tpgh\h 2011 Xf;Nlhgu

tpgh\h
khw;Wf; nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyaj;jpd; ntspaPlhFk;
eltbf;ifAk; vtuhYk; ,Jtiu vLf;fg;gltpy;iy. nkhop mikg;Gf;fsplkpUe;Njh my;yJ ghtidahsu;fspd; mikg;Gf;fsplkpUe;Njh ,Jtiu jpUg;jpfukhd ve;jnthU FuYk; vOg;gg;gltpy;iy. ,e;j epiy Fwpj;J jkJ fUj;ij njhptpf;Fk; Njrpa nkhopfs; kw;Wk; r%f xUikg;ghl;L mikr;ru; thRNjt ehzaf;fhu> mur nkhopf;nfhs;iffs; njhlu;ghd gpur;rpidfspd;NghJ mur epWtdq;fs; kPNj jkJ mikr;R %yk; mOj;jj;ij Vw;gLj;Jk; tha;g;G cs;sjhfTk;> jdpahu; epWtdq;fs; kPJ Neubahd jhf;fj;ij jkJ mikr;rpdhy; Vw;gLj;j KbahJ vd;Wk;> ghtidahsu; ghJfhg;G mjpfhurig %ykhf ,J njhlu;ghd jhf;fj;ij Vw;gLj;Jk; mNjNtis rl;lhPjpahf eltbf;if vLg;gjw;F Njitahd Kaw;rpfis jhk; Nkw;nfhs;s ,Ug;gjhfTk; njhptpf;fpd;whu;. Fwpg;ghf czT> kUe;J Mfpatw;iw re;ijg;gLj;Jk;NghJ mit gw;wpa tpguq;fis njspthf jj;jkJ jha; nkhopfspy; mwpe;Jnfhs;Sk; chpik ghtidahsu;fSf;F ,Ug;gjhy; mjid kPwp Mq;fpy nkhopapy; khj;jpuk; jfty;fis nfhLj;jpUg;gpd; mjd; %yk; thbf;ifahsu;fspd; chpik kPwg;gLtjhfTk; mikr;ru; njhptpf;fpd;whu;. ,J njhlu;ghd nghWg;G gy;NtW thbf;ifahsu; mikg;Gf;fs; kw;Wk;

1

2011 Xf;Nlhgu;

kyu; -01

cs;Su; re;ijapy; - jha;nkhop Fg;igj; njhl;bapy; Nghlg;gl;Ls;sJ.

chpa me;j];ij toq;fj; jpl;lq;fs;
jw;NghJ ek; ehl;bd; cs;@u; re;ijfspy; tpw;gid nra;ag;gl;L tUk; mNefkhd nghUl;fs; gw;wpa tpguq;fs; Mq;fpy nkhopapy; khj;jpuNk mr;rplg;gl;Ls;sd. ,jdhy; jkpo; rpq;fs thbf;ifahsu;fs; kpFe;j mnrsfhpaq;fSf;F Kfq;nfhLj;J tUfpd;wdu;. ,e;j epiyik czT tif kw;Wk; kUe;J tiffs; tpw;gid my;yJ cw;gj;jp nra;J tpepNahfpg;NghhplNk ngUk;ghYk; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. mtu;fs; jkJ cs;slf;fk; gw;wpa tpguq;fis mNefkhf Mq;fpy nkhopapy; khj;jpuNk mr;rpl;L tUfpd;wdu;. ,J ,e;ehl;bd; mur nkhopf; nfhs;ifia khj;jpukd;wp thbf;ifahsu;fspd; chpikiaAk; kPWk; nrayhFk;. MapDk; ,e;epiyikia fz;bf;Fk; vt;tpj ,yq;if ghtidahsu; mjpfhurig Mfpatw;wpd; kPJk; Rkj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. jw;NghJ ehLjOtpa hPjpapy; gy;NtW thbf;ifahsu; rq;fq;fs; nraw;gl;L tUfpd;wd. vg;gbahapDk; vjpu;tUk; fhyj;jpy; rpq;fs kw;Wk; jkpo; nkhopfspy; jdJ cw;gj;jpfs; njhlu;ghd tpguq;fis ntspapl cw;gj;jpahsu;fisj; J} z;Lk; Kiwahd nraw;ghLfs; Kd;ndLf;fg;glTs;sjhfTk;> mjd; gpd; me;jr; nray;Kiwiar; kPWNthUf;F vjpuhf rl;lhPjpapyhd eltbf;iffs; vLg;gjw;fhd jpl;lq;fs; jPl;lg;gl cs;sjhfTk; Njrpa nkhopfs; kw;Wk; r%f xUikg;ghl;L mikr;ru; $Wfpd;whu;.

KiwaPLfs; fpilg;gpd; jf;f eltbf;iffs; vLf;fg;gLk;
ghtidahsu; ghJfhg;G mjpfhu rigapd; gzpg;ghsu;
cs;ehl;Lr; re;ijapy; tpw;gid nra;ag;gLk; cs;ehl;L kw;Wk; ntspehl;L cw;gj;jpg; nghUl;fs; gw;wpa tpguq;fs; Mq;fpy nkhopapNyNa mjpfk; mr;rplg;gl;Ls;sd. mjd; fhuzkhf ghtidahsu;fSf;F Vw;gLk; mnrsfhpak; Fwpj;J vtNuDk; KiwaPL nra;jhy; mjw;fhd ghpfhuj;ij NjLk; tifapy; jf;f eltbf;iffis vLf;fj; jkJ epWtdk; jahuhf ,Ug;gjhf ghtidahsu; ghJfhg;G mjpfhu rigapd; cjtpg; gzpg;ghsu; mNry gz;lhu $Wfpd;whu;. ,ijj;jtpu ghtidahsu;fspdJ chpik gw;wpa ve;jnthU Kiwg;ghlhf ,Ug;gpDk; mtw;iw ,yf;fk; 27> nthf;N\hy; tPjp> nfhOk;G-02 vd;w Kfthpapy; mike;Js;s ghtidahsu; ghJfhg;G rigf;F Neubahf te;Njh> njhiyNgrp ,yf;fk; 011 2321695 my;yJ 0112 445897 %ykhfNth KiwaPLfisr; nra;ayhk;. mg;gb Gfhu;fs; fpilf;Fk;gl;rj;jpy; mJ njhlu;ghd cldb tprhuizfs; vLf;fg;gLk;.

jha; nkhop vq;Nf.....

2

tpgh\h 2011 Xf;NNlhgu tpgh\h 2011 Xf; lhgu
f\;lkhd fhhpakhf cs;sJ. ,J gps;isfisg; ghlrhiyapy; Nru;j;jy;> milahs ml;il ngWjy;> ntspehl;Lf; flTr;rPl;ilg; ngWjy; Mfpa tplaq;fspd;NghJ ngUk; jilahf mikfpd;wJ. Mifahy; ,g;gpur;rpidiaj; jPu;f;f Jhpj eltbf;if Njitg;gLfpwJ. Njhl;lg;Gwq;fisr; Nru;e;j GJj;jk;gjpapdu; jkJ tpthfg; gjpitf;$l jkJ jha;nkhopapy; nra;Jnfhs;s Kbahj Ju;g;ghf;fpa epiyf;Fj; js;sg;gl;Ls;sdu;. jkf;Fg; Ghpahj NtW nkhopapy; $wg;gLtij nkskhf Nfl;Lf;nfhz;L> jkf;Nf Ghpahj nkhopapy; vOjg;gl;l Mtzq;fspy; ifnahg;gj;ij ,l;L gjpTj;jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;s Ntz;ba epiy ,e;j kf;fSf;F Vw;gl;Ls;sik Jujpu;\;ltrkhd nrayhFk;. ,jw;F> ghpfhuk; NjLk; tpjj;jpy; ,g;gpuNjrq;fisr; Nru;e;j ed;F jkpo; nkhop njhpe;jtu;fspd; gzpia ngw;Wf;nfhs;sf;$ba tha;g;G ,Ue;Jk; mjid vtUk; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;tjhf ,y;iy. ,g;gpur;rpidfSf;Fg; Gwk;ghf nkhop fhuzkhf ,g; gpuNjrq;fisr; Nru;e;j kf;fs; Kfq;nfhLf;Fk; gpur;rpidfs; gw;wp mf;fl;Liuapy; Rl;bf;fhl;lg;gl;bUe;jJ. mg;gpur;rpidfs; ,d;Wk; $l mg;gbNa ,Uf;fpd;wd vdf;$wKbahJ. Fwpg;ghf Aj;j fhyj;jpy; ,Ue;j gy;NtW gpur;rpidfs; Aj;jk; KbTf;F te;jJ Kjy; jPu;e;jpUf;Fk;. MapDk; nkhop chpik njhlu;ghd gpur;rpidfisg; ghu;f;Fk;NghJ epiyik mt;tsT rhjfkhf ,Ug;gjhfj; njhpatpy;iy. rpy gpur;rpidfs; jPu;it Nehf;fpr; nry;Yk; epiy fhzg;gl;l NghJk; ,d;Dk; rpy gpur;rpidfs; NkYk; Nkhrkiltij mtjhdpf;ff;$bajhf cs;sJ. me;j tifapy; Njhl;lg;Gw kf;fspd; gpur;rpidfs; $bNah my;yJ Fiwe;Njh ,Uf;fpd;wNj jtpu jPu;e;jjhf ,y;iy. Mifahy; mtu;fs; Kfq;nfhLj;J epw;Fk; nkhj;jg; gpur;rpidfisAk; jPu;f;ff;$ba Ntiyj; jpl;lq;fNs jw;NghJ Njitg;gLfpd;wd. mj;Jld; mJ rfytpjkhd kf;fspdJk; nkhop chpikia ghJfhf;Fk; tpjj;jpy; mikjy; Ntz;Lk;. mij nrt;tNd nraw;gLj;j nghWg;Gkpf;f mur epWtdq;fSk; rdr%f mikg;Gf;fSk;> jkpo; K];ypk; cl;gl;l ,e;ehl;bd; midj;J kf;fSk; jkJ xj;Jiog;ig toq;FtJld; xd;whf ifNfhu;j;J epw;fNtz;Lk;.

nkhop chpik Kd;Ndhf;fpr; nry;fpd;wjh my;yJ gpd;Nehf;fpr; nry;fpd;wjh

@

nkhop chpikiag; gw;wp md;whlk; vOjg;gLk; Mf;fq;fs;> E}y;fs; Mfpatw;wpd; vz;zpf;if jpdk; jpdk; mjpfhpj;Jr; nry;fpd;wJ. mj;NjhL GJg;GJ fUj;Jf;fSk;> rl;ljpl;lq;fSk; te;J Nru;fpd;wd. r%fj;jpYk; ,J gw;wpa Mu;tk; mjpfhpj;J tUtijf; fhzf;$bajhfTk; ,Uf;fpd;wJ. MapDk;> mjw;Fr; rkhe;jukhf rhjhuz kf;fspd; tho;f;ifapy; nkhop chpik epahakhd Kiwapy; nray;gLfpd;wjh vd;w Nfs;tp ,yq;ifau; jkJ ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. gioa nra;jpj;jhs; xd;wpy; te;Js;s jfty;fis Muha;tjd; %yk; ,ij czu;e;J nfhs;syhk;. 1999Mk; Mz;L khfhz rigj; Nju;jy; fhyj;jpy; 1999 khu;r; khjk; ‘yf;gpk’ QhapW ,jopy; fSj;Jiw gpuNjr epfo;T xd;wpd; mwpf;ifahf utp uj;dNty; ,jid vOjpapUf;fpwhu;. fSj;Jiw> n`huid> ,q;fphpa> Gsj;rpq;fs> kj;Jfk> mfytj;ij Mfpa gpuNjrq;fspy; Njhl;lg;Gwq;fspy; tho;e;J tUk; ,Ugj;jp Iahapuj;jpw;Fk; mjpfkhf jkpo; kf;fs; Kfq;nfhLf;Fk; nkhop njhlu;ghd gy gpur;rpidfs; md;W me;jf; fl;Liuapy; fye;Jiuahlg;gl;lJ. mr;rkak; epytpa Aj;j #o;epiy fhuzkhf Vw;gl;bUe;j ghJfhg;Gj; njhlu;ghd rpy gpur;rpidfs; gw;wpAk; mjpy; fye;Jiuahlg;gl;bUe;jJ. jw;NghJ Aj;j #o;epiy Kw;whf mfd;wpUg;gjd; fhuzkhf ghJfhg;G gpur;rpid jdpe;jpUg;gpDk; Vida gpur;rpidfs; mg;gbNa ,Ug;gjhy; mtw;wpd; kPJ ftdk; nrYj;Jtjd; %yk; ,e;j ,ilg;gl;l fhyj;jpy; mk; kf;fspd; nkhopg;gpur;rpidapd; epiyikia Ghpe;Jnfhs;sf;$bajhf ,Uf;Fk;. jkpo;g;ghlrhiyfs; fSj;Jiw khtl;lj;jpy; jkpo;nkhop %ykhd 40,w;Fk; mjpfkhd

ghlrhiyfs; ,Ue;J tUfpd;wd. MapDk;> ghlrhiyf; fy;tpapy; kpf Kf;fpakhd ghlq;fis fw;gpg;gjw;fhd Mrphpau; gw;whf;Fiw ngUk; gpur;rpidahfNt ,Ue;J tUfpd;wJ. ,jdhy; Ie;jhk;ju Gyikg;ghprpy; ghPl;ir kw;Wk; fy;tpg; nghJj;juhju rhjhuz jug;ghPl;ir Mfpatw;wpy; rpj;jpngWk; khztu;fspd; vz;zpf;if kpff;FiwthfNt cs;sJ. nghUshjhu trjpfisf; nfhz;l ngw;Nwhu; jkJ gps;isfis efu ghlrhiyfSf;F mDg;gp fw;gpj;j NghjpYk; Njhl;lg;Gw trjp Fiwe;j gps;isfSf;F ,e;J rkaj;ij fw;gpg;gjw;Fj; Njitahd Mrphpau;fs; $l ,y;yhj epiy kpFe;j ghjpg;ig Vw;gLj;jpAs;sjhf ngw;Nwhu; $Wfpd;wdu;. mj;Jld; ,f; Fiwfisg; Nghf;f rk;ge;jg;gl;l fy;tp mjpfhhpfs; chpa eltbf;iffis vLf;f Ntz;Lnkd ngw;Nwhu; $Wfpd;wdu;. nkhop jkpo; nkhopf;Fk; cj;jpNahfg+u;t mur fUk nkhopf;Fhpa me;j];ij rl;lG+u;tkhf toq;fpapUg;gjhf $wg;gLfpd;w NghjpYk;> mur mYtyfq;fs;> tq;fpfs;> jghy; fhhpahyaq;fs;> ePjpkd;wq;fs; Nghd;w ,lq;fspy; NghJkhd msT jkpo; cj;jpNahfj;ju;fs; flikapy; <LgLj;jhikahy; jkpio jha; nkhopahff; nfhz;l Njhl;lg;Gw kf;fs; jkJ Njitfis epiwNtw;wpf;nfhs;s KbahJ rpukg;gLk; epiy Vw;gl;Ls;sJ. njhopy; tha;g;Gfs; tUlhe;jk; ,g;gpuNjr mur mYtyfq;fSf;Fg; Gjpjhf Ml;Nru;g;G ,lk;ngw;w NghjpYk; jkpo; ,isQu;fs; kw;Wk; Atjpfs; ,t;Ntiy tha;g;Gfisg; ngWtJ kpfTk; mhpjhfNt cs;sJ. gpwg;G kw;Wk; ,wg;G rhd;wpjo;fs; gjpT Njhl;lg;Gw kf;fSf;F gpwg;G ,wg;G rhd;wpjo;fisg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;tJ

