 0.1 WW 0.7 0.5 OW 0.

7 0. quartz sandstone OO 0. 10-in. limestone RST-B.3 0.3 WO WO 0. borehole.9 RST-A.5 0.5 0. limestone RST-A. casing 0.1 –0.1 0.1 WO WW WW WW –0.1 –0.1 WW 0. 10-in. borehole.9 WO OW OW OO RST *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger Near detector carbon/oxygen ratio 7-16 .9 RST-A. 7-in. casing 0. quartz sandstone RST-B.Through-Pipe Evaluation Schlumberger RST* Reservoir Saturation Tool Carbon/Oxygen Ratio Response RST-A and RST-B in cased holes RST-2 φ = 30%.7 Far detector carbon/oxygen ratio 0. quartz sandstone OO 0.7 Far detector carbon/oxygen ratio OO 0.3 WO WO 0.9 OW OW OO Near detector carbon/oxygen ratio φ = 20%. quartz sandstone RST-B.1 WW 0.7 0. 7-in.5 OW OO OW 0.3 0. limestone RST-B.1 WW WW WO WW –0. limestone RST-A.1 0.5 OW OO OO OW 0.

quartz sandstone RST-B.9 RST-A.7 Far detector carbon/oxygen ratio OO 0. quartz sandstone OO 0.1 –0.3 0.9 *Mark of Schlumberger © Schlumberger Near detector carbon/oxygen ratio 7-17 .1 WW –0.Through-Pipe Evaluation Schlumberger RST* Reservoir Saturation Tool Carbon/Oxygen Ratio Response RST-A and RST-B in openholes RST-3 φ = 30%.3 WW 0.3 0. quartz sandstone RST-B.7 0. limestone RST-A.9 OO OW OO Near detector carbon/oxygen ratio φ = 20%. limestone RST-A. openhole 0. 6-in.5 WO WO 0.5 0.1 0.7 Far detector carbon/oxygen ratio OO 0.1 WO WW WO WW 0.3 OW WO WO 0. limestone RST-B. openhole 0.1 –0. quartz sandstone 0. limestone RST-B.5 OW WO OO OW OW OO RST 0. 6-in.1 WW WW OW OW WW –0.1 0.5 OW OO WO 0.7 0.1 WW 0.9 RST-A.

00 24.795 5.00 40.097 8.50 Nominal ID (in.5 mV Casing size = 7 in.059 6.00 29.) 9.500 5. Casing thickness = 0.090 4.032 7.50 47.950 4.00 40.50 103.029 4.150 11.196 8.879 5.687 8.836 7.969 6. Example: CBL amplitude = 3.804 9.299 5.184 6.875 6.00 78.907 7.00 17.422 20.089 6.366 6.00 15.70 33.494 4.428 4.413 6.724 10.765 6.50 22.50 11.) 3.00 90.855 5.214 6.00 114.00 19.375 17.065 4.70 39.750 6.887 4.094 6.090 4.00 14.812 9.00 40.192 10.00 43.755 8.00 22.525 8.00 38.921 7.928 10.855 19.115 6.331 6.00 30.00 45.00 29.765 8.562 23.50 48.50 17. (7 in.00 Nominal ID (in.00 55.Through-Pipe Evaluation Schlumberger CBL Interpretation—Casing Data The compressive strength of bonded cement (either standard or foamed) can be estimated from the CBL amplitude recording using Chart M-1.919 4.864 5.00 11.30 36.049 5.00 51.190 20.920 4.00 20.772 11. then follow diagonal lines to the appropriate casing size.154 5.00 32.00 26.00 49.965 3.794 9.00 14.165 5.175 4.00 24.50 45.241 6.796 7.511 8.50 16.276 4.837 5.029 5.00 40.398 6.921 8.679 8.00 53.) Weight† per ft (lbm) 33.760 11.524 5.) 9.600 7.41 in.00 54.795 3.276 6.844 10.30 32.625 8.283 4.00 35.00 28.00 55.5 mPa Data for Threaded Nonupset Casing OD (in.00 100.154 6.775 7.00 20.00 47.438 12.000 3.694 9. Use drift diameter to determine the largest-diameter equipment that can be safely run inside the casing.550 75⁄8 OD (in.00 36.604 10.352 5.00 16.424 5.844 6.456 6.972 7.273 6. Signal attenuation = 8.125 7.00 40.084 11.190 5.730 5.00 24.70 18.969 5.9 dB/ft or 29.50 13.640 6.974 4.796 5.00 48.924 5.675 Drift Diameter ‡ (in.60 13.228 10.636 5.653 4.00 15.00 32.00 20.700 7.80 28.50 38.892 7.375 5.00 17.2 dB/m and Compressive strength = 2100 psi or 14.00 38.00 26.082 4.00 92.538 6.000 10.151 4. ‡ Drift diameter is the guaranteed minimum internal diameter of any part of the casing.510 23.044 5.907 8.791 5.00 24.00 20.) 3.00 18.135 6.063 9.386 8.667 19.610 20.849 4.670 5.845 8.00 29.666 5.290 5.00 17.40 29.00 23.715 15.002 20. 7-18 .435 4.75 40.211 6. Connect this value with the casing thickness to estimate the compressive strength of the cement.) Weight† per ft (lbm) 17.990 5.898 9.60 9.00 23.) 6.00 21.290 8.399 5.545 5.00 Nominal ID (in.650 Drift Diameter ‡ (in.616 11.050 9.560 4.725 7.00 32.711 7.282 12.00 26.865 5.900 6. 29 lbm) Cement is standard Therefore.750 23.187 17.628 9.965 4.025 6.875 3.036 9.151 6.227 5.228 12.00 26.835 8.) Weight† per ft (lbm) 11.500 7.408 4.384 10.000 6.00 32.50 113.650 7.950 9.303 3.322 23.071 8.746 9.994 10.825 7.921 5.957 4.00 44.369 4.00 43.989 5.712 5.559 15.379 OD (in.599 8.00 28.767 4.004 5.00 40.522 20.00 15.00 60.017 7.336 6.710 20.001 8.00 40.462 4 4 ⁄2 1 7 10 10 ⁄4 3 43⁄4 5 113⁄4 51⁄2 12 13 13 ⁄8 16 185⁄8 20 211⁄2 3 85⁄8 53⁄4 6 9 241⁄2 6 ⁄8 5 † Weight 95⁄8 M per foot in pounds is given for plain pipe (no threads or coupling).625 7.054 10.) 6.150 8.00 23.825 4.00 22.880 10.00 42.165 8.00 20.920 5.902 9.384 12.240 6. Use internal diameter for volume capacity calculations.681 8.00 38. Enter the nomograph with the CBL amplitude in mV.535 Drift Diameter ‡ (in.960 9.892 4.300 4.784 9.025 7.500 7.00 13.850 9.651 7.00 55.778 4.012 4.00 34.761 5.50 15.894 9.00 54.010 5.00 45. This defines signal attenuation.526 7.

