1 17/08/06

Microwind & Dsch
Jersion 3.1




User's Manual Lite Version
Etienne Sicard
www.microwind.org


August 2006

MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 1. The MOS device
2 17/08/06

About the author

Etienne SICARD was born in Paris, June 1961. He received the B.S degree in 1984 and the
PhD in Electrical Engineering Irom the University oI Toulouse, in 1987, in the laboratory LAAS oI
Toulouse. He was granted a Monbusho scholarship and stayed 18 months at Osaka University, Japan (1988-
1989). Previously a proIessor oI electronics in the Department oI Physics, University oI Balearic Islands,
SPAIN (1990), Etienne SICARD is currently a proIessor at INSA oI Toulouse, Department oI Electrical and
Computer Engineering. He is a visiting proIessor at the electronic department oI Carleton University,
Ottawa, in 2004. His research interest include several aspects oI CAD Tools Ior the design oI integrated
circuits, including signal integrity in deep sub-micron CMOS ICs and electromagnetic compatibility.
Etienne SICARD is the author oI books and several soItware in the Iield oI micro-electronics, sound
processing as well as technical papers concerning electromagnetic compatibility oI CMOS integrated
circuits. He is a member oI French SEE and the IEEE EMC society. He was elected in 2006 distinguished
IEEE lecturer Ior EMC oI ICs. Email: etienne.sicard¸insa-toulouse.Ir

About ni2designs <to be verified by vinay>
Ni2designs is Iounded on a culture based on the principles oI open communication, empowerment, trust,
integrity, and giving back to the community, and these same values thrive at ni logic today. Ni2designs
Iamily brings together a rich experience across all domains oI EDA. Ni2designs oIIer services to companies
across the spectrum oI nano VLSI, microelectronics, embedded systems and digital design.

Ni2designs Pvt. Ltd.,
B-5/25, Bandal Complex,
Bhusari Colony, Paud Road, Kothrud, Pune - 411 038
Maharashtra, India
Tele-Fax 91 - 20 - 2528 6948, Phone-WLL 91 - 20 - 3090 4378
Website : www.ni2designs.com, Email inIo¸ni2designs.com

Web information
• www.microwind.org Ior general inIormation about MICROWIND
• www.microwind.net to download the lite version and order the proIessional version
• www.ni2designs.com Ior more inIormation about ni2designs company

Copyright
© Copyright 1997-2006 by INSA, Toulouse, FRANCE
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 1. The MOS device
3 17/08/06


Books Using Microwind


'Chip Design Ior Submicron VLSI: CMOS Layout
and Simulation¨ by John Uyemura - Georgia Institute
oI Technology, USA - based on Microwind & Dsch
http://www.engineering.thomsonlearning.com
2005, IBSN 053446629X

'Basic CMOS cell Design¨ by Etienne Sicard
and Sonia Bendhia, McGraw-Hill India,
2005, ISBN 0-07-059933-5 (international
edition to appear 2007)

'Advanced CMOS cell design¨ by Etienne Sicard and
Sonia Ben Dhia, McGraw-Hill India, end 2006, ISBN
pending (international edition to appear 2007)


ISBN 2-87649-xxx-x
Published by INSA Toulouse
135 Av de Rangueil
31077 Toulouse France
First print : September 2006


MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 1. The MOS device
4 17/08/06




Table of Contents

About the author ...................................................................................................................................................... 2
Web inIormation...................................................................................................................................................... 2
Copyright ................................................................................................................................................................. 2
Books Using Microwind.......................................................................................................................................... 3
INSTALLATION.................................................................................................................................................... 8
1 1echnology Scale Down....................................................................................................................... 9
The Moore`s Law .................................................................................................................................................... 9
Scaling BeneIits....................................................................................................................................................... 9
Market Growth ...................................................................................................................................................... 10
About 65 nm technology ....................................................................................................................................... 11
2 1he MOS device.................................................................................................................................. 14
Logic Levels .......................................................................................................................................................... 14
The MOS as a switch............................................................................................................................................. 14
MOS layout ........................................................................................................................................................... 15
Vertical aspect oI the MOS.................................................................................................................................... 16
Static Mos Characteristics ..................................................................................................................................... 17
Dynamic MOS behavior ........................................................................................................................................ 18
Analog Simulation................................................................................................................................................. 19
The MOS Models .................................................................................................................................................. 20
The PMOS Transistor............................................................................................................................................ 22
The Transmission Gate.......................................................................................................................................... 23
Added Features in the Iull version......................................................................................................................... 24
3 1he Inverter ........................................................................................................................................ 25
The Logic Inverter ................................................................................................................................................. 25
The CMOS inverter ............................................................................................................................................... 26
Manual Layout oI the Inverter............................................................................................................................... 26
Connection between Devices................................................................................................................................. 27
UseIul Editing Tools.............................................................................................................................................. 28
Metal-to-poly......................................................................................................................................................... 28
Supply Connections............................................................................................................................................... 30
Process steps to build the Inverter ......................................................................................................................... 30
Inverter Simulation................................................................................................................................................ 31
Added Features in the Full version........................................................................................................................ 32
4 Basic Cates.......................................................................................................................................... 33
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................... 33
The Nand Gate....................................................................................................................................................... 33
The AND gate........................................................................................................................................................ 35
The XOR Gate....................................................................................................................................................... 35
Multiplexor ............................................................................................................................................................ 37
Interconnects.......................................................................................................................................................... 38
Added Features in the Full version........................................................................................................................ 39
5 Arithmetics.......................................................................................................................................... 4ô
Unsigned Integer Iormat ........................................................................................................................................ 40
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 1. The MOS device
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HalI-Adder Gate .................................................................................................................................................... 40
Full-Adder Gate..................................................................................................................................................... 42
Full-Adder Symbol in DSCH.................................................................................................................................. 42
Comparator ............................................................................................................................................................ 43
Micro-controller Models........................................................................................................................................ 44
Added Features in the Full version........................................................................................................................ 45
ô Latches ................................................................................................................................................ 4ô
Basic Latch ............................................................................................................................................................ 46
RS Latch ................................................................................................................................................................ 46
Edge Trigged Latch ............................................................................................................................................... 49
Added Features in the Full version........................................................................................................................ 51
7 Memory Circuits ................................................................................................................................. 52
Basic Memory Organization.................................................................................................................................. 52
RAM Memory ....................................................................................................................................................... 52
Selection Circuits................................................................................................................................................... 55
A Complete 64 bit SRAM..................................................................................................................................... 57
Dynamic RAM Memory........................................................................................................................................ 58
EEPROM............................................................................................................................................................... 59
Flash Memories ..................................................................................................................................................... 60
Memory InterIace .................................................................................................................................................. 62
Added Features in the Full version........................................................................................................................ 62
8 Analog Cells........................................................................................................................................ ô3
Resistor .................................................................................................................................................................. 63
Capacitor................................................................................................................................................................ 65
Poly-Poly2 Capacitor............................................................................................................................................. 66
Diode-connected MOS .......................................................................................................................................... 67
Voltage ReIerence ................................................................................................................................................. 68
AmpliIier ............................................................................................................................................................... 69
Simple DiIIerential AmpliIier................................................................................................................................ 72
Added Features in the Full version........................................................................................................................ 74
9 Radio Frequency Circuits .................................................................................................................. 75
On-Chip Inductors ................................................................................................................................................. 75
Power AmpliIier .................................................................................................................................................... 77
Oscillator ............................................................................................................................................................... 79
Phase-lock-loop ..................................................................................................................................................... 82
Analog to digital and digital to analog converters................................................................................................. 84
Added Features in the Full version........................................................................................................................ 88
1ô Input/Output Interfacing................................................................................................................ 89
The Bonding Pad ................................................................................................................................................... 89
The Pad ring .......................................................................................................................................................... 90
The supply rails ..................................................................................................................................................... 90
Input Structures...................................................................................................................................................... 91
High voltage MOS................................................................................................................................................. 93
Level shiIter........................................................................................................................................................... 94
Added Features in the Full version........................................................................................................................ 96
11 Design Rules ................................................................................................................................... 97
Select a Design Rule File....................................................................................................................................... 97
Lambda Units ........................................................................................................................................................ 98
N-Well ................................................................................................................................................................... 98
DiIIusion................................................................................................................................................................ 98
Polysilicon ............................................................................................................................................................. 99
2
nd
Polysilicon Design Rules ................................................................................................................................. 99
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 1. The MOS device
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MOS option ........................................................................................................................................................... 99
Contact................................................................................................................................................................. 100
Metal 1................................................................................................................................................................. 100
Via ....................................................................................................................................................................... 100
Metal 2................................................................................................................................................................. 100
Via 2 .................................................................................................................................................................... 101
Metal 3................................................................................................................................................................. 101
Via 3 .................................................................................................................................................................... 101
Metal 4................................................................................................................................................................. 101
Via 4 .................................................................................................................................................................... 101
Metal 5................................................................................................................................................................. 101
Via 5 .................................................................................................................................................................... 102
Metal 6................................................................................................................................................................. 102
Via 6 .................................................................................................................................................................... 102
Metal 7................................................................................................................................................................. 102
Via 7 .................................................................................................................................................................... 102
Metal 8................................................................................................................................................................. 103
Pads...................................................................................................................................................................... 103
12 MICROWIAD and DSCH Menus ..................................................................................................... 1ô4
Microwind 3.1 ..................................................................................................................................................... 104
DSCH MENUS................................................................................................................................................... 108
Silicon Menu ....................................................................................................................................................... 110
13 References ..................................................................................................................................... 112
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 1. The MOS device
7 17/08/06

Introduction

The present document introduces the design and simulation oI CMOS integrated circuits, in an attractive
way thanks to user-Iriendly PC tools DSCH and MICROWIND. The lite version oI these tools only includes a
subset oI available commands. The lite version is Ireeware, available on the web site www.microwind.net.
The complete version oI the tools is available through ni2designs India (www.ni2designs.com).

About DSCH

The DSCH program is a logic editor and simulator.
DSCH is used to validate the architecture oI the logic
circuit beIore the microelectronics design is started.
DSCH provides a user-Iriendly environment Ior
hierarchical logic design, and Iast simulation with delay
analysis, which allows the design and validation oI
complex logic structures. Some techniques Ior low
power design are described in the manual. DSCH also
Ieatures the symbols, models and assembly support Ior
8051 and 18I64. DSCH also includes an interIace to
SPICE.
About MICROWIND

The MICROWIND program allows the student to design
and simulate an integrated circuit at physical
description level. The package contains a library oI
common logic and analog ICs to view and simulate.
MICROWIND includes all the commands Ior a mask
editor as well as original tools never gathered beIore in
a single module (2D and 3D process view, Verilog
compiler, tutorial on MOS devices). You can gain
access to Circuit Simulation by pressing one single key.
The electric extraction oI your circuit is automatically
perIormed and the analog simulator produces voltage
and current curves immediately.

MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 1. The MOS device
8 17/08/06

The chapters oI this manual have been summarized below. Chapter 2 is dedicated to the presentation oI the
single MOS device, with details on the device modeling, simulation at logic and layout levels.

Chapter 3 presents the CMOS Inverter, the 2D and 3D views, the comparative design in micron and deep-
submicron technologies. Chapter 4 concerns the basic logic gates (AND, OR, XOR, complex gates),
Chapter 5 the arithmetic Iunctions (Adder, comparator, multiplier, ALU). The latches and memories are
detailed in Chapter 6.

As Ior Chapter 7, analog cells are presented, including voltage reIerences, current mirrors, operational
ampliIiers and phase lock loops. Chapter 8 concerns analog-to-digital, digital to analog converter principles.
and radio-Irequency circuit. The input/output interIacing principles are illustrated in Chapter 9.
The detailed explanation oI the design rules is in Chapter 10. The program operation and the details oI all
commands are given in the help Iiles oI the programs.

INSTALLATION

Connect to the web page www.microwind.net Ior the latest inIormation about how to download the lite
version oI the soItware. Once installed, two directories are created, one Ior MICROWIND31, one Ior DSCH31,
as illustrated below.


C:\Program Files\
Microwind31
Dsch31
examples html
rules system
*.MSK Help Iiles
*.RUL *.EXE
examples html
rules system
*.SCH Help Iiles
*.TEC *.EXE
ieee
Symbol
library
(*.SYM)


Figure 0-1. The architecture of Microwind and Dsch

Once installed, two directories are created, one Ior MICROWIND31, one Ior DSCH31. In each directory, a sub-
directory called html contains help Iiles. In MICROWIND31, other sub-directories include example Iiles
(*.MSK), design rules (*.RUL) and system Iiles (mainly microwind31.exe). In DSCH31, other sub-
directories include example Iiles (*.SCH and *.SYM), design rules (*.TEC) and system Iiles (mainly
dsch31.exe).

MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 1. Introduction
9 17/08/06


The Moore’s Law

Recognizing a trend in integrated circuit complexity, Intel co-Iounder Gordon Moore extrapolated the
tendency and predicted an exponential growth in the available memory and calculation speed oI
microprocessors which, he said in 1965, would double every year |Moore|. With a slight correction (i.e.
doubling every 18 months, see Iigure 1-1 ), Moores Law has held up to the Itanium® 2 processor which has
around 400 million transistors.

1970
1K
1 MEG
10 MEG
100 MEG
1 GIGA
Circuit Complexitv
Year
8086
386
TM

Moorelaw with a
doubling each vear
Pentium ×
80286
1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010
10K
100K
4004
8008
8080
486
TM

Pentium II×
Pentium III×
Pentium 4 ×
8 bits
16 bits
32 bits
Itanium ×
Moores law with a
doubling each 18
months

Figure 1-1 . Moores law compared to Intel processor complexitv from 1970 to 2010.

Scaling Benefits

The trend oI CMOS technology improvement continues to be driven by the need to integrate more Iunctions
in a given silicon area. At each lithography scaling, the linear dimensions are approximately reduced by a
Iactor oI 0.7, and the areas are reduced by Iactor oI 2. Smaller cell sizes lead to higher integration density
which has risen to nearly 1 million gates per mm
2
in 90 nm technology.

1 Technology Scale Down
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 1. Introduction
10 17/08/06

1995 2000 2005 2010 2015
10nm
100nm
1µm
Technology (log scale)
Year
0.25µm
0.18µm
0.13µm
90nm
ô5nm
45nm
32nm
120nm
70nm
50nm
35nm
Technologv
trend
Gate length
22nm
Default
technologv in
version 3.1

Figure 1-2 . The technologv scale down towards nano-scale devices

Market Growth

The integrated circuit market has been growing steadily since many years, due to ever-increased demand Ior
electronic devices. The production oI integrated circuits Ior various technologies is illustrated over the years
in Figure 1-3. It can be seen that a new technology has appeared regularly each two years, with a ramp up
close to three years |Ghani|. The production peak is constantly increased, and similar trends should be
observed Ior novel technologies such as 65nm (Iorecast peak in 2009).


1995 2000 2005 2010 2015
Production
Year
0. 5µm
0.18µm
130nm
90nm
ô5nm
0.35µm
0.25µm
45nm
Default technologv
in version 3.1

Figure 1-3. Technologv ramping everv two vears

MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 1. Introduction
11 17/08/06

About 65 nm technology

Industrial 65-nm processes have been introduced in 2003-2004 time Irame. The industrial 65-nm process
Ieatures the introduction oI uniaxial tensile strain in the NMOS transistor channel and uniaxial compressive
strain in the PMOS transistor channel resulting in dramatic improvements in channel mobility and
consequently drive currents. More inIormation about the implementation oI the 65-nm technology may be
Iound in the MICROWIND application node |Sicard 2006|.

65nm technology variants

There may exist several variants oI the 65-nm process technology. One corresponds to the highest possible
speed, at the price oI a very high leakage current. This technology is called 'High speed¨ as it is dedicated to
applications Ior which the highest speed is the primary objective: Iast microprocessors, Iast DSP, etc. The
second technological option called 'General Purpose¨ (Figure 1-4) is targeted to standard products where the
speed Iactor is not critical. The leakage current is one order oI magnitude lower than Ior the high-speed
variant, with gate switching decreased by 50°. This technology option has been addressed in Microwind`s
65nm rule Iile |Sicard 2006a|.

Parasitic
leakage
current
High (x 10)
Moderate
(x 1)
Low
(x 0.1)
Speed
Fast
(¹50°)
Moderate
(0°)
Low
(-50°)
High-end
servers
Servers
Networking
Computing
Mobile
Computing
Consumer
3G phones
2G phones
MP3
Digital camera
High speed
variant
General
Purpose variant
Low leakage
variant
Microwind
65nm rule file
Personal org.

Figure 1-4 . Introducing three variants of the 65nm technologv

There may also exist a third variant called low leakage (bottom leIt oI Iigure 1-4). This variant concerns
integrated circuits Ior which the leakage must remain as low as possible, a criterion that ranks Iirst in
applications such as embedded devices, mobile phones or personal organizers.
The operational voltage is usually Irom 0.85V to 1.2V, depending on the technology variant. In Microwind,
we decided to Iix VDD at 1.0V in the cmos65nm.RUL rule Iile, which represents a compromise between all
possible technology variations available Ior this 65-nm node.
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 1. Introduction
12 17/08/06


Gate Dielectric

Continued thickness reduction oI conventional oxides such as silicon dioxide (SiO
2
) results in reliability
degradation and unacceptable current leakage. New dielectric materials with high permittivity (High-'K¨)
are needed to replace SiO2, both Ior the MOS device itselI and the embedded capacitors. Silicon oxynitride
(SiOxNy) has been proposed in 65nm technologies as an eIIective replacement to SiO2 as the dielectric
material in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices (Iigure 1-5).


