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The purpose of this tutorial is to study the hydrodynamics and bubble formation in a ﬂuidized bed over a period of time. It also demonstrates how to customize a drag law for granular gas-solid ﬂow. The default drag law in FLUENT is the Syamlal-O’Brien drag law. This law works for a large variety of problems, but has to be tuned properly for predicting the minimum ﬂuidization conditions accurately. This tutorial demonstrates how to do the following: • Customize a drag law for granular gas-solid ﬂow. • Use the Eularian models to predict the pressure drop in an uniformly ﬂuidized bed. • Solve the case using appropriate solver settings. • Postprocess the resulting data.
This tutorial assumes that you are familiar with the FLUENT interface, and have a good understanding of basic setup and solution procedures. This tutorial will not cover the mechanics of using the Eularian models. It will focus on the application of these models. If you have not used these models before FLUENT 6.3 Tutorial Guide will provide you with the necessary experience.
The prediction of pressure drop in an uniformly ﬂuidized bed is a problem of long standing interest in the process industry. The Eulerian models in FLUENT provide an important modeling tool for studying dense phase particulate ﬂow involving complex inter-phase momentum transfer. Despite rigorous mathematical modeling of the associated physics, the drag laws used in the model continue to be semi-empirical in nature. Therefore, it is crucial to use a drag law that correctly predicts the incipient or minimum ﬂuidization conditions where the bed of particles is essentially in a state of suspension as a result of the balance between interfacial drag and body forces.
c Fluent Inc. November 22, 2006
14 and B = 0. After some mathematical manipulation.65 predict a minimum ﬂuidization of 21 cm/s.06Res + (0.85 with A = αl l l l l The default constants of 0.06Res )2 + 0.8α1. The inlet air enters in at 0.s ds Res vr. The experimentally observed minimum ﬂuidization for this particular case is 8 cm/s. The problem considered is a 1m x 0. Figure 1: Problem Speciﬁcation 2 c Fluent Inc. The bed is packed with granular solids at 0.5 A − 0. 2006 .281632 and 9.12Res (2B − A) + A2 4. Therefore. these values have to be used to predict the correct bed behavior and are passed to the code through user-deﬁned functions. vr.15m ﬂuidized bed as shown in Figure 1.85 and with B = α2. November 22.55 volume fraction (close to packing).s = 0. these constansts come out to be 0. Therefore.28 for α ≤ 0.07696 respectively.Modeling Uniform Fluidization in 2D Fluidized Bed The default Syamlal-O’brien is as follows: The ﬂuid-solid exchange coeﬃcient is 3αs αlρl CD 2 4vr.s is the terminal velocity coeﬃcient for the solid phase.25 m/s and the top is modeled as a pressure outlet. by changing the constants we can tune the drag law to predict minimum ﬂuidization at 8 cm/s.65 for α > 0.8 and 2.s Ksl = |vs − vl | 2 where vr.
gz. Deﬁne −→ Models −→Solver.msh. 3 c Fluent Inc.Modeling Uniform Fluidization in 2D Fluidized Bed Preparation 1.c to the working folder. Check the grid. Select Pressure Based solver with 2D space and Unsteady time condition. Grid −→Check 3.msh. unless otherwise speciﬁed. November 22. Display the grid. Display −→Grid.... Setup and Solution Note: All entries in setting up this case are in SI units. Read the grid ﬁle bp.gz and bp drag. 2. 2.. 2006 . Start the 2ddp (2ddp) version of FLUENT. Figure 2: Graphics Display of the Grid Step 2: Models 1. Copy the ﬁles bp. Step 1: Grid 1.
Click Change/Create and close the Materials panel. Deﬁne a material called solids.. warning you to make sure that the UDF source ﬁles are in the same folder that contains the case and data ﬁles.. button in the Source Files section to open the Select File dialog. Click OK to close the Warning dialog box. 1..c. 4 c Fluent Inc.2 kg/m3 for Density and 1. 1. November 22. Click Build. Select the Eulerian multiphase model.. Step 3: Materials Deﬁne −→Materials. 2. A Warning dialog box will appear. 3. Deﬁne −→ Models −→Multiphase. 2006 . 3. These refer to the indices of the phases appearing in the second and ﬁrst columns of the table in the interaction panel respectively. Click the Add. Deﬁne −→ User-Deﬁned −→ Functions −→Compiled.. 2.Modeling Uniform Fluidization in 2D Fluidized Bed 2. Select the ﬁle bp drag. (a) Enter 2600 kg/m3 for Density and 1. Modify the properties for air. 4. You can view the compilation history in the ‘log’ ﬁle that is saved in your working folder. Step 4: Compile the UDF The UDF contains two arguments s col and f col. Enter lib drag for Library Name. Therefore in this case s col refers to the index of gas phase which is 0 and f col refers to the index for solids which is equal to 1.. (a) Enter 1.7894e-05 kg/m-s for Viscosity.8e-05 kg/m-s for Viscosity...