'Njhl;lg;Gwq;fisr; Nru;e;j GJj;jk;gjpapdu; jkJ tpthfg; gjpitf;$l jkJ jha;nkhopapy; nra;Jnfhs;s Kbahj Ju;g;ghf;fpa epiyf;Fj; js;sg;gl;Ls;sdu;. jkf;Fg; Ghpahj NtW nkhopapy; $wg;gLtij nksdkhf Nfl;Lf;nfhz;L> jkf;Nfg; Ghpahj nkhopapy; vOjg;gl;l Mtzq;fspy; ifnahg;gj;ij ,l;L gjpTj;jpUkzk; nra;J nfhs;s Ntz;ba epiy ,e;j kf;fSf;F Vw;gl;Ls;sik Jujpu;\;ltrkhd nrayhFk;."

tpgh\h 2011 Xf;Nlhgu

3

',d;W vk;Kd; ,Ug;gJ xd;Wgl;L Kfq;nfhLf;f Ntz;ba rthy; vd;gJ Ghpfpd;wJ. mij ,e;ehl;bd; nkhop chpik kPJ ftdk; nrYj;Jk;> mf;fiwAs;s rfy rf;jpfSk; xd;Wjpuz;L Kfq;nfhLf;f Ntz;ba xU rthyhFk;. tpgh\h rQ;rpif mg;gazj;jpw;F xU gf;fgykhFk;."

nkhop chpikia Nehf;fp..
,e;ehl;L tuyhw;wpy; mopahj ,lj;ijg; gpbj;j xU gpugykhd thrfk; jw;NghJ mbf;fb Nfl;f Kbfpd;wJ. ',U nkhopfs; vd;why; xU ehL> xU nkhop vd;why; ,U ehLfs;" ,JNt me;j thrfkhFk;. fyhepjp nfhy;tpd; Mu;.b. rpy;thtpd; ,f;fUj;J gy tplaq;fisf; ntspg;gLj;jpa NghJk; ,q;Nf mjpy; xU tplaj;ij khj;jpuk; ftdj;jpy; vLj;Jf;nfhs;Nthk;. mjhtJ ,yq;ifapy; vjpu;fhyj;ij epu;zapf;Fk; xU Kf;fpakhd fhuzpahf ‘nkhop’ vd;gJ nraw;gl;bUg;gJ njhpatUfpd;wJ. ,e;ehl;il ,uz;lhf gpsTgLk; vy;iyf;Nf ,Oj;Jr; nrd;w Kg;gJ tUlfhy Aj;j tuyhw;wpd; gpd;dzpapy; ,Uf;Fk; Kf;fpa mk;rKk; nkhopNa MFk;. me;j tifapy; nkhop vd;gJ ntWkNd xU njhlu;ghly; Clfkhf khj;jpukd;wp murpay; fUtpahfTk;> fhuzpahfTk; nraw;gl;bUf;fpd;wJ vd;gJ njspthfpd;wJ. ehL Rje;jpuk; mile;jjd; gpd; Aj;jk; Muk;gpg;gjw;F Kd;duhd 48 – 77 fhyfl;lj;jpy; Vw;gl;l gy;NtW gpur;rpidfSf;F Kf;fpa fhuzpahf mike;jJ nkhopg;gpur;rpidNaahFk;. Mifahy; nkhop chpikia ikakhff; nfhz;l gpur;rpidfSf;F jPu;TfhZk;NghJ mJ ntWkNd xU njhlu;ghly; gpur;rpid vd;gjw;F mg;ghw; nry;Yk; r%f> nghUshjhu> murpay; kw;Wk; fyhr;rhu gpur;rpidahFk; vd;gij ehk; Ghpe;Jnfhs;Sjy; Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j tplak; njhlu;ghf ,e;ehl;by; Gfo;ngw;w jkpo; murpay; jiytuhf ,Ue;j mg;ghg;gps;is mkpu;jypq;fk; gy jrhg;jq;fSf;F Kd;ghfNt jkJ fUj;ijj; njhptpj;jpUe;jhu;. “jkpo; nkhopf;F fpilf;f Ntz;ba chpik me;j];J fpilf;fhJ Nghtjhy; ,e;ehl;bd; jkpo; nkhop NgRk; kf;fs; ,yq;if murpay;> nghUshjhuk;> fyhr;rhuk; Mfpatw;wpy; gq;Ftw;Wtjw;F gjpyhf ntspNaw;wg;gLtu;” vd njhptpj;jpUe;jhu;. jkpo; nkhop khj;jpukd;wp NtW ve;jnthU nkhop njhlu;ghf ,Ug;gpDk; ,f;fUj;J Vw;Wf;nfhs;sj; jf;fjhFk;. Mifahy; nkhop chpik vd;gJ xU ,dj;ij> xU nkhopia kl;Lk; rhu;e;jjhf mikahJ. mJ midj;J ,d kf;fSf;Fk;> r%ff; FOf;fSf;Fk; nghJthdnjhU gpur;rpidahFk; vd;gij Ghpe;Jnfhs;tJ mtrpakhFk;. mg;gpur;rpidf;F tpilfhz ,g;Ghpe;Jzu;T ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. rpq;fs> jkpo;> K];ypk; ,dq;fisg; gw;wp khj;jpukd;wp ,yq;if tho; gy;ypd kf;fspd; gpujpepjpj;Jtj;ijg; gw;wp rpe;jpj;Nj ,t;thwhd gpur;rpidia jPu;f;f Kay Ntz;Lk;. gy;NtW tifahd jilfisj; jhz;b ,yq;if kf;fs; ,d;dKk; jkJ r%fj;jpd; gd;Kf> gy;ypdj; jd;ikapd; chpikia jf;f itj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wdu;. fle;j fhyq;fspy; fhzg;gl;l rpy jilfs; jw;NghJ ePq;fp ,Ue;j NghjpYk;> ntw;wpnfhs;s Ntz;ba tplaq;fs; ,d;Dk; ,Uf;fj;jhd; nra;fpd;wd. MapDk;> jw;NghJ rl;lhPjpahfNt nkhop njhlu;ghd gy rYiffs; Vw;gLj;jg; gl;bUg;gij ,d;W ehk; fhzf;$ba ed;ikahd tplakhFk;. murpay; ahg;G hPjpahfTk;> rl;lq;fs; %ykhfTk;> Rw;WepUgq;fs; %yKk; cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl;L ,k; nkhop chpikfis ajhu;j;jkhf nraw;gLj;j KidAk;NghJ gy;NtW rpf;fy;fs; Vw;gLtJ cz;ik vd;gij Vw;Wf;nfhs;sj;jhd; Ntz;Lk;. MapDk; mt;thwhd jilfs; Vw;gLk; Ntisfspy; mtw;Wf;Fg; ghpfhuk; NjLk; tpjj;jpy; rpy epu;thf mikg;Gf;fisAk; muR cUthf;fp ,Uf;fpd;wJ. mj;NjhL vLf;f Ntz;ba eltbf;iffs; gw;wpa tpguq;fSk; nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. Fwpg;ghfj; Njrpa nkhopfs; kw;Wk; r%f xUikg;ghL mikr;ir cUthf;fp> mjd; fPo; Njrpa nkhopf;nfhs;ifia nraw;gLj;Jk; nghWg;Gkpf;f mur fUk nkhopfs; jpizf;fsk;> mur fUk nkhopfs; Mizf;FO> mur fUk nkhopfs; fw;if kw;Wk; gapw;rp epiyak; MfpadTk; ,e;j tplaj;jpy; Kf;fpa gq;if Mw;wp tUfpd;wd. MapDk; kpfr; rpf;fyhd ,e;jr; rthiy ntw;wpnfhs;s vLf;Fk; Kaw;rpfspy; r%f kw;Wk; r%f mikg;Gf;fs; Mfpatw;wpd; nghWg;G kpfg; nghpajhFk;. mj;Jld; jkJ chpikfs; gw;wp njspthd Ghpe;Jzu;tpid r%fk; ngw;wpUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. mNjNghd;W r%fj;jpdhpd; md;whl tho;f;ifapy; mt; chpikfis mDgtpf;Fk; tha;g;Gk;> trjpAk; r%fj;jpw;F fpilj;jpl Ntz;Lk;. Vl;by; vOjg;gl;l chpikfshy; xU r%fj;jpw;F ve;jg; gaDk; ,y;iy. nkhop njhlu;ghd mNefkhd gpur;rpidfs; mjid nraw;gLj;j Kw;gLk;NghNj vOfpd;wd. mr; rthy;fis ntw;wpnfhs;Sk; topKiwfis mwpKfg;gLj;j;papUg;gpDk; mtw;iw mwpe;J nfhs;sTk;> gpd;gw;wTk; xU Kiwahd topfhl;ly; Njitg;gLfpd;wJ. mijr; nrt;tNd nra;tjw;F gykpf;f mikg;G xd;Wk; Njitg;gLfpd;wJ. fPo; kl;lj;jpy; nraw;glf;$ba r%f mikg;Gf;fspd; nraw;ghLfs; ,tw;wpd; mbj;jskhf nraw;glf;$ba rf;jpiaf; nfhz;Ls;sJ. ,J jtpu nkhop chpikia cWjpg;gLj;JtJ njhlu;ghf Kf;fpa nghWg;G khfhz rigfSf;Fk;> khfhz epu;thf mikg;Gf;fSf;Fk; cz;L vd;gij ehk; kwg;gjw;fpy;iy. mJ khj;jpukpd;wp jdpahu; epWtdq;fSk; ,J njhlu;ghf Kf;fpa gq;fpid Mw;wf;$ba tha;g;G ,Uf;fpd;wJ. ,t;thW Nehf;Ffpd;wNghJ ,d;W vk;Kd; ,Ug;gJ xd;Wgl;L Kfq;nfhLf;f Ntz;ba rthy; vd;gJ Ghpfpd;wJ. mij ,e;ehl;bd; nkhop chpik kPJ ftdk; nrYj;Jk;> mf;fiwAs;s rfy rf;jpfSk; xd;Wjpuz;L Kfq;nfhLf;f Ntz;ba xU rthyhFk;. tpgh\h rQ;rpif mg;gazj;jpw;F xU gf;fgykhFk;.

4

tpgh\h 2011 Xf;Nlhgu

,yq;ifapy; nkhop mKyhf;fk; mbg;gil chpikfSk; nkhop chpikfSk;
murpay; ahg;G %ykhf ,yq;ifapd; nkhopf;nfhs;ifia tpghpf;Fk; mbg;gilia ,f;fl;Liu njspTgLj;Jfpd;wJ.

fy;tp nkhop murpay; ahg;gpd; 21(01) mj;jpahaj;jpw;F mika jhk; tpUk;Gk; jha;nkhopapy; mjhtJ rpq;fsk; my;yJ jkpo; nkhopapy; fy;tp fw;f chpik cs;sjhf njhptpf;fpd;wJ. MapDk; VNjDk; xU cau;fy;tp epWtdj;jpy; Njrpa nkhop my;yhj NtW nkhopfspy; jkJ fw;gpj;jiy elj;Jfpd;w Ntisapy; mjw;F khwhf jkJ Njrpa nkhopapy; mg;ghl newpia elj;JkhW Nfl;Fk; chpik ,y;iy vd;gijAk; murpay;ahg;G $Wfpd;wJ. mNjNghd;W 21(2) ,y; kpf Kf;fpakhd ,d;DnkhU chpikiag; gw;wpf; $Wfpd;wJ. mJ gy;fiyf;fofk; kw;Wk; cau;fy;tp epiyaq;fs; Mfpatw;wpd; Nghjdh nkhop njhlu;ghdjhFk;. mjd;gb me; epWtdq;fspy; VNjDk; xU Njrpa nkhopapy; fw;if newpfis elj;Jk; gl;rj;jpy; mNj khjphpahd fw;ifnewpia mLj;j Njrpa nkhopapYk; (jkpo; my;yJ rpq;fs) fw;if newpia elj;j Ntz;Lk; vd njhptpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. MapDk; NtW gy;fiyf;fofk; my;yJ cau;fy;tp epiyak; ,t;thwhd Fwpg;gpl;l Njrpa nkhopapy; mf; fw;if newpia elj;Jkhf ,Ug;gpd; mt; ,lq;fSf;F me;j khztu;fis ,lk; khw;Wk; tha;g;G ,Uf;Fk; gl;rj;jpy; ,U Njrpa nkhopfspYk; Fwpg;gpl;l fw;if newpia elj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;W typAWj;j ,ayhJ vd;Wk; $Wfpd;wJ. ,jd;%yk; xU Njrpa nkhopapy; elj;jg;gLk; fw;ifnewpia mLj;j Njrpa nkhop %yk; fw;gtUf;F fw;Fk; tha;g;ig cWjpg;gLj;jpAs;sJ. epu;thf nkhop ,yq;if KOtjpYk; rpq;fsKk; jkpOk; epu;thf nkhopfshf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lnkd murpay;ahg;gpd; 22(1) Mk; mj;jpahaj;jpy; $wg;gl;Ls;sJ. mt; ahg;gpd;gb tlfpof;F gpuNjrq;fspy; mur epWtdq;fspd; nghJ mwpf;if kw;Wk; Vida epu;thf gzpfs; Mfpad jkpo; nkhop %yk; epiwNtw;w Ntz;Lk; vdTk; Vida midj;J khfhzq;fspYk; epu;thf nkhop rpq;fskhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vdTk; mjpy; njhptpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. MapDk; gpuNjr nrayfg; gphpTfspd; ,d tpfpjhrhuj;ij ftdj;jpy; nfhz;L> jkpo; rpq;fsk; Mfpa ,U nkhopfSk; Fwpg;gpl;l gpuNjr nrayfg; gphptpy; mur fUk nkhopahf nraw;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gij [dhjpgjp mtu;fspd; Neub gzpg;gpd; Nghpy; nraw;gLj;jyhk;. 5 Mk; gf;fk; ghu;f;f.......