1.2nm
Source
Polvsilicon
gate
Si02
Gate
oxide
Drain
2.5nm
Source
Polvsilicon
gate
Si0xNv
Gate
oxide
Drain
Low capacitance
(slow device)
High gate leakage
High capacitance
(fast device)
Reduced gate leakage

Figure 1-5 . The new gate oxide material enhances the MOS device performances in terms of switching speed and
leakage

Strained Silicon

The main novelty related to the 90 and 65 nm technology is the introduction oI strained silicon to speed-up
the carrier mobility, which boosts both the n-channel and p-channel transistor perIormances. In Intel`s the 65
nm technology |Bai| the channel strains in both NMOS and PMOS devices have been improved over 90 nm
technology |Ghani|. PMOS transistor channel strain has been enhanced by increasing the Ge content in the
compressive SiGe Iilm. Both transistors employ ultra shallow source-drains to Iurther increase the drive
currents.
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 1. Introduction
13 17/08/06

Electron movement is slow
as the distance between Si
atoms is small
Electron movement is faster
as the distance between Si
atoms is increased
Source
(Si)
Polvsilicon
gate
Gate
oxide
Hori:ontal
strain created
bv the silicon
nitride capping
laver
Drain
(Si)
Drain
(Si)
Source
(Si)

Figure 1-6 . Strain generated bv a silicon-nitride capping laver which increases the distance between atoms
underneath the gate, which speeds up the electron mobilitv of n-channel MOS devices

Let us the silicon atoms Iorming a regular lattice structure, inside which the electrons participating to the
device current have to Ilow. In the case oI electron carriers, stretching the lattice allows the charges to Ilow
Iaster Irom the drain to the source, as depicted in Fig. 1-6.


Hole movement is slow as
the distance between Si
atoms is large
Hole movement is faster as
the hori:ontal distance
between Si atoms is reduced
SiGe
Si
Si SiGe
Gate
Gate
oxide
Hori:ontal
pressure
created bv the
uniaxial SiGe
strain

Figure 1-7 . Compressive stain to reduce the distance between atoms underneath the gate, which speeds up the hole
mobilitv of p-channel MOS devices

The mobility improvement exhibits a linear dependence with the tensile Iilm thickness. A 80 nm Iilm has
resulted in a 10° saturation current improvement in Intel`s 90nm technology |2|. The strain may also be
applied Irom the bottom with a uniIorm layer oI an alloy oI silicon and germanium (SiGe).
In a similar way, compressing the lattice slightly speeds up the p-type transistor, Ior which current carriers
consist oI holes (Fig. 6). The combination oI reduced channel length, decreased oxide thickness and strained
silicon achieves a substantial gain in drive current Ior both nMOS and pMOS devices.

MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 2. The MOS device

14 17/08/06

This chapter presents the CMOS transistor, its layout, static characteristics and dynamic characteristics. The
vertical aspect oI the device and the three dimensional sketch oI the Iabrication are also described.

Logic Levels
Three logic levels 0,1 and X are deIined as Iollows:

Logical value Voltage Name Symbol in DSCH Symbol in MICROWIND
0 0.0V VSS

(Green in logic simulation)

(Green in analog simulation)
1 1.0V in cmos
65nm
VDD

(Red in logic simulation)

(Red in analog simulation)
X UndeIined X (Gray in simulation) (Gray in simulation)

The MOS as a switch

The MOS transistor is basically a switch. When used in logic cell design, it can be on or off. When on, a
current can Ilow between drain and source. When oII, no current Ilow between drain and source. The MOS
is turned on or oII depending on the gate voltage. In CMOS technology, both n-channel (or nMOS) and p-
channel MOS (or pMOS) devices exist. The nMOS and pMOS symbols are reported below. The symbols Ior
the ground voltage source (0 or VSS) and the supply (1 or VDD) are also reported in Iigure 2-1.
0 1
0 1


Figure 2-1 . the MOS svmbol and switch

The n-channel MOS device requires a logic value 1 (or a supply VDD) to be on. In contrary, the p-channel
MOS device requires a logic value 0 to be on. When the MSO device is on, the link between the source and
drain is equivalent to a resistance. The order oI range oI this on` resistance is 100Ω-5KΩ. The oII`
resistance is considered inIinite at Iirst order, as its value is several MΩ.
2 The MOS device
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 2. The MOS device

15 17/08/06

MOS layout

We use MICROWIND to draw the MOS layout and simulate its behavior. Go to the directory in which the
soItware has been copied (By deIault Microwind31 ). Double-click on the MICROWIND icon.
The MICROWIND display window includes Iour main windows: the main menu, the layout display window,
the icon menu and the layer palette. The layout window Ieatures a grid, scaled in lambda (λ) units. The
lambda unit is Iixed to halI oI the minimum available lithography oI the technology. The deIault technology
is a CMOS 8-metal layers 65nm technology. In this technology, lambda is 0.035µm (35nm).



Figure 2-2 .The MICROWIND window as it appears at the initiali:ation stage..

The palette is located in the lower right corner oI the screen. A red color indicates the current layer. Initially
the selected layer in the palette is polysilicon. By using the Iollowing procedure, you can create a manual
design oI the n-channel MOS.

Fix the Iirst corner oI the box with the mouse. While keeping the mouse button pressed, move the
mouse to the opposite corner oI the box. Release the button. This creates a box in polysilicon layer as
shown in Figure 2-3. The box width should not be inIerior to 2 λ, which is the minimum width oI the
polysilicon box.

MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 2. The MOS device

16 17/08/06
Change the current layer into N¹ diIIusion by a click on the palette oI the DiIIusion N¹ button. Make
sure that the red layer is now the N¹ DiIIusion. Draw a n-diIIusion box at the bottom oI the drawing
as in Figure 2-3. N-diIIusion boxes are represented in green. The intersection between diIIusion and
polysilicon creates the channel oI the nMOS device.

Figure 2-3 . Creating the N-channel MOS transistor

Vertical aspect of the MOS


Click on this icon to access process simulation (Command Simulate → →→ → Process section in 2D). The cross-
section is given by a click oI the mouse at the Iirst point and the release oI the mouse at the second point.

Inter-layer oxide
(low permittivity)
Iield oxide
(SiO2)
NMOS drain
(N¹ doped)
NMOS source
(N¹ doped)
Shallow trench isolation
(STI, built in (SiO2)
Compressive strain
around the NMOS gate
Polysilicon gate
Silicon substrate
(lightly doped P)

Figure 2-4 . The cross-section of the nMOS devices.

MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 2. The MOS device

17 17/08/06
In the example oI Figure 2-4, three nodes appear in the cross-section oI the n-channel MOS device: the gate
(red), the leIt diIIusion called source (green) and the right diIIusion called drain (green), over a substrate
(gray). A thin oxide called the gate oxide isolates the gate. Various steps oI oxidation have lead to stacked
oxides on the top oI the gate.

The physical properties oI the source and oI the drain are exactly the same. Theoretically, the source is the
origin oI channel impurities. In the case oI this nMOS device, the channel impurities are the electrons.
ThereIore, the source is the diIIusion area with the lowest voltage. The polysilicon gate Iloats over the
channel, and splits the diIIusion into 2 zones, the source and the drain. The gate controls the current Ilow
Irom the drain to the source, both ways. A high voltage on the gate attracts electrons below the gate, creates
an electron channel and enables current to Ilow. A low voltage disables the channel.

Static Mos Characteristics


Click on the MOS characteristics icon. The screen shown in Figure 2-5 appears. It represents the Id/Jd static
characteristics oI the nMOS device. The MOS size (width and length oI the channel situated at the
intersection oI the polysilicon gate and the diIIusion) has a strong inIluence on the value oI the current. In
Figure 2-5, the MOS width is 350 nm and the length is 70 nm. A high gate voltage (Jg ÷ 1.0V) corresponds
to the highest Id/Jd curve. For Jg÷0, no current Ilows. You may change the voltage values oI Jd, Jg, Js by
using the voltage cursors situated on the right side oI the window.



Figure 2-5 . N-Channel MOS characteristics.
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 2. The MOS device

18 17/08/06

A maximum current around 0.3 mA is obtained Ior Jg÷1.0 V, Jd÷1.0 V, with Js÷0.0. The MOS parameters
correspond to SPICE Level 3. A tutorial on MOS model parameters is proposed later in this chapter.

Dynamic MOS behavior

This paragraph concerns the dynamic simulation oI the MOS to exhibit its switching properties. The most
convenient way to operate the MOS is to apply a clock to the gate, another to the source and to observe the
drain. The summary oI available properties that can be added to the layout is reported below.



VDD property
VSS property
Clock property
Pulse property
Node visible
Sinusoidal wave
High voltage property


Apply a clock to the gate. Click on the Clock icon and then, click on the polysilicon gate. The
clock menu appears again. Change the name into Vgate and click on OK to apply a clock with
0.2 ns period (90 ps at '0¨, 10 ps rise, 90 ps at '1¨, 10 ps Iall).



Figure 2-6 . The clock menu.

Apply a clock to the drain. Click on the Clock icon, click on the leIt diIIusion. The Clock menu
appears. Change the name into Vdrain and click on OK. A deIault clock with 1ns period is
generated. The Clock property is sent to the node and appears at the right hand side oI the desired
location with the name Vdrain.
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 2. The MOS device

19 17/08/06

Watch the output: Click on the Jisible icon and then, click on the right diIIusion. Click OK. The
Visible property is then sent to the node. The associated text s1 is in italic, meaning that the
waveIorm oI this node will appear at the next simulation.

Always save BEFORE any simulation. The analog simulation algorithm may cause run-time errors leading
to a loss oI layout inIormation. Click on File → Save as. A new window appears, into which you enter the
design name. Type Ior example myMos. Then click on Save. The design is saved under that Iilename.

Analog Simulation

Click on Simulate → →→ → Start Simulation. The timing diagrams oI the nMOS device appear, as shown in
Figure 2-7.



Figure 2-7 . Analog simulation of the MOS device.

When vgate is at zero, no channel exists so the node vsource is disconnected Irom the drain. When the gate
is on (vgate÷1.0 V), the source copies the drain. It can be observed that the nMOS device drives well at zero
but poorly at the high voltage. The highest value oI vsource is around 0.6 V, that is VDD minus the
threshold voltage. This means that the n-channel MOS device do not drives well logic signal 1, as
summarized in Iigure 2-8. Click on More in order to perIorm more simulations. Click on Close to return to
the editor.

MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 2. The MOS device

20 17/08/06

1 0
1
0
Good 0
1
1
Poor 1
(VDD-Vt)


Figure 2-8 . The nMOS device behavior summarv

The MOS Models

Mos Level 1

For the evaluation oI the current Ids between the drain and the source as a Iunction oI Jd,Jg and Js, you
may use the old but nevertheless simple LEVEL1 described below. The parameters listed in table 2-1
correspond to 'low leakage¨ MOS option, which is the deIault MOS option in 65nm technology. When
dealing with sub-micron technology, the model LEVEL1 is more than 4 times too optimistic regarding
current prediction, compared to real-case measurements.

ε
0
÷ 8.85 10
-12
F/m is the absolute permittivity
ε
r
÷ relative permittivity, equal to 3.9 in the case oI SiO2 (no unit)


Mode Condition Expression Ior the current Ids
CUT-OFF Vgs·0
0 Ids =
LINEAR Vds·Vgs-Vt
))
2
) (J
vt).J ((J
c c
Ids
2
ds
ds gs
r 0
− − =
L
W
.
TOX
UO
SATURATED Vds~Vgs-Vt
2
gs
r 0
vt) (J
c c
Ids − =
L
W
.
TOX
UO


Mos Level1 parameters
Parameter DeIinition Typical Value 65nm
NMOS PMOS
VTO
Threshold voltage 0.34 V -0.34 V
U0
Carrier mobility 0.03 m
2
/V-s 0.01 m
2
/V-s
TOX
Gate oxide thickness 1.1 nm 1.1 nm
PHI
SurIace potential at strong inversion 0.15 V 0.15 V
GAMMA
Bulk threshold parameter 0.5 V
0.5
0.4 V
0.5

W
MOS channel width 400 nm 400 nm
L
MOS channel length 70 nm 70 nm

Table 2-1. Parameters of MOS level 1 implemented into Microwind

MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 2. The MOS device

21 17/08/06
The MOS Level 3

For the evaluation oI the current Ids as a Iunction oI Jd,Jg and Js between drain and source, we commonly
use the Iollowing equations, close Irom the SPICE LEVEL 3 Iormulations |Lee|. The Iormulations are
derived Irom the LEVEL1 and take into account a set oI physical limitations in a semi-empirical way.
Vds
Ids
Linear
Jds·vgs-vt
Saturation in
model 3
Model 1 would do this
Cutt-off
Jgs·Jt
Vd
SAT

Figure 2-9 . Introduction of the saturation voltage JdSat which truncates the equations issued from model 1

One oI the most important change is the introduction oI Jd
SAT
, a saturation voltage Irom which the current
saturates and do not rise as the LEVEL1 model would do (Iigure 2-9). This saturation eIIect is signiIicant Ior
small channel length.

The BSIM4 MOS Model

A new MOS model, called BSIM4, has been introduced in 2000 |Liu|. A simpliIied version oI this model is
supported by MICROWIND in its Iull version and recommended Ior nanoscale technology simulation. BSIM4
still considers the operating regions described in MOS level 3 (linear Ior low Jds, saturated Ior high Jds,
subthreshold Ior Jgs·Jt), but provides a perIect continuity between these regions. BSIM4 introduces a new
region where the impact ionization eIIect is dominant.

The number oI parameters speciIied in the oIIicial release oI BSIM4 is as high as 300. A signiIicant portion
oI these parameters is unused in our implementation. We concentrate on the most signiIicant parameters, Ior
educational purpose. The set oI parameters is reduced to around 20, shown in the right part oI Iigure 2-10.

MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 2. The MOS device

22 17/08/06


Figure 2-10 . Implementation of BSIM4 within Microwind (full version onlv)
The PMOS Transistor

The p-channel transistor simulation Ieatures the same Iunctions as the n-channel device, but with opposite
voltage control oI the gate. For the nMOS, the channel is created with a logic 1 on the gate. For the pMOS,
the channel is created Ior a logic 0 on the gate. Load the Iile pmos.msk and click the icon MOS
characteristics. The p-channel MOS simulation appears, as shown in Figure 2-11.




Figure 2-11 . Lavout and simulation of the p-channel MOS (mvpmos.MSK)

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23 17/08/06
Note that the pMOS gives approximately halI oI the maximum current given by the nMOS with the same
device size. The highest current is obtained with the lowest possible gate voltage, that is 0. From the
simulation oI Iigure 2-11, we see that the pMOS device is able to pass well the logic level 1. But the logic
level 0 is transIormed into a positive voltage, equal to the threshold voltage oI the MOS device (0.35 V).
The summary oI the p-channel MOS perIormances is reported in Iigure 2-12.


0 1
0
0
Poor 0
(0+Vt)
0
1
Good 1
PMOS


Figure 2-12 . Summarv of the performances of a pMOS device

The Transmission Gate

Both NMOS devices and PMOS devices exhibit poor perIormances when transmitting one particular logic
inIormation. The nMOS degrades the logic level 1, the pMOS degrades the logic level 0. Thus, a perIect
pass gate can be constructed Irom the combination oI nMOS and pMOS devices working in a
complementary way, leading to improved switching perIormances. Such a circuit, presented in Iigure 2-13,
is called the transmission gate. In DSCH , the symbol may be Iound in the Advance menu in the palette. The
transmission gate includes one inverter, one nMOS and one pMOS.


0 1
Transmission
gate
0
0
Good 0
0
1
Good 1


Figure 2-13 . Schematic diagram of the transmission gate (Tgate.SCH)
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 2. The MOS device

24 17/08/06



Figure 2-14 . Lavout of the transmission gate (TGATE.MSK)

The layout oI the transmission gate is reported in Iigure 2-14. The n-channel MOS is situated on the bottom
the p-channel MOS on the top. Notice that the gate controls are not connected, as ~Enable is the opposite oI
Enable.
Added Features in the full version

BSIM4 The state-oI-the art MOS model Ior accurate simulation oI nano-scale technologies,
including a tutorial on key parameters oI the model.
High Speed Mos A new kind oI MOS device has been introduced in deep submicron technologies, starting
the 0.18µm CMOS process generation. The new MOS, called high speed MOS (HS) is
available as well as the normal one, recalled Low leakage MOS (LL).
High Voltage MOS For I/Os operating at high voltage, speciIic MOS devices called "High voltage MOS" are
used. The high voltage MOS is built using a thick oxide, two to three times thicker than the
low voltage MOS, to handle high voltages as required by the I/O interIaces..
Temperature EIIects Three main parameters are concerned by the sensitivity to temperature: the threshold
voltage VTO, the mobility U0 and the slope in sub-threshold mode. The modeling oI the
temperature eIIect is described and illustrated .
Process Variations Due to unavoidable process variations during the hundreds oI chemical steps Ior the
Iabrication oI the integrated circuit, the MOS characteristics are never exactly identical
Irom one device to another, and Irom one die to an other. Monte-carlo simulation,
min/max/typ simulations are provided in the Iull version.


MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 3. The Inverter

25 17/08/06

This chapter describes the CMOS inverter at logic level, using the logic editor and simulator DSCH , and at
layout level, using the tool MICROWIND .

The Logic Inverter

In this section, an inverter circuit is loaded and simulated. Click File→ →→ → Open in the main menu. Select
INV.SCH in the list. In this circuit are one button situated on the leIt side oI the design, the inverter and a
led. Click Simulate→ →→ → Start simulation in the main menu.

Figure 3-1 . The schematic diagram including one single inverter (Inverter.SCH)

Now, click inside the buttons situated on the leIt part oI the diagram. The result is displayed on the leds. The
red value indicates logic 1, the black value means a logic 0. Click the button Stop simulation shown in the
picture below. You are back to the editor.



Figure 3-2 . The button Stop Simulation

Click the chronogram icon to get access to the chronograms oI the previous simulation (Figure 3-3). As
seen in the waveIorm, the value oI the output is the logic opposite oI that oI the input.


Figure 3-3 . Chronograms of the inverter simulation (CmosInv.SCH)

3 The Inverter
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 3. The Inverter

26 17/08/06
Double click on the INV symbol, the symbol properties window is activated. In this window appears the
VERILOG description (leIt side) and the list oI pins (right side). A set oI drawing options is also reported in
the same window. Notice the gate delay (3 pico-second in the 65-nm technology), the Ianout that represents
the number oI cells connected to the output pin (1 cell connected), and the wire delay due to this cell
connection (an extra 2 ps delay).

The CMOS inverter

The CMOS inverter design is detailed in the Iigure below. Here the p-channel MOS and the n-channel MOS
transistors Iunction as switches. When the input signal is logic 0 (Figure 3-4 leIt), the nMOS is switched oII
while PMOS passes VDD through the output. When the input signal is logic 1 (Figure 3-4 right), the pMOS
is switched oII while the nMOS passes VSS to the output.


Figure 3-4 . The MOS Inverter (File CmosInv.sch)

The Ianout corresponds to the number oI gates connected to the inverter output. Physically, a large Ianout
means a large number oI connections, that is a large load capacitance. II we simulate an inverter loaded with
one single output, the switching delay is small. Now, iI we load the inverter by several outputs, the delay and
the power consumption are increased. The power consumption linearly increases with the load capacitance.
This is mainly due to the current needed to charge and discharge that capacitance.

Manual Layout of the Inverter

In this paragraph, the procedure to create manually the layout oI a CMOS inverter is described. Click the
icon MOS generator on the palette. The Iollowing window appears. By deIault the proposed length is the
minimum length available in the technology (2 lambda), and the width is 10 lambda. In 0.12µm technology,
where lambda is 0.06µm, the corresponding size is 0.12µm Ior the length and 0.6µm Ior the width. Simply
click Generate Device, and click on the middle oI the screen to Iix the MOS device.


MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 3. The Inverter

27 17/08/06


Access to MOS
generator


Figure 3-5 . Generating a nMOS device

Click again the icon MOS generator on the palette. Change the type oI device by a tick on p-channel, and
click Generate Device. Click on the top oI the nMOS to Iix the pMOS device.
The MOS generator is the saIest way to create a MOS device compliant to design rules. The programmable
parameters are the MOS width, length, the number oI gates in parallel and the type oI device (n-channel or
p-channel). By deIault metal interconnects and contacts are added to the drain and source oI the MOS. You
may add a supplementary metal2 interconnect on the top oI metal 1 Ior drain and source.

Connection between Devices



(1) Bridge
between nMos
and pMos gates
(2) Contact to
input
(5) Connexion to
power supply VDD
(6) Connexion to
ground
(4) Connexion to
output
(3) Bridge between
nMos and pMos

Figure 3-6 . Connections required to build the inverter (CmosInv.SCH)

Within CMOS cells, metal and polysilicon are used as interconnects Ior signals. Metal is a much better
conductor than polysilicon. Consequently, polysilicon is only used to interconnect gates, such as the bridge
(1) between pMOS and nMOS gates, as described in the schematic diagram oI Iigure 3-6. Polysilicon is
rarely used Ior long interconnects, except iI a huge resistance value is expected.
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 3. The Inverter

28 17/08/06



(1) Polysilicon Bridge
between pMOS and
nMOS gates
2 lambda polysilicon gate
size to achieve Iastest
switching

Figure 3-7 . Polvsilicon bridge between nMOS and pMOS devices (InvSteps.MSK)

In the layout shown in Iigure 3-7, the polysilicon bridge links the gate oI the n-channel MOS with the gate oI
the p-channel MOS device. The polysilicon serves as the gate control and the bridge between MOS gates.

Useful Editing Tools

The Iollowing commands may help you in the layout design and veriIication processes.

Command Icon/Short cut Menu Description
UNDO CTRL¹U Edit menu Cancels the last editing operation
DELETE

CTRL¹X
Edit menu Erases some layout included in the
given area or pointed by the mouse.
STRETCH

Edit menu Changes the size oI one box, or moves
the layout included in the given area.
COPY

CTRL¹C
Edit Menu Copies the layout included in the
given area.
VIEW
ELECTRICA
L NODE

CTRL¹N
View Menu VeriIies the electrical net connections.
2D CROSS-
SECTION
Simulate Menu Shows the aspect oI the circuit in
vertical cross-section.

Table 3-1. A set of useful editing tools
Metal-to-poly

As polysilicon is a poor conductor, metal is preIerred to interconnect signals and supplies. Consequently,
the input connection oI the inverter is made with metal. Metal and polysilicon are separated by an oxide
which prevents electrical connections. ThereIore, a box oI metal drawn across a box oI polysilicon does
not allow an electrical connection (Figure 3-8).
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 3. The Inverter

29 17/08/06

Polysilicon (2 λ min)
Metal (4 λ min)
Contact
(2x2 λ)
Enlarged poly area
(4x4 λ)

Figure 3-8 . Phvsical contact between metal and polvsilicon


Metal extension Ior
Iuture interconnection
Metal bridge between
nMOS and pMOS
gates drains

Figure 3-9 . Adding a polv contact, polv and metal bridges to construct the CMOS inverter (InvSteps.MSK)



Drain (N¹
diIIusion)
Source (N¹
diIIusion)
Thick oxide
(SiO2)
NMOS gate
(Polysilicon)
Metal 1
Ground
polarization


Figure 3-10 . The 2D process section of the inverter circuit near the nMOS device (InvSteps.MSK)

To build an electrical connection, a physical contact is needed. The corresponding layer is called "contact".
You may insert a metal-to-polysilicon contact in the layout using a direct macro situated in the palette.
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 3. The Inverter

30 17/08/06

The Process Simulator shows the vertical aspect oI the layout, as when Iabrication has been completed. This
Ieature is a signiIicant aid to understand the circuit structure and the way layers are stacked on top oI each
other. A click oI the mouse on the leIt side oI the n-channel device layout and the release oI the mouse at the
right side give the cross-section reported in Iigure 3-10.

Supply Connections

The next design step consists in adding supply connections, that is the positive supply VDD and the ground
supply VSS. We use the metal2 layer (Second level oI metallization) to create horizontal supply connections.
Enlarging the supply metal lines reduces the resistance and avoids electrical overstress. The simplest way to
build the physical connection is to add a metal/Metal2 contact that may be Iound in the palette. The
connection is created by a plug called "via" between metal2 and metal layers.
The Iinal layout design step consists in adding polarization contacts. These contacts convey the VSS and
VDD voltage supply close to the bulk regions oI the device. Remember that the n-well region should always
be polarized to a high voltage to avoid short-circuit between VDD and VSS. Adding the VDD polarization
in the n-well region is a very strict rule.


P¹/Pwell contact and
bridge to VSS
N¹/Nwell contact and
bridge to VDD
Via to connect metal2
and metal 1

Figure 3-11 . Adding polarization contacts

Process steps to build the Inverter

At that point, it might be interesting to illustrate the steps oI Iabrication as they would sequence in a
Ioundry. MICROWIND includes a 3D process viewer Ior that purpose. Click Simulate → →→ → Process steps in
3D. The simulation oI the CMOS Iabrication process is perIormed, step by step by a click on Next Step.
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 3. The Inverter

31 17/08/06

Figure 3-12 . The step-bv-step fabrication of the Inverter circuit (InvSteps.MSK)

On Iigure 3-12, the picture on the leIt represents the nMOS device, pMOS device, common polysilicon gate
and contacts. The picture on the right represents the same portion oI layout with the metal layers stacked on
top oI the active devices.

Inverter Simulation

The inverter simulation is conducted as Iollows. Firstly, a VDD supply source (1.0 V) is Iixed to the upper
metal2 supply line, and a VSS supply source (0.0 V) is Iixed to the lower metal2 supply line. The properties
are located in the palette menu. Simply click the desired property , and click on the desired location in the
layout. Add a clock on the inverter input node (The deIault node name clock1 has been changed into Jin)and
a visible property on the output node Jout.


A clock property
should be added to
this node
VSS property
VDD property
Visible node
property

VDD
High VDD
VSS
Clock
Pulse
Sinus
Visible

Figure 3-13 . Adding simulation properties (InvSteps.MSK)

The command Simulate → →→ → Run Simulation gives access to the analog simulation. Select the simulation
mode Voltage vs. Time. The analog simulation oI the circuit is perIormed. The time domain waveIorm,
proposed by deIault, details the evolution oI the voltages in1 and out1 versus time. This mode is also called
transient simulation, as shown in Iigure 3-14.
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 3. The Inverter

32 17/08/06


Figure 3-14 . Transient simulation of the CMOS inverter (InvSteps.MSK)

The truth-table is veriIied as Iollows. A logic '0¨ corresponds to 0 V a logic '1¨ to a 1. 0 V. When the
input rises to '1¨, the output Ialls to '0¨, with a 3 pico-second delay (6.10
-12
second).
Added Features in the Full version

Power estimation Analysis oI the inverter consumption, the leakage, etc.
3-state inverter A complete description oI the 3-state circuits, with details on the structure, behavior.
Inverter sizing eIIects Impact oI the width and length oI MOS devices on the inverter characteristics.
Exercises Some basic exercises related to the inverter design and its static/dynamic perIormances.
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 4. Basic Gates

33 17/08/06

Introduction

Table 4-1 gives the corresponding symbol to each basic gate as it appears in the logic editor window as well
as the logic description. In this description, the symbol & reIers to the logical AND, , to Or, ~to INVERT,
and ` to XOR. A complete description oI basic gate implementation may be Iound in |Baker|.

Name Logic symbol Logic equation
INVERTER

Out=~in;
AND

Out=a&b;
NAND

Out=~(a.b);
OR

Out=(a|b);
NOR

Out=~(a|b);
XOR

Out=a^b;
XNOR

Out=~(a^b);

Table 4-1. The list of basic gates

The Nand Gate

The truth-table and logic symbol oI the NAND gate with 2 inputs are shown below. In DSCH , select the
NAND symbol in the palette, add two buttons and one lamp as shown above. Add interconnects iI necessary
to link the button and lamps to the cell pins. VeriIy the logic behavior oI the cell.


in1 in2 Out
0 0 1
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0


Figure 4-1 . The truth table and symbol oI the NAND gate

In CMOS design, the NAND gate consists oI two nMOS in series connected to two pMOS in parallel. The
schematic diagram oI the NAND cell is reported below. The nMOS in series tie the output to the ground Ior
one single combination A÷1, B÷1.

4 Basic Gates
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 4. Basic Gates

34 17/08/06


Figure 4-2 . The truth table and schematic diagram of the CMOS NAND gate design (NandCmos.SCH)
For the three other combinations, the nMOS path is cut, but a least one pMOS ties the output to the supply
VDD. Notice that both nMOS and pMOS devices are used in their best regime: the nMOS devices pass '0¨,
the pMOS pass '1¨.
You may load the NAND gate design using the command File → →→ → Read→ →→ →NAND.MSK. You may also draw
the NAND gate manually as Ior the inverter gate. An alternative solution is to compile directly the NAND
gate into layout with MICROWIND . In this case, complete the Iollowing procedure:


In MICROWIND , click on Compile→Compile One
Line. Select the line corresponding to the 2-input
NAND description as shown above. The input and
output names can be by the user modiIied.


Pmos
devices
Nmos
devices
Input A
Input B
NAND2
output
Cross-section
A-A'
Cross-section
B-B'

Click Compile. The result is reported above.
The compiler has Iixed the position oI VDD power
supply and the ground VSS. The texts A, B, and S have
also been Iixed to the layout. DeIault clocks are
assigned to inputs A and B.

Figure 4-3 . A NAND cell created bv the CMOS compiler.
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 4. Basic Gates

35 17/08/06

The cell architecture has been optimized Ior easy supply and input/output routing. The supply bars have the
property to connect naturally to the neighboring cells, so that speciIic eIIort Ior supply routing is not
required. The input/output nodes are routed on the top and the bottom oI the active parts, with a regular
spacing to ease automatic channel routing between cells.

The AND gate

As can be seen in the schematic diagram and in the compiled results, the AND gate is the sum oI a NAND2
gate and an inverter. The layout ready to simulate can be Iound in the Iile AND2.MSK. In CMOS, the
negative gates (NAND, NOR, INV) are Iaster and simpler than the non-negative gates (AND, OR, BuIIer).
The cell delay observed in the Iigure 4-4 are signiIicantly higher than Ior the NAND2 gate alone, due to the
inverter stage delay.




Figure 4-4 . Lavout and simulation of the AND gate

The XOR Gate

The truth-table and the schematic diagram oI the CMOS XOR gate are shown above. There exist many
possibilities Ior implementing the XOR Iunction into CMOS. The least eIIicient design, but the most
Iorward, consists in building the XOR logic circuit Irom its Boolean equation.

MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 4. Basic Gates

36 17/08/06

XOR 2 inputs
A B OUT
0 0 0
0 1 1
1 0 1
1 1 0


The proposed solution consists oI a transmission-gate implementation oI the XOR operator. The truth table
oI the XOR can be read as Iollow: IF B÷0, OUT÷A, IF B÷1, OUT ÷ Inv(A). The principle oI the circuit
presented below is to enable the A signal to Ilow to node N1 iI B÷1 and to enable the Inv(A) signal to Ilow to
node N1 iI B÷0. The node OUT inverts N1, so that we can Iind the XOR operator. Notice that the nMOS and
pMOS devices situated in the middle oI the gate serve as pass transistors.



N1

Figure 4-5 . The schematic diagram of the XOR gate (XORCmos.SCH)



Very poor level 0
Poor level 1
UnsaIe margin
UnsaIe margin


Figure 4-6 . Lavout and simulation of the XOR gate (XOR.MSK).

You may use DSCH to create the cell, generate the Verilog description and compile the resulting text. In
MICROWIND , the Verilog compiler is able to construct the XOR cell as reported in Figure 4-6. You may add
a visible property to the intermediate node which serves as an input oI the second inverter.
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 4. Basic Gates

37 17/08/06
See how the signal, called internal, is altered by Jtn (when the nMOS is ON) and Jtp (when the pMOS is
ON). Fortunately, the inverter regenerates the signal.

Multiplexor

Multiplexing means transmitting a large amount oI inIormation through a smaller number oI connections. A
digital multiplexor is a circuit that selects binary inIormation Irom one oI many input logic signals and
directs it to a single input line. The main component oI the multiplexor is a basic cell called the transmission
gate. The transmission gate let a signal Ilow iI Enable is asserted.

Sel In0 In1 f
0 x 0 0
0 x 1 1
1 0 x 0
1 1 x 1



Figure 4-7 . The transmission gate used as a multiplexor (MUX.SCH)

In DSCH , a transmission gate symbol exists (Figure 4-7). It includes the nMOS, pMOS and inverter cells.
Concerning the layout, the channel length is usually the minimum length available in the technology, and the
width is set large, in order to reduce the parasitic on` resistance oI the gate.
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 4. Basic Gates

38 17/08/06

Interconnects

Up to 8 metal layers are available in CMOS 65-nm technology Ior signal connection and supply purpose. A
signiIicant gap exists between the 0.7 µm 2-metal layer technology and the 65-nm technology in terms oI
interconnect eIIiciency. Firstly, the contact size is 6 lambda in 0.7µm technology, and only 4 lambda in 65-
nm.
This Ieatures a signiIicant reduction oI device connection to metal and metal2, as shown in Iigure 4-8.
Notice that a MOS device generated using 0.7µm design rules is still compatible with 0.12µm technology.
But a MOS device generated using 65-nm design rules would violate several rules iI checked in 0.7µm
technology.