4 10 8 0.6 15 0.5 16 52 17 56 18 7 51⁄2 75⁄8 133⁄8 103⁄4 dB/ft M 0.2 5 44 Foamed cement 800 5 1 14 500 3 4 500 3 1 100 300 0.914-m] spacing Compressive strength (psi) (mPa) 30 4000 20 15 10 9 8 7 6 CBL amplitude (mV) 5 4 25 Casing thickness (mm) (in.3 7 6 1000 1000 Standard cement 3000 20 20 7 in.2 41⁄2 Casing size (in.5 0.) 0.) © Schlumberger See opposite page for instructions.5 2 50 0.3 200 1 100 2 250 48 15 0.Through-Pipe Evaluation Schlumberger CBL Interpretation Chart M-1 Casing size (mm) 194 140 115 176 273 340 dB/m 1 70 2 50 40 30 3 12 4 5 6 7 24 8 28 9 10 3 11 36 2 32 16 8 4 Centered tool only. 3-ft [0. 7-19 . 29 lbm 15 2000 10 12 13 6 40 5 0.

Appendix A Linear Grid .

Appendix A 9 8 7 6 5 Log-Linear Grid 4 3 2 1 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 A-2 1 .

80 1000 0.50 0.0 6.4 1.0 10 15 20 30 40 50 100 200 Resistivity A-3 500 400 ∞ t .2 1.60 1500 Conductivity 0.90 1.0 1.6 1.20 0.0 300 200 150 100 50 25 10 0 4.0 5.45 2000 0.0 2.5 3.70 0. ρb φ FR .Appendix A Water Saturation Grid for Porosity Versus Resistivity For FR = 5000 Resistivity scale may be multiplied by 10 for use in a higher range 4000 0.30 3000 0.25 0.0 8.15 0.35 2500 0.62 φ2.8 2.40 0.

ρb φ FR A-4 Resistivity .5 3 300 3.5 200 5 6 150 Conductivity 7 8 100 9 10 12 14 16 50 40 30 20 10 5 20 25 30 40 50 100 200 500 1000 2000 0 ∞ t .5 250 4 4.Appendix A Water Saturation Grid for Porosity Versus Resistivity For FR = 500 Resistivity scale may be multiplied by 10 for use in a higher range 400 1 φ2 2 2.

2 7.13 4.0 7.0 7.3 15 13.18 5.Al) (Si4.5 7.53 –2 –2 –2 –3 –2 –3 69 Ca5(PO4)3OH Ca5(PO4)3CL Ca5(PO4)3F (Ca5(PO4)3)2CO3H2O 3.3 3.9 3.0 27 57 7.0 101 103 85 71 23 5.50 –1 –2 4 3 4 16 –1 –2 –3 2 7 8 22 –3 43.0–8.59 2.Fe2.59 2.1 111 113 83 47 9.8 9.82 2.3–9.08 4.0 88.1 2.3 CaCO3 CaCO3MgCO3 Ca(Mg.3 4.13 5 –1 –1 5 8 –1 –2 8 42 42 42 Fe2O3 Fe3O4 FeO(OH) FeO(OH)(H2O)2.9 2.1 8.2–7.18 3.21 3.9 5.99 12 ~20 ~38 ~13 ~15 ~11 49 149 2. B-5 .8 11 6.9 10.1209 Fe3Al2(SiO4)3 Ca2NaMg2Fe2 AlSi8O22(O.5 8.0 45 18 7450 6.5 5.7(Mg.9 7.6 18 19 19 17 9.7 7.86 ~2.2 7.) Logging Tool Response in Sedimentary Minerals t c t s (µsec/ft) (µsec/ft) Pe U ε (farad/m) tp GR (nsec/m) (API units) Σ (c.0 2.8 5.31 3.0–8.9 102.u.6 42.8 6.8–9.Appendix B Name Silicates Quartz β-Cristobalite Opal (3.2 4.4 ~270 17 21 ~11 ~21 50.u.4 72 SiO2 SiO2 SiO2 (H2O).OH)2 NaMg3Al6B3Si6O2(OH)4 ZrSiO4 2.9 2.5% H2O) Garnet ‡ Hornblende ‡ Tourmaline Zircon Carbonates Calcite Dolomite Ankerite Siderite Oxidates Hematite Magnetite Geothite Limonite ‡ Gibbsite Phosphates Hydroxyapatite Chlorapatite Fluorapatite Carbonapatite Feldspars—Alkali ‡ Orthoclase Anorthoclase Microcline KAISi3O8 KAISi3O8 KAISi3O8 2.) 1.) φAPS† (p.0 88.2 4.7 48 19 6.0 44.64 2.8 1.4–6.8 3.52 2.7 22 6.6 4.0–8.49 4 3 50+ 50+ 50+ 11 9 60+ 60+ 60+ 56.7 3.Fe)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2 KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2 2.02 4.5–11.5 6.0 4.17 3.0 Formula ρLOG (g/cm3) φSNP (p.86 3.05 Al(OH)3 5.2 KAl2(Si3AlO10)(OH)2 K 0.59 2.5 9.Al10)O2(OH) K(Mg.u.Fe)(CO3)2 FeCO3 2.u.1 9.8 9.0–8.71 2.8–7.9 8.15 2.1 4.20 3.1 ~275 30 33 ‡Mean porosity derived from near-to-array ratio (APLC) value.0–8.) φCNL (p.6 130 8.89 0 2 0 5 0 1 1 12 3 47 0 1 49.1 52 21 22 19 13 1.7 14 19 6.8 1.8 81.2 7.74 –1 –1 –2 –2 –2 49 45 85 1.2–8.5 311 4.65 7.4 8.4 4.4–6.4 7.4–6.34 3.0 4.1 5.9 73 79.5 58 –1 56.9–10.1 69 4.2 ~220 ~220 ~220 16 16 16 Feldspars—Plagioclase ‡ Albite Anorthite Micas ‡ Muscovite Glauconite Biotite Phlogopite †APS NaAlSi3O8 CaAl2Si2O8 2.4–6.1 4.8 6. which may vary for individual samples For more information see Reference 41.1 3.2 7.0 7.0 4.4–6.8 50 224 207 6.2 7.8–6.85 2.