,yq;if tho; kf;fspy; ngUk;ghd;ikahNdhu; rpq;fsk; kw;Wk; jkpo; Mfpa nkhopfisNa cgNahfg;gLj;Jfpd;wdu;. rpW njhifapdu; Mq;fpy nkhopia cgNahfg;gLj;Jfpd;w mNjNtis NtW nkhopfis cgNahfg;gLj;Jk; rpW gphptpdUk; trpj;J tUfpd;wdu;. ,t; midtUf;Fk; jkJ nkhopia cgNahfg;gLj;jTk; mjid ghJfhj;Jf;nfhs;sTk; chpik ,Uf;fpd;wJ. MapDk; mtu;fs; ,yq;if muRldhd nray;ghLfspd;NghJ cgNahfg;gLj;j Ntz;ba nkhopfs; gw;wp murpay; ahg;gpy; $wg;gl;bUg;gJld;> mjw;F mika nrayhw;w Ntz;ba nghWg;G muRf;F ,Uf;fpd;wJ. mur nkhop njhlu;ghf ahg;gpy; $wg;gl;Ls;s tplaq;fNs nkhop chpik vd fUjg;gLfpd;wJ. murpay; ahg;gpy; tUk; nkhop njhlu;ghd tpsf;fk; murpay; ahg;gpy; ivMk; mj;jpahak; nkhopfSf;fhfNt xJf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,t; mj;jpahaj;jpy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;bUf;Fk; tpguq;fs; 1987Mk; Mz;bd; 13MtJ murpay; ahg;Gj; jpUj;jj;jpd;gbAk;> 1988Mk; Mz;bd; 16MtJ murpay; ahg;Gj; jpUj;jj;jpd; fPOk; khw;wq;fSf;F cl;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ. mur nkhopfs; murpay; ahg;gpd; 18(1). 18(2),d;gb mur nkhopfs; gw;wpa rl;lk; njhlu;ghd tpguq;fisj; jUfpd;wJ. mjw;fika 18. 1. ,yq;ifapd; mur fUk nkhop rpq;fskhFk;. 2. jkpo; nkhopAk; xU mur fUk nkhopahFk;.

3. Mq;fpy nkhop ,izg;G nkhopahFk;. 4. ,t; mj;jpahaj;jpd; Vw;ghLfis nraw;gLj;j ghuhSkd;wk; %yk; Njitahd rl;ljpl;lq;fis nraw;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;. ,jd;gb 18(1) kw;Wk; 18(2) cg ahg;Gf;fs; %yk; rpq;fsk; kw;Wk; jkpo; Mfpa ,U nkhopfSk; ,yq;ifapy; mur fUk nkhopfshFk; vdTk;> Mq;fpy nkhop xU mur nkhopahf ,y;yhJ tpl;lhYk;> rpq;fsk; kw;Wk; jkpo; Mfpa nkhopfSf;fpilNa njhlu;Gfisg; NgZfpd;w ,izg;G nkhopahf mJ nraw;gl Ntz;Lk; vdTk; ,jpy; $wg;gLfpd;wJ. mjw;fika 18(4) MtJ ahg;gpd; %yk; kpf Kf;fpakhd xU nghWg;G murpay; ahg;gpid cUthf;Fk; ghuhSkd;wj;jplk; ifaspf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. mjhtJ Njitg;gLfpd;w tpjpKiwfis nraw;gLj;Jtjw;F mtrpakhd rl;ljpl;lq;fis ghuhSkd;wk; %yk; epu;zapf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gjhFk;. Njrpa nkhopfs; murpay;ahg;gpd; 19MtJ mj;jpahaj;jpy; rpq;fsk;> jkpo; ,U nkhopfSk; ,e;ehl;bd; mur fUk nkhopfshFk; vd;gijf; $wp epw;fpd;wJ. mjw;fika ghuhSkd;w cWg;gpdu;fs; kw;Wk; khfhz> cs;@uhl;rp mjpfhu rig kf;fs; gpujpepjpfSf;F rpq;fsk; my;yJ jkpo; Mfpa nkhopfspy; jkJ gzpfisr; nra;Ak; chpik ,Uf;fpd;wJ.

mjw;fika 18(4) MtJ ahg;gpd; %yk; kpf Kf;fpakhd xU nghWg;G murpay; ahg;gpid cUthf;Fk; ghuhSkd;wj;jplk; ifaspf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. mjhtJ Njitg;gLfpd;w tpjpKiwfis nraw;gLj;Jtjw;F Njitahd rl;ljpl;lq;fis ghuhSkd;wk; %yk; epu;zapf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gjhFk;

tpgh\h 2011 Xf;Nlhgu

5

ehl;by; cq;fs; nkhopf;F chpa me;j];J
nkhopia xU mbg;gil chpikahf Nehf;Fjy;
,yq;if gpui[fSf;F jkJ nkhop chpikia cgNahfg;gLj;j murpay;ahg;G %yk; cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl;bUf;Fk; Kiwia ,r; rpWFwpg;G vLj;Jf;$Wfpd;wJ. nkhopia cgNahfpf;Fk; chpik njhlu;ghd ,uz;L tpjkhd chpikfs; iii mj;jpahaj;jpy; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. 1. nkhopia mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L NtWghLfSf;F cl;gLj;jg;gl KbahJ. 2. fUj;J njhptpf;Fk;NghJ jkJ jha; nkhopiag; ghtpf;Fk; chpik midtUf;Fk; cz;L. 1. nkhopapd; mbg;gilapy; NtWghLfSf;F cl;gLj;j KbahJ. murpay;ahg;gpd; 12Mk; mj;jpahaj;jpd; fPo; midtUf;Fk; epahakhd chpikia typAWj;Jfpd;wJ. 12(1) ahg;gpd; fPo; rl;lj;jpd; ghpfhuj;ij ehLNthUf;F rl;lj;jpd; ghJfhg;G epahakhd Kiwapy; fpilj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. ,jw;fika xUtu; cgNahfg;gLj;Jk; nkhopahdJ ePjpiag; ngw jilahf mikaf;$lhJ vd njhptpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. 12(2) murpay;ahg;gpd; mj;jpahaj;jpd;gb ve;jnthU FbkfDk; ,d> kj> nkhop> rhjp> Mz; ngz; Ntw;Wik my;yJ murpay; fUj;J gpwe;j gpuNjrk; Mfpa ve;jnthU fhuzj;jpdhYk; Ntw;Wikg;gLj;jpg; ghu;f;fNth> tpN\l rYiffs; ngwNth toprikj;jy; vdTk; NkYk; $wg;gl;Ls;sJ. MapDk; VNjDk; xU mur gzpia nra;a tUfpd;w Ntiy Fwpg;gpl;l nkhop njhlu;ghd mwpit my;yJ Gyikiaf; NfhUthu;fshf ,Ug;gpd; mijr; nra;tjw;F vt;tpj jilAk; ,y;iy vd;gijAk; Fwpg;gpl;Ls;sJ. mNjNghd;W tu;j;jf epiyaq;fs;> nghJ cztfq;fs;> my;yJ fspahl;l epiyaq;fs; Mfpatw;Wf;F nry;y KaYk;NghJ nkhop vd;gJ xU jilahfNth> epge;jidahfNth mikaf;$lhJ vd;Wk; mjpy; $wg;gl;Ls;sJ. mj;NjhL ve;j nkhopia cgNahfpg;gtuhf ,Ug;gpDk; ,yq;ifapy; ve;jnthU ,lj;jpw;Fk; jilapd;wp nry;Yk; chpikiaAk; ahg;G %yk; cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ. 2. fUj;Jj; njuptpf;Fk; NghJ jkJ nkhopg;ghtidapd; cupik murpay; ahg;gpd; 14(1) mj;jpahaj;jpy; ciuahly; kw;Wk; fUj;J njuptpf;Fk; cupikia gw;wp $Wfpd;wJ. 14(1) < ahg;gpy; ,t;thW $wg;gl;Ls;sJ. 'jdpahfNth my;yJ r%fkhf ,ize;Njh jj;jkJ fyhr;rhuj;ij Ngzpg;ghJfhj;J mjid gpd;gw;wTk;> jdJ jha; nkhopia cgNahfg;gLj;jTk; midtUf;Fk; chpikAk; mjw;fhd Rje;jpuKk; ,Uf;fpd;wJ". mjd;gb vy;yh Fbkf;fSf;Fk; jkJ nkhopia cgNahfg;gLj;jp mij tsu;j;njLf;fTk;> mjd; tsu;r;rpf;fhf nraw;glTk; ,Uf;Fk; chpikahdJ murpay; ahg;gpdhy; midtUf;Fk; toq;fg;gl;l mbg;gil chpikahfpd;wJ. Mjyhy; nkhop chpik vd;gJ ntWkNd njhlu;ghly; cgfuzkhf khj;jpukd;wp mij xU fyhr;rhu mq;fkhfTk; gad;gLj;jf;$ba chpik ,yq;ifahpd; mbg;gil chpikahf murpay; ahg;gpd; 14(1) < ,d; fPo; kpfj;njspthf Rl;bf;fhl;lg;gl;Ls;sJ. gpujhd murpay;ahg;gpy; $wg;gl;Ls;s ,t; mbg;gil chpikfSf;F mika gzpahw;w Ntz;ba nghWg;G vy;yh mur Copau;fSf;Fk; cs;sij czu;e;J flikahw;w Ntz;baJ midj;J mur Copau;fspdJk; flikahFk;. ,e;j chpikfs; mur gzpapy; Nky;kl;lj;jpduhNyh my;yJ epu;thf nraw;ghl;bdhNyh kPwg;gLk; gl;rj;jpy; mjw;fhd ghpfhuj;ijj; Njbf;nfhs;tjw;fhf cau;ePjpkd;wk;> ,yq;if kdpj chpikfs; Mizf;FO Mfpatw;iw ehLk; chpik midj;J ,yq;ifaUf;Fk; ,Uf;fpd;wJ.

,yq;ifapy; nkhop mKyhf;fk;
mNjNghd;W murpay; ahg;gpd; 22Mk; mj;jpahaj;jpd; fPo; NkYk; ,t;thW Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ. mjhtJ rpq;fs nkhop epu;thf nkhopahf ,Uf;Fk; gpuNjrj;jpy; trpf;Fk; rhjhuz kf;fs; mur epWtdq;fSld; njhlu;G nfhs;Sk;NghJ jkpo; my;yJ Mq;fpy nkhopfspy; VNjDk; xU nkhopapy; mjid nra;a chpik cs;sjhf $wg;gl;Ls;sJ. mNjNghd;W Fwpg;gpl;l Mtzj;jpd; gpujpfisAk; jkf;F Njitahd nkhopapy; ngw;Wf;nfhs;s chpik ,Uf;fpd;wJ vd;gij cWjpg;gLj;Jfpd;wJ. ,Nj rYiffs; jkpo; nkhop epu;thf nkhopahf ,Uf;Fk; gpuNjrj;jpy; trpf;Fk; rpq;fs kf;fSf;Fk; fpilf;fg;ngw Ntz;Lk;. mJ mtu;fsJ chpikahFk;. mNjNghd;W mur Nrit> ePjpj;Jiw> khfhz hPjpapyhd mur Nrit> cs;@uhl;rp mjpfhu rig epu;thf Nrit my;yJ NtW tpjkhd mur Nritapy; ,ize;Jnfhs;Sk;NghJ elj;jg;gLk; ghPl;ir my;yJ Neu;Kfg;ghPl;irfSf;F Kfq;nfhLf;fj; jhk; tpUk;gpa nkhopia mjhtJ rpq;fsk; my;yJ jkpo; nkhopia Nju;e;njLj;Jf; nfhs;syhk;. MapDk; nkhop Nju;r;rp Njitg;gLk; re;ju;g;gj;jpy; Fwpg;gpl;l fhy mtfhrj;jpw;Fs; nkhopj; Nju;r;rpia ngw Ntz;Lk; vd epakpf;fyhk;. rl;lq;fis ,aw;Wk; nkhop vy;yhtpjkhd rl;lq;fs; cg rl;lq;fs; Mfpatw;iw Mq;fpy nkhopapyhd nkhopngau;g;Gld; rpq;fsk; kw;Wk; jkpo; Mfpa ,U nkhopfspYk; ntspapl Ntz;Lnkd murpay; ahg;gpd; 23(1)Mk; mj;jpahaj;jpy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,jw;F mika ghuhSkd;wj;jpy; rku;g;gpf;fg;gLk; midj;J Mtzq;fs;> rl;l%yq;fs; Mfpad rpq;fsk;> jkpo; kw;Wk; Mq;fpyk; Mfpa Kk;nkhopfspYk; rku;g;gpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ eilKiwapy; cs;sJ. mNjNghd;W 23(1) Mk; mj;jpahaj;jpd;gb rl;lnkhd;iw rpq;fsk;> jkpo;> Mq;fpyk; Mfpa nkhopfspy; ,aw;wp ntspapLk;NghJ> Fwpg;gpl;l nkhopfSf;fpilNa NtWghLfs; Vw;gLk; gl;rj;jpy;> mjpfhuG+u;tkhf Vw;Wf;nfhs;s Ntz;baJ ve;j nkhopapy; ntspapl;l rl;lj;ij vd;gij me;j rl;lj;ij mKyhf;Fk;NghNj ghuhSkd;wk; %ykhf jPu;khdpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. vy;yh rl;lq;fspYk; Mq;fpy nkhop ngau;g;Gld; $ba me;je;j khtl;lq;fspd; epu;thf nkhopapyhd rl;l Mtzq;fis ntspapLjy; Ntz;Lk;. mj;Jld; mr;rl;l Mtzq;fs; khfhz rig> cs;@uhl;rp mjpfhu rig (khefurig> efu rig> gpuNjr rig) cs;spl;l midj;J kl;lq;fspYk; nfhz;Ltug;gLk; vy;yhtpjkhd Jizr;rl;lq;fs;> mwpf;iffs;> mwptpg;Gfs;> ,ilf;fhy tpjpfs;> fl;lisfs; my;yJ mur epWtdq;fshy; ntspapLk; Rw;WepUgq;fs; MfpadTk; ,t;thW Mq;fpy nkhopngau;g;Gld; me;je;j gpuNjrq;fspd; epu;thf nkhopapy; ntspapLjy; Ntz;Lk; vd murpay; ahg;gpd; 23(3)Mk; mj;jpahaj;jpy; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ ePjpkd;w nkhop murpay; ahg;gpd; 24(1),d; fPo; ,yq;if ePjpkd;wq;fspd; nkhopfshf rpq;fs nkhopAk; jkpo; nkhopAk; ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk; vdf;$wg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,jw;fika