2 λ
Only 1 λ λλ λ
4 λ

diII
Metal
Via size is still 2x2 λ λλ λ
4 λ
minimum
4 λ
minimum
2 λ
2 λ λλ λ
4 λ
Metal 2

diII
Metal
Via size 3x3 λ
6 λ
minimum
4 λ
minimum
(a) Contacts in 0.7µm technology
(b) Contacts in 65-nm technology
2 λ λλ λ
Metal 2

Figure 4-8 . Contacts in 0.7µm technologv require more area than in 0.12µm technologv

Secondly, the stacking oI contacts is not allowed in micro technologies. This means that a contact Irom poly
to metal2 requires a signiIicant silicon area as contacts must be drawn in a separate location. In deep-
submicron technology (Starting 0.35µm and below), stacked contacts are allowed.
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 4. Basic Gates

39 17/08/06

Added Features in the Full version

Basic Gates Truth-table and schematic diagram oI the three-input OR gate. AND 4 inputs.
Generalization.
Complex Gates The technique produces compact cells with higher perIormances in terms oI spacing and
speed than conventional logic circuits. The concept oI complex gates is illustrated through
concrete examples. The logic implementation oI complex gates in DSCH is also described.
Multiplexor Description oI a 2
n
input lines and n selection lines whose bit combinations determine
which input is selected. Transmission gate implementation oI the 8 to 1 multiplexor.

Interconnect layers and
RC behavior
Description oI the interconnect materials: metal1..metal6, supply metals, via, RC eIIects in
interconnects, as well as basic Iormulations Ior the resistance, inductance and capacitance.
Illustration oI the crosstalk eIIect in interconnects.
Exercises XOR, complex gates, design considerations.


MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 5. Arithmetics

40 17/08/06



This chapter introduces basic concepts concerning the design oI arithmetic gates. The adder circuit is
presented, with its corresponding layout created manually and automatically. Then the comparator,
multiplier and the arithmetic and logic unit are also discussed. This chapter also includes details on a student
project concerning the design oI binary-to-decimal addition and display.

Unsigned Integer format

The two classes oI data Iormats are the integer and real numbers. The integer type is separated into two
Iormats: unsigned Iormat and signed Iormat. The real numbers are also sub-divided into Iixed point and
Iloating point descriptions. Each data is coded in 8,16 or 32 bits. We consider here unsigned integers, as
described in Iigure 5-1.


2
6
2
5
2
4
2
3
2
0

2
0
÷ 1
2
1
÷ 2
2
2
÷ 4

2
3
÷ 8

2
4
÷ 16

2
5
÷ 32

2
6
÷ 64
2
7
÷ 128
..
2
10
÷ 1024
2
15
÷ 32768
2
20
÷ 1048576
2
30
÷ 1073741824
2
31
÷ 2147483648

Unsigned integer, 8 bit
2
7
2
2
2
1

2
14
2
13
2
4
2
3
.. .. 2
0

Unsigned integer, 16 bit
2
15

2
2
2
1

2
30
2
29
2
4
2
3
.. .. 2
0

Unsigned integer, 32 bit
2
31

2
2
2
1
..

Figure 5-1 . Unsigned integer format

Half-Adder Gate

The HalI-Adder gate truth-table and schematic diagram are shown in Figure 5-2. The SUM Iunction is made
with an XOR gate, the Carry Iunction is a simple AND gate.

5 Arithmetics
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41 17/08/06
HALF ADDER
A B SUM CARRY
0 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 0 1

Figure 5-2 . Truth table and schematic diagram of the half-adder gate (HADD.MSK).

FULL
CUSTOM
LAYOUT
You may create the layout oI the halI-adder Iully by hand in order to
create a compact design. Use the polysilicon and metal1 layers Ior short
connections only, because oI the high resistance oI these materials. Use
Poly/Metal, DiII/Metal contact macros situated in the upper part oI the
Palette menu to link the layers together.
LAYOUT
LIBRARY
Load the layout design oI the HalI-Adder using File → →→ → Open and loading
the Iile HalfAdder.MSK.

VERILOG COMPILING. Use DSCH to create the schematic diagram oI the halI-adder. VeriIy the circuit
with buttons and lamps. Save the design under the name HalfAdder.sch using the command File → →→ →
Save As. Generate the Verilog text by using the command File → →→ → Make Verilog File. The text Iile
HalfAdder.v is created. In MICROWIND , click on the command Compile → →→ → Compile Verilog File.
Select the text Iile HalfAdder.v. Click Compile. When the compiling is complete, the resulting layout
appears shown below. The XOR gate is routed on the leIt and the AND gate is routed on the right. Now,
click on Simulate → →→ →Start Simulation. The timing diagrams oI Iigure 5-3 appear and you should veriIy the
truth table oI the halI-adder.



Figure 5-3 . Compiling and simulation of the half-adder gate (HalfAdder.MSK)
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Full-Adder Gate

The truth table and schematic diagram Ior the Iull-adder are shown in Figure 5-4. The SUM is made with
two XOR gates and the CARRY is a combination oI NAND gates, as shown below. The most
straightIorward implementation oI the CARRY cell is AB¹BC¹AC. The weakness oI such a circuit is the
use oI positive logic gates, leading to multiple stages. A more eIIicient circuit consists in the same Iunction
but with inverting gates.

Full Adder
A B C Sum Carry
0 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 1 0
0 1 0 1 0
0 1 1 0 1
1 0 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 1
1 1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1 1


Figure 5-4 . The truth table and schematic diagram of a full-adder(FADD.SCH)

Full-Adder Symbol in DSCH

When invoking File → →→ → Schema to new symbol, the screen oI Iigure 5-5 appears. Simply click OK. The
symbol oI the Iull-adder is created, with the name fadd.svm in the current directory. A Verilog description oI
the circuit is attached to the symbol.
We see that the XOR gates are declared as primitives while the complex gate is declared using the Assign
command, as a combination oI AND (&)and OR (,) operators. II we used AND and OR primitives instead,
the layout compiler would implement the Iunction in a series oI AND and OR CMOS gates, loosing the
beneIits oI complex gate approach in terms oI cell density and switching speed.
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Figure 5-5 . Jerilog description of the full adder (fadd.SYM)

Use the command Insert → →→ → User Symbol to include the Iull-adder symbol into a new circuit. For example,
a 4-bit adder is proposed in Iigure 5-6. The two displays are connected to the identical data, but are
conIigured in diIIerent mode: hexadecimal Iormat Ior the right-most display, and integer mode Ior the leIt-
most display.


Figure 5-6 . Schematic diagram of the four-bit adder and some examples of results (Add4.SCH).
Comparator

The truth table and the schematic diagram oI the comparator are given below. The A÷B equality represents
an XNOR gate, and A~B, A·B are operators obtained by using inverters and AND gates.

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Comparator
A B A~B A·B A÷B
0 0 0 0 1
0 1 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0
1 1 0 0 1

Figure 5-7 . The truth table and schematic diagram of the comparator (COMP.SCH).

Using DSCH , the logic circuit oI the comparator is designed and veriIied at logic level. Then the conversion
into Verilog is invoked (File → →→ → Make verilog File). MICROWIND compiles the verilog text into layout. The
simulation oI the comparator is given in Figure 5-8. The XNOR gate is located at the leIt side oI the design.
The inverter and NOR gates are at the right side. AIter the initialization, A÷B rises to 1. The clocks A and B
produce the combinations 00,01,10 and 11.


Figure 5-8 . Simulation of a comparator (COMP.MSK).
Micro-controller Models

In DSCH , a simpliIied model oI the Intel 8051 and PIC 16I84 micro-controllers are included. The 8051 core
includes an arithmetic and logic unit to support a huge set oI instructions. You can add the corresponding
symbol (8051.SYM) using the command Insert → →→ → User Symbol, as the symbol is not directly accessible
through the symbol palette.

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Figure 5-9 . The 8051 svmbol and its embedded software (8051¸traffic¸lights.sch)

The symbol consists mainly oI general purpose input/output ports (P0,P1,P2 and P3), a clock and a reset
control signals. The basic connection consists oI a clock on the Clock input and a button on the Reset input.
AIter a double-click in the symbol, the embedded code appears. That code may be edited and modiIied
(Figure 5-9). When the button Assembly is pressed, the assembly text is translated into executable binary
Iormat. Once the logic simulation is running, the code is executed as soon as the reset input is deactivated.
The value oI the program counter, the accumulator A, the current op¸code and the registers is displayed. In
the chronograms, the accumulator variations versus the time are displayed. It can be noticed that this core
operates with one single clock cycle per instruction, except Ior some instructions such as MOV (Move data)
and AJMP (Jump to a speciIic address).

Added Features in the Full version

Adders Full layout oI the 4-bit adder. Structure oI the carry look-ahead adder. Details on the
routing and supply strategy.
Micro-controller Model oI the PIC16I84 micro-controller. Example Iiles are provided, illustrating code
execution.
Arithmetic and Logic
Units
Basic principles oI micro-operations on 8 bit Iormat.



MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 6. Latches

46 17/08/06


This chapter details the structure and behavior oI latch circuits. The RS Latch, the D Latch, the
edge-sensitive register and the counter are presented.

Basic Latch

The basis Ior storing an elementary binary value is called a latch. The simplest CMOS circuit is
made Irom 2 inverters.

Q
Q÷1
0
1
2 stable
memory
states
Q÷0
1
0

Figure 6-1 . Elementarv memorv cell based on an inverter loop

RS Latch

The RS Latch, also called Set-Reset Flip Flop (SR FF), transIorms a pulse into a continuous
state. The RS latch can be made up oI two interconnected NOR or NAND gates, inspired Irom
the two chained inverters oI Iigure 6-2. In the case oI RS-NOR, the Reset and Set inputs are
active high. The memory state corresponds to Reset÷Set÷0. The combination Reset÷Set÷1
should not be used, as it means that Q should be Reset and Set at the same time.

6 Latches
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 6. Latches

47 17/08/06
RS Latch (NOR)
R S Q nQ
0 0 Q nQ
0 1 1 0
1 0 0 1
1 1 1 1


Figure 6-2 . The truth table and schematic diagram of a RS latch made (RSNor.SCH)

FULL CUSTOM LAYOUT. You may create the layout oI RS latch manually. The two NOR
gates may share the VDD and VSS supply achieving continuous diIIusions.
LAYOUT COMPILING. Use DSCH to create the schematic diagram oI the RS latch. VeriIy the
circuit with buttons and lamps. Save the design under the name RS.sch using the command
File → →→ → Save As. Generate the Verilog text Iile (.v appendix) by using the command File → →→ →
Make Verilog File. In MICROWIND , click on the command Compile → →→ → Compile Verilog File.
Select the text Iile RS.v. Click on Compile. When the compiling is complete, the resulting
layout appears as shown below. The NOR implementation oI the RS gate is completed.

module RSNor( Reset,Set,Q,nQ);
input Reset,Set;
output Q,nQ;
nor nor1(Q,nQ,Reset);
nor nor2(nQ,Set,Q);
endmodule

With the Reset and Set signals behaving like clocks, the memory eIIect is not easy to illustrate.
A much better approach consists in declaring pulse signals with an active pulse on Reset
Iollowed by an active pulse on Set. Consequently, you must change the clock property into a
pulse property. For NOR implementation, the pulse is positive.

1. Select the Pulse icon. Click on the node Reset.
2. Click the brush to clear the existing pulse properties oI the pulse.
3. Enter the desired start time (0.48 ns in this example) and pulse duration, and click Insert
(see Iigure 6-3).

MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 6. Latches

48 17/08/06


Figure 6-3 . The pulse propertv used to control the Reset of the latch (RsNor.MSK)


Figure 6-4 . Lavout of the RS latch made (RSNor.MSK)

4. Repeat the same procedure to change the clock into a pulse Ior node Set. The start time is
now Iixed to 1.48 ns to generate a pulse later than Ior the Reset signal.
5. Click on Simulate → →→ →Start Simulation. The timing diagrams oI Iigure 6-4 appear.

In the simulation oI Iigure 6-4, a positive pulse on Set turns Q to a stable high state. Notice that
when Set goes to 0, Q remains at 1, which is called the memory` state. When a positive pulse
occurs on Reset, Q goes low, nQ goes high. In this type oI simulation, the combination
Reset÷Set÷1 is not present.

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Edge Trigged Latch

This edge-trigged latch is one oI the most widely used cells in microelectronics circuit design.
The cell structure comprises two master-slave basic memory stages. The most compact
implementation oI the edge-trigged latch is reported below (Iigure 6-5). The schematic diagram
is based on inverters and pass-transistors. On the leIt side, the two chained inverter are in
memory state when the pMOS loop transistor P1 is on, that is when Clk÷0. The two-chained
inverters on the right side act in an opposite way. The reset Iunction is obtained by a direct
ground connection oI the master and slave memories, using nMOS devices.

Master÷0
Q÷0
Slave transparent
Slave ÷0
Q÷0
Master transparent
Clock ÷0
Clock ÷1
Clock ÷0
Master÷1
Slave transparent
Q updated to 1
Fall edge of the clock


Figure 6-5 . The edge-trigged latch and its logic simulation (Dreg.MSK)

When clock is high, the master latch is updated to a new value oI the input D. The slave latch
produces to the output Q the previous value oI D. When clock goes down, the master latch turns
to memory state. The slave circuit is updated. The change oI the clock Irom 1 to 0 is the active
edge oI the clock. This type oI latch is a negative edge Ilip Ilop.

MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 6. Latches

50 17/08/06
Use the Verilog compiler to generate the edge-trigged latch description in Verilog Iormat, or by
creating a schematic diagram including the 'D¨ register symbol, in the symbol palette oI DSCH .
As can be seen, the register is built up Irom one single call to the primitive dreg. For
simulation:
• Reset is active on a level 1. Reset is activated twice, at the beginning and later, using a
piece-wise linear description included in the pulse property.
• Clk is a clock with 10ns at 0 and 10ns at 1.
• D is the data chosen here not synchronized with Clk, in order to observe various
behaviors oI the register.

To compile the DREG Iile, use the command Compile→ →→ →Compile Verilog Text. The
corresponding layout is reported below. The piece-wise-linear data is transIerred to the text
label 'Reset¨ appearing in the lower corner oI the D Ilip Ilop layout oI Iigure 6-6.

Master memory loop
Slave memory loop
Reset master
Reset slave

Figure 6-6 . Compiled version of the Edge-trigged D Flip Flop (DregCompile.MSK)

For testing the Dreg, the Reset signal is activated twice, at the beginning and later, using a
piece-wise linear property (Iigure 6-6). The Clock signal has a 2 ns period. D is the data chosen
here not synchronized with Clock, in order to observe various behaviors oI the register.
The simulation oI the edge-trigged D-register is reported in Iigure 6-6. The signals Q and nQ
always act in opposite. When Reset is asserted, the output Q is 0, nQ is 1. When Reset is not
active, Q takes the value oI D at a Iall edge oI the clock. For all other cases, Q and nQ remain in
memory state. The latch is thus sensitive to the Iall edge oI the clock.



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51 17/08/06


Figure 6-7 . Piece-wise-linear propertv used for sophisticated control of input signals
(DregCompile.MSK)


Data transIerred to Q at
the Iall edge oI Clock
Asynchronous reset oI
the D-Flip-Flop


Figure 6-8 . Simulation oI the DREG cell (DregCompile.MSK)

Added Features in the Full version

Latches The truth table and schematic diagram oI the static D latch, also called Static D-
Flip-Flop are described. The main characteristics oI the latch switching are
presented.
Counters The one-bit counter is able to produce a signal Ieaturing halI the Irequency oI a
clock. The implementation is detailed. Up and down counters are also
described.
Registers ShiIt registers, serial registers are described.

MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 7. Memory circuits

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Basic Memory Organization

Figure 7-1 shows a typical memory organization layout |Sharma|. It consists oI a memory array,
a row decoder, a column decoder and a read/write circuit. The row decoder selects one row Irom
2
N
, thanks to a N-bit row selection address. The column decoder selects one row Irom 2
M
,
thanks to a M-bit column selection address. The memory array is based on 2
N
rows and 2
M

columns oI a repeated pattern, the basic memory cell. A typical value Ior N and M is 10, leading
to 1024 rows and 1024 columns, which corresponds to 1048576 elementary memory cells
(1Mega-bit).
R
O
W
S
E
L
E
C
T
Column Select
Read/Write Circuit
1 M
Column
address
DataOut DataIn
1
N
2
N
rows
Row
address
2
N
x 2
M
bit oI
memory
2
M
columns
Selected
memory cell
Selected row
Selected column

Figure 7-1 . Tvpical memorv organi:ation

RAM Memory

7 Memory Circuits

MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 7. Memory circuits

53 17/08/06
The basic cell Ior static memory design is based on 6 transistors, with two pass gates instead oI
one. The corresponding schematic diagram is given in Figure 7-2. The circuit consists oI the 2
cross-coupled inverters, but uses two pass transistors instead oI one.

Figure 7-2 . The lavout of the 6 transistor static memorv cell (RAM6T.SCH)

Figure 7-3 . An arrav of 6T memorv cells, with 4 rows and 4 columns (RAM6T.SCH)

The cell has been designed to be duplicated in X and Y in order to create a large array oI cells.
Usual sizes Ior Megabit SRAM memories are 256 column x 256 rows or higher. A modest
arrangement oI 4x4 RAM cells is proposed in Iigure 7-3. The selection lines WL concern all the
cells oI one row. The bit lines BL and ~BL concern all the cells oI one column.
The RAM layout is given in Figure 7-4. The BL and ~BL signals are made with metal2 and
cross the cell Irom top to bottom. The supply lines are horizontal, made with metal3. This
allows easy matrix-style duplication oI the RAM cell.
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 7. Memory circuits

54 17/08/06

Figure 7-4 . The lavout of the static RAM cell (RAM6T.MSK).