2–7.3 4.Fe.Al)6(Si.23 0.6 4.47 1.4 10 12 7.1 9.8 6.6–4.5.0 250–300 18 Montmorillonite Evaporites Halite Anhydrite Gypsum Trona Tachhydrite Sylvite Carnalite Langbeinite Polyhalite Kainite Kieserite Epsomite Bischofite Barite Celestite Sulfides Pyrite Marcasite Pyrrhotite Sphalerite Chalopyrite Galena Sulfur Coals Anthracite Bituminous Lignite †APS 2.3–9.7 5.3 6.09 3.1 3.211 1.0 ~5.5) O20(OH)4 (Ca.02 –2 –2 –2 –3 –2 –3 –2 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3 –3 39.17 0.57 2.) Logging Tool Response in Sedimentary Minerals t c t s (µsec/ft) (µsec/ft) Pe U ε (farad/m) tp GR (nsec/m) (API units) Σ (c.2 62.8–8.71 3.015O.) φAPS† (p.35 2.u. B-6 .4 4.009O.3 500+ ~220 ~290 ~200 ~245 565 369 24 24 195 14 21 323 6.59 1.9 100 2.400 11 7.) φCNL (p.8 7.04 2.0 4.79 –2 –1 50+ 24 50+ –2 41 –1 14 40 38 50+ 50+ –1 –1 –3 –2 60+ 35 60+ –3 60+ –2 25 60+ 43 60+ 60+ –2 –1 21 2 60 67.4 16 6.5 1.16 0.022 CH.8 ~8.1 17 17 21 36 27 1630 85 83 93 138 109 10.6 267 55 FeS2 FeS2 Fe7S8 ZnS CuFeS2 PbS S 4.3 4.12 2.6–6. which may vary for individual samples For more information see Reference 41.82 2.21 0.) 1.015O.19 37 50+ 47 38 60+ 52 105 120 160 0.1 4.0 4.41 2.24 8.76 34 37 ~37 ~52 ~34 ~35 Formula ρLOG (g/cm3) φSNP (p.u.98 2.7 ~5.85 4.8 ~5.8 ~8.0 ~8.8 7.1 7.0 80–130 180–250 14 25 Illite 2.358N.66 1.8 ~8.5 15 9.4 8.9–8.24 1.u.87 4.07 6.4 6.52 20 ~30 ~17 3.54 4.Fe)4 (Si.99 4.5 8.7 2.u.8 1.12 ~60 ~60 2.5Al4(Si7–6.793N.7 14 13 ‡Mean porosity derived from near-to-array ratio (APLC) value.5 90 88 94 25 102 13 20 122 5.078 CH.71 1.Al)8O20(OH)4(H2O)n 2.5 6.Al1–1.4 1.86 1.0 1090 209 5.79 2.Na)7(Al.8 754 12 19 16 406 4.4 CH.0 0.0 150–200 14 NaCl CaSO4 CaSO4(H2O)2 Na2CO3NaHCO3H2O CaCl2(MgCl2)2(H2O)12 KCl KClMgCl2(H2O)6 K2SO4(MgSO4)2 K2SO4Mg SO4(CaSO4)2(H2O)2 MgSO4KCl(H2O)3 MgSO4H2) MgSO4(H2O)7 MgCl2(H2O)6 BaSO4 SrSO4 2.3 3.20 0.53 3.2 9.Appendix B Name Clays ‡ Kaolinite Chlorite Al4Si4O10(OH)8 (Mg.0 50 52 65 92 120 4.849N.5 4.Mg.39 2.Al)4 O10(OH)8 K1–1.4 17 ~5.8 8.08 1.