4k; gf;fj; njhlu;r;rp rpq;fs nkhop epu;thf nkhopahf ,Uf;Fk; gpuNjrq;fspy; rpq;fs nkhopAk;> jkpo; nkhop epu;thf nkhopahf ,Uf;Fk; gpuNjrq;fspy; jkpo; nkhopAk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vdf;$wg;gl;Ls;sJ. mNjNghd;W ,t;tpU nkhopfSk; epu;thf nkhopfshf ,Uf;Fk; gpuNjrq;fspy; ,U nkhopfSk; ePjpkd;w nkhopfshf ,Uf;Fk;. ePjpkd;w nkhopiag; Ghpe;Jnfhs;s Kbahjtu;fSf;F Njitahd nkhopngau;g;ig ngw;Wf;nfhs;s KbAk;. mg;gb ,Ue;Jk; VNjDk; xU ePjpkd;wj;jpy; nraw;ghLfs; Mq;fpy nkhopapy; eilngw Ntz;Lkhf ,Ug;gpd; mikr;ruitapd; mDkjpAld; me;jf; fl;lisia tpLf;Fk; chpik ePjp mikr;Rf;F ,Uf;fpd;wJ. ,t;thW murpay; ahg;gpd; iv Mk; mj;jpahaj;jpy; $wg;gl;bUf;Fk; nkhop chpik vd;gJ ntWkNd xU nkhop chpik khj;jpuk; my;y. mij xU mbg;gil chpikahf mDgtpf;Fk; tifapyhd rl;lj;jpl;lq;fSk; murpay;ahg;gpdhy; Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhLf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

6

tpgh\h 2011 Xf;Nlhgu

nkhop chpikia fpuhkq;fSf;F vLj;Jr; nry;Yk; ,Unkhop gpuNjrr; nrayf gphpTfs;
,U mur fUk nkhopfs; vDk; nfhs;ifia fpuhkthhpahf ajhu;j;jkhf;Fk; xU Kaw;rpahf ,U nkhopfis epu;thf nkhopfshf nfhz;L nraw;gLk; gpuNjrr; nrayf gphpTfis cUthf;Fk; Ntiyj;jpl;lj;ij $wyhk;. ,j;jpl;lj;jpw;fika xU Fwpg;gpl;l gpuNjrr; nrayfg;gphptpy; nraypy; ,Uf;fpd;w epu;thf nkhopahf ,y;yhj mLj;j mur fUk nkhopia cgNahfg;gLj;JNthu; fzprkhd vz;zpf;ifahdtu;fs; Fwpg;gpl;l gpuNjr nrayfj;jpw;Fs; trpj;JtUk; gl;rj;jpy; mg;gpuNjr nrayfj;jpd; epu;thf nkhopahf cgNahfg;gLj;j Ntz;Lnkd [dhjpgjpapdhy; fl;lisg;gpwg;gpf;f KbAk;. 1988,y; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l 16MtJ murpay;ahg;Gj; jpUj;jj;jpd;gb> jpUj;jg;gl;l murpay; ahg;gpd; 22{1 Mk; mj;jpahaj;jpy; ,t;tplak; Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,jw;fika [dhjpgjp re;jphpfh FkhuJq;f mk;ikahu;> 1. 2. 3. 1999 etk;gu; 12Mk; jpfjp ,yf;fk; 1105{25Mk; mjptpN\l tu;j;jkhdp. 2001 ngg;uthp 14Mk; jpfjp ,yf;fk; 1171{15 mjptpN\l tu;j;jkhdp. 2003 Vg;uy; 07Mk; jpfjp ,yf;fk; 1283{3 mjptpN\l tu;j;jkhdp> epu;thf khtl;lk; Etnuypa gJis fhyp fSj;Jiw fz;b Gj;jsk; nfhOk;G gpuNjrr; nrayfg; gphpT mk;gfKt> mq;Fuq;nfj;j> nfhj;kiy> Etnuypa> tyg;gid gz;lhutis> vy;y> `y;JKy;iy> `hypvy> `g;Gj;jis> kPf`hfpTy> griw> YDfiy> gJis> ntspkil> nrhudhnjhl;l fltj;ru NgUtis mf;Fwiz> njy;Njhl;l> gd;tpy> g];ghNfnfhuis> clgyhj fy;gpl;b> Ke;jy;> Gj;jsk;> tdhjtpy;Y nfhOk;G> jpk;gphpf];aha.

,yq;ifapd; ,U nkhop gpuNjrr; nrayfg; gpupTfs;

Mfpa tpN\l tu;j;jkhdp mwptpj;jy;fs; %yk; ,e;ehl;bd; 29 ,U nkhop epu;thf nraw;ghLfs; nfhz;l gpuNjr nrayfq;fis gpufldk; nra;jhu;. Nkw;fhzg;gLk; ml;ltizAk; ml;ilg;glKk; mjd; tpguq;fis jUfpd;wd. ,t;thW gpufldg;gLj;jg;gl;l vy;yh ,U nkhop epu;thf gpuNjrq;fSk; murpay; ahg;gpd; fPo; epu;thf nkhopahf rpq;fs nkhopiaf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; gpuNjr nrayfq;fSf;Fs;NsNa mike;jpUf;fpd;wd. mg;gpuNjr nrayfq;fSf;Fk; fzprkhd msT kf;fs; jkpo; nkhop%yNk nrayhw;Wfpd;wdu; vd;w mbg;gilapNyNa ,k; khw;wk; Vw;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ. MapDk; 2005Mk; Mz;by; murfUk nkhopfs; Mizf;FOthdJ> rpWghd;ik ,d nkhopia cgNahfg;gLj;JNthhpd; vz;zpf;if 20¤,w;F Nky; ,Uf;Fk; vy;yh gpuNjrr; nrayfg;gphpTfspYk; ,U nkhop epu;thfg; gpuNjr nrayfq;fshf gpufldg;gLj;j Ntz;Lnkd ghpe;Jiuj;Js;sJ. Mg; ghpe;Jiuj;jYf;F mika ,U epu;thf nkhopfisf; nfhz;l gpuNjr nrayfq;fspd; vz;zpf;if jw;NghJ nraypy; ,Uf;Fk; ,Unkhop gpuNjr nrayfq;fspd; vz;zpf;ifia tpl kpf mjpfkhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,Ue;Jk; mt;tplak; ,d;dKk; nray;tbtk; ngwtpy;iy.
fy;gpl;b Ke;jy; Gj;jsk; tdhjtpy;Y

Gj;jsk
mf;Fwiz njy;Njhl;l gd;tpy g];ghNfnfhuis clgyhj

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gJis nfhOk;G jpk;gphpf];aha. nfhOk;G
mk;gfKt mq;Fuq;nfj;j nfhj;kiy Etnuypa tyg;gid

Etnuypa

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fSj;Jiw

gz;lhutis vy;y `y;JKy;iy `hypvy `g;Gj;jis kPf`hfpTy griw YDfiy gJis ntspkil nrhudhnjhl;l

fltj;ru

fhyp

tpgh\h 2011 Xf;Nlhgu

7

nf/gu;khupd; fiy epfo;r;rpapd; ,Wjpapy; .................

kiwe;J NghFk; chpikfspd; Qhgfq;fs;
(rpuk;gpmb) rpNkgp mbapd; nf/gu;khu;
,yq;ifapd; nkhop NtWghLfs; %yk; mo$l;lg;gl;l xU uk;kpakhd mDgtk; gw;wpajhfNt ,r; rpW Fwpg;G mikfpd;wJ. ,yq;if r%fj;jpdhy; Xuq;fl;lg;gl;Ls;s gy ,dq;fs; njhlu;ghd mwpf;ifapypUe;J ngwg;gl;l jfty;fspd; mbg;gilapy; Gj;jsk; rpuk;gpmbapy; thOk; Mgphpf;f ehl;L tk;rhtsp kf;fs; gw;wpa jfty;fs; ,q;F njhFj;Jj; jug;gLfpd;wd. vkf;F FbePu; $l ,y;iy. K];ypk; Kjyhsp xUtUf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd jz;zPu; Cw;nwhd;W ,Uf;fpd;wJ. mjpy; xU fyd; jz;zPu; MW &ghTf;F tpw;fg;gLfpwJ. vkJ fhzpfspy; ,Uf;Fk; fpzw;W ePiuf;Fbf;f KbahJ. mjpy; xUtif fhpak; fye;jpUf;fpd;wJ. ,J njhlu;ghf mwptpj;Jk; gyd; fpilf;ftpy;iy. gPl;lu; Ytp $Wk; mf; fUj;Jf;fs; fha;e;j Xiyia Ml;br;nry;Yk; fhw;Wld; fye;J nry;fpd;wJ. mthpd; rpy;yiwf; filapd; xt;nthU Njhw;wKk; tWikapd; gpk;gkhfNt Njhd;Wfpd;wd. Gj;jsk; rpuk;gpmbapy; trpf;Fk; mtu;> xU gps;isf;F jfg;gd;. taJ Ik;gj;jp %d;W. gPl;lu; Y}tp $wpaJ rpuk;gp mb kf;fs; gLk; gy f\;lq;fspy; xd;whFk;. Mgphpf;f tk;rhtop kf;fshfpa rpNyhd; nfhpgu; ,dj;jtu; thOk; gpuNjrkhf Gj;jsk; rpuk;gpmb fpuhkk; tpsq;Ffpd;wJ. MapDk; nfhOk;G> fz;b kw;Wk; kl;lf;fsg;G Mfpa gpuNjrq;fspYk; ,e;j rpWghd;ik ,d kf;fs; rpwpa mstpy; tho;e;J tUfpd;wdu;. fhydp Mjpf;fk; epytpa fhyj;jpy; Kjypy; Nghu;j;Jf;NfaUk; gpd;du; Mq;fpNyaUk; gy;NtW NjitfSf;fhf Mgphpf;f ehl;ltiu ,yq;iff;F mioj;J te;jdu;. gy;yhz;L fhykhf mtu;fs; ,yq;ifapd; rpq;fs ,dj;jtUld; fye;jjd; tpisthf ,d;W me;j Mgphpf;f ,dj;jtu; jkJ jdpj;jtk; kiwe;JNghd Xu; ,dkhf tho;e;J tUfpd;wdu;. ,d;W mtu;fsplk; ,Ug;gJ mtu;fsJ jha;nkhopapd; rpy thu;j;ijfSk; ‘kQ;Qh’ ghly;fs; rpyTk; khj;jpuNk. RUl;il jiyKbAk; caukhd> fWg;Gepw NjfKk; ,Uf;f Ntz;bajw;F gjpyhf ,d;W khepw tu;zKk;> kj;jpa mstpyhd clYk; nfhz;l mtu;fs; Kfq;fspy; khj;jpuk; ,d;Dk; nfhQ;rk; Mgphpf;f Kfghtk; fhzf;$bajhf cs;sJ. rpuk;gpmbapy; tho;e;J nfhz;bUf;Fk; nf/gu;khu;fspd; vz;zpf;if 20 FLk;gq;fshFk;. `pAnkbNfh vDk; epWtdk; mtu;fSf;F 14 tPLfis epu;khzpj;Jf; nfhLj;Js;sJ. rpuk;gpmbiaj; jtpu> Gj;jsk; Fl;n\l; tPjpapYk; rpy nf/gu;khu; ,df; FLk;gq;fs; trpf;fpd;wdu;. N`hl;ly;fs; kw;Wk; Jk;Gj;njhopw;rhiyfs; Mfpatw;wpy; Copau;fshf Ntiy nra;tjd; %yNk ,tu;fs; jkJ rPtpaj;ij elj;jp tUfpd;wdu;. “,q;fphpa NghUtjz;l Chpy; ,Uf;Fk; rpw;Wz;br;rhiy xd;wpNyNa ehd; Ntiy nra;fpd;Nwd;. ehd; vq;fs; ,dj;ijr; Nru;e;j ngz; xUtiuNa jpUkzk; nra;Js;Nsd;. vq;fs; Chpy; vkf;F njhopy; tha;g;Gfs; ,y;yhjjhy; ntsp Cu;fSf;Fr; nrd;Nw ehk; njhopy; nra;fpd;Nwhk;” gpujPg; uq;fd vDk; 30 taJ ,isQd; ,t;thW $wpdhu;. gPlu; Ytpapd; ud;nkdpf;fh xU rpq;fsg; ngz;. jdJ fzthpd; jha;nkhop nkJnkJthf kiwe;J Ngha;f;nfhz;bUg;gijg; gw;wp mts; ftiy nfhz;bUg;gJ njhpfpd;wJ. vq;fl $l;lj;jpy gioatq;fSf;F kl;Lk;jhd; vq;fl nkhop nfhQ;rkhtJ njhpAk;. kj;jtq;fSf;Fj; njhpahJ. Mg;gb fhg;gphp nkhop njhpQ;rtq;f vq;fNshl fhgphp nkhopapy; fijr;rpUe;jhy; vq;fl gps;isfSf;Fk; me;j nkhop njhpQ;rpUf;Fk;. Mdh mtq;f rpq;fsj;jpyjhd; fijr;rhq;f. vq;fl xU rq;fk; xd;W ,Uf;F> me;jr; rq;fj;jhy vq;fl Gs;sq;fSf;F Mgphpf;f nkhop gbr;R FLf;f ,Uf;fk;. njd; Mgphpf;fhtpy; nkhrhk;gpf;s ,Ue;J te;j vq;fl guk;gu chpik vq;fSf;F nrhe;jkhr;Nr. mj fhg;ghj;jpdhj;jhd; vq;fSf;Fg; ngUik.

vq;fl $l;lj;jpy gioatq;fSf;F kl;Lk;jhd; vq;fl nkhop nfhQ;rkhtJ njhpAk;. kj;jtq;fSf;Fj; njhpahJ. Mg;gb fhg;gphp nkhop njhpQ;rtq;f vq;fNshl fhgphp nkhopapy; fijr;rpUe;j vq;fl gps;isfSk; me;j nkhop njhpQ;rpUf;Fk;. Mdh mtq;f rpq;fsj;jpyjhd; fijr;rhq;f. vq;fs xU rq;fk; xd;W ,Uf;F> me;j rq;fj;jhy vq;fl Gs;sq;fSf;F Mgphpf;f nkhop gbf;F FLf;f ,Uf;fk;.