WRITE CYCLE. Values 1 or 0 must be placed on Bit Line, and the data inverted value on ~Bit
Line. Then the selection Word Line goes to 1. The two-inverter latch takes the Bit Line value.
When the selection Word Line returns to 0, the RAM is in a memory state.
READ CYCLE. The selection signal Word Line must be asserted, but no inIormation should be
imposed on the bit lines. In that case, the stored data value propagates to Bit Line, and its
inverted value ~Data propagates to ~Bit Line.



Floating state
described by « x »

Figure 7-5 . The bit Line pulse used the "x" floating state to enable the reading of the memorv cell
(RamStatic6T.MSK)

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55 17/08/06
SIMULATION. The simulation parameters correspond to the read and write cycle in the RAM.
The proposed simulation steps consist in writing a '0¨, a '1¨, and then reading the '1¨. In a
second phase, we write a '1¨, a '0¨, and read the '0¨. The Bit Line and ~Bit Line signals are
controlled by pulses (Figure 7-5). The Iloating state is obtained by inserting the letter "x"
instead oI 1 or 0 in the description oI the signal.

The simulation oI the RAM cell is proposed in Iigure 7-6. At time 0.0, Data reaches an
unpredictable value oI 1, aIter an unstable period. Meanwhile, ~Data reaches 0. At time 0.5 ns,
the memory cell is selected by a 1 on Word Line. As the Bit Line inIormation is 0, the memory
cell inIormation Data goes down to 0. At time 1.5 ns, the memory cell is selected again. As the
Bit Line inIormation is now 1, the memory cell inIormation Data goes to 1. During the read
cycle, in which Bit Line and ~Bit Line signals are Iloating, the memory sets these wires
respectively to 1 and 0, corresponding to the stored values.



Bit Line Iloating
(Read cycle)
Bit Line ÷0
(Write cycle)
Cell activated
Write 0
Keeps 0
Write 1
(Keeps 1)
Bit Line ÷1
(Write cycle)
Bit Line ÷0
(Write cycle)

Figure 7-6 . Write cvcle for the static RAM cell (RamStatic6T.MSK).

Selection Circuits

The row selection circuit decodes the row address and activates one single row. This row is
shared by all word line signals oI the row. The row selection circuit is based on a multiplexor
circuit. One line is asserted while all the other lines are at zero.
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56 17/08/06
R
O
W
S
E
L
E
C
T
1
N
2
N
rows
Row
address
Selected row (Word Line)
Mem Row Cell
Height
Iixed by
the Mem
size
Free
width
Mem
width
Mem
height
Word
Line Word
Line

Figure 7-7 . The row selection circuit

In the row selection circuit Ior the 16x4 array, we simply need to decode a two-bit address.
Using AND gates is one simple solution. In the case oI a very large number oI address lines, the
decoder is split into sub-decoders, which handle a reduced number oI address lines.

Column Select
Read/Write Circuit
1 M
Column
address
DataOut DataIn
2
M
columns
Selected
memory cell
Selected column
Control

Figure 7-8 . The column selection circuit principles

The column decoder selects a particular column in the memory array to read the contents oI the
selected memory cell (Figure 7-8) or to modiIy its contents. The column selector is based on
the same principles as those oI the row decoder. The major modiIication is that the data Ilows
both ways, that is either Irom the memory cell to the DataOut signal (Read cycle), or Irom the
DataIn signal to the cell (Write cycle).
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A Complete 64 bit SRAM

The 64 bit SRAM memory interIace is shown in Iigure 7-9. The 64 bits oI memory are
organized in words oI 4 bits, meaning that DataIn and DataOut have a 4 bit width. Each data
D0..D15 occupies 4 contiguous memory cells in the array. Four address lines are necessary to
decode one address among 16. The memory structure requires two address lines A0 and A1 Ior
the word lines WL[0]..WL[3] and two address lines A2 and A3 Ior the bit line selection. The
Iinal layout oI the 64 bit static RAM is proposed in Figure 7-10.

Address
bus
A0
A1
WE
Read/Write
Clk
Clock
Do0
Do1
Data Out
bus
CE
Chip Enable
Do2
Do3
Di0
Di1
Di3
Data In
bus
Di2
A2
A3
64 bit SRAM
(16x4 bit)
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
D10
D11
D12
D13
D14
D15
Each Data has a 4 bit si:e
WL3
WL2
WL1
WL0
A0..1

Figure 7-9 . The architecture of the 64 bit RAM (RAM64.MSK)

Figure 7-10 . The complete RAM lavout (RAM64.MSK)

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Dynamic RAM Memory

The dynamic RAM memory has only one transistor, in order to improve the memory matrix
density by almost one order oI magnitude. The storage element is no longer the stable inverter
loop, as Ior the static RAM, but only a capacitor Cs, also called the storage capacitor. The write
and hold operation Ior a "1" is shown in Iigure 7-11. The data is set on the bit line, the word line
is then activated and Cs is charged. As the pass transistor is n-type, the analog value reaches
JDD-Jt. When WL is inactive, the storage capacitor Cs holds the "1".


Precharged
to Vp
Vp¹∆V
Precharged
to Vp
Vp-∆V

Figure 7-11 . Simulation of the Read cvcle for the 1 transistor dvnamic RAM cell (RAM1T.SCH)

The reading cycle is destructive Ior the stored inIormation. Suppose that Cs holds a 1. The bit
line is precharged to a voltage Jp (Usually around VDD/2). When the word line is active, a
communication is established between the bit line, loaded by capacitor CBL, and the memory,
loaded by capacitor CS. The charges are shared between these nodes, and the result is a small
increase oI the voltage Jp by ∆J, thanks to the injection oI some charges Irom the memory.

The cross-section oI the DRAM capacitor is given in Iigure 7-12. The bit line is routed in
metal2, and is connected to the cell through a metal1 and diIIusion contact. The word line is the
polysilicon gate. On the right side, the storage capacitor is a sandwich oI conductor material
connected to the diIIusion, a thin oxide (SiO2 in this case) and a second conductor that Iills the
capacitor and is connected to ground by a contact to the Iirst level oI metal. The capacitance is
around 20IF in this design. Higher capacitance values may be obtained using larger option layer
areas, at the price oI a lower cell density.

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Figure 7-12 . The stacked capacitor cell and its cross-section (DramEdram.MSK)

EEPROM

The basic element oI an EEPROM (Electrically Erasable PROM) memory is the Iloating-gate
transistor. The concept was introduced several years ago Ior the EPROM (Erasable PROM). It is
based on the possibility oI trapping electrons in an isolated polysilicon layer placed between the
channel and the controlled gate. The charges have a direct impact on the threshold voltage oI a
double-gate device. When there is no charge in the Iloating gate (Figure 7-13, upper part), the
threshold voltage is low, meaning that a signiIicant current may Ilow between the source and the
drain, iI a high voltage is applied on the gate. However, the channel is small as compared to a
regular MOS, and the Ion current is 3 to 5 times lower, Ior the same channel size.

Figure 7-13 . The two states of the double gate MOS (EepromExplain.SCH)

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60 17/08/06
When charges are trapped in the Iloating polysilicon layer (Figure 7-14, leIt), the threshold
voltage is high, almost no current Ilows through the device, independently oI the gate value. As
a matter oI Iact, the electrons trapped in the Iloating gate prevent the creation oI the channel by
repealing channel electrons. Data retention is a key Ieature oI EEPROM, as it must be
guaranteed Ior a wide range oI temperatures and operating conditions. Optimum electrical
properties oI the ultra thin gate oxide and inter-gate oxide are critical Ior data retention. The
typical data retention oI an EEPROM is 10 years.


Poly2/metal
contact
Poly2 on the
top oI poly
Floating poly
underneath poly2

Floating
poly gate
Ultra thin gate oxide
Controlled
poly2 gate
Poly/Poly2 oxide

Figure 7-14 . The double gate MOS generated bv Microwind (Eeprom.MSK)

The double gate MOS layout is shown in Iigure 7-14. The structure is very similar to the n-
channel MOS device, except Ior the supplementary polv2 layer on top oI the polysilicon. The
lower polysilicon is unconnected, resulting in a Iloating node. Only the polv2 upper gate is
connected to a metal layer through a polv2/metal contact situated at the top. The cross-section oI
Iigure 7-14 right reveals the stacked polv/polv2 structure, with a thin oxide in between.

Flash Memories

Flash memories are a variation oI EEPROM memories. Flash arrays can be programmed
electrically bit-by-bit but can only be erased by blocks. Flash memories are based on a single
double poly MOS device, without any selection transistor (Figure 7-15). The immediate
consequence is a more simple design, which leads to a more compact memory array and more
dense structures. Flash memories are commonly used in micro-controllers Ior the storage oI
application code, which gives the advantage oI non volatile memories and the possibility oI
reconIiguring and updating the code many times.
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 7. Memory circuits

61 17/08/06


Discharged Charged

Figure 7-15 . The flash memorv point and the principles for charge/discharge (FlashMemorv.SCH)

The Flash memory point usually has a "T-shape", due to an increased size oI the source Ior
optimum tunneling eIIect. The horizontal polysilicon2 is the bit line, the vertical metal2 is the
word line which links all drain regions together. The horizontal metal line links all sources
together (7-16).


2 lambda


Figure 7-16 . The flash memorv point and the associated cross-section (Flash8x8.MSK)
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Memory Interface

All inputs and outputs oI the RAM are synchronized to the rise edge oI the clock, and more than
one word can be read or written in sequence. The typical chronograms oI a synchronous RAM
are shown in Iigure 7-17. The active edge oI the clock is usually the rise edge. One read cycle
includes 3 active clock edges in the example shown in Iigure 7-17. The row address selection is
active at the Iirst rise edge, Iollowed by the column address selection. The data is valid at the
third Iall edge oI the system clock.
Row Address
Row Address Selection (RAS)
Column Address Selection (CAS)
Write Enable (WE)
Data Out (Dout)
Valid Dout
Read cycle (t
RC
)
Row Access Cycle t
RAC
Column Access Cycle t
CAC
(Read)
Active edge
System Clock (Clock)
Col
New cycle

Figure 7-17 . Svnchronous RAM timing diagram
Added Features in the Full version

World oI
memories
Semiconductor memories are vital components in modern integrated circuits. The
introductory part details the main Iamilies oI memories.
Memories Compact memory cell obtained by sharing all possible contacts: the supply contact, the
ground contact and the bit line contacts. Detailed inIormation about ROM memories.
Double-gate
MOS
The programming oI a double-poly transistor involves the transIer oI electrons Irom the
source to the Iloating gate through the thin oxide. Details are provided on the programming
and charge removal.
Ferroelectric
RAM
FRAM memories are the most advanced oI the Flash memory challengers. The FRAM
memory point is based on a two-state Ierroelectric insulator. A complete description and
simulation oI the FRAM is proposed.
InterIacing Some inIormation is provided about the Double data Rate memories, which involve both the
rise and Iall edge oI the clock.


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This chapter deals with analog basic cells, Irom the simple resistor and capacitor to the operational ampliIier.
A very complete description oI analog cells may be Iound in |Razavi|, and details on analog layout
techniques may be Iound in |Hastings|.

Resistor

An area-eIIicient resistor available in CMOS process consists oI a strip oI polysilicon. The resistance
between s1 and s2 is usually counted in a very convenient unit called "ohm per square", noted Ω/ . The
deIault value polysilicon resistance per square is 10Ω, which is quite small, but rises to 200Ω iI the salicide
material is removed (Figure 8-1).

polysilicon
1 2 . 7
One square
accounts Ior 10Ω
Metal/poly contact
S1 S2
7x10Ω÷ 70Ω
Option layer which
removes the salicide
1 2 . 7
One square
accounts Ior 200Ω
S1 S2
7x200Ω÷ 1400Ω
S1 S2
S1 S2

Figure 8-1 . The polvsilicon resistance with unsalicide option

In the cross-section shown in Iigure 8-2, the salicide material deposited on the upper interIace between the
polysilicon layer and the oxide creates a metal path Ior current that reduces the resistance dramatically.
Notice the shallow trench isolation and surrounding oxide that isolate the resistor Irom the substrate and
other conductors, enabling very high voltage biasing (up to 100V). However, the oxide is a poor thermal
conductor which limits the power dissipation oI the polysilicon resistor.

The salicide is part oI the deIault process, and is present at the surIace oI all polysilicon areas. However, it
can be removed thank to an option layer programmed by a double click in the option layer box, and a tick at
"Remove Salicide". In the example shown in Iigure 8-3, the deIault resistance is 76Ω, and the unsalicide
resistance rises to 760Ω.
8 Analog Cells
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Trench isolation
Substrate
DeIault salicide
deposit (Low R)
No salicide
deposit (High R)
Resistor contacts

Figure 8-2 . Removing the salicide material to increase the sheet resistance (ResPolv.MSK)



Option layer
used to remove
the salicidation

Figure 8-3 . Removing the salicide material thanks to an option laver

Other resistors consist oI N¹ or P¹ diIIusions. An interesting Ieature oI diIIusion resistor is the ability to
combine a signiIicant resistance value and a diode eIIect. The diIIusion resistor is used in input/output
protection devices.

The resistor value varies because oI lithography and process variations. In the case oI the poly resistance, the
width, height and doping may vary (Figure 8-4 leIt). Polysilicon resistors are rarely designed with the
minimum 2 lambda width, but rather 4 or 6 lambda, so that the impact oI the width variations is smaller. But
the equivalent resistance is smaller, meaning less silicon eIIiciency. A variation ∆W oI 0.2λ on both edges
results in a 20° variation oI the resistance on a 2λ width resistor, but only a 10° variation Ior a larger
resistor designed with a width oI 4λ.
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∆W
∆h
∆N (doping)
∆W÷0.2λ
∆W÷0.2λ
20° variation 10° variation
oxide
Poly



Figure 8-4 . Resistance variations with the process
Capacitor

Capacitors are used in analog design to build Iilters, compensation, decoupling, etc.. Ideally, the value oI the
capacitor should not depend on the bias conditions, so that the Iiltering eIIect would be situated at constant
Irequencies.
Diodes in reverse mode exhibit a capacitor behavior, however, the capacitance value is strongly dependent
on the bias conditions. A simple N¹ diIIusion on a P-substrate is a NP diode, which may be considered as a
capacitor as long as the N¹ region is polarized at a voltage higher than the P-substrate voltage which is
usually the case as the substrate is grounded (0V). In 0.12µm, the capacitance is around 300aF/µm2 (1 atto-
Farad is equal to 10
-18
Farad).
P- N¹
V
PN

V
PN
·V
T
Very small
current
V
PN
~V
T
Large current
V
T

i
PN

V
PN


Figure 8-5 . The diffusion over substrate as a non-linear capacitor (Capa.MSK)

The typical variation oI the capacitance with the diIIusion voltage J
N
is given in Iigure 8-6. The capacitance
per µm2 provided in the electrical rules is a rude approximation oI the capacitance variation. A large voltage
diIIerence between J
N
and the substrate result in a thick zone with empty charges, which corresponds to a
thick insulator, and consequently to a small capacitance. When J
N
is lowered, the zone with empty charges is
reduced, and the capacitance increases. II J
N
goes lower than the substrate voltage, the diode starts to
conduct.
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Capacitance
extracted bv
Microwind
J
N
VDD/2 0 -Vt
C (aF/µm2)
300
600
0
VDD
The diode is
turned on
J
N
~0
Substrate (0V)
Zone emptv of
charges ÷ insulator,
varies depending
on J
N


Figure 8-6 . The diffusion capacitance varies with the polari:ation voltage

Poly-Poly2 Capacitor

Most deep-submicron CMOS processes incorporate a second polysilicon layer (poly2) to build Iloating gate
devices Ior EEPROM. An oxide thickness around 20 nm is placed between the poly and poly2 materials,
which induces a plate capacitor around 1,7 IF/µm
2
. In MICROWIND , the command "Edit → →→ → Generate →
Capacitor" gives access to a speciIic menu Ior generating capacitor (Figure 8-7). The parameter in the
design rule Iile (cmos65nm.RUL Ior the 65-nm technology) used to conIigure the poly-poly2 capacitor is
CP2PO.



Fix here the target
capacitance

Figure 8-7 . The generator menu handles the design of polv/polv2 capacitor and inter-metal capacitors

The poly/poly2 capacitor simply consists oI a sheet oI polysilicon and a sheet oI poly2, separated by a
speciIic dielectric oxide which is 20-nm in the case oI the deIault CMOS 65-nm process.
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Diode-connected MOS

The schematic diagram oI the diode-connected MOS is proposed in Iigure 8-8. This circuit Ieatures a high
resistance within a small silicon area. The key idea is to build a permanent connection between the drain and
the gate. Most oI the time, the source is connected to ground in the case oI n-channel MOS, and to VDD in
the case oI p-channel MOS.