214 × 10 –4 1000 6.336 ×10 4 1.540 × 10 –8 1.682 × 10 –4 914.778 × 10 –2 1000 3.5396 1.788 × 10 7 4.361 × 10 –7 0.716 × 10 –4 10 12 1.2 7.6 × 10 4 5.8361 9.40 2.540 × 10 –3 8.076 × 10 –3 0.214 × 10 –7 1 1.37 0.281 39.361 × 10 5 1 3.37 0.396 ×10 –4 1 3.356 × 10 4 6.550 × 10 1 10 6 0.196 × 10 –4 9.281 × 10 –2 0.290 × 10 4 0.590 2.228 × 10 –7 1 8.272.01 393.854 × 10 –7 Acres Circular mils Square centimeters Square feet Square inches Square kilometers Square meters Square miles Square millimeters Square yards by 1 1 5.196 × 10 –6 C-7 .048 × 10 –4 1.609 × 105 5280 6.833 × 108 929.562 × 10 –3 5.3333 1.067 × 10 –6 1.1111 3.281 × 10 –3 3.001 2.452 × 10 –4 3.001 5.934 ×10 –4 2.452 6.937 × 10 4 2.094 × 10 –3 2027 1.973 × 10 5 1 1.3861 645.0001 2.861 × 10 –11 3.2 × 10 4 Conversions Centimeters Feet Inches Kilometers Nautical miles Meters Mils Miles Millimeters Yards 2.578 × 10 –5 25.645 × 10 –4 0.290 × 10 –2 6.001 39.196 640 1973 2.550 × 10 10 –12 10 –6 –3 8361 9 1296 8.067 × 10 –4 7.944 × 10 –3 1 10 10 1.094 Area Multiply Number of to Obtain Acres Circular mils Square centimeters Square feet Square inches Square kilometers Square meters Square miles Square millimeters Square yards 4840 4.590 × 10 6 1 9 2.894 × 10 –4 304.1516 6.8 0.853 1 1853 7 100 3.01 1.Appendix C Length Multiply Number of to Obtain Centimeters Feet Inches Kilometers Nautical miles Meters Mils Miles Millimeters Yards 0.094 × 10 –2 by 1 3.540 × 10 –5 105 3281 3.076 × 10 7 1.296 × 10 4 1.333 × 10 –2 1 2.076 × 10 –5 1.861 × 10 –13 3.1550 10 –10 0.8684 1609 0.471 × 10 –4 1.76 1550 10 –6 1 3.4 1 1 1 2.640 4.452 × 10 –10 9.3937 10 –5 30.296 × 10 –5 1.937 × 10 4 1 0.196 × 10 6 9 247.778 × 10 –5 1760 1.333 ×10 –5 0.937 × 10 0.1 2.047 × 10 –3 4047 1.214 × 10 –6 10 1.853 × 10 5 6080.540 × 10 –2 2.098 × 10 6 1.015 × 10 2.6214 105 1094 0.290 × 10 –8 6.861 × 10 –7 10 6 1.1 3.3048 1.609 0.44 3 36 9.587 × 10 –8 100 1.144 × 10 –4 4.973 ×10 9 10 4 10.9144 3.27 7.066 × 10 –4 0.273 × 10 6 6.590 × 10 10 2.937 × 10 –2 10 –6 91.7 6.540 × 10 –2 1000 1.48 1 12 3.0 1 144 1.540 8.

463 × 10 –2 1.102 × 10 –6 1.02 0.4536 4.102 × 10 –2 10 –6 4.642 × 10 –4 35.001 10 –6 1 3.842 × 10 –4 0.016 1.639 × 10 –5 1 1.308 × 10 –6 2.016 × 10 9 10 6 1000 10 9 9.8036 1 3.75 9.001 1000 3.832 × 10 946.205 × 10 –3 9.9464 2 1 1.787 × 10 –4 1 –2 28.7646 1 202.732 × 10 –4 2.835 × 10 –2 2.8929 0.329 × 10 –3 1.072 × 10 8 3.671 × 10 –2 28.113 × 10 –3 1.102 × 10 –9 437.4 3.1337 231 3.524 × 10 –2 Conversions Bushels (dry) Cubic centimeters Cubic feet Cubic inches Cubic meters Cubic yards Gallons (liquid) Liters Pints (liquid) Quarts (liquid) Bushels (dry) Cubic centimeters Cubic feet Cubic inches Cubic meters Cubic yards Gallons (liquid) Liters Pints (liquid) Quarts (liquid) 0.6 1616 807.481 × 10 –5 64.39 5.87 4.785 8 4 6.001 2.429 × 10 –4 35.84 29.2 1000 2113 1057 1.2445 2150.842 × 10 –10 10 –9 1.308 264.001 1.835 × 10 –5 3.9 3785 0.481 × 10 –2 Grains Grams Kilograms Milligrams Ounces† Pounds† Tons (long) Tons (metric) Tons (short) 15.24 0.842 × 10 –7 10 –6 1.951 × 10 –3 1 3.835 × 10 1 6.072 × 10 5 907.016 × 10 6 1016 1.4732 1 0.102 C-8 .838 × 10 –2 1000 3.2 9.646 × 10 5 27 46.2642 1 2.0005 5 1.524 × 10 4 1.32 59.790 × 10 –5 2.9842 1 1.832 × 10 4 1 1728 2.308 × 10 –3 0.527 × 10 4 2205 0.531 × 10 –2 61.656 0.5 Mass and Weight Multiply Number of to Obtain Grains Grams Kilograms Milligrams Ounces† Pounds† Tons (long) Tons (metric) Tons (short) †Avoirdupois pounds and ounces by 1 6.704 × 10 –2 7.120 3.543 × 10 4 1000 1 10 6 1.584 × 10 4 2240 1 1.125 × 10 –5 4 7000 453.543 × 10 –2 0.102 × 10 4 7.27 2.92 2.205 × 10 –6 9.0 764.481 28.057 473.81 2.732 × 10 –2 4.531 × 10 –5 6.43 1 0.125 0.536 × 10 16 1 4.527 × 10 –5 2.464 × 10 –4 4.286 × 10 –3 1.2 × 10 4 2000 0.5 28.35 2.651 × 10 –4 16.785 × 10 –3 2.4 3.113 1.527 × 10 –2 2.38 10 6 35.189 × 10 –4 0.9072 1 6.464 × 10 –4 1.205 9.001 1.536 × 10 –4 0.6 0.Appendix C Volume Multiply Number of to Obtain by 1 3.057 × 10 –3 3.31 6.143 × 10 –5 4.102 × 10 –3 3.25 0.2 1.238 × 10 –3 0.639 × 10 –2 3.250 × 10 –2 2.342 × 10 –2 57.