8

tpgh\h 2011 Xf;Nlhgu

25000 mur Copau;fSf;F nkhopg; gapw;rp> 12000 Copau;fs; Vw;fdNt nkhopg; gapw;rpiag; ngWfpd;wdu;.
fle;j Mf];l; khjk; rpq;fs kw;Wk; jkpo; gj;jphpiffs; rpytw;wpy; ,U nkhop chpik gw;wp ntspapl;l rpy nra;jpfNs ,q;Fj; jug;gLfpd;wd. jw;NghJ ,yq;ifapy; ntsptUfpd;w rpq;fs kw;Wk; jkpo;g;gj;jphpiffs; jkJ ehl;L kf;fspd; nkhop chpikfs; njhlu;ghd gy;NtW gpur;rpidfs; njhlu;gpy; fhl;Lk; mf;fiw> ftdk; mtu;fspd; fUj;J Mfpatw;iw mwpa Kw;gLk; Kaw;rpahf ,J mikfpd;wJ. 2011 [_iy khjk; 5Mk; jpfjp yq;fhjPg 13Mk; gf;fk;. [ae;j rkuf;Nfhd;.

,uj;jpdGhp khtl;l ghlrhiyfspy; jkpo;nkhop %y Mrphpau; gw;whf;Fiw
2011 Mf];l; 20 Mk; jpfjp jpdkpd gj;jphpifapd; (m[pj;yhy; rhe;jcja) ,uj;jpdGhp khtl;lj;jpy; cs;s jkpo; nkhop%y ghlrhiyfspy; ngUk; Mrphpau; gw;whf;Fiw epyTfpd;wJ. Fwpg;ghf jkpo; nkhoapy; khj;jpuk; fw;gpf;Fk; Muk;gg; ghlrhiyfspy; ghlrhiy mjpgUk; ,d;Dk; xU MrphpaUNk flikahw;wp tUtjhf ngw;Nwhu; njhptpf;fpd;wdu;. Kjyhk; Mz;L Kjy; Ie;jhk; Mz;Ltiu tFg;Gfs; elj;jg;gLk; ,g;ghlrhiyfspy; khztu;fSf;F Kiwahd fy;tpfw;w fpilg;gjpy;iy vd ngw;Nwhu; Rl;bf;fhl;Lfpd;wdu;. ,f;Fiwghl;bw;F fhuzk;> rg;ufKt khfhzj;jpy; Nghjpa msT jkpo;nkhop %y Mrphpau;fis Nritapy; Nru;j;Jf;nfhs;s Kbahky; ,Ug;gJ vdTk;> jFjp ngw;wtu;fspd; FiwghNl ,jw;F fhuzk; vdTk; rg;ufKt khfhz fy;tp mjpfhhpfs; njhptpf;fpd;wdu;. mj;NjhL NtW khfhzq;fspy; ,Ue;J tUk; Mrphpau;fSk; mtu;fSf;Fhpa fbdkhd Nritf;fhyk; Kbtile;jTld; jkJ nrhe;j ,lq;fSf;F jpUk;gpr; nrd;W tpLtjhy; ,t;thwhd Mrphpau; gw;whf;Fiwia jtpu;f;f KbahJ vd rg;ufKt khfhz rig $Wfpd;wJ.

vjpu; fhyj;jpy; 25>000 mur Copau;fSf;F nkhopj; Nju;r;rp gapw;rpia ngw;Wf;nfhLg;gjw;F Njrpa nkhopfs; kw;Wk; r%f xUikg;ghl;L mikr;R jPu;khdpj;Js;sJ. mjw;fika Vw;fdNt 12>000 mur Copau;fSf;F Njitahd nkhopg;gapw;rpia ngw;Wf;nfhLf;f Njitahd Vw;ghLfs; nra;ag;gl;Ls;sjhf Njrpa nkhopg; gapw;rp epiyaj;jpd; gzpg;ghsu; ehafk; gpurhj; N`uj; njhptpf;fpd;whu;. ,f; Fwpf;Nfhis milAk; Nehf;fpy; khtl;l hPjpapy; nkhopg;gapw;rp epiyaq;fs; epWtg;gl cs;sd. FUzhfy; khtl;lj;jpy; epWtg;gl;Ls;s gpuhe;jpa nkhopg;gapw;rp epiyaj;jpy; Vw;fdNt Mq;fpy ghlnewpfs; %d;Wk;> jkpo; ghlnewpfs; %d;Wk; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;Ls;sjhf gzpg;ghsu; ehafk; njhptpf;fpd;whu;. khtl;l hPjpapy; Muk;gpf;fg;gl;Ls;s ,g; ghlj;jpl;lq;fs; %yk;> rg;ufKt khfhzj;jpy; nghyp]; epiyaq;fspy; Nritahw;Wk; kf;fs; njhlu;ghly; cj;jpNahfj;ju;fSf;F nkhopg;gapw;rp toq;fg;gl;Ls;sJ vdTk; NkYk; njhptpf;fpd;whu;.

nkhop chpikfs; kPwg;gLk; gl;rj;jpy; mJ njhlu;ghd Gfhu;fis nra;a tha;g;G toq;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
Mhpauj;d uzgh`_ - 2011.07.05 yq;fhjPg 13Mk; gf;fk; mur epWtdq;fspd; flikfis ehbr; nry;Yk;NghJ cq;fs; nkhop chpikfs; kPwg;gLkhapd; mJ njhlu;gpy; Gfhu; nra;Ak;gb mur nkhop Mizf;FO nghJ kf;fsplk; Nfl;Lf; nfhs;fpd;wJ. mt;thW Kd;itf;fg;gLk; Gfhu;fs; Mizf;FOtpdhy; tprhhpf;fg;gl;L mJ njhlu;ghd jPu;Tfis chpa jug;gpdhplk; njhptpg;gjhfTk;> mjid Fwpg;gpl;l gphptpdu; Vw;f kWg;gpd; mtu;fSf;F Mapuk; &ghTf;F Fiwe;j jz;lg;gzk; my;yJ %d;W khjj;jpw;Fl;gl;l rpiwj;jz;lid tpjpf;fg;gLk; vdTk; mur fUk nkhop Mizf;FO njhptpf;fpd;wJ. murpay; ahg;gpd; iv Mk; mj;jpahaj;jpd;gb xUthpd; nkhop chpik kPwg;gLk; gl;rj;jpy; vtuhf ,Ug;gpDk; mJ njhlu;ghd Gfhiu Nkw;nfhs;sf;$ba tha;g;G toq;fg;gl;bUg;gjhf Mizf;FO njhptpf;fpd;wJ. mur epWtdq;fs;> nghJ ,lq;fs;> nghJg; Nghf;Ftuj;J Mfpad njhlu;ghd ngau;g;gyiffs;> rpq;fs> jkpo; kw;Wk; Mq;fpyk; Mfpa Kk;nkhopfspYk; mr;rpLk; Ntiyj;jpl;lk; xd;iw Njrpa nkhopfs; kw;Wk; r%f xUikg;ghl;L mikr;R nraw;gLj;jp tUtjhf mur fUk nkhopfs; Mizf;FO njhptpf;fpd;wJ. mg;gb ,Ue;Jk; mt; Ntiyj;jpl;lj;ij ,d;Dk; chpa Kiwapy; nraw;gLj;j tha;g;G fpl;lhJ ,Ug;gjhy; kf;fs; gy mnrsfhpaq;fSf;F Kfq;nfhLj;J tUtjhfTk;> Mifahy; ,J njhlu;gpyhd FiwghLfs; gw;wpa Kiwg;ghLfs;> Gfhu;fs; ,Ug;gpd; mtw;iw nkhop Mizf;FOTf;F mDg;gp itf;FkhW Mizf;FOtpd; nrayhsu; N[.rp. uNzGu njhptpf;fpd;whu;. ,J njhlu;ghd nghJkf;fspd; Gfhu;fis vOj;J %ykhfNth my;yJ tha;nkhop %ykhfNth njhptpf;fyhk;. vOj;J %ykhd Gfhu;fis jiytu;> mur fUk nkhopfs; Mizf;FO> 4Mk; khb> nkhop khspif> 341{7> Nfhl;il tPjp> uh[fphpa vd;w Kfthpf;F mDg;gp itf;fyhk;. mt;thW ,y;yhtpl;bd; 0112871379 kpd; mQ;ry;> my;yJ olcsltn.lk ,izaj;js Kfthpf;F mDg;gp itf;fyhk;. tha;%ykhd cq;fs; Gfhu;fis 01122871378 njhiyNgrp %yk; njhptpf;fyhk; vd Mizf;FOtpd; nrayhsu; njhptpf;fpd;whu;.

tpgh\h 2011 Xf;Nlhgu

9

jkpo;nkhop mKyhf;fiy cWjpg;gLj;j Mf;fg+u;tkhd eltbf;iffs; mtrpak;
njuptpj;Js;sJ. NkYk; Iahapuk; ,U nkhopr; rq;fq;fis mikf;f cWjp g+z;Ls;sjhf njuptpj;Js;s murhq;fk; jkpo;> rpq;fsk;; Mfpa ,U nkhopfSk; KiwahfTk; fpukkhfTk; KOikahf eilKiwg; gLj;Jtjw;F kf;fs; rf;jp kpfTk; ,d;wpaikahjJ vd;Wk; typAWj;jp ,Uf;fpd;wJ. vdpDk; nkhopg; gpur;rpid vd;gJ ,d;Dk; njhlu;e;J nfhz;Ljhd; ,Uf;fpd;wJ. mur kw;Wk; jdpahu; epWtdq;fspy; ,Ue;J mDg;gg;gLk; ngUk;ghyhd fbjq;fs; kw;Wk; Rw;WepUgq;fs; vd;gd ,d;Dk; jdpr; rpq;fs nkhopapNyNa mDg;gg;gLtjhf gy;NtW jug;gpdUk; Rl;bf; fhl;Lfpd;wdu;. rpy fy;tp tyaq;fspy; jkpo; Mrpupau;fSf;nfd elj;jg;gLfpd;w rpy nrayku;Tfs; jdpr; rpq;fsj;jpNyNa ,lk;ngw;W tUfpd;wd. mjpgu; $l;lq;fs; ,lk;ngWfpd;w NghJk; ,e;epiyikia mtjhdpf;f Kbfpd;wJ> mur mYtyfq;fspy; njhlu;ghly; cj;jpNahfj;ju;fshf epakpf;fg;gl;l gyu; jw;NghJ NtW njhopy;fis ehbf; nrd;Ws;sdu;. ,Uf;Fk; xU rpyUk; njhlu;ghly; eltbf;iffSf;nfd;W gad;gLJ;jg;glhJ mYtyfj;jpy; NtW gzpfspy; <LgLj;jg;gl;L tUtjhf Fw;wr;rhl;Lf;fs; ,Ue;J tUfpd;wikAk; Fwpg;gplj;jf;fjhFk;. ,jdhy; rhjhuz nghJkf;fs; mur mYtyfq;fSf;Fr; nrd;W jkJ flikfis epiwNtw;wpf;nfhs;tjpy; ngupJk; rpukg;gLfpd;wdu;. ngUk;ghd;ik gyk; ,Ue;jNghJk; murpdhy; nkhopg; gpur;rpidf;F cupa jPu;T fhz KbahJs;sik Fwpj;J gy;NtW jug;gpdUk; fz;ldq;fis Kd;itj;J tUfpd;wdu;. nkhopf;nfhs;ifia gyg;gLj;Jtjd; %yk; kf;fs; kj;jpapy; xw;WikiaAk; rNfhjuj;Jtj;ijAk; Nkk;gLj;j KbAk;. Mdhy; muR mjid nray;gLj;j jaf;fk; fhl;b tUtjhf Cth khfhz rig cWg;gpdu; Nf. NtyhAjKk; mz;ikapy; jdJ epiyg;ghl;bid ntspg;gLj;jp ,Ue;jik