Figure 8-8 . Schematic diagram of the MOS connected as a diode (MosRes.SCH)

To create the diode-connected MOS, the easiest way is to use the MOS generator. Enter a large length and a
small width, Ior example W÷0.14µm and L÷1.4µm. This sizing corresponds to a long channel, Ieaturing a
very high equivalent resistance. Add a poly/metal contact and connect the gate to one diIIusion. Add a clock
on that node. Add a VSS property to the other diIIusion. The layout result is shown in Iigure 8-9.


Figure 8-9 . Schematic diagram of the MOS connected as a diode (ResMos.MSK)

Now, click Simulation on Layout. In a small window, the MOS characteristics are drawn, with the
Iunctional point drawn as a color dot (Figure 8-10). It can be seen that the I/V characteristics correspond to a
diode. The resistance is the invert value oI the slope in the Id/Jd characteristics. For Jds larger than 0.6V,
the resistance is almost constant. As the current Ids increases oI 10µA in 0.4V, the resistance can be
estimated around 40KΩ. A more precise evaluation is perIormed by MICROWIND iI you draw the slope
manually. At the bottom oI the screen, the equivalent resistance appears, together with the voltage and
current.

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68 17/08/06


The slope is equal
to 1/R
As Vd÷Vg, Ids
Iollows this unique
curve
Draw the slope with
the mouse to display
the equivalent R


Figure 8-10 . Using the Simulation on Lavout to follow the characteristics of the diode-connected MOS (ResMos.MSK)

In summary, the MOS connected as a diode is a capacitance Ior Jgs·Jt, a high resistance when Jgs is
higher than the threshold voltage Jt. The resistance obtained using such a circuit can easily reach 100KΩ in
a very small silicon area.

Voltage Reference

The voltage reIerence is usually derived Irom a voltage divider made Irom resistance. The output voltage
Jref is deIined by equation 8-1.

DD
P N
N
ref
J
R R
R
J
+
= (Eq. 8-1)

with
V
DD
÷power supply voltage (1.0 V in 65-nm)
R
N
÷equivalent resistance oI the n-channel MOS (Ω)
R
P
÷equivalent resistance oI the p-channel MOS (Ω)

Notice that two n-MOS or two p-MOS properly connected Ieature the same Iunction. P-MOS devices oIIer
higher resistance due to lower mobility, compared to n-channel MOS. Four voltage reIerence designs are
shown in Iigure 8-11. The most common design uses one p-channel MOS and one n-channel MOS
connected as diodes.
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69 17/08/06

Figure 8-11 . Joltage reference using PMOS and NMOS devices as large resistance

The alternative solutions consist in using two n-channel MOS devices only (LeIt lower part oI Iigure 8-12),
or their opposite built Irom p-channel devices only. Not only one reIerence voltage may be created, but also
three, as shown in the right part oI the Iigure, which use Iour n-channel MOS devices connected as diodes.

Figure 8-12 . Joltage reference circuits (a) with one nMOS and one pMOS (b) with two pMOS (Jref.MSK)

Amplifier

The goal oI the ampliIier is to multiply by a signiIicant Iactor the amplitude oI a sinusoidal voltage input
Jin, and deliver the ampliIied sinusoidal output Jout on a load. The single stage ampliIier may consist oI a
MOS device (we choose here a n-channel MOS) and a load. The load can be a resistance or an inductance. In
the circuit, we use a resistance made with a p-channel MOS device with gate and drain connected (Figure 8-
13). The pMOS which replaces the passive load is called an active resistance.
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Figure 8-13 . Single stage amplifier design with MOS devices (AmpliSingle.SCH)
J
IN

J
OUT

v
in

v
out

The gain (slope)
is high in this
region
Input voltage (V)
Output
voltage (V)
Gain
J
IN
·v
in
J
OUT
·v
out

Most
interesting
zone
J
IN¸low
J
IN¸high


Figure 8-14 . The amplifier has a high gain in a certain input range, where a small input signal vin is amplified to a
large signal vout.

The single stage ampliIier characteristics between Jin and Jout have a general shape shown in Iigure 8-14.
The most interesting zone corresponds to the input voltage range where the transIer Iunction has a linear
shape, that is between JIN¸low and JIN¸high. Outside this voltage range, the behavior oI the circuit does
not correspond anymore to an ampliIier. II we add a small sinusoidal input v
in
to J
IN
, a small variation oI
current i
ds
is added to the static current I
DS
, which induces a variation v
out
oI the output voltage J
OUT
. The link
between the variation oI current i
ds
and the variation oI voltage v
in
can be approximated by equation 8-2.

gs m ds
v g i = (Equ. 8-2)

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In Iigure 8-15, a nMOS device with large width and minimum length is connected to a high resistance
pMOS load. A 50 mV sinusoidal input (vin) is superimposed to the static oIIset 0.5 V (J
IN
). What we expect
is a 500 mV sinusoidal wave (vout) with a certain DC oIIset (J
OUT
).

Figure 8-15 . Single stage amplifier lavout with a pMOS as a load resistor (AmpliSingle.MSK)

What we need now is to Iind the characteristics Jout/Jin in order to tune the oIIset voltage J
IN
. In the
simulation window, click Voltage vs voltage¨ and More, to compute the static response oI the ampliIier
(Figure 8-16). The range oI voltage input that exhibits a correct gain appears clearly. For J
DS
higher than 0.2
V and lower than 0.4 V, the output gain is around 5. ThereIore, an optimum oIIset value could be 0.30 V.
Change the parameter Offset oI the input sinusoidal wave to place the input voltage in the correct
polarization. A gain oI 5.0 is observed when the oIIset V
IN
is 0.30 V (Iigure 8-16).


Linear ampliIication
(Gain maximum
around 5.0)
Valid input
voltage range
VOUT¹vout (V)
VIN¹vin (V)


Figure 8-16 . Single stage amplifier static response showing the valid input voltage range (AmpliSingle.MSK)
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Simple Differential Amplifier

The goal oI the diIIerential ampliIier is to compare two analog signals, and to ampliIy their diIIerence. The
diIIerential ampliIier Iormulation is reported below (Equation 8-3). Usually, the gain K is high, ranging Irom
10 to 1000. The consequence is that the diIIerential ampliIier output saturates very rapidly, because oI the
supply voltage limits.

( ) Jm Jp K Jout − = (Equ. 8-3)

The schematic diagram oI a basic diIIerential ampliIier is proposed in Iigure 8-17. An nMOS device has
been inserted between the diIIerential pair and the ground to improve the gain. The gate voltage Jbias
controls the amount oI current that can Ilow on the two branches. This pass transistor permits the diIIerential
pair to operate at lower Jds, which means better analog perIormances and less saturation eIIects.

Figure 8-17 . An improved differential amplifier (AmpliDiff.SCH)

The best way to measure the input range is to connect the diIIerential ampliIier as a Iollower, that is Jout
connect to Jm. The Jm property is simply removed, and a contact poly/metal is added at the appropriate
place to build the bridge between Jout and Jm. A slow ramp is applied on the input Jin and the result is
observed on the output. We use again the « Voltage vs. Voltage » to draw the static characteristics oI the
Iollower. The BSIM4 model is Iorced Ior simulation by a label "BSIM4" on the layout.
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73 17/08/06
PMOS current mirror
with large length
nMOS diIIerential
pair with large length
Voltage control oI the
global current consumption
OpAmp connected as
a Iollower
Label used to Iorce BSIM4
model at simulation, rather than
Model 3


Figure 8-18 . The lavout corresponding to the improved differential amplifier (AmpliDiffLargeLength.MSK)

The simulation oI the circuit is perIormed here using the CMOS 0.12µm technology. Use File → →→ → Select
Foundry and select 'cmos012.RUL¨. As can be seen Irom the resulting simulation reported in Iigure 8-19, a
low Jbias Ieatures a larger voltage range, speciIically at high voltage values. The Iollower works properly
starting 0.4V, independently oI the Jbias value. A high Jbias leads to a slightly Iaster response, but reduces
the input range and consumes more power as the associated nMOS transistor drives an important current.
The voltage Jbias is oIten Iixed to a value a little higher than the threshold voltage Jtn. This corresponds to
a good compromise between switching speed and input range.

Vbias÷0.8V
Vbias÷0.6V
Vbias÷0.5V


Figure 8-19 . Effect of Jbias on the differential amplifier performance (AmpliDiffJbias.MSK)
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74 17/08/06

Added Features in the Full version

AmpliIiers The push-pull ampliIier is built using a voltage comparator and a power output stage. Its
schematic diagram and perIormances are detailed.
Improved layout
techniques
A set oI design techniques can improve the current mirror behavior: MOS orientation,
channel length modulation eIIects, dummy devices, MOS matching.
Resistor There exist eIIicient techniques to reduce the resistance variations within the same chip.
Layout techniques which minimize the eIIects oI process variations are presented.
Capacitor The multiplication oI metal layers create lateral and vertical capacitance eIIects oI rising
importance. The spared silicon area in upper metal layers may be used Ior small size
capacitance. The implementation oI these capacitor is described.
Current Mirror The current mirror is one oI the most useIul basic blocs in analog design. It is primarily
used to copy currents. The principles and behavior oI current mirrors are given in the Iull
version. The cascode current mirror is also presented, which has several advantages over
the simple current mirror.

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On-Chip Inductors

Inductors are commonly used Ior Iiltering, ampliIying, or Ior creating resonant circuits used in
radio-Irequency applications. The inductance symbol in DSCH and MICROWIND is as Iollows
(Figure 9-1).

Figure 9-1 . The inductance svmbol

The quality Iactor Q is a very important metric to quantiIy the resonance eIIect. A high quality
Iactor Q means low parasitic eIIects compared to the desired inductance eIIect. The Iormulation
oI the quality Iactor is not as easy as it could appear. An extensive discussion about the
Iormulation oI Q depending on the coil model is given in |Lee|. We consider the coil as a serial
inductor L1, a parasitic serial resistor R1, and two parasitic capacitors C1 and C2 to the ground,
as shown in Iigure 9-2. Consequently, the Q Iactor is approximately given by equation 9-1.
1
) 2 1 (
1
R
C C
L
Q
+
= (Equ. 9-1)


A
B
C


Figure 9-2 . The equivalent model of the 12nH default coil and the approximation of the qualitv factor Q

The inductor can be generated automatically by MICROWIND using the command Edit → →→ →
Generate → →→ → Inductor . The inductance value appears at the bottom oI the window, as well as
the parasitic resistance and the resulting quality Iactor Q.

9 Radio Frequency Circuits
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76 17/08/06
Using the deIault parameters, the coil inductance approaches 12 nH, with a quality Iactor oI
1,15. The corresponding layout is shown in Iigure 9-3. Notice the virtual inductance (L1) and
resistance (R1) symbols placed in the layout. The serial inductor is placed between A and B and
a serial resistance between B and C. II these symbols were omitted, the whole inductor would be
considered as a single electrical node.
Near end oI the coil
Far end oI the coil
Virtual symbol Ior
the serial resistor
Virtual symbol Ior
the serial inductor
A
B
C


Figure 9-3 . The inductor generated bv default (inductor12nH.MSK)

The coil can be considered as a RLC resonant circuit. At very low Irequencies, the inductor is a
short circuit, and the capacitor is an open circuit (Figure 9-4 leIt). This means that the voltage at
node C is almost equal to A, iI no load is connected to node C, as almost no current Ilows
through R1. At very high Irequencies, the inductor is an open circuit, the capacitor a short
circuit (Figure 9-4 right). Consequently, the link between C and A tends towards an open circuit.

Figure 9-4 . The behavior of a RLC circuit at low and high frequencies (Inductor.SCH)

At a very speciIic Irequency the LC circuit Ieatures a resonance eIIect. The theoretical
Iormulation oI this Irequency is given by equation 9-2.
) 2 1 ( 1 2
1
C C L
f
r
+
=
π
(Equ. 9-2)
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We may see the resonance eIIect oI the coil and an illustration oI the quality Iactor using the
Iollowing procedure. The node A is controlled by a sinusoidal waveIorm with increased
Irequency (Also called 'chirp¨ signal). We speciIy a very small amplitude (0.1 V), and a zero
oIIset.
The resonance can be observed when the voltage at nodes B and C is higher than the input
voltage A. The ratio between B and A is equal to the quality Iactor Q.



The sinusoidal input starts
at 1000MHz
The coil output Iollows
The coil resonance multiplies the
output voltage by more than 10
The sinusoidal input
reaches 3GHz
The input Irequency is
around 2.4GHz here


Figure 9-5 . The behavior of a RLC circuit near resonance (Inductor3nHighQ.MSK)

Power Amplifier

The power ampliIier is part oI the radio-Irequency transmitter, and is used to ampliIy the signal
being transmitted to an antenna so that it can be received at the desired distance. Most CMOS
power ampliIiers are based on a single MOS device, loaded with a 'Radio-Frequency Choke¨
inductor L
RFC
, as shown in Iigure 9-6.
The inductor serves as a load Ior the MOS device (At a given Irequency f, the inductor is
equivalent to a resistance L.2π.f), with two signiIicant advantages as compared to the resistor:
the inductor do not consume DC power, and the combination oI the inductor and the load
capacitor CL creates a resonance. The power is delivered to the load RL, which is oIten Iixed to
50 Ω. This load is Ior example the antenna monopole, which can be assimilated to a radiation
resistance, as described in the previous section. The resonance eIIect is obtained between L
RFC

and C
L
.

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Model of the antenna
On-chip inductor
On-chip capacitor
Oscillation of Jout
Input signal JrfIn

Figure 9-6 . The basic diagram of a power amplifier (PowerAmp.SCH)

An example oI powerIul MOS device is shown in Iigure 9-7. The maximum current is close to
40 mA. A convenient way to generate the polarization ring consists in using the Path generator
command, and selection the option Metal and p-diffusion. Then draw the location Ior the
polarization contacts in order to complete the ring.

Figure 9-7 . The lavout of the power MOS also includes a polari:ation ring, and the contacts to metal2
connections to JRF¸in and JOut (PowerAmplifier.MSK)

The distinction between class A,B,AB, etc.. ampliIiers is mainly given with the polarization oI
the input signal. A Class A ampliIier is polarized in such a way that the transistor is always
conducting. The MOS device operates almost linearly.

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79 17/08/06
The sinusoidal input oIIset is 0.7 V, the amplitude is 0.4V. The power MOS Iunctional point
trajectory is plotted in Iigure 9-8, and is obtained using the command Simulate on Layout. We
see the evolution oI the Iunctional point with the voltage parameters: as Jgs varies Irom 0.3 V
to 1.1 V, Ids Iluctuates between 20 mA and 50 mA. The MOS device is always conducting,
which corresponds to class A ampliIiers.


Figure 9-8 . The class A amplifier has a sinusoidal input (PowerAmplifierClassA.MSK)

Oscillator

The role oI oscillators is to create a periodic logic or analog signal with a stable and predictable
Irequency. Oscillators are required to generate the carrying signals Ior radio Irequency
transmission, but also Ior the main clocks oI processors. The ring oscillator is a very simple
oscillator circuit, based on the switching delay existing between the input and output oI an
inverter. II we connect an odd chain oI inverters, we obtain a natural oscillation, with a period
which corresponds roughly to the number oI elementary delays per gate. The Iastest oscillation
is obtained with 3 inverters (One single inverter connected to itselI does not oscillate). The usual
implementation consists in a series oI Iive up to one hundred chained inverters (Figure 9-9).
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Figure 9-9 . A ring oscillator is based on an odd number of inverters (Inv3.SCH)

The main problem oI this type oI oscillators is the very strong dependence oI the output
Irequency on virtually all process parameters and operating conditions. This means that any
supply Iluctuation has a signiIicant impact on the oscillator Irequency.

The LC oscillator proposed below is not based on the logic delay, as with the ring oscillator, but
on the resonant eIIect oI a passive inductor and capacitor circuit. In the schematic diagram oI
Iigure 9-10, the inductor L1 resonates with the capacitor C1 connected to S1 combined with C2
connected to S2.

Figure 9-10 . A differential oscillator using an inductor and companion capacitor (OscillatorDiff.SCH)

The layout implementation is perIormed using a 3nH virtual inductor and two 1pF capacitor.
The large width oI active devices to ensure a suIIicient current to charge and discharge the huge
capacitance oI the output node at the desired Irequency.

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DC current is
established
Oscillation
starts
Permanent
regime

Figure 9-11 . Simulation of the differential oscillator (OscillatorDiff.MSK)

Using virtual capacitors instead oI on-chip physical coils is recommended during the
development phase. It allows an easy tuning oI the inductor and capacitor elements in order to
achieve the correct behavior. Once the circuit has been validated, the L and C symbols can be
replaced by physical components. The time-domain simulation (Figure 9-11) shows a warm-up
period around 1ns where the DC supply rises to its nominal value, and where the oscillator
eIIect reaches a permanent state aIter some nano-seconds.