602 × 10–2 16.433 × g/cm3 = lb/ft3/144 = lb/gal/19.895 × 10 4 Tons (short) per square foot 0.243 × 10–2 3.953 × 10 –5 4.73 5.0001818 and l = 18.16 C-9 .392 × 10 –2 1.787 × 10–4 13.450 × 10 –4 1.3 × 10 –3 1.044 × 10 –5 1 14.768 × 104 1728 1 231. use h0 = h {1 – [(m – l) t / 1 + mt]}.1 9765 0. This assumes the scale is correct at 0°C.576 × 10 5 Conversions Pascals Atmospheres† Bayres or dynes per square centimeter‡ Centimeters of mercury at 0°C§ Inches of mercury at 0°C§ Inches of water at 4°C Kilograms per square meter†† Pounds per square foot Pounds per square inch‡‡ Tons (short) per square foot Pascals 9.937 × 10 –2 1.895 × 10 3 13.Appendix C Pressure or Force per Unit Area Multiply Number of Atmospheres† to Obtain by 1 1.015 × 10 –4 0.422 × 10 –3 1.896 × 10 –3 3.316 × 10 –2 1.386 × 10 4 Inches of water at 4°C 2.2048 1 144 2000 2.3937 1 7.333 × 10 3 0.342 × 10 –2 3.540 0.8°C + 32 5⁄9 (°F – 32) °F + 459.69 °C + 273.033 × 10 4 1.9450 9.1922 27.0 345.613 × 10 –2 2.3 25.4912 3.60 1 0.1868 7.038 psi/ft = 0.88 1 0.5 × 10 –6 if on glass.8 5.171 71.015 × 10 –3 406. 1.28 2.089 × 10 –3 1.414 × 10 –2 2.8 Pounds per square inch‡‡ 6.85 70. Vol.944 × 10 –3 0.02 1 5.356 × 10 –3 3.072 6.678 × 10 –5 98.43 3.37 × 10 –2 27.333 × 10 4 Inches of mercury at 0°C§ 3.0 0.725 × 10 –4 478.89 1 9.869× 10 –6 10 76.347 0. l = 8.591 × 10 –2 5.613 × 10–5 8.8 7.501 × 10 –5 1 2. for other cases (any liquid) see International Critical Tables.83 7.044 × 10 –5 10 –1 27.00 7.329 × 10 –3 1 Grams per cubic centimeter Kilograms per cubic meter Pounds per cubic foot Pounds per cubic inch Pounds per gallon Temperature °F °C °R K 1.68 2.013 × 10 6 Bayres or dynes per square centimeter‡ 9.68 384.013 × 10 5 0.70 1. where m = 0.869 × 10 –7 1 Centimeters of mercury at 0°C§ 1.882 703.058 1.27 Density or Mass per Unit Volume Multiply Number of to Obtain Grams per cubic centimeter Kilograms per cubic meter Pounds per cubic foot Pounds per cubic inch Pounds per gallon by 1 1000 62.204 0.458 × 10 –3 2.355 × 10 –2 2.576 × 10 4 † One atmosphere (standard) = 76 cm of mercury at 0°C ‡ Bar § To convert height h of a column of mercury at t °C to the equivalent height h0 at 0°C.491 × 10 –3 Kilograms per square meter†† 9.536 × 10 –2 3.354 13.07 Pounds per square foot 4.4 × 10 –6 if the scale is engraved on brass.804 × 10 –2 6.020 × 10 –2 136.807 6.501 × 10 –4 29.92 2.1934 1. 68.024 × 10 –4 9.0005 47.036 28.953 × 10 –4 4.1198 119.40 1 4.001 1 6. †† 1 gram per square centimeter = 10 kilograms per square meter ‡‡ psi = MPa × 145.5 1.613 × 10–2 8.479 4.601 × 10 –3 2.491 × 10 –4 1.386 × 10 3 3.1020 2117 2.450 × 10 –5 1.089 × 10 –2 1.

neutron porosity versus density. m. ppm psi. individual index free fluid index silt index porosity index secondary porosity index pseudogeometrical factor electrochemical SP coefficient permeability. moles/liter FR = KR/φm amu millimho per meter (mmho/m) φSVcor = Bcp φSV ft. C J K k L M m N n P p Pc Pe a b c d e References: “SPE Letter and Computer Symbols Standard. D-10 .” 1986. H D V MR. e i iFf Islt. n P Pc. isl. Kec K s. Reserve symbols are to be used only if conflict arises between standard symbols used in the same paper. m in. kg/cm2c. pc mφND Mc. is to be replaced in use by the SI metric unit. sonic interval transit time versus density × 0. in. the pascal. m. Suggested computer symbol. The unit. mV FR = KR/φm fG iH ft. in. islt iφ iφ2 fGp Ec = Kc log (aw/amf) md ft. a. path length slope.01. kg/cm2c. l mθD σ Ccp y. in M-N plot porosity (cementation) exponent slope. kilograms per square centimeter. atm atm c.Appendix D Standard SPE and SPWLAa Standard computer symbola Symbols Standard reserve symbolb Traditional symbol Description Customary unit or relation a a A C Cp D d E F G H h I FFI SI a KR A C Bcp D d E FR G IH h I IFf Isl Iφ SPI Iφ2 Gp Kc k L M m N n C p Pc ACT COER AWT ECN CORCP DPH DIA EMF FACHR GMF HYX THK –X FFX SLX PRX PRXSE GMFP COEC PRM LTH SAD MXP SND SXP CNC PRS PRSCP electrochemical activity coefficient in FR – φ relation atomic weight conductivity (electrical logging) sonic compaction correction factor depth diameter electromotive force formation resistivity factor geometrical factor (multiplier) hydrogen index bed thickness. “DEL” is in the operator field. d. psi. absolute (fluid flow) length.01 FR = KR/φm N = (φNf – φN)/(ρb – ρf) Swn = FRRw/Rt g/g. M = [(t f – t LOG)/(ρb – ρf)] × 0. in M-N Plot saturation exponent salinity pressure capillary pressure photoelectric cross section equivalents/liter. “RAD” is in the main-quantity field.