tPuNfrup - 2011-08-26
nkhopahdJ njhlu;ghlYf;Fk; mwpitj; NjLtjw;Fkhd xU kpfr; rpwe;j fUtpahFk; vd;ghu;fs;. kdpjdpd; fz;Lgpbg;Gfspy; nkhop Kf;fpa ,lj;jpidg; ngWfpd;wJ. ,e;j tifapy; xt;nthUtupdJk; nkhopAupikfs; cupathW Ngzg;gLtJ ,d;wpaikahjjhFk;. xUtu; jdJ jha;nkhopapd; Clhf fUj;Jf;fis ntspaplTk; fUkq;fis ,yFthf epiwNtw;wpf;nfhs;sTk; toptiffs; Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhLf;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. ,jdbg;gilapy; Nehf;Ffpd;wNghJ vkJ ehl;by; jkpo; nkhopapd; epiyik Fwpj;J rpe;jpf;f Ntz;bAs;sJ. vkJ ehl;bd; mur fUk nkhopfSs; xd;whf jkpo;nkhopf;F me;j];J toq;fg;gl;Ls;s NghJk; ,k;nkhopapd; eilKiwg; gad;ghL Fwpj;J njhlu;e;Jk; mjpUg;jpahd epiyikfNs ,Ue;J tUtjid kWg;gjw;fpy;iy. jkpo; nkhopapd; eilKiw gad;ghl;Lj; jd;ik Fiwtile;J fhzg;gLfpd;wikapd; fhuzkhf gy;NtW mnrsfupaq;fSf;Fk; kf;fs; Kfk; nfhLj;J tUfpd;wik njupe;j tplakhFk;. 1956 Mk; Mz;L nfhz;Ltug;gl;;l jdpr; rpq;fs rl;lk; ,e;ehl;L kf;fspd; If;fpaj;ij $WNghl;lJ. nkhopapd; Clhf ,ize;Jnfhs;s Ntz;ba kf;fis ,r;rl;lk; gpupj;J itj;J Ntbf;if ghu;j;jJ. ,r;rl;lj;jpd; ghjf tpisTfs; gw;wp mg;Nghija jiytu;fs; vr;rupf;if tpLj;jpUe;jdu;. rpWghd;ikapdiu type;J rpq;fs nkhopia Vw;Fk;gb epu;g;ge;jpg;gJ ,df;fytuj;Jf;F toptFf;Fk; vd;W vr;rupj;j ny];yp ,yq;iff;F kpfg; ngupa Mgj;J tu cs;sJ. mk;kf;fs; jkf;F mepahak; elg;gjhf czu;e;jhy; mtu;fs; ehl;by; ,Ue;J gpupe;J Nghff;$lj; jPu;khdpf;fyhk; vd;W njuptpj;jpUe;jhu;. rpq;fsk; kl;Lk; rl;lk; vjpu;ghuhj tpisTfisj; jUk; vd;W nfhy;tpd; Mu;.b. rpy;th $wpdhu;. rpq;fsKk; jkpOk; rkj;Jt mbg;gilapy; mur nkhopahf Mf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;W fyhepjp vd;.vk;. ngNuuh gpNuuiz xd;iw nfhz;L te;jhu;. jdpr; rpq;fsr; rl;lk; mikr;ruitf; Fwpg;Gf;fs; kw;Wk; jpiwNrup Rw;wwpf;iffSld; ,ize;J murhq;f Nritapy; Gjpjhf ,ize;Jnfhs;NthUf;F rpq;fsj;ij fl;lhakhfTk; kw;Wk; Ik;gJ taJf;F cl;gl;Nlhu; rpq;fs nkhopj; Nju;r;rpg; guPl;ir rpj;jpailtijAk; fl;lhag;gLj;jpaJ. jdpr; rpq;fsk; vd;Dk; nfhs;if.... ,e;j ehl;by; nghJ tho;f;ifapy; jkpo; nkhopia mjw;Fupa ];jhdj;jpy; ,Ue;J ntWkNd tpyf;fp itg;gij kl;Lk; fUjtpy;iy. Mdhy; mJ ,e;j ehl;bd; jkpo; nkhop NgRk; kf;fis ,yq;ifapd; murpay;> nghUshjhuk; kw;Wk; fyhrhu tho;f;if vd;gtw;wpy; ,Ue;Nj ntspapy; js;sp itf;fpd;wJ. vd;W m.mkpu;jypq;fk; xUKiw fUj;J njuptpj;J ,Ue;jhu;. 1972Mk; kw;Wk; 1978Mk; Mz;bd; ahg;GfSk; rpq;fs nkhopiaNa mur fUk nkhopahf gpufldk; nra;jd. ,e;epiyapy; jkpo; nkhop mur fUk nkhopahf;fg;gl;L mk;nkhopf;Fupa me;j];J toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;w fUj;Jf;fs; ePz;lfhykhf xypj;J te;jd. ,e;jpah kw;Wk; ,yq;if murhq;fq;fSf;fpilapyhd 1987,d; xg;ge;jj;jpd; tpisthf jkpo; nkhop mur fUk nkhopahf juk; cau;j;jg;gl;lJ. jkpo; nkhop mur fUk nkhopahf khw;wk; ngw;wjd; gpd;du; gy;NtW rhjf tpisTfs; Vw;gLk; vd;W jkpo; kf;fs; vjpu;ghu;j;jpUe;jdu;. vdpDk; eilKiwapy; my;yhJ Vl;lstpNyNa mur fUk nkhopahf jkpo; nkhop ,Ue;J te;jJ. ,e;epiyik ,d;Dk; g+uzkhw;wk; ngw;wjhf Fwpg;gpLtjw;fpy;iy. jkpo; nkhop mKyhf;fiy cWjpg;gLj;jf; Nfhup mur rhu;gw;w epWtdq;fSk; njhlu;r;rpahf typAWj;jp te;Js;sd. Gj;jp[PtpfSk; ,t;tplak; Fwpj;J rhjf epiyg;ghl;il njspTgLj;jp ,Ue;jdu;. mt;tg;NghJ Ml;rpf;F te;j muRfSk; jkpo; nkhop mKyhf;fiy cWjpg;gLj;Jk; Nehf;fpy; gy;NtW eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhz;likia kWg;gjw;fpy;iy. rkfhyj;jpYk; muR ,J Fwpj;J rpy eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhz;Ls;sJ. mur epakdq;fs; jkpo;> rpq;fsk; Mfpa ,uz;L nkhopfspYk; Nju;r;rp ngw;wtu;fSf;Nf toq;fg;gLk;. ,Unkhopj; Nju;;r;rp ,;y;yhjtu;fSf;F vjpu; fhyj;jpy; mur epakdq;fs; toq;fg;glkhl;lhJ vd;W njuptpj;Js;s muR nkhop cupik tplaj;jpy; ru;tNjr ehLfspd; cjtpfisf; Nfhup ,Ug;gjhfTk; jw;Nghija epiyapy; fdlh muR ,t;tplak; njhlu;ghf Njrpa nkhopfs; kw;Wk; r%f xUikg;ghl;L mikr;Rf;F cjtp ,Ug;gjhfTk;

15k; gf;fk; ghu;f;f

10

tpgh\h 2011 Xf;Nlhgu

mq;F 2001Mk; Mz;L elj;jg;gl;l fzpg;GfSf;F mika> xU kpy;ypaDf;Fk; $Ljyhd kf;fs; gad;gLj;Jk; 30 nkhopfSk;> gj;jhapuk; kf;fSf;F $LjyhNdhu; cgNahfg;gLj;Jk; 122 nkhop tiffSk; mKypy; ,Ug;gJ njhpate;Js;sJ. mjw;F mg;ghy; rpwpa ,df;FOf;fs; cgNahfpf;Fk; Mapuj;jpw;Fk; Nkyhd nkhopfs; ,e;jpahtpy; tof;fj;jpy; ,Ue;J tUfpd;wd. ,jw;F mika ,e;jpah Vida tptfhuq;fspy; Nghd;Nw nkhop njhlu;ghfTk; gue;j gd;Kfj; jd;ikiaf; nfhz;Ls;sJ.

,e;jpa nkhopg; gd;Kfj;jd;ikAk; gd;Kfj;jd;ikf;fhd chpikAk;
$LjyhNdhu; cgNahfg;gLj;Jk; 122 nkhop tiffSk; ,e;jpahtpy; mKypy; ,Ug;gJ njhpate;Js;sJ. mjw;F mg;ghy; rpwpa ,df;FOf;fs; cgNahfpf;Fk; Mapuj;jpw;Fk; Nkyhd nkhopfs; ,e;jpahtpy; tof;fj;jpy; ,Ue;J tUfpd;wd. ,jw;F mika ,e;jpah Vida tptfhuq;fspy; Nghd;Nw nkhop njhlu;ghfTk; gue;j gd;Kfj; jd;ikiaf; nfhz;Ls;sJ njhpatUfpd;wJ. Ntw;Wikf;Fs; xw;Wikia> If;fpaj;ij jf;fitj;Jf; nfhs;sf;$ba tifapy; gd;Kfj;Jtj;ij czu;e;J ,e;jpah jdJ nkhopf; nfhs;ifia filg;gpbj;J tUfpd;wJ. ,k; nkhopf; nfhs;ifia me;ehl;bd; murpayikg;G %ykhfNt nraw;gLj;JtijAk; fhzf;$bajhf cs;sJ. kj;jpa murpd; cj;jpNahfG+u;t nkhop ,e;jpa murpay; ahg;gpd; xviiMk; gphpT ,e;ehl;bd; nkhopf;nfhs;if njhlu;ghd tplaq;fisNa cs;thq;fpAs;sJ. mjpy; 343Mk; mj;jpahaj;jpd; fPo; ,e;jpa kj;jpa murpd; cj;jpNahfG+u;t nkhop gw;wp $wg;gl;Ls;sJ. mjw;fika Njtehfhp vOj;Jf;fshy; vOjg;gl;Ls;s `pe;jp nkhopNa me;ehl;bd; cj;jpNahfG+u;t mur nkhopahf Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sJ. mjw;fika ,e;jpa murpd; cj;jpNahfG+u;t fhhpaq;fs; `pe;jp nkhopapy; ,lk;ngw Ntz;Lk; vdf;$wg;gl;Ls;sJ. MapDk; ,e;jpa rl;lk; njhlu;ghd tplaq;fs; njhlu;gpy; Mq;fpyk; my;yJ `pe;jp nkhopia cgNahfg;gLj;jpf;nfhs;s KbAk; vd;Wk; $wg;gl;Ls;sJ. khepyq;fspd; cj;jpNahfG+u;t nkhopfs; murpay; ahg;gpd; xviiMk; mj;jpahaj;jpd; ,uz;lhk; ge;jp khepy nkhopfs; cgNahfk; njhlu;gpyhd nraw;ghLfSf;F xJf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. mjpy; 345Mk; mj;jpahaj;jpd;gb me;je;j khepy muRfs; xd;W$b jkJ khepyj;jpd; cj;jpNahfG+u;t nkhop njhlu;ghd rl;ljpl;lq;fis tFf;f ntz;Lnkd $wg;gl;Ls;sJ. mNjNghd;W khepyq;fspy; xU nkhopNah my;yJ xd;Wf;F Nkw;gl;l nkhopfNsh cj;jpNahfG+u;t nkhopfshf cgNahfg;gLj;jyhk; vd;Wk; $wg;gl;Ls;sJ. mj;Jld; khepyq;fs; jkJ cj;jpNahfG+u;t nkhop my;yJ nkhopfis rl;lG+u;tkhf mwptpj;J mtw;iw nraw;gLj;Jk; tiu mr;rl;lj;jpd; cj;jpNahfG+u;t nkhopahf Mq;fpy nkhopia cgNahfg;gLj;jyhk; vd;Wk; ahg;gpy; NkYk; $wg;gl;Ls;sJ. vg;gbahapDk; Vw;fdNt midj;J khepyq;fSk; (state) kw;Wk; a+dpad; gpuNjrq;fSk; (Union Teritory) rl;lg;G+u;tkhfNt jkJ cj;jpNahfG+u;t nkhop my;yJ nkhopfisg; gpufldg;gLj;jpAs;sd. ,jd;%yk; ,e;jpah mjd; kf;fspd; ,ul;ilj; jdpj;Jtj;ij mjhtJ khepyj; jdpj;jtj;ijAk; mNjNeuk; ,e;jpau; vd;w jdpj;Jtj;ijAk; jf;f itj;Jf;nfhz;Ls;sJ. cj;jpNahfG+u;t nkhopfs; Mizf;FO ,e;jpa [dhjpgjpapdhy; Ie;J Mz;LfSf;F xUKiw ,e;jpahtpd; cj;jpNahfG+u;t nkhopfs; Mizf;FOit epakpg;ghu; vd me;ehl;L ahg;gpy; $wg;gl;Ls;sJ. mf;FOtpy; murpay; ahg;gpy; 8MtJ cg gphptpy; $wg;gl;Ls;s nkhopfspy; jyh xt;nthU nkhopia gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;Jgtuhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; mk; nkhopfspd; tsu;r;rpf;fhd Nahridfis ,f;FO muRf;F ghpe;Jiuf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; $wg;gl;Ls;sJ. Muk;gj;jpy; 8MtJ cg gphptpy; 12 nkhopfs; cs;slf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ. gpd;du; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l jpUj;jq;fspd; tpisthf jw;NghJ me;j cj;jpNahfG+u;t nkhopfspd; vz;zpf;if 22 tiu mjpfhpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,jd; %yk; E}w;Wf;Fk; Nkw;gl;l nkhopfis cgNahfg;gLj;Jk; ,e;jpa kf;fspd; jdpj;Jtj;ijAk; nfsutj;ijAk;> chpikfisAk; fhg;gjw;fhd jpl;lq;fis ,e;jpa tFj;Js;sJ. cj;jpNahfG+u;tkw;w nkhopfSf;Fk; cau;e;j me;j];ijg; ngw;Wf; nfhLj;Js;sJ. Muk;gj;jpy; ,e;j epiyikfisf; fUj;jpy; nfhz;L ghu;f;Fk;NghJ ,uz;L nkhopfis kl;Lk; jkJ cj;jpNahfG+u;t nkhopfshf cgNahfg;gLj;Jk; ,yq;ifapy; nkhopg;gpur;rpidiaj; jPu;g;gJ fbdkhd tplakhf ,Ug;gjw;F ,lkpy;iy. Fwpg;ghf cau;e;j gbg;gwpTk;> vOj;jhw;wYk; ,Uf;fpd;w ehL vd;w tifapy; ehl;bd; gd;Kf nkhopj; jd;ik xU gpur;rpidahf miktjw;fhd vt;tpj tha;g;Gf;fSk; ,Ug;gjw;F ,lkpy;iy. ,e;jpa murpay;ahg;G kw;Wk; ,izaj;js jfty;fisf; nfhz;L vOjg;gl;l fl;LiuahFk;. rl;lj;juzp [fj; ypad Mur;rp

,uz;L nkhopfis cgNahfpf;Fk; ehNl gphptpidia vjpu;Nehf;fpanjd;why; E}w;Wf;F Nkw;gl;l vz;zpf;if nfhz;l nkhopfis cgNahfg;gLj;Jk; ehl;bd; jiytpjp vt;thW mikAk; ,f; fl;Liuapd; Nehf;fk; ekJ may;ehlhd ,e;jpa ehl;by; eilKiwapy; ,Uf;Fk; 122 nkhopfs; kw;Wk; rpwpa ,df;FOf;fs; cgNahfg;gLj;jpf;nfhs;Sk; Mapuj;jpw;Fk; Nkw;gl;l vz;zpf;ifapyhd nkhopfs; Mfpatw;iw me;je;j nkhopfis cgNahfg;gLj;JNthhpd; nfsutk;> nkhop chpik Mfpatw;iw Ngzpf;fhf;Fk; mNjrkak;> me;ehl;by; nkhopg;gpur;rpid Vw;glhj tz;zk; vt;thW jd;id topelj;jpf;nfhs;fpd;wJ vd;gij Muha;e;J ghu;g;gNjahFk;. cyfpNyNa kpfg;nghpa [dehaf ehlhd ,e;jpah 840 kpy;ypad; kf;fs; njhifiaf; nfhz;ljhFk;. mq;F 2001Mk; Mz;L elj;jg;gl;l fzpg;GfSf;F mika> xU kpy;ypaDf;Fk; $Ljyhd kf;fs; gad;gLj;Jk; 30 nkhopfSk;> gj;jhapuk; kf;fSf;F

tpgh\h 2011 Xf;Nlhgu

11
,yq;ifapd; nkhopf; nfhs;if Ma;T nra;Ak; NghJ fUj;jpw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;ba Kf;fpa jiyg;G ahnjdpy; mjw;fikthd tuyhNw MFk;. fhyzpj;Jt Ml;rpapd; NghJ fhyj;jpypUe;J ,e;ehl;bd; nkhopf;nfhs;ifapy; tuyhW vd;dthFk; vd ,f; fl;Liuapy;

nkhop mKyhf;fk;

md;Wk; ,d;Wk;
Muk;gj;jpy; ,yq;if gzf;fhu tu;f;fj;jpdhplkpUe;J kPs;tjw;fhf ,yq;ifau; Mq;fpNyNahpd; Ml;rpapypUe;J tpLgLtNj Kf;fpak; vd ,e;ehl;ltu; czuj; njhlq;fpdu;. mf;fhyj;jpy; ,e;ehl;bd; midj;J mk;rq;fSk; Mq;fpNyahpd; Mjpf;fj;jpw;Nf cl;gl;bUe;jJ. mtw;Ws; rpy epju;rdq;fs; ,q;F jug;gLfpd;wd.
1948f;F Kd;G mur fUk nkhop Mq;fpyk; epu;thfk; Ml;rpgPlk; rl;lk; cau;fy;tp gil epu;thfk; nghyp]; Mq;fpyk; Mq;fpyk; Mq;fpyk; Mq;fpyk; Mq;fpyk; Mq;fpyk; 1948f;F gpd;G Mq;fpyk;> rpq;fsk; Mq;fpyk;> rpq;fsk; Mq;fpyk;> rpq;fsk; Mq;fpyk;> rpq;fsk; Mq;fpyk;> rpq;fsk; rpq;fsk;