The Fourier transIorm oI the output s1 reveals a main sinusoidal contribution at I0 ÷3.725 GHz
as expected, and some harmonics at 2 x f0 and 3 x f0 (Figure 9-12). The remarkable property oI
this circuit is its ability to remain in a stable Irequency even iI we change the supply voltage or
the temperature, which Ieatures a signiIicant improvement as compared to the ring oscillator.
Furthermore, the variations oI the MOS model parameters have almost no eIIect on the
Irequency.
0.9V, 100°C
1.2V, 27°C
2.I0
I0 3.I0

Figure 9-12 . The frequencv spectrum of the oscillator (OscillatorDiff.MSK)

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Phase-lock-loop

The phase-lock-loop (PLL) is commonly used in microprocessors to generate a clock at high
Irequency (F
out
÷2 GHz Ior example) Irom an external clock at low Irequency (F
reI
÷ 100 MHz
Ior example). The PLL is also used as a clock recovery circuit to generate a clock signal Irom a
series oI bits transmitted in serial without synchronization clock (Figure 9-13).

Phase Lock loop
Low
Irequency fin
High
Irequency
fout÷16fin
(a) PLL used to accelerate clock signals

Phase Lock loop
Serial data
Clock
recovery
(b) PLL used for clock recoverv

Phase Lock loop
Frequency
modulation
Demodulated
voltage
(c) PLL used for frequencv demodulation

Figure 9-13 . Principles of phase lock loops
The PLL uses a high Irequency oscillator with varying speed, a counter, a phase detector and a
Iilter (Iigure 9-14). The PLL includes a Ieedback loop which lines up the output clock ClkOut
with the input clock ClkIn through a phase locking stabilization process. When locked, the high
input Irequency I
out
is exactly Nx f
in
.

Phase detector

Filter
High Irequency
Voltage controled
oscillator
high
Irequency
Iout
Jc
Counter
divide by N
Clock is
accelerated to
match fin
fin is
increased
Phase detector
changes
clkDiv
ClkOut is
increased
Jc is increased
JPD

Figure 9-14 . Principles of phase lock loops
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Figure 9-15 . Connecting the current-starved JCO to the phase detector (JCOPll.MSK)

A variation oI the input Irequency f
in
is transIormed by the phase detector into a pulse signal
which is converted in turn into variation oI the analog signal Jc. This signal changes the VCO
Irequency which is divided by the counter and changes clkDiv according to f
in
. The
implementation oI the PLL shown in Iigure 9-15 includes a resistor Rfilter (1000 Ω) and Rvdd2
(5000 Ω). The capacitor Cfilter is a virtual component Iixed to 0.3 pF. These resistance and
capacitance are easy to integrate on-chip.
The input Irequency is Iixed to 2.44 GHz. During the initialization phase (Simulation oI Iigure
9-16), the precharge is active, which pushes rapidly the voltage oI Jc around VDD/2. The VCO
oscillation is started and the phase detector starts operating erratically. The output Xnor is an
interesting indication oI what happens inside the phase detector.



Input clock at
2.44GHz
Precharge oI
Vc to VDD/2
VCO output
reaches 2.44GHz
Vc Iluctuation and
stabilization
Phase detector
stabilized here

Figure 9-16. Simulation of the PLL showing the locking time (JCOPll.MSK)

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We see that the phase diIIerence is very important during the Iirst 10 nanoseconds. Then, the
VCO output starts to converge to the reIerence clock. In terms oI voltage control, Jc tends to
oscillate and then converge to a stable state where the PLL is locked and stable. The output is
equal to the input, and the phase diIIerence is equal to one Iourth oI the period (π/2) according
to the phase detector principles.

Analog to digital and digital to analog converters

The analog to digital converters (ADC) and digital to analog converters (DAC) are the main
links between the analog signals and the digital world oI signal processing. The ADC and DAC
viewed as black boxes are shown in Iigure 9-16. On the right side, the ADC takes an analog
input signal Jin and converts it to a digital output signal A. The digital signal A is a binary
coded representation oI the analog signal using N bits: A
N-1
. A
0
. The maximum number oI
codes Ior N bits is 2
N
. The digital signal is usually treated by a microprocessor unit (MPU) or by
a speciIic digital signal processor (DSP) beIore being restituted as an output B. Then, the DAC,
which has the opposite Iunction compared to the ADC, converts the digital signal to the Iinal
analog output signal Jout.

V
IN

t
ADC
A
0

A
1

A
N-1

DAC
MPU
DSP
B
0

B
1

B
N-1

V
OUT

t

Figure 9-16 . Basic principle of N bits analog to digital and digital to analog converters.

The most basic DAC is based on a resistance ladder. This type oI DAC consists oI a simple
resistor string oI 2
N
identical resistors, and a binary switch array whose inputs are a binary
word. The analog output is the voltage division oI the resistors Ilowing via pass switches (Iigure
9-17).

In the implementation shown in Iigure 9-18, the resistance ladder includes 8 identical resistors,
which generate 8 reIerence voltage equally distributed between the ground voltage and Jdac.
The digital-analog converter uses the three-bit input B (B[2],B[1],B[0]) to control the
transmission gate network which selects one oI the voltage reIerences (A portion oI Jdac)
which is then transIerred to the output Jout. A long path oI polysilicon between VDD and VSS
may give intermediate voltage reIerences required Ior the DAC circuit.

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B|2| B|1| B|0| Vout* Analog output Vout* (V) with
Vdac÷1.2V
0 0 0 0/8 Vdac 0.0
0 0 1 1/8 Vdac 0.15
0 1 0 2/8 Vdac 0.3
0 1 1 3/8 Vdac 0.45
1 0 0 4/8 Vdac 0.6
1 0 1 5/8 Vdac 0.75
1 1 0 6/8 Vdac 0.9
1 1 1 7/8 Vdac 1.05

Figure 9-17 . The specifications of a 3-bit digital-to-analog converter


The option layer
removes salicide in all
boxes included in the
option box, which
increases their resistance
High values oI
polysilicon
resistance are
obtained

Figure 9-18 . The sheet resistance is increased bv removing the salicide deposit, thanks to an option
laver (DAC.MSK)

We activate the property "Remove salicide to increase resistance" oI the option layer (Figure
9-18). Consequently, the resistor value is multiplied by 10 and can be used to design an area-
eIIicient resistor network.

The simulation oI the R ladder DAC (Figure 9-19) shows a regular increase oI the output
voltage Jout with the input B|0|..B|2| Irom '000¨ (0 V) to '111¨ (1.0 V). Each input change
provokes a capacitance network charge and discharge. Notice the Iluctuation oI the reIerence
voltage Jref5 (one oI the 8 reIerence voltages) too. This is due to the weak link to VDD and
VSS through a highly resistive path. The analog level Jout increases regularly with increasing
digit input B. The converter is monotonic.

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Figure 9-19 . Simulation of the digital-analog converter (DAC.MSK).

The analog to digital converter is considered as an encoding device, where an analog sample is
converted into a digital quantity with a number N oI bits. ADCs can be implemented by
employing a variety oI architectures. The 2-bit analog-digital converter converts an analog value
Jin into a two-bit digital value A coded on 2-bit A
1
,A
0
. The Ilash converter uses three ampliIiers
which produce results C
0
,C
1
and C
2
, connected to a coding logic to produce A
1
and A
0
in a very
short delay (Figure 9-20). The Ilash converters are widely used Ior very high sampling rates, a
the cost oI very important power dissipation.

Analog Input Jin C2 C1 C0 A1 A0
Vin·VreI0 0 0 0 0 0
VreI0·Vin·VreI1 0 0 1 0 1
VreI1·Vin·VreI2 0 1 1 1 0
Vin~VreI2 1 1 1 1 1

Figure 9-20 . The schematic diagram of the 2-bit flash ADC converter (AdcFlash2bits.SCH)
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87 17/08/06



Figure 9-21 . Design of the analog-digital converter (ADC.MSK).

The resistor ladder generates intermediate voltage reIerences used by the voltage comparators
located in the middle oI the layout. An unsalicide option layer multiplies the sheet resistance oI
the polysilicon ladder Ior an area-eIIicient implementation. The resistance symbol R(polv) is
inserted in the layout to indicate to the simulator that an equivalent resistance must be taken into
account Ior the analog simulation.

A÷3
A÷2
A÷0
Slow response
oI C0
Fast response
oI C2

Figure 9-22 . Simulation of the analog-digital converter (ADC.MSK).

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88 17/08/06
Open-loop ampliIiers are used as voltage comparators. The comparators address the decoding
logic situated to the right and that provides correct A
0
and A
1
coding.
In the simulation shown in Iigure 9-22, the comparators C
0
and C
1
work well but the comparator
C
0
is used in the lower limit oI the voltage input range. The generation oI combinations "01",
"10" and "11" is produced rapidly but the generation oI "00" is slow. The comparator C
0
may be
modiIied to provide a Iaster response in comparison with low voltage, by changing the biasing
conditions. An alternative is to reduce the input voltage range, which means that the resistance
scale would be supplied by Jdac- larger than VSS and Jdac· smaller than VDD.

Added Features in the Full version

Voltage Controlled
oscillator
The voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) generates a clock with a controllable
Irequency. The VCO is commonly used Ior clock generation in phase lock loop
circuits, as described later in this chapter. The clock may vary typically by ¹/-
50° oI its central Irequency. A current-starved voltage controlled oscillator is
detailed.
Gilbert mixer The Gilbert mixer is used to shiIt the Irequency oI an input signal Jin to a high
Irequency. The Gilbert cell consists oI only six transistors, and perIorms a high
quality multiplication oI the sinusoidal waves. The schematic diagram and the
physical implementation are described in the Iull version.
Phase-Lock-Loop Each basic component oI the PLL (Phase comparator, Iilter, VCO) and the
design issues are described, supported by a large set oI simulations.
Digital to analog
converter
The R-2R ladder consists oI a network oI resistors alternating between R and
2R. For a N bits DAC, only N cells based on 2 resistors R and 2R in series are
required. The 4-bit and 8-bit implementation oI this circuit are described.
Sample and Hold The sample-and-hold main Iunction is to capture the signal value at a given
instant and hold it until the ADC has processed the inIormation The principles
and parasitic eIIects oI the circuit are described.
Analog to digital
converter
Successive approach analog to digital converter.



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This chapter is dedicated to the interIacing between the integrated circuit and the external word.
AIter a brieI justiIication oI the power supply decrease, the input/output pads used to import and
export signals are dealt with. Then, the input pad protections against electrostatic discharge and
voltage overstress are described. The design oI output buIIers is also presented, with Iocus on
current drive.

The Bonding Pad

The bonding pad is the interIace between the integrated circuit die and the package. The pad has
a very large surIace (Almost giant compared to the size oI logic cells) because it is the place
where the connection wire is attached to build the electrical link to the outside word. The pad is
approximately 80µm x 80µm. The basic design rules Ior the pad are shown in Iigure 10-1.


Rp01 (~80µm)
Rp02
(~80µm)
Rp03
Rp05
Rp04
Rp03
Rp04
Active area
Passivation
Passivation
opening
Metal 6
Metal 1
Passivation
opening limits
Metal 1..6 area
Via 5
Via 1..5 area
Via 1
Soldier ball

Figure 10-1 . The bonding pad design rules

The cross-section shown in Iigure 10-2 gives an illustration oI the passivation opening and
associated design rule Rp04 on top oI the metal and via stack. The thick oxide used Ior
passivation is removed so that a bonding wire or a bonding ball can be connected by melting to
the package. The pad can be generated by MICROWIND using the command Edit → →→ → Generate
→ →→ → I/O pads. The menu gives access to a single pad, with a deIault size given by the technology
(around 80µm in this case), or to a complete pad rind, as detailed later.

10 Input/Output Interfacing
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The Pad ring

The pad ring consists oI several pads on each oI the Iour sides oI the integrated circuit, to
interIace with the outside world. The deIault menu Ior an automatic generation oI a pad ring is
shown in Iigure 10-2. The proposed architecture is based on 5 pads on each side, meaning a
total oI 20 pads.




Core area
5 pads south
5 pads north
5 pads
west
5 pads
east
Limit of the
die
Inner supplv ring
(Usuallv JDD)
Outer supplv ring
(Usuallv JSS)


Figure 10-2 . The menu for generating the pad ring and the corresponding architecture

The supply rails

The supply voltage may be 5 V, 3.3 V, 2.5 V, 1.8 V or 1.2 V as listed in the menu shown in
Iigure 10-2. Most designs in 65-nm use 1.0 V Ior the internal core supply and 2.5V Ior the
interIacing. This is because the logic circuits oI the core operate at low voltage to reduce power
consumption, and the I/O structures operate at high voltage Ior external compatibility and higher
immunity to external perturbations. Usually, an on-chip voltage regulator converts the high
voltage into an internal low voltage.

A metal wire cannot drive an unlimited amount oI current. When the average current density is
higher than 2.10
9
A/m
2
|Hastings|, the grains oI the polycrystalline aluminum interconnect start
to migrate (The phenomenon is called electro migration) and the conductor ultimately melts. To
handle very high current density, the supply metal lines must be enlarged. A typical rule oI
thumb is 2 mA/µm width Ior aluminum supply lines and 5 mA/µm Ior copper, which means that
a copper interconnect is superior to aluminum in sustaining large currents.

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Metal 6 grid
Metal 5 grid
Block connection
to VDD,VSS
Space leIt
Ior routing

Figure 10-3 . The supplv rails are routed in metal5 and metal6 with a regular grid to provide power
supplv in all regions of the integrated circuit

A complex logic core may consume amperes oI current. In that case, the supply lines must be
enlarged in order to handle very large currents properly. The usually design approach consists in
creating a regular grid structure, as illustrated in Iigure 10-3, which provides the supply current
at all points oI the integrated circuit. In that test circuit, the VDD supply is assigned to metal5,
VSS to metal6.

Input Structures

The input pad includes some over-voltage and under-voltage protections due to external voltage
stress, electrostatic discharge (ESD) coupling with external electromagnetic sources, etc.. Such
protections are required as the oxide oI the gate connected to the input can easily be destroyed
by over voltage. The electrostatic discharges may attain 1000 to 5000 V.

One oI the most simple ESD protections is made up oI one resistance and two diodes (Figure
10-4). The resistor helps to dissipate the parasitic energy and reduces the amplitude oI the
voltage overstress. One diode handles the negative voltage Ilowing inside the circuit (N¹/P
substrate diode), the other diode (P¹/N well) handles the positive voltage. The combination oI
the serial resistor and the diode bridge represents an acceptable protection circuit against
transient voltage overstress around ¹/-50 V.
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Figure 10-4 . Input protection circuit (IOPadIn.SCH)

Diodes are essential parts oI the ESD protection. Used since the inIancy stage oI
microelectronics, the diodes are still widely used because oI their eIIiciency and simplicity
|Dabral|. The native diodes in CMOS technology consist oI an N¹ diIIusion in the p-substrate
and a P¹ diIIusion in the n-well.


Figure 10-5. The diode generating menu in Microwind (Bv default a P·/well diode)

The command used to generate a protection diode in MICROWIND is Edit → →→ → Generate → →→ →
Diode. Click either the P¹/nwell diode or the N¹/P substrate diode. By deIault, the diode is
quite large, and connected to the upper metal by a row oI 10 contacts. The N¹ diode region is
surrounded by a polarization ring made oI P¹ diIIusion. The large number oI rows ensures a
large current capability, which is very important in the case oI ESD protection devices.

A protection circuit example is simulated in Iigure 10-6. It consists oI a pad 50 x 50 µm, a serial
resistor around 200 Ω and two diodes. When a very high sinusoidal waveIorm (¹/- 10 V) is
injected, the diodes exhibit a clamping eIIect both Ior the positive and negative overstress.
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Core supply
is 1.2V
IO supply
is 2.5V
1GHz sinusoidal
input ¹/-10V
response
Maximum current
around 1mA

Figure 10-5 . The diodes clamp the positive and negative overstress so that the internal voltage keeps
close to the voltage range [0..JDDH] (IoPadIN.MSK)
The best simulation mode is Voltage and Currents. The internal voltage remains within the
voltage range |0..VDDH| while the voltage near the pad is 10 to ¹10 V wide. Notice that the
current Ilowing in the diodes is around 1mA (Figure 10-5).

High voltage MOS
The general diagram oI an input structure is given in Iigure 10-6. A high voltage buIIer is used
to handle voltage overstress issued Irom electrostatic discharges. The logic signal is then
converted into a low voltage signal to be used in the core logic. For interIacing with
input/output, speciIic high voltage MOS are introduced. These MOS devices are called high
voltage MOS. They use a double gate oxide to handle the high voltage oI the I/Os. The high
voltage device symbols are drawn with a double line. The symbol Jdd¸HJ represents the I/O
voltage, which is usually 2.5 V in CMOS 65-nm.



Figure 10-6 . The basic principles for an input circuit, including the ESD protection and the voltage
translator (IOPadIn.SCH)
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Option layer to
turn this device
into a high-
voltage MOS
Local polarization to
ground and ground
contact
Gate contact
Large poly gate
over 5nm oxide

Figure 10-7 . Lavout of the input MOS device (IOPadMos.MSK)

The high voltage MOS layout diIIers slightly Irom the normal MOS. The high voltage MOS
uses a gate width which is much larger than that oI the regular MOS. Usually, the lateral drain
diIIusion, which aims at limiting the hot-carrier eIIect at boosting the device liIetime, is
removed in high voltage MOS devices. In 65-nm, the gate oxide oI the high voltage MOS is
around 3 nm, while the core MOS is 1.1 nm.
The gate oxide is twice thicker than the low voltage MOS. The high voltage device perIormance
corresponds approximately to a 0.25µm MOS device. To turn a normal MOS into a high voltage
MOS, the designer must add an option layer (The dot rectangle in Iigure 10-7). The tick in Iront
oI High voltage MOS assigns high voltage properties to the device : double oxide, removed
LDD, diIIerent rules Ior minimum length, and diIIerent MOS model parameters.