u.u.u. sec. εim ∆R ∆t φz. m/sec cm3. Tfm fφ shd R r S T Tbh Tf FIMSHD RES RAD SAT TEM TEMBH TEMF TIM TAC shaliness (CEC per ml water) dispersed-shale volume fraction of intermatrix porosity resistivity (electrical) radial distance from hole axis saturation temperature bottomhole temperature formation temperature time interval transit time volumetric cross section v V V Z αSP γ φ φ1 φ2 φig VAC VOL VLF ANM REDSP SPG POR PORPR PORSE PORIG PORIM DELRADd TAC velocity (acoustic) volume volume fraction atomic number SP reduction factor specific gravity (ρ/ρw or ρg /ρair) porosity primary porosity secondary porosity intergranular porosity intermatrix porosity radial distance (increment) meq/ml φ imfshd. e2 fig. kilograms per square centimeter. The unit. Reserve symbols are to be used only if conflict arises between standard symbols used in the same paper. p. r R ρ. φig = (Vb – Vgr)/Vb φ im = (Vb – Vma )/Vb in. µsec/ft p. K °F. D-11 .u. e1 f2. q ohm-m in. Fs fraction or percentage of bulk volume. p. s θ θBH t t U v V V Z α γ φ t t s. etc. “DEL” is in the operator field. °C. εig fim. Fv ρ. ft3.” 1986. °C. fraction or percent of pore volume °F. is to be replaced in use by the SI metric unit. “RAD” is in the main-quantity field. µsec cm–1 D S tdn f. p. u v fv. fraction or percentage of bulk volume.Appendix D Traditional symbol Standard SPE and SPWLAa Standard computer symbola Symbols Standard reserve symbolb Description Customary unit or relation Qv q R r S T BHT. fraction or percentage of bulk volume. V. °C. φim ∆r ∆t ∆φNex λ ρ Σ τ a b c d e φim ∆r t Kani ρ Σ τdN sonic interval transit time e excavation effect DELPORNX COEANI DEN XST XSTMAC TIMDN coefficient of anisotropy density neutron capture cross section macroscopic thermal neutron decay time References: “SPE Letter and Computer Symbols Standard.. K µsec. the pascal. Tbh FT. ε f1. Mani g/cm3 c. Suggested computer symbol. min t ∆t barns/cm3 ft/sec. K °F.u.

shale) intrinsic (as opposed to log value) irreducible liquid junction electrokinetic log lamination. eq f. Rmfeq ρf Tf Sg ρgr Sgxo ρgyp dh ρh S hr di φ ig φ im Σ int Swi Ej Ek t pl Vsh l φ lim ir. RLL Ra Σcap ρb Tbh Vcl tcor Ec Bcp log ap B.Appendix E Standard SPE and SPWLAa Standard computer subscripta Subscripts Standard reserve subscriptb Traditional subscript Explanation Example a a abs anh b bh clay cor. and str.” 1986. z int irr J k l lam lim liq a b gxo gyp h h hr i ig im int i j k ι ek log L l lim L LAM LM L ρL l References: “SPE Letter and Computer Symbols Standard. laminated limiting value liquid RLOG. Reserve symbols are to be used only if conflict arises between standard symbols used in the same paper. i I H H GXO EV fl fm G gxo gyp h h hr i ig im. disp. BH cla ec d Vshd t dol Rweq. t w. gas LOG a cap anh b bh cl cor c cp D shd dol eq f f g gr L A C AH B BH CL COR C CP D SHD DL EV F F G GR GXO GY H H HR I IG IM I IR J K L apparent from log reading (or use tool description subscript) apparent (general) absorption. c c cp D dis dol e. shale) intermatrix (incl. capture anhydrite bulk bottomhole clay corrected electrochemical compaction density log dispersed shale dolomite equivalent fluid formation (rock) gas grain gas in flushed zone gypsum hole hydrocarbon residual hydrocarbon invaded zone (inner boundary) intergranular (incl. disp. fluid fm g. E-12 .