1948 tiuahd 117 Mz;Lfs; tiu Mq;fpNyaupdJk; kw;Wk; mtu;fspd; nkhopapdJk; Mjpf;fj;jpy; cs;ehl;ltu;fshd ehk; rpy ed;ikfisg; ngw;Nwhk; Mdhy; mNefkhd tplaq;fs; ,y;yhJ Nghapd; nkhopfisf; ftdpf;Fk; Kiw ,jpy; gpujhdkhFk;

ngw;whYk; Njitg;gLk; gl;rj;jpy; jkpo; kw;Wk; rpq;fs nkhopfspy; rigapy; ciuahw;wpa epiyapaw; fl;lis 105,d; fPo; toprikj;Jf; nfhLf;fg;gl;lJ. ,J njhlu;ghf Kd;nkhopag;gl;l ghpe;Jiu Muk;gj;jpy; epuhfhpf;fg;gl;l NghjpYk;> gpd;du; ngUk;ghd;ik thf;Ffshy; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. MapDk; me;j tha;g;ig rpq;fs kw;Wk; jkpo; gpujpepjpfs; kpf mhpjhfNt gad;gLj;jpdu;. 1932Mk; Mz;by; [P.Nf. lgps;A+ ngNuuh 80 Mz;Lfs; fope;J ,d;Wk; Njitg;gLk; gy MNyhrizfis Kd;itj;jhu;. ‘rpq;fs my;yJ jkpo;nkhop gw;wpa cau;e;j mwpT ,y;yhj vtiuAk; vjpu;fhyj;jpy; vOJtpidQu; my;yJ NtW njhopy;fspy; ,izj;Jf; nfhs;Sjy; $lhJ’ rpq;fs my;yJ Mq;fpy nkhopapy; Nju;r;rpngwhj vtUf;Fk; rptpy; epu;thf my;yJ vOJtpidQu; Nritapy; ,Uf;Fk; cj;jpNahfj;ju;fSf;F cau;T toq;Fjy; $lhJ. Rpq;fs my;yJ jkpo; nkhopfspy; tof;F eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs;s Kbahj vtiuAk; nghyp]; my;yJ Nky; ePjpkd;wq;fspy; ePjthdhf epakpj;jy; MfhJ. rpq;fsk; my;yJ jkpo; nkhopfspy; tof;F tprhuizfis Nkw;nfhs;s tof;fwpQu;fSf;F mDkjp toq;f Ntz;Lk;. ,t; Nahridfis gpujk nrayhsu; kw;Wk; ePjpgjp MfpNahUf;F mDg;gpitf;fg;gl;l NghjpYk; 1935Mk; Mz;L mur rl;l rig fiyf;fg;gl;ljhy; ,t; Nahridfs; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;shJ iftplg;gl;ld. ,d;Wk; fhzg;gLk; fz;Lk; fhzhJ nry;Yk; tof;fk; md;Wnjhl;L njhlu;fpwJ. 1936Mk; Mz;L Gjpa mur rl;l rig $baJ. rpq;fs jkpo; nkhop cgNahfk; njhlu;ghd Fuiy ,k;Kiw mtprhtisg; gpujpepjp gpypg; Fztu;j;jd vOg;gpdhu;. mJ gpd;tUkhW mike;jpUe;jJ.

ePjpkd;wq;fspy; toq;F tprhuizfs; ,lk;ngWifapy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; nkhopngau;g;Gfspy; Vw;gLk; rq;flq;fs;> mePjpfs; Mfpatw;iw jtpu;j;Jf; nfhs;Sk; tifapy; efurig> ePjpkd;wq;fs; kw;Wk; nghyp]; ePjpkd;wq;fs; Mfpatw;wpy; ,lk;ngWk; tof;F tprhuizfs; jha;nkhopfspy; ,lk;ngwr; nra;a Ntz;Lk;. (1937) ,t; Nahridfs; ePjpr; nrayhshplk; ifaspf;fg;gl;lNghJ mjw;F vjpu;g;G njhptpf;fg;gl;lJ. MapDk; rl;l rigapy; %d;W tUlq;fSf;Fs; nraw;gLj;j Ntz;Lk; vd;W mt; Nahridf;F mDkjp toq;fg;gl;lJ. mjw;F rpy Mz;LfSf;Fg; gpd; gpypg; Fztu;j;jd ,jw;F ,d;Dk; rpy Nahridfis Kd;nkhope;jhu;. mjhtJ nghyp]; epiyaq;fspy; Kiwaplg;gLk; Gfhu;fs; Mq;fpy nkhopapy; vOjpf;nfhs;sg;gLtjhy; ngUk; mePjpAk;> jtWk; tpistpf;fg;gtjhfTk;> mg;Gfhu;fis jha; nkhopNah Mq;fpyNkh rhpahf njhpe;jpuhj nghyp]; cj;jpNahfj;ju;fNs gjpT nra;fpd;wdu; vd;Wk; Fw;wQ;rhl;lg;gl;lJ. Mifahy; nghyp]; epiyaq;fSf;F nfhLf;fg;gLk; Gfhu;fs;> Gfhu; nra;Ak; nkhopfspNyNa vOjg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd typAWj;jg;gl;lJ. ,e;jg; ghpe;Jiu 1939.02.09 jpfjpad;W rl;l rigapy; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. Njrpa nkhopfisg; gad;gLj;Jjy; njhlu;ghd %d;whtJ Kaw;rp md;iwa fsdpg; gpujpepjpahf ,Ue;j N[.Mu;. [atu;j;jd mtu;fshy; 1943.06.22Mk; jpfjpad;W Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. mjw;fika> rpq;fs nkhopia epahakhd fhy vy;iyf;Fs; mur fUk nkhopahf nraw;gLj;Jtjw;F njhptpf;fg;gLk; vjpu;g;G fhuzkhf fPo;f;fhZk; Nahridfis Kd;itf;fpd;Nwhk;.
(nkhopAk; kdpj NeaKk; vd;w fl;LiuapypUe;J ngwg;gl;lJ)

rl;lj;juzp v];. [p. GQ;rpN`th

1815Mk; Mz;L Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l fz;b xg;ge;jj;jpy; ehl;il ve;j nkhopapy; Ms Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ njhlu;gpy; ve;jnthU Fwpg;Gk; ,y;iy. mg;gb Fwpg;gplhjpUg;gjpypUe;Nj Ml;rp nkhop Mq;fpykhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd rk;ge;jg;gl;lj; jug;Gfs; nksdkhf Vw;Wf; nfhz;Ls;sik njhpatUfpd;wJ. mNjrkak; Njitg;gLk; gl;rj;jpy; rpq;fsk; my;yJ jkpo; nkhopfis cgNahfg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;Stjw;fhd ,zf;fg;ghLk; ,jpy; ,Ue;jJ. MapDk; mur fUk nkhopahf Mq;fpyNk ,Ue;J te;jJ. ehl;L kf;fs; njhlu;ghd midj;J epu;thfg; gzpfSk; Mq;fpy nkhopfspNyNa Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;ld. gpwg;Gr; rhd;wpjo;> fy;tpr; rhd;wpjo;> tpthfr; rhd;wpjo;> kuzr; rhd;wpjo; Mfpa midj;J Mtzq;fSk; Mq;fpyj;jpNyNa toq;fg;gl;ld. clikfs;> fhzp G+kp> ,aw;if tsq;fs; khj;jpukd;wp kdpju;fisAk; Mq;fpyk; %yNk mtu;fs; jdjhf;fpf; nfhz;ldu;.

Nfhy;GW}f; Mizf;FOtpd; mwpf;ifapd;gb ,yq;if 1831Mk; Mz;bNyNa xU kj;jpa epu;thfj;Jf;Fs; nfhz;Ltug;gl;lJ. mjpypUe;J KO ,yq;ifapYk; Mq;fpynkhop epu;thfj;jpw;F cs;shf;fg;gl;lJ. mjpype;J ,yq;ifapd; mur fUk nkhopahf Mq;fpyNk tpsq;fpaJ. epu;thf trjp fUjp mt;thW nra;ag;gLtjhf $wg;gLtJld;> mjdhy; rpq;fsk; kw;Wk; jkpo; Mfpa nkhopfs; mur epu;thfj;jpypUe;J tpyf;fg;gl;L fpuhkq;fSf;Fs; Klf;fg;gl;ld. 1948 tiuapyhd 117 Mz;Lfshf Mq;fpyk; Ml;rp nkhopahf ,Ue;jjhy; vkf;F rpy ed;ikfs; fpilj;j mNjNtis khwhf gytw;iw ,of;f Neu;e;jJ. jkJ jha; nkhopia fhg;ghw;w Ntz;Lk; vd;w vz;zKk; ,jdhy; ,y;yhJ Nghfyhapw;W. epu;thfg; gzpfspy; Mq;fpyk; fw;w rpq;fs jkpo; ,dj;jtu;fs; ,izj;Jf; nfhs;sg;gl;ldu;. Mq;fpyk; trjpahf mike;J tpl;ljhy; rpq;fsKk; jkpOk; murpaypy; Xuq;fl;lg;gl;ld. Nfhy;GW}f; Mizf;FO mikf;fg;gl;ljd; gpd; cUthf;fg;gl;l mur mjpgu;> ghuhSkd;wk; MfpadTk; Mq;fpy nkhop %yNk nraw;gl;ld. mjhtJ mur ke;jphp rigapd; gzpfs; Mq;fpyj;jpy; ,lk;

12
11Mk; gf;fj; njhlu;r;rp...  rpq;fs jkpo; ,U nkhopfSk; mur fUk nkhopfshf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. mijaLj;J mur rl;l rig ,t;thW $wpaJ.  Muk;gg; ghlrhiyfspy; fw;gpf;Fk; nkhopahf jha;nkhop ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. mj;NjhL Mq;fpyKk; fl;lha ghlkhf ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.  cau; tFg;Gf;fSf;fhd fw;gpj;jy;fs; Mq;fpyk;> rpq;fsk; my;yJ jkpo; cs;spl;l ,U nkhopfspy; ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. mjd; gpd;du; N[.Mu;. Kd;itj;j Nahrid Njhw;fbf;fg;gl;lJ. mjhtJ midj;Jg; ghlrhiyfspYk; jha; nkhop %yNk fw;gpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w NahridNa mt;thW Njhw;fbf;fg;gl;lJ. ,e;jj; jfty;fspypUe;J Muk;gk; KjNy Mq;fpyk; gw;wp vjpu;g;G ,Ue;J te;jikAk; njhpatUfpd;wJ. mg;gb ,Ue;Jk; rpq;fs> jkpo; murpay;thjpfs; Mq;fpy nkhopapy; nraw;gl;L te;jikapdhy; Mq;fpyk; epue;ju njhlu;ghly; nkhopahfptpl;lJ. ,g; gpd;dzpapy; rpq;fsk;> jkpo; my;yJ Mq;fpyk; Mfpa ve;jnthU nkhop kPJk;> gw;Nwh gpbg;Ngh ,y;yhj $l;lNk cUthfpaJ. MapDk; rpq;fs> jkpo; ,U gphptpdUk; ,dthjj;ijf; fl;bnaOg;Gk; xU fUtpahf nkhopia cgNahfg;gLj;jpf; nfhz;ldu;. Nkw;Fwpg;gpl;l mNdfkhd tplaq;fs; Mq;fpNyahpd; Ml;rpapypUe;Jk;> Mq;fpy nkhop Mjpf;fj;jpypUe;Jk; tpLgLk; Nehf;fj;JlNdNa Kd;ndLf;fg;gl;ld. 1948Mk; Mz;L fpilj;j Rje;jpuk; murpay; tpLjiyia NkYk; mu;j;jG\;bahf;Fk; tifapy; mike;jJ. MapDk; mJ NkNyhl;lkhd khw;wNk vd;gJ jw;NghJ ntspg;gilahf Ghpfpd;wJ. vg;gbahapDk; ‘Rje;jpuj;ijg; ngw ghLgl;ltu;fs; ahu;? rpq;fs> jkpo;> K];ypk; Mfpa %tpdj;jtUNk ghLgl;ldu;. ‘Rauh[;ak;’ gw;wpa fUj;J mtu;fsplk; ,Ue;jJ. mjd; tpisthf 1948,y; tiuaWf;fg;gl;l Rje;jpuk; ekJ ehl;Lf;F fpilj;jJ. mr; Rje;jpuj;ij KOikg;gLj;jpf;nfhs;s jkpo;> rpq;fs K];ypk; murpay;thjpfs; jtwptpl;ldu;. mtu;fs; Jujpu;\;ltrkhd KbTfisNa vLj;jdu;. rpq;fs jkpo; nkhopfspdhy; epu;thfk; vd;gij kwe;Jtpl;L> ngUk;ghd;ikapduhf ,Ue;j rpq;fstu;fs; vy;yh mjpfhuq;fisAk; jkjhf;fpf; nfhz;ldu;. mjw;fika 1948Mk; Mz;Lf;F Kd; Mq;fpy nkhopf;F ,Ue;j Mjpf;fj;ij jdpr;rpq;fs rl;l%yk; rpq;fs nkhopf;Fg; ngw;Wf; nfhLj;jdu;. rl;lG+u;tkhfNt jdpr; rpq;fsj;ij mKy;gLj;jpdu;. mjd;gbNa 1956Mk; Mz;bd; ,yf;fk; 33MtJ rl;l%yk; %ykhf rpq;fs nkhopia mur nkhopahf gpufldg;gLj;Jk; rl;lk; nfhz;Ltug;gl;lJ. md;W Mq;fpNya Mjpf;fj;jpw;F vjpuhf xd;Wjpuz;L xj;Jioj;j jkpo; K];ypk; kf;fspd; kd tpuf;jp> rpq;fsj; jiytu;fSld; Rje;jpug; Nghuhl;lj;jpy; gq;Fnfhz;l jkpo; K];ypk; ,dq;fs; kPjhd ed;wpAzu;T Mfpad gw;wp rpe;jpj;jpUg;gpd; jkpo; nkhopiaAk; mur fUk nkhopahf rl;lG+u;tkhf Vw;Wf;nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;. MapDk; mJ elf;ftpy;iy. mJ mg;gb Mfhjjd; tpisit ehk; ,d;Dk; re;jpj;Jf;nfhz;bUf;fpNwhk;. rpq;fs nkhopia mur fUk nkhopahf gpufldg;gLj;jg;gl;l gpd;dUk; gy Mz;Lfs; rpq;fs nkhop Mq;fpy nkhopapd; Mjpf;fj;jpw;F mbikahfpNa ,Ue;J te;jJ. mJtiu rpq;fs nkhopkPJ Rkj;jg;gl;l Rik mjpypUe;J ,d;Wtiu jkpo; nkhopkPJ Rkj;jg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,d;Wk; mJ njhlu;ghd gpur;rpidfs; ,Ue;Nj tUfpd;wd. nkhop chpik gw;wp vj;jid rl;ljpl;lq;fs;> Rw;wwpf;iffs; ,Ue;j NghjpYk; kdjstpy; jkpo; nkhopf;F chpa kjpg;ig> me;j];ij nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w vz;zk;> mu;g;gzpg;G> gf;Ftk; kdjstpy; ,y;yhtpl;lhy; ,t;thwhd tplaq;fis nraw;gLj;JtJ fbdkhFk;. xU ,dk; vd;w hPjpapy; ,yq;if ,dj;jpd; kdg;ghd;ik mjw;F rhjfkhf mikjy; Ntz;Lk;. mJ rhj;jpakhf Ntz;Lkhapd;> fy;tp> ePjp> murpay; Mfpa mk;rq;fspy; nkhopf;nfhs;if ntspg;gilahf ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. mg;gb ,y;yhj gl;rj;jpy; nkhop chpikia kPWjy; xU jtwhf vLj;Jf;nfhs;sg;gLtjpy;iy. murpdhy; nkhopia chpa Kiwapy; gad;gLj;Jtjw;fhd tsq;fs;> trjpfis toq;fhikahdJ ghhpa Fw;wkhFk;. ,ij xU r%fk; czuj; jtWkhapd; mr;r%fj;jpy; rkhjhdKk; ,d xw;WikAk; Vw;gLtnjd;gJ Kbahj fhhpakhFk;. nraw;gLj;jg;glhjpUf;Fk; tplaq;fSk; mjd; tuyhWk; 1945Mk; Mz;L nlhd%u; Mizf;FO mwpf;ifapy; ,t;thW $wg;gl;Ls;sJ. rpWghd;ik kf;fs; kPJ tpisf;fg;gLk; mePjpahdJ epu;thf Fiwghl;bdhNyNa Vw;gLfpd;wJ. Vnddpy; mf;Fw;wf; Fiwfis vspjpy; ,dq;fhd KbahikNaahFk;.

