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Consider a closed loop system with loop gain of KG ( s) H ( s ) as:

K

G(s)

H(s)

For the purpose of analysis and design, we are interested in: Finding the root locus of closed loop system, Determining the appropriate gain for K from root locus such that some specific design specification is satisfied. For the above system, we have: "Open loop gain" or "Loop gain" = KG ( s) H ( s) = K

Π(s + zi ) Π ( s + pi )

j =1 i =1 n m

where n is the

**number of open loop poles and m is the number of open loop zeros (n > m) . The characteristic equation is:
**

q( s ) = 1 + KG ( s ) H ( s ) = 0 ⇒ 1 + K Π(s + zi ) Π ( s + pi )

j =1 i =1 n m

=0⇒

( s + p1 )( s + p 2 )...( s + p n ) + K ( s + z1 )( s + z 2 )...( s + z m ) = 0 K is the root locus parameter and it is always in the range of 0 ≤ K ≤ ∞ .

1. Starting and ending points: The locus of the roots of characteristic equation starts at open loop poles and ends at the open loop zeros as K increase from zero to infinity. In fact, a. Starting point: For K = 0 , the closed loop poles coincide with open loop poles since the pi satisfy the above characteristic equation. b. Ending point: For K = ∞ , the closed loop poles approach the open loop zeros since the z i satisfy the above characteristic equation. c. Number of branches: If we define a branch as the path that one pole traverses to a finite or infinite zero, then there will be as many branches as open loop poles (Provided n < m )

Symmetry: Because complex closed loop poles are symmetrical with respect to the horizontal axis (due to being complex conjugate).1. (n − m − 1) 4. Calculation of jω − axis crossing: The actual point at which the root locus crosses the imaginary axis is readily evaluated using Routh-Hurwitz Criterion. n−m q = 0. 2. Angles of departure and arrivals of the root locus: The root locus departs from complex open loop poles and arrives at open loop complex zeros at angles that can be calculated using "angle condition" as follows: Assume a point ε close to the complex pole or zero. set dK =0 ds 1 . root locus will approach infinity along asymptotes for those branches with no finite open loop zero. 6. the number of open loop poles minus open loop zeros. Add all the angles drawn from all open-loop poles and zero to this point. a. b. Real-axis segments: Root locus exists on those sections of real axis that there are an odd number of finite-open-loop poles and/or finite-open-loop zeros on the real-axis. So.2. Its location is given by: σA = ∑ ( Finite − poles) −∑ ( Finite − zeros) = n−m ∑ (− pi ) −∑ (− z i ) i =1 i =1 n m n−m c.e. and solve for real values s . 5. The angle of asymptotes with respect to the real-axis: is given by ϕA = (2q + 1) 180. The real-axis intercept for asymptote: The asymptotes of the root locus all intersect the real axis on a "single point".. As shown in chapter-6.. The sum equals .. a complete row of zero yields the possibility of imaginary axis roots. i.d.. 3. the root locus will be symmetrical with respect to the horizontal axis. Find out which one is G ( s) H ( s) Where K = minimum and which one is maximum. Asymptotes: If there are more open loop poles than open loop zeros ( n < m ). The number of asymptotes: is equal to (n − m) . Real-axis breakaway and break-in points (If any): The root locus breaks away from the real axis at a point where the gain is maximum and breaks into the real axis at a point where the gain is minimum.

(2q + 1)π . Solve the equation for this unknown angle which yields the angle of departure or arrival. Chapter-7. find the value of K as: K= Π ( finite _ pole _ lengths ) 1 = G ( s ) H ( s ) Π ( finite _ zero _ lengths ) Note: You can now use the steps by step process. Finding the value of K at a desired point on the root locus: All points on the root locus satisfy both angle and amplitude conditions. summarized in the textbook (Dorf. to sketch the root locus for various transfer functions. The only unknown is the angle drawn from ε to the pole or zero of interest. . Using amplitude conditions. 7. Page 371). The values of angles drawn from other poles and zero are known since ε is very close to the desired pole or zero.

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