apparent well flowing conditions well static conditions flushed zone intermatrix p. im a b LOG ls m max ma mc mf mfa min L LS M MX MA MC MF MFA MN log values limestone mud maximum matrix mudcake mud filtrate mud filtrate. Reserve symbols are to be used only if conflict arises between standard symbols used in the same paper. ni T w wa wf ws xo z. Shr Rs log 1st o or 0 (zero) O OR ZR oil (except with resistivity) residual oil 100-percent water saturated propagation N zr pSP 1 (one) r r s sd ss 2 sh sl SP SSP sh st t t w wa wf ws xo im PSP PR R R S SD SS SE SH SL SP SSP SH ST T T W WA WF WS XO IM pseudostatic SP primary relative residual adjacent (surrounding) formation sand sandstone secondary shale silt spontaneous potential static spontaneous potential structural shale true (as opposed to apparent) total water. sec sha slt sp φ im References: “SPE Letter and Computer Symbols Standard. pri R R sa sst φ2 V sh I sl ESP ESSP Vshst Rt Ct Sw Rwa pwf pws Rxo s tr T W W ap f s s. apparent minimum value noninvaded zone t LOG t ls Rm φ max t ma Rmc Rm f Rm fa Rni So Sor F0 tpw EpSP φ1 k r o.” 1986.Appendix E Standard SPE and SPWLAa Standard computer subscripta Subscripts Standard reserve subscriptb Traditional subscript Explanation Example log ls m max ma mc mf mfa min ni o or o. k rw Sor . E-13 . formation water formation water. 0 (zero) p PSP pri r r s sd ss sec sh silt SP SSP str t.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ft3 Abbreviations cubic meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GW gram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GHz gigaPascal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cm centipoise . . . . . . . A atmosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bscf/D bits per inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . °R direct-current (as adjective) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kHz kilometer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ci darcy. .) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ppg may be more common than lbm/gal when referring to pounds per gallon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A ampere-hour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . atm atomic mass unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dB degree (American Petroleum Institute) . . . spell out dead-weight ton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . avg barrel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . acre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . km kilopond (1000 lbf) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ./sec kelvin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . are appropriate for most publications. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DWT decibel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . spell out day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gPa gigawatt . . . . . . . . . .Appendix F These unit abbreviations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . °C degree Fahrenheit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . eV farad . . . . . . . . . . . . . mm3 cubic yard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gal/D gigabyte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . an accepted industry standard may be used instead. . . . . in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kg kilogram-meter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c. . . . . dpi electromotive force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BHT British thermal unit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . However. . . hp horsepower-hour. . bbl barrels of fluid per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gbyte gigahertz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BFPD barrels of liquid per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cm3 cubic foot . . . . . . cosh. yd3 Curie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ft3/lbm cubic feet per second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ft-lbf gallon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cosine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inches per second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m3 cubic millimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bpi bits per second . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B/D barrels per minute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .u. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . spell out acre-foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . inch. . . . . . . . . . . sinh. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kg-m kilohertz. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AC ampere. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . centimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 F-15 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . for inch). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . which have been adopted by the Society for Petroleum Engineers (SPE). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . amp-hr angstrom unit (10 –8 cm) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bbl/min billion cubic feet (billion = 10 9). . . . ft/sec foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ft3/sec cubic inch . . . . . . . . . . . acre-ft alternating-current (adj. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BWPD barrels per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DC dots per inch . . . ft3/bbl cubic feet per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kbyte kilogram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bcf/D billion standard cubic feet per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bcf billion cubic feet per day . . . . . Hz horsepower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . gal gallons per minute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lbf cubic feet per barrel . . . . . . . . For instance. . . . . . . . . . cps cubic centimeter . . . . darcies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ft foot-pound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BHP bottomhole temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ft3/min cubic feet per pound . . . . . . . . . . . . ft/min feet per second . . . . . . . . . C counts per second . . . . . . . . K kilobyte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F feet per minute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . emf electron volt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BLPD barrels of oil per day . . . . . . . °F degree Kelvin . . . . . . . . . . . . Btu capture unit . . . cp centistoke . . . in the drilling field. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hp-hr hour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . bps bottomhole pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . amu average . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . hr hyperbolic sine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . BOPD barrels of water per day. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ft3/D cubic feet per minute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (see “kelvin”) degree Rankine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cstk coulomb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Unit abbreviations are followed by a period only when the abbreviation forms a word (for example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . °API degree Celsius . . . . . . . . . gal/min gallons per day. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g hertz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . scf stock-tank barrel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tcf/D volt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MPa million standard cubic feet per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mCi millidarcy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . spf specific productivity index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . µsec mile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MMcf/D million electron volts . . . . yr megahertz . . . . . . Mcf/D thousand pounds per square inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t trillion cubic feet (trillion = 10 –12) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lps liter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . millidarcies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . psia pounds per square inch gauge . . . . . . . . . . . . min mole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STB/D stoke . . . . . . mmho million cubic feet (million = 10 ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . W yard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . in. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . spell out megabyte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .u. . . . . . . ohm-cm ohm-meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . yd year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . meq milligram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tg thousand cubic feet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mm2 standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lpm lines per second . pound (force) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pF pint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kV kilowatt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V volume per volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mbyte Abbreviations pore volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mV mils per year . . . . . . ft2 square inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mscf/D tonne (metric ton) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PV porosity unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . oz parts per million . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m2 square millimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lbm/ft3 pound per gallon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MMscf/D millisecond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MMcf million cubic feet per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . St teragram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mS millivolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RB/D revolutions per minute . . . . . . . s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mcf thousand cubic feet per day . rpm saturation unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lbm pound per cubic foot . . . . . . . . N ohm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . md milliequivalent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . std standard cubic feet per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MeV million Pascals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ppm picofarad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . qt reservoir barrel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SPI square . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vol/vol watt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Appendix F kilovolt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mm millimho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lbm/gal pounds per square inch . . . . . . spell out miles per hour . . ohm ohm-centimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mL millimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . second . psig quart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . psi pounds per square inch absolute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kpsi thousand standard cubic feet per day. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . res bbl reservoir barrel per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tcf trillion cubic feet per day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mg milliliter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . microsecond . . . . . . . . . . . nsec 6 newton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SP shots per foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MHz meter. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pt F-16 V /m . . . . . mph milliamperes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sec self-potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kW kilowatt-hour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ohm-m ounce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . msec millisiemen . . . . . . . . . ksi lines per inch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . milliamp milliCurie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . kW-hr kips per square inch . . . . . . . scf/D standard cubic foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . STB stock-tank barrels per day . . . . . . mol nanosecond . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . m mho per meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mil/yr minute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . cm2 square foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . sq square centimeter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lpi lines per minute . .2 square meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .u. . . . . . . . . . lbf pound (mass) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Las Vegas. No. USA (1963). 6. Desai KP and Moore EJ: “Equivalent NaCl Concentrations from Ionic Concentrations. Dallas. Clavier C and Rust DH: “MID-PLOT: A New Lithology Technique. 7. Harton RP. 4. USA (1971). presented at the 60th SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. presented at the 55th SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. 16. 21. Poupon A.” paper 713. 9.” paper SPE 9267.” Transactions of the SPWLA 21st Annual Logging Symposium (1980).” Transactions. Quirein JA. 27. Rodermund CG.” OGJ (June 1961).” paper 1300G. 8. Tixier MP. Hertzog R and Plasic RE: “The Gamma Spectrometer Tool. 28.” Transactions of the SPWLA 12th Annual Logging Symposium (1971).” OGJ (June 1949). Wyllie MRJ. PI. Locke S. Hazen GA. G-17 . New Orleans. Alger RP and Tanguy DR: “New Developments in Induction and Sonic Logging. Gregory AR and Gardner GHF: “Elastic Wave Velocities in Heterogeneous and Porous Media. 15. Gardner JS and Dumanoir JL: “Litho-Density Log Interpretation.” JPT (May 1959) 11. Nelligan WB. Burke JA. 6. 18. New Orleans. presented at the 57th SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Texas. Alger RP. Morris RL and Biggs WP: “Using Log-Derived Values of Water Saturation and Porosity. 26. 24. 25. Dallas. 14.” Geophysics (December 1962) 27.” Geophysics (January 1956) 21. Segesman FF: “New SP Correction Charts.” Transactions of the SPWLA 21st Annual Logging Symposium (1980). Porosity.” The Log Analyst (November–December 1976). Clavier C. Overton HL and Lipson LB: “A Correlation of the Electrical Properties of Drilling Fluids with Solids Content. presented at the 38th SPE Annual Meeting. Hunt ER and Gardner JS: “An Improved Sonic Transit Time-to-Porosity Transform. AIME (1958) 213.” paper SPE 3565. 23.” The Log Analyst (May–June 1969).” Transactions of the SPWLA 20th Annual Logging Symposium (1979). Rau RN and Best DL: “Electromagnetic Propagation Logging: Advances in Technique and Interpretation. 10. Barber TD: “Real-Time Environmental Corrections for the Phasor Dual Induction Tool. presented at the 55th SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. USA (1980). References 17.” paper SPE 9461. Johnstone CW and Schwartz RJ: “The Thermal Neutron Decay Time Log. USA (1982).” SPEJ (December 1970). Louisiana. 20. Loy ME and Tixier MP: “A Contribution to Electrical Log Interpretation in Shaly Sands. New Orleans. Tixier MP and Simard GL: “An Experimental Study on the Influence of the Chemical Composition of Electrolytes on the SP Curve. Nevada. No. Raymer LL. Louisiana. USA (1959).” JPT (June 1954). Inelastic and Capture Gamma Ray Spectroscopy for Reservoir Analysis. Tixier MP: “Evaluation of Permeability from Electric Log Resistivity Gradients.” The Log Analyst (July–August 1968). 2. 3. 1. 19. Raymer LL: “Elevation and Hydrocarbon Density Correction for Log-Derived Permeability Relationships. 5. Frentrop AH. Edmondson H and Raymer LL: “Radioactivity Logging Parameters for Common Minerals. Biggs WP and Carpenter BN: “Dual Induction-Laterolog: A New Tool for Resistivity Analysis. Part I and II. Gondouin M. Baldwin JL and Quirein JA: “Theory and Practical Application of Natural Gamma Ray Spectrometry. Westaway P.” Transactions of the SPWLA 21st Annual Logging Symposium (1980). No. Texas. USA (1980). 13. Wahl JS. Alger RP and Doh CA: “Sonic Logging. Campbell RL Jr and Schmidt AW: “The LithoPorosity Crossplot. paper Y.” The Log Analyst (January–February 1974). Segesman FF and Liu OYH: “The Excavation Effect. Texas. presented at the 46th SPE Annual Meeting. 5. Alger RP. Serra O.” The Log Analyst (May–June 1981). 12. Louisiana. presented at the 34th SPE Annual Meeting. USA (1985). Dallas. 29. Timur A: “An Investigation of Permeability. 22.” Transactions of the SPWLA 26th Annual Logging Symposium (1985).Appendix G 1.” Transactions of the SPWLA 8th Annual Logging Symposium (1967).” paper SPE 11143.” JPT (February 1957). and Residual Water Saturation Relationships for Sandstone Reservoirs.” Transactions of the SPWLA 10th Annual Logging Symposium (1969). Gardner JS and Watson JT: “Combined Natural Gamma Ray Spectral/Litho-Density Measurements Applied to Complex Lithologies. Coates GR and Dumanoir JR: “A New Approach to Improved Log-Derived Permeability. 30. Tixier MP. Roscoe BA and Grau J: “Response of the Carbon-Oxygen Measurement for an Inelastic Gamma Ray Spectroscopy Tool.” JPT (June 1971). 11. Nagel WA and Sherman H: “The Dual Spacing Neutron Log–CNL. Alger RP and Tittman J: “Logging Empty Holes.” paper SPE 14460. Hoyle WR and Meunier D:” Quantitative Interpretation of Thermal Neutron Decay Time Logs. Tixier MP.

