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SPS=Illegal/Space Law DA

SPS violates the outer space treaty- it could be used as a weapon William Fan, distinction MBA holder having strong background in telecommunication,, Harold Martin, freelance software developer and author, James Wu, Communications Associate at Acumen Fund, Brian Mok, author, 6/2/2011, SPACE BASED SOLAR POWER, Industry and Technology Assessment//zy
Due to the high energy transmitter that it will utilize, space based solar power could potentially be in violation of international space treaties. In 1967, the Outer Space Treaty was signed by the United States and other world powers. One of the key issues addressed by this treaty is space based weapons. The Outer Space Treaty bans the placement of nuclear weapons and

other weapons of mass destruction in space or on any celestial body. This could become a serious issue for space based solar power because of the potential for the transmitter to become a dual use weapon. Additionally, the newly proposed Space Preservation Treaty could severely hinder the implementation of space based solar power, as it would ban the any kind of weapon from being placed in space. In addition to political issues, there may be social disapproval of having a potential weapons system in space. The possibility of Military use violates the Outer Space Treaty Pop, 2K (Virgiliu, LL.Lic, LL. PhD Student, Law School, University of Glasgow Security Implications
of Non-Terrestrial Resource Exploitation Paper presented at the 43rd Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space. 51st International Astronautical Congress, Rio de Janeiro, 6 October 2000, Proceedings of the 43rd Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, pp. 335-345. http://www.spacefuture.com/archive/security_implications_of_non_terrestrial_resource_exploitation.shtml) In the same time, important problems arise from the possible use of non-terrestrial mineral resources for the manufacture of weapons. 2. Military Uses of Solar Power Satellites Although

Solar Power Satellites were envisioned as an energy program, their use raises significant military implications[2]. Concerns have been expressed regarding the lawfulness of solar power satellites ( SPS) under the Outer Space Treaty in the context of their possible use as weapons of mass destruction and under existing arms control treaties in the context of their use as prohibited means of warfare. At the same time, given the significant importance and value of a SPS system, its use raises also the issue of vulnerability[3], hence self defence[4]. 2.1. Mass
Destruction Capabilities Article IV of the Outer Space Treaty outlaws placement "in orbit around the Earth" of "any (...) kinds of weapons of mass destruction (...)." Weapons of mass destruction were defined in 1948 by the UN Commission for Conventional Armaments as "those which include atomic explosive weapons, radioactive material weapons, lethal chemical and biological weapons, and any weapons developed in the future which have characteristics comparable in destructive effect to those of the atomic bomb or other weapons mentioned above" [UN document S/C.3/32/Rev.1, August 1948].

SPS=Illegal/Space Law DA
SPS could be used as ASAT or ABM, that violates the ABM treaty Pop, 2K (Virgiliu, LL.Lic, LL. PhD Student, Law School, University of Glasgow Security Implications
of Non-Terrestrial Resource Exploitation Paper presented at the 43rd Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space. 51st International Astronautical Congress, Rio de Janeiro, 6 October 2000, Proceedings of the 43rd Colloquium on the Law of Outer Space, pp. 335-345. http://www.spacefuture.com/archive/security_implications_of_non_terrestrial_resource_exploitation.shtml)

The SPS system, although not directly aimed at countering strategic ballistic missiles, might be accused of having an ABM "hidden agenda", given its real ABM capabilities. Indeed, "[i]t was speculated that a high-energy laser beam could function as a thermal weapon to disable or destroy enemy missiles"[22]. Foldes also considers that one of the most logical offensive uses of SPS can include the "microwave heating of other space objects"[23]. OTA believes that
"[a]lthough unlikely, use of the SPS for directed-energy weaponry, either directly, or as a source of energy to be transmitted to remote platforms, or for tracking, would be regulated by the ABM Treaty. Use of the SPS for ABM purposes would hence be

banned"[24]. The unilateral deployment of a SPS system either by the USA or Russia would entail the risk of apparent violation of the ABM treaty, and OTA considers that "[r]enewed negotiations may have to take SPS development into account, perhaps by specifying SPS designs that make it unusable as a weapons system"[25]. 2.3.