These columns are used to specify the phase indices in the argument list for the UDF. Set the drag coeﬃcient. (c) Enter 0... In this case solid and gas appear in the ﬁrst and second columns respectively... Enable Gravity and enter -9. (b) Enter gas for Name.. 4. and select syamlal-obrien from the Granular Viscosity drop-down list. (b) Similarly select the user-deﬁned function for solid (custom drag syam::lib drag). Click OK to close the Phases panel. Check the column numbers where the two phases appear in the Phase Interaction panel. 3. Step 5: Phases Deﬁne −→Phases.0003 m for Diameter. Step 6: Operating Conditions Deﬁne −→Operating Conditions. Select user-deﬁned and custom drag syam::lib drag in the Drag Coeﬃcient group box. i.. Select phase-1 from the Phase selection list and click the Set. (c) Click OK to close the Primary Phase panel. (e) Click OK to close the Secondary Phase panel. button to open the Primary Phase panel. (a) Select gas from the Phase selection list and click the Interaction. Select phase-2 from the Phase selection list and click the Set. button to open the Phase Interaction panel..2 kg/m3 for Operating Density.Modeling Uniform Fluidization in 2D Fluidized Bed 5. Enable Speciﬁed Operating Density. (a) Select air from the Phase Material drop-down list.. Click OK to close the Operating Conditions panel. 1. ii. 2. November 22. (b) Enter solid for Name and enable Granular. Click Load to load the library. 2006 5 .. (d) Retain the default values for the other parameters. c Fluent Inc. button to open the Secondary Phase panel..81 m/s2 for Gravitational Acceleration in the Y direction. 3. Click OK to close the Phase Interaction panel. 2. 1. and enter 1. (a) Select solids from the Phase Material drop-down list.
.25 m/s for Y-Velocity. If you wish to patch a constant value.. (c) Click Patch and close the Patch panel. Set the boundary conditions for vintlet zone. Select vinlet from the Zone selection list. 2. If you want to patch a previously-deﬁned ﬁeld function. button to open the Velocity Inlet panel. button to open the Velocity Inlet panel.. Adapt −→Region. (b) Enter 0. (a) Enter 0 for X Min and Y Min. Patch the solids volume fraction for hexahedron-r0.Modeling Uniform Fluidization in 2D Fluidized Bed Step 7: Boundary Conditions Deﬁne −→Boundary Conditions.... (b) Click Mark to mark the cells for reﬁnement. (a) Select solid from the Phase drop-down list and select Volume Fraction from the Variable selection list. and 0.. November 22. Mark a region for adaption. Select solid from the Phase drop-down list and click the Set.. Solve −→ Initialize −→Patch. Close the Boundary Conditions panel.. (b) Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet panel. 3. (a) Click the Multiphase tab and enter 0 for Volume Fraction. Initialize the ﬂow with default values. 3. 6 c Fluent Inc.15 m for X Max and Y Max respectively in the Input Coordinates group box. Step 8: Solution 1. and gas from the Phase drop-down list... 1. 2. (a) Select Components from the Velocity Speciﬁcation Method drop-down list and enter 0. (c) Close the Region Adaption panel.55 for Value and select hexahedron-r0 from the Registers to Patch selection list. Click the Set. (b) Click OK to close the Velocity Inlet panel. 2006 . 4. enter that value in the Value ﬁeld.. Note: Click Adapt to perform the reﬁnement immediately. Solve −→ Initialize −→Initialize. enable the Use Field Function option and select the appropriate function in the Field Function list.
8.. c Fluent Inc... Set the solution control parameters. Solve −→Execute Commands.. (d) Click Display and close the Contours panel. Solve −→ Controls −→Solution. (a) Retain the default selection from the Equations selection list.2 for Momentum. Set up commands for animation. (d) Click OK to close the Solution Controls panel. and 0. File −→Hardcopy. Set the graphics hardcopy format.. (b) Click Apply and close the Graphics Hardcopy panel.Modeling Uniform Fluidization in 2D Fluidized Bed 4. Enable autosaving of the data ﬁles for every 100 time steps. and Color from the Coloring list. 2006 7 . (c) Retain the default values for other parameters.. (b) Enter 0. (b) Select solid from the Phase drop-down list. 6..4 for Volume Fraction in the Under-Relaxation Factors group box. and Volume Fraction from the Contours of drop-down lists. 0... November 22. (a) Select TIFF from the Fomat list. (a) Enable Filled from the Options group box. 7.. 5.. File −→ Write −→Autosave. Display −→Contours.. (c) Select Phases. Set up the contours display.5 for Pressure.
4 sec (Figure 5)..tiff ﬁles and the command.. November 22. View the animation for the ﬂuidization process using the .tiff Figure 3: Contours of Volume Fraction of solid (t = 0.2 s) 8 c Fluent Inc. 0. Solve −→Iterate.001 sec.9 sec (Figure 4). Start the calculation by requesting 1400 iterations and set the Time Step Size to 0. 2006 . Display −→Contours. 2.2 sec (Figure 3).. Step 9: Postprocessing 1.Modeling Uniform Fluidization in 2D Fluidized Bed 9. and 1. animate *. Display contours of volume fraction for solid at 0..
2006 9 . November 22.4 s) c Fluent Inc.9 s) Figure 5: Contours of Volume Fraction of solid (t = 1.Modeling Uniform Fluidization in 2D Fluidized Bed Figure 4: Contours of Volume Fraction of solid (t = 0.
leading to incorrect predictions of pressure drop which is the most important objective of such simulations. 10 c Fluent Inc.8 and 2. the constants set to 0.65 in the default drag law have to be modiﬁed to balance the interfacial drag with the weight of the bed at minimum ﬂuidization. November 22. the correct bubbling pattern will not be predicted. 2006 . If this is not done.Modeling Uniform Fluidization in 2D Fluidized Bed Results Typically.
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