Flaum C.” Transactions of the SPWLA 27th Annual Logging Symposium (1986). Texas. Flaum C. 40. Luling MG. Soran PD and Gardner JS: “Improved Environmental Corrections for Compensated Neutron Logs.” Transactions of the SPWLA 29th Annual Logging Symposium (1988). Gilchrist WA Jr. Galford JE. Serra O: Element Mineral Rock Catalog. Dallas.” paper SPE 15540. USA (1986). Freedman R and Grove G: “Interpretation of EPT-G Logs in the Presence of Mudcakes. Glowinski R and Rouault GF: “SP Deconvolution and Quantitative Interpretation in Shaly Sands.” The Log Analyst (March–April 1986). References 36. New Orleans. Galford JE.” Transactions of the SPWLA 26th Annual Logging Symposium (1985). 39. Clark B. USA (1988). presented at the 61st SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. G-18 . Louisiana. Flaum C. Galford JE and Scott HD: “The Effect of Formation Absorption on the Thermal Neutron Porosity Measurement. Gilchrist WA Jr and Duckett SW: “Enhanced Resolution Processing of Compensated Neutron Logs.” Transactions of the SPWLA 28th Annual Logging Symposium (1987). Ellis DV. Ross M and Best D: “A Dual Depth Resistivity for FEWD. 32. Brie A. Flaum C.” paper presented at the 62nd SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Louisiana. Tabanou JR. Schlumberger (1990). USA (1987).” Transactions of the SPWLA 28th Annual Logging Symposium (1987). USA (1986). New Orleans. Lowe TA and Dunlap HF: “Estimation of Mud Filtrate Resistivity in Fresh Water Drilling Muds. presented at the 61st SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. 38. Secondary Porosity and Producibility in Complex Middle East Carbonate Reservoirs. 37. 34.Appendix G 31. Kienitz C.” paper presented at the 63rd SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition. Jundt J. Watfa M and Nurmi R: “Calculation of Saturation. 33. Johnson DL and Nurmi RD: “Effect of Spherical Pores on Sonic and Resistivity Measurements. paper SPE 15541. Texas. 41. Houston. 35. Olesen J-R and Barber T: “Accurate Logging in Large Boreholes.

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