tpgh\h 2011 Xf;Nlhgu
,t;thwhd fUj;J epytpajhy; 1947Mk; Mz;L murpay; ahg;gpd; 29(2)Mk; gphptpd; fPo; GjpaNjhu; mk;rj;ij ,izj;Jf;nfhs;s murpay; ahg;gpid cUthf;Fgtu;fs; eltbf;ifia vLj;jdu;. 29(2) gphptpd; fPo; ve;jnthU rl;lj;jpdhYk;: (m) kjr; Rje;jpuj;ij fl;Lg;gLj;jNth jilnra;aNth $lhJ. ve;jnthU ,dj;ijNah kjj;ijNah Nru;e;j vtUf;Fk; Vw;gLj;jhj f\;lq;fis NtW xU Fwpg;gpl;l ,d> kj kf;fs; kPJ khj;jpuk; jpzpf;f Kayf;$lhJ. Fwpg;gpl;l xU ,dj;Jf;Nfh my;yJ kjj;jpw;Nfh khj;jpuk; Vida ,d my;yJ kjj;jpw;F fpilf;fhj rYiffisg; ngw;Wf;nfhLj;jy; MfhJ.

vj;jid rl;ljpl;lq;fs;> Rw;wwpf;iffs; ,Ue;j NghjpYk; kdjstpy; jkpo; nkhopf;F chpa kjpg;ig> me;j];ij nfhLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w vz;zk;> mu;g;gzpg;G> gf;Ftk; kdjstpy; ,y;yhtpl;lhy; ,t;thwhd tplaq;fis nraw;gLj;JtJ fbdkhFk;.

(M)

(,)

 ghlrhiyfspy; fw;gpf;Fk; nkhop rpq;fskhf ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.  rfy mur ghPl;irfSf;Fk; rpq;fs nkhop fl;lhakhf ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.  mur rl;l rigapd; nraw;ghLfs; rpq;fs nkhopapYk; ,lk;ngw Ntz;Lnkd rl;lk; ,aw;w Ntz;Lk;.  Ntw;W nkhop E}y;fis rpq;fs nkhopf;F nkhop khw;wk; nra;tjw;Fk;> Gj;jfq;fis Nju;T nra;tjw;Fk; Mizf;FO xd;iw ];jhgpf;f Ntz;Lk;.  Mq;fpy nkhopapypUe;J rpq;fs nkhopf;F khw;Wtjw;Fj; Njitahd eltbf;ifia vLf;f Mizf;FOnthd;iw epakpj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. ,q;Nf rpq;fs nkhop vDk; gjk; ,Uf;Fk; ,lq;fspy; ‘jha;nkhop’ vd;w khw;wk; nfhz;Ltu Ntz;Lnkd rP.lgps;A+.lgps;A+. fd;dq;fu Nahrid nfhz;L te;jhu;. tP. ey;iyah rpq;fsk; vd;w thu;j;ijAld; jkpo; vd;w thu;j;ijAk; ,izj;Jf;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk; vdf; fUj;Jj; njhptpj;jhu;. mf;fUj;Jk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. ,e;j khw;wq;fSld; $ba rl;l%yk; 1944.05.04Mk; jpfjpad;W mur rl;l rigapd; mq;fPfhuj;ijg; ngw;wJ. mjd;gpd; gpypg;> N[.Mu;. kw;Wk; mur ke;jphp rigapd; nrayhsu; cs;spl;l njhpTf;FOnthd;W mikf;fg;gl;lJ. mf;FOTk; jkJ mwpf;ifia ,t;thW ntspapl;ldu;.

rl;lj;jpy; mg;gb $wg;gl;bUe;j NghjpYk; eilKiwf;F tUk;NghJ ,jw;F Neu;khwhfNt nray;gLtijf; fhzyhk;. mjw;Ff; fhuzk; 1948Mk; Mz;Lf;F Kd; ,Ue;j Mq;fpNyau; kPjhd vjpu;g;G mjd; gpd;duhd fhyj;jpy; ,dthjkhf khwpaNjahFk;. 1956{33 rpq;fs nkhopia mur nkhopahf gpufldk; nra;ag;gl;ljdhy; Vw;gl;l FiwghLfis epiwNtw;Wk; tifapy; 1958Mk; Mz;L kPz;Lk; xU rl;l%yk; nfhz;Ltug;gl;lJ. 1958{28 jkpo; nkhop ghtid njhlu;ghd rl;l%yNk mJ. Mjd; %yk; mur gzpfspd;NghJ jkpo;nkhop cgNahfk; gw;wpa gy rl;lq;fs; nfhz;Ltug;gl;lJ.  jkpo; mur ghlrhiyfspy; Nghjdh nkhop jkpohf ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. [2(1)]  jkpou;fis mur Nritapy; ,izg;gjw;fhd ghPl;irfs; jkpo; nkhopapy; elj;j Ntz;Lk; [2(2)]  jkpo; NgRk; kf;fSf;F mur epWtdq;fspd; Nrit jkpo; nkhopapy; ngw;Wf;nfhLj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. (4)  tlfpof;fpy; mur gzp jkpo; nkhopapy; Kd;ndLf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; (4) mLj;j ,jopy;...

tpgh\h 2011 Xf;Nlhgu

13
Rw;WepUg ,yf;fk; 1. 2. 25/89 35/89 jpfjp 1989.04.18 1989.06.07 cs;slf;fj;jpd; rhuhk;rk; rpq;fs> jkpo; kw;Wk; Mq;fpy nkhopg; ghtid gw;wpa murpay; ahg;gpd; tpjpKiwfs; njhlu;ghd typAWj;jy; murpay; ahg;gpd; 13Mk; kw;Wk; 06Mk; jpUj;jq;fspd;gb nkhopfis cgNahfg;gLj;jf;$ba tifapy; Njitahd khw;wq;fis nfhz;L tUjy;. mur epWtdq;fspd; vjpu;fhy Ml;Nru;g;G njhlu;ghd Njrpa nfhs;iffs;. ,jpy; ,d tpfpjhrhuj;ij ftdj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;ba Kiw kw;Wk; khtl;l hPjpapy; gphpj;J mDg;g Ntz;ba Kiw gw;wpa MNyhrid.

nkhop chpikia ghJfhf;fpd;w

mur epu;thf Rw;WepUgk;

3.

15/19 (i)

1990.03.09

4. 5. 6. 7.

15/90 (ii) 15/90 (iii) 51/90 22/91

1990.03.15 1990.06.15 1990.12.17 1991.06.17 mur fUk nkhopr; rl;lj;ij mKyhf;f cj;jpNahfg+u;t nkhop ngau;g;G eltbf;iffSf;F ntspahiug; gad;gLj;jy; midj;J mur epWtdq;fspdJk; tpz;zg;gg; gbtq;fis xNu jhspy; rpq;fsk;> jkpo;> Mq;fpyk; Mfpa Kk;nkhopfspYk; ntspapl Ntz;Lk;. 1956> ,yf;fk; 33Mk; mur fUk nkhopr; rl;lj;ij nraw;gLj;Jtjw;fhf ntspapl;l mur epu;thf kw;Wk; jpiwNrhpapdhy; ntspapl;l Rw;wwpf;if %yk; kl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;l mur cj;jpNahfj;ju;fSf;F rYif mspj;jy;.

murpay; ahg;gpy; ,izj;Jf;nfhs;sg;gl;l 13MtJ jpUj;jr; rl;lk;. jkpo; nkhopiaAk; mur fUk nkhopahf gpufldg;gLj;Jtjd; %yk; ,yq;if nkhopf; nfhs;ifapy; njspthd khw;wk; Vw;gl;Ls;sJ. mjd; gpd; 16MtJ murpay; ahg;G jpUj;jj;jpd; %yk; epu;thfj;Jiw cl;gl;l gy;NtW JiwfspYk;> tplaq;fspYk; jkpo; nkhopia Vw;W mjd; cgNahf chpik cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ. ahg;G %yk; Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;l ,e; epiyikia eilKiwg;gLj;jtjw;fhf gy mur epu;thf Rw;WepUgq;fs; midj;J mikr;Rf;fs;> mur jpizf;fsq;fs;> khfhz rigfs;> khtl;l epu;thf mikg;Gf;fs; ahg;G%y mur rigfs; Mfpatw;wpy; nraw;gLj;Jtnjd ntspaplg;gl;Ls;sd. ,tw;Ws; kpf Kf;fpakhd rpy Rw;WepUgq;fspd; rhuhk;rk; ,q;Nf jug;gLfpd;wJ.

8.

37/91

1991.08.23

37/91 (i) 37/91 (ii) 9. 36/92

1994.09.27 2003.09.09 1992.12.18 1996.11.08

mur fUk nkhop rl;lj;jpid nraw;gLj;j Njitahd trjpfis fhhpahyaq;fSf;F nra;J nfhLj;jy;. mur nkhopf; nfhs;ifia nraw;gLj;Jk;NghJ Vw;gLk; jilfis mfw;Wtjw;fhf mur epWtdq;fSf;Fs; nkhop ngau;g;ghsu;fs; ,Ue;Jk;> jl;lr;nrOj;jhsu; ,y;yhj rkaj;jpy; ifnaOj;J %ykhfNtDk; Njitg;gLk; Mtzq;fis jahu; nra;J nfhLj;jy;> cgfuzq;fs; gw;wpa tpguq;fs;. ,d tpfpjhrhu kw;Wk; nkhopj; Nju;r;rp mbg;gilapy; mur mjpfhhpfs; njhlu;ghd jfty;fisj; jpul;Ljy;. mur nkhopf;nfhs;ifia nraw;gLj;Jk; nghWg;ig xg;gilj;jy;> mur nkhopfs; jpizf;fsj;jpd; nraw;ghLfs;> mur fUk nkhop Mizf;FStpd; nghWg;Gf;fs; kw;Wk; epWtdq;fSf;Fs; nkhopf; nfhs;ifia nraw;gLj;Jjy; kw;Wk; me; epWtdq;fSldhd njhlu;ghly; gw;wpa mwpTiufs;. xU nkhopf;F Nkyhf nkhopj;jpwd; cs;s mur mjpfhhpfSf;F Cf;Ftpg;Gj; njhif toq;FtJ gw;wpa MNyhridfs;.

10. 31/96

11. 02/98 12. 28/97

1998.01.23 1998.01.27

13. 29/98 29/98 (i) 02/2009 (ii) 14. 12/2003 15. 5/88

1998.12.30 2004.06.23 2009.04.02 2003.12.11 1988.02.11

nkhopngau;g;G> ciu ngau;g;G kw;Wk; jl;lr;R Mfpad njhlu;ghd fl;lzq;fis mjpfhpj;jy;. mur Copau;fSf;F rpq;fs> jkpo; Mq;fpy nkhopfis gapw;Wtpj;jy;> Cf;Ftpg;G njhifia toq;Fjy;.

14

tpgh\h 2011 Xf;Nlhgu

rpq;fs ,dj;jtu;fSf;F jkpOk;> jkpo; ,dj;jtu;fSf;F rpq;fsKk; fw;Wf; nfhLg;gJ Kf;fpa Fwpf;Nfhshf ,Ug;gpDk; mj;Jld; epd;WtplhJ ,k; nkhop mikg;Gf;fs; my;yJ rq;fq;fs; %ykhf r%f xUikg;ghL> xw;Wik Mfpatw;iw fl;bnaOg;GtJk; vkJ Nehf;fkhFk;.

nkhop rq;fq;fs; ;
fpuhkq;fspd; cja #hpad;
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tpgh\h 2011 Xf;Nlhgu 15

15 tpgh\h 2011 Xf;Nlhgu

ghPl;irj; jpizf;fsk; nkhop chpikiia kPWfpd;wJ.
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nkhop cgNahfj;jpy; Mrpah Kd;dzpapy;
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16

tpgh\h 2011 Xf;Nlhgu

,J cq;fs;

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tPjpg; ngau;g;gyiffs; gw;wpa tpopg;Gzu;it Vw;gLj;Jk; tifapy; vy;yh khtl;l epu;thf gpujpepjpfSf;Fk; Njrpa nkhop Mizf;FOtpdhy; mDg;gp itf;fg;gl;l Rw;W epUgk;.

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