Level shifter

The role oI the level shiIter is to translate the low voltage logic signal Data¸Out into a high
voltage logic signal which controls the buIIer devices. Figure 10-8 gives the schematic diagram
oI a level shiIter circuit which has no problem oI parasitic DC power dissipation. The circuit
consists oI a low voltage inverter, the level shiIter itselI and the buIIer. The circuit has two
power supplies: a low voltage JDD Ior the leIt-most inverter, and a high voltage VddHJ Ior the
rest oI the circuit.
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Figure 10-8 . Schematic diagram of a level shifter (IOPadOut.SCH)





Figure 10-9 . Lavout and simulation of the level shifter (LevelShift.MSK)

The layout oI the level shiIter is shown in Iigure 10-10. The leIt part works at low voltage 1.0
V, the right part works with high-voltage MOS devices, at a supply oI 2.5V (JddHigh). The
data signal Data¸Out has a 0-1.0 V voltage swing.
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The output Jout has a 0-2.5V voltage swing. This time, no DC consumption appears except
during transitions oI the logic signals, as shown in the simulation oI Iigure 10-9.

Added Features in the Full version

Pad/Core limitation When the active area oI the chip is the main limiting Iactor, the pad structure
may be designed in such a way that the width is large but the height is as small
as possible. This situation, called "Core Limited", as well as its opposite "Pad
limited" are detailed.
Schmitt trigger Using a Schmitt trigger instead oI an inverter helps to transIorm a very noisy
input signal into a clean logic signal. The Schmitt trigger circuit switching is
illustrated and compared to the normal inverter.
Ibis IBIS is a standard Ior electronic behavioral speciIications oI integrated circuit
input/output analog characteristics. MICROWIND uses IBIS to pilot the
generation oI pads.

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Select a Design Rule File

The soItware can handle various technologies. The process parameters are stored in Iiles with
the appendix '.RUL'. The deIault technology corresponds to a generic 8-metal 65-nm CMOS
process. The deIault Iile is CMOS65n.RUL.

- To select a new Ioundry, click on File → →→ → Select Foundry and choose the appropriate
technology in the list.
- To set a speciIic Ioundry as the deIault Ioundry, click File → →→ → Properties , 'Set as Default
Technology'.
- Click Help → Design Rules to display the design rules (Iigure 11-1).



Figure 11-1 . illustration of design rules using the command Help → Design Rules

11 Design Rules
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98 17/08/06
Lambda Units

The MICROWIND soItware works is based on a lambda grid, not on a micro grid. Consequently,
the same layout may be simulated in any CMOS technology. The value oI lambda is halI the
minimum polysilicon gate length. Table 11-1 gives the correspondence between lambda and
micron Ior all CMOS technologies available in version 3.1.

Technology file available in
version 3.1
Minimum gate
length
Value of lambda
Cmos12.rul 1.2µm 0.6µm
Cmos08.rul 0.7µm 0.35µm
Cmos06.rul 0.5µm 0.25µm
Cmos035.rul 0.4µm 0.2µm
Cmos025.rul 0.25µm 0.125µm
Cmos018.rul 0.2µm 0.1µm
Cmos012.rul 0.12µm 0.06µm
soi012.rul (SOI version) 0.12µm 0.06µm
Cmos90n.rul 0.1µm 0.05µm
Cmos65n.rul 0.07µm 0.035µm
Cmos45n.rul 0.05µm 0.025µm

Table 11-1. correspondence between technologv and the value of lambda in µm
N-Well
r101
r102
r110

Minimum well size
Between wells
Minimum well area
12 λ
12 λ
144 λ
2
R101
R101
nwell


Diffusion
r201
r202
r203
r204:
r205
r206
r207
r210

Minimum N¹ and P¹ diIIusion width
Between two P¹ and N¹ diIIusions
Extra nwell aIter P¹ diIIusion :
Between N¹ diIIusion and nwell
Border oI well aIter N¹ polarization
Between N¹ and P¹ polarization
Border oI Nwell Ior P¹ polarization
Minimum diIIusion area
4 λ
4 λ
6 λ
6 λ
2 λ
0 λ
6 λ
24 λ
2
nwell
P+ diff P+ diff
N+ diff
r204
r202
r203
r201
P+
P+ polarization
r207
N+
r205
Nwell
polarization
r206
r206

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Polysilicon

r301 Polysilicon width 2λ
r302 Polysilicon gate on
diIIusion
2 λ

r303 Polysilicon gate on
diIIusion Ior high
voltage MOS
4 λ

r304 Between two
polysilicon boxes
3 λ

r305 Polysilicon vs. other
diIIusion
2 λ

r306 DiIIusion aIter
polysilicon
4 λ

r307 Extra gate aIter
polysilicon
3 λ
r310 Minimum surIace 8 λ
2

P+diff
r305
r302
r306
N+diff
r304
r301
r306
r307
r303
High voltage MOS

2
nd
Polysilicon Design Rules

r311 Polysilicon2 width 2 λ
r312 Polysilicon2 gate on
diIIusion
2 λ
r320 Polysilicon2
minimum surIace
8 λ
2

Poly2
r311
r312

MOS option

rOpt

Border oI 'option¨ layer over diII
N¹ and diII P¹

N+dif
rOp


MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 11. Design Rules


100 17/08/06

Contact
r401 Contact width 2 λ
r402 Between two contacts 5 λ

r403

Extra diIIusion over contact 2 λ
r404 Extra poly over contact 2 λ
r405 Extra metal over contact 2 λ
r406 Distance between contact
and poly gate
3 λ
r407 Extra poly2 over contact 2 λ
r401
r402
contact
polysilicium
r404
contact
gate
diffusion
r403
r406
metal
r405


Metal 1
r501 Metal width 4 λ
r502 Between two metals 4 λ
r510 Minimum surIace 16 λ
2

metal
r501
metal r502

Via
r601 Via width 2 λ
r602 Between two Via 5 λ

r603 Between Via and
contact
0 λ
r604 Extra metal over via 2 λ
r605 Extra metal2 over via: 2 λ
r601
r602
via
metal2
r604
contact
r603
Stacked via over
contact
when r603 is 0

Metal 2
r701 Metal width:: 4 λ
r702 Between two metal2 4 λ
r710 Minimum surIace 16 λ
2

metal2
r701
metal2 r702


MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 11. Design Rules


101 17/08/06
Via 2
r801
r802
r804
r805
Via2 width : 2 λ
Between two Via2: 5 λ
Extra metal2 over via2: 2 λ
Extra metal3 over via2: 2 λ


r801
r802
via2
Metal3
r804

Metal 3
r901
r902
r910
Metal3 width: 4 λ
Between two metal3 : 4 λ
Minimum surIace : 32 λ
2

metal3
r901
metal3 r902

Via 3
ra01
ra02
ra04
ra05
Via3 width : 2 λ
Between two Via3: 5 λ
Extra metal3 over via3: 2 λ
Extra metal4 over via3: 2 λ

ra01
ra02
via3
Metal3,4
ra04

Metal 4
rb01
rb02
rb10
Metal4 width: 4 λ
Between two metal4 : 4 λ
Minimum surIace : 32 λ
2

Metal4
rb01
Metal4 rb02

Via 4
rc01
rc02
rc04
rc05
Via4 width : 2 λ
Between two Via4: 5 λ
Extra metal4 over via2: 3 λ
Extra metal5 over via2: 3 λ

rc01
rc02
Via
4
Metal4,5
rc04

Metal 5
rd01
rd02
rd10
Metal5 width: 8 λ
Between two metal5 : 8 λ
Minimum surIace : 100 λ
2

Metal5
rd01
Metal5 rd02


MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 11. Design Rules


102 17/08/06
Via 5
re01
re02
re04
re05
Via5 width : 4 λ
Between two Via5: 6 λ
Extra metal5 over via5: 3 λ
Extra metal6 over via5: 3 λ


re01
re02
Via5
Metal5,6
re04


Metal 6
rI01
rI02
rI10
Metal6 width: 8 λ
Between two metal6 : 15 λ
Minimum surIace : 300 λ
2

Metal6
rf01
Metal6
rf02

Via 6
rg01
rg02
rg04
rg05
Via6 width : 4 λ
Between two Via6: 6 λ
Extra metal6 over via6: 3 λ
Extra metal7 over via6: 3 λ



rg01
rg02
Via6
Metal6,7
rg04

Metal 7
rh01
rh02
rh10
Metal7 width: 8 λ
Between two metal7 : 15 λ
Minimum surIace : 300 λ
2


Metal7
rh01
Metal7
rh02

Via 7
ri01
ri02
ri04
ri05
Via7 width : 4 λ
Between two Via7: 6 λ
Extra metal7 over via7: 3 λ
Extra metal8 over via7: 3 λ



ri01
ri02
Via7
Metal7,8
ri04


MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 11. Design Rules


103 17/08/06
Metal 8
rj01
rj02
rj10
Metal8 width: 8 λ
Between two metal8 : 15 λ
Minimum surIace : 300 λ
2


Metal8
rj01
Metal8
rj02

Pads
The rules are presented below in µm. In .RUL Iiles, the rules are given in lambda. As the pad
size has an almost constant value in µm, each technology gives its own value in λ.

rp01
rp02
rp03
rp04
rp05
Pad width:
Between two pads
Opening in passivation v.s via :
Opening in passivation v.s metals:
Between pad and unrelated active
area :
80 µm
80 µm
5µm
5µm
20 µm

PAD
rp03
rp01
rp02



MICROWIND & DSCH V3.0 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 15. References

104 17/08/06
Microwind 3.1

FILE MENU

Reset the program and
starts with a clean
screen
Read a layout
data Iile
Insert a layout in the
current layout
Translates the layout into
CIF, Gds2, SPICE
Save the current layout
into the current Iilename
ConIigure
Microwind to a
Ioundry
Switch to
monochrom/Color mode
Layout properties :
number oI box,
devices, size, etc.
Layout downloaded in
previous sessions
Leave Microwind and
returns to Windows
Imports a layout in
CIF or GDS2 Iormat

VIEW MENU


Unselect all layers
and redraw the layout
Fit the window with
all the edited layout
Zoom In, Zoom out
the layout window
Give the list oI nMOS
and pMOS devices
Show/Hide the
lambda grid or the
cell compiler grid
Redraw the screen
Extract the electrical
node starting at the
cursor location
Show the navigator
window to display the
node properties
Show the palette oI
layers, the layout
macro and the
simulation properties
Give the label list
View one interconnect without
extracting the whole circuit

EDIT MENU


Cancel last editing command
Cut elements included in an
area
Duplicate elements included in
an area
Generate MOS, contacts,
pads, diodes, resistors,
capacitors, etc.
Protect and unprotect layers Irom
copying, moving, erasing
Move step by step a
selection oI elements
Move elements included in an area
or stretch the selected box border
Flip or rotate elements
included in an area
Duplicate in X and Y a
selection oI elements
Add a virtual R,L,C Ior simulation
purpose
Connect layers at a desired
location
Invert the diIIusion type
(Irom N¹ to P¹, and vice
versa) in a given area

12 MICROWIND and DSCH
Menus
MICROWIND & DSCH V3.0 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 15. References

105 17/08/06
SIMULATE MENU


Run the simulation and
choose the appropriate mode
V(t), I(t), V/V, F(t), etc.
Simulate directly on the
layout, with a palette oI
colors representing voltage
Include crosstalk eIIects in
simulation
Select model 1, model 3 or
BSIM4
Access to the SPICE model sand some
simulation options : VDD value,
temperature, simulation step
2D view oI the circuit at
the desired location
View the process steps oI the
layout Iabrication in 3D
Access to static
characteristics oI the
MOS devices
Discharge Iloating gates

COMPILE MENU


Compile one single
line (on-line)
Compile a Verilog Iile
generated by DSCH2

ANALYSIS MENU


VeriIies the layout and highlight the
design rule violations
Computes the inIluence oI one
parameter such as VDD, t°,
capacitance, on a set oI parameters:
delay, Irequency, etc...
Evaluate the RC delay in all
conductors using analytical
Iormulations
Evaluate the crosstalk eIIect in all
conductors using analytical
Iormulations
Compute the resonant
Irequency oI LC components
Measure the distance in the
layout window, in µm and
lambda
Compute the capacitance,
resistance and inductance oI one or
two conductors above ground
planes


PALETTE


Contact diIIn/metal
Contact diIIp/metal
Stacked contacts
MOS generator
Add virtual capacitor
via/metal
Add virtual R or L on the
layout Ior simulation
Selected layer
Protect/unprotect the
layer Irom editing
Contact Poly/metal
VDD, VDD¸high, VSS
properties
Clock, pulse properties
Sinus property
Makes a node visible at
simulation


MICROWIND & DSCH V3.0 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 15. References

106 17/08/06
NAVIGATOR
WINDOW

Name oI the
selected node
Property oI the
selected node
Visible/unvisible
at simulation
Access to the
node properties
Evaluation oI the capacitor,
resistor, length and inductor
Details on the node
properties
Details on the node
capacitance
Hides the navigator window


Microwind Simulation menu



Select the node Irom which
the delay counter is started at
each crossing oI VDD/2
The delay counter is
stopped at each crossing oI
VDD/2 and the delay is
drawn
Select the time scale within a list
in the menu. ShiIt the time.
The minimum and maximum voltage
oI the selected node are displayed.
At each period oI the selected
node, the Irequency is displayed
Computational simulation step
Restart simulation Irom time 0
More simulation
Stop simulation.
Node selected Ior min/max, Ireq and FFT
calculation
Show the FFT oI the selected signal
Voltage versus time. Each
visible node is displayed
Voltage and Currents versus time.
All voltage on the bottom, all
currents on the top.
Voltage versus voltage. Only a DC
simulation, ideal Ior inverter, OpAmp
static characteristics
Frequency vs. time. All voltage on
the bottom, the switching Irequency
oI the selected node on the top.

Eye diagram. A zoom at each visible node
at the switching oI a selected node

LIST OF ICONS


Open a layout Iile (MSK Iormat)

Extract and simulate the circuit


Save the layout Iile in MSK Iormat

Measure the distance in lambda and micron
between two points

Draw a box using the selected layer oI the
palette

2D vertical aspect oI the device

MICROWIND & DSCH V3.0 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 15. References

107 17/08/06

Delete boxes or text.

Step by step Iabrication oI the layout in 3D


Copy boxes or text


Design rule checking oI the circuit. Errors
are notiIied in the layout

Stretch or move elements


Add a text to the layout. The text may
include simulation properties.

Zoom In


Connect the lower to the upper layers at the
desired location using appropriate contacts.

Zoom Out


Static MOS characteristics

View all the drawing

View the palette

Extract and view the electrical node
pointed by the cursor

Move the layout up, leIt, right, down

MICROWIND & DSCH V3.0 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 15. References

108 17/08/06

DSCH MENUS

File Menu



Reset the program and
starts with a clean
screen
Read a
schematic Iile
Save the current schematic
diagram into the current
Iilename
ConIigure DSCH
to a given
Ioundry
Switch to
monochrom/Color mode
Design properties :
number oI symbols,
nodes, etc.
Print the schematic diagram
Quit DSCH and returns
to Windows
TransIorm this diagram
into a user symbol
Generates a VERILOG
text Iile corresponding to
the schematic diagram

Edit Menu


Cancel last editing command
Cut elements included in an
area
Duplicate elements included
in an area
Create a line
Move elements included in
an area
Flip or rotate elements
included in an area
Add a connection between lines
Add text in the schematic
diagram


Insert Menu

MICROWIND & DSCH V3.0 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 15. References

109 17/08/06


Insert a user symbol or a
library symbol not
accessible Irom the symbol
palette
Insert an other
schematic
diagram


View Menu



Redraw all the
schematic diagral
Zoom In, Zoom out
the window
Extract the electrical
nodes
Describes the design
structure
Redraw the screen
Give the list oI
symbols
Show details about
the critical path
Show the timing
diagrams
Show the palette oI
symbols
Unselect all the design


Simulate Menu



Detect unconnected
lines
Show the critical path
(Longest switching path)
Start/stop logic simulation
Simulate options

MICROWIND & DSCH V3.0 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 15. References

110 17/08/06

Symbol Palette



Basic logic
symbol library
Advanced logic symbol
library
Button
VSS, VDD supply
Clock, led
Hexadecimal display
Inv, Inv 3state, buIIer
AND gates
Hexadecimal keyboard
NAND gates
NOR gates
XOR gates
NMOS and PMOS
Complex gates
Memory
Latch
Full D-latch
OR gates

Silicon Menu




Figure 12-1 . the « silicon » main menu

MICROWIND & DSCH V3.0 - LITE USER'S MANUAL 15. References

111 17/08/06
The soItware 'silicon¨ is able to give a user`s controlled 3D view oI silicon atoms such as SiO2 (Iigure 12-
1). The 3D view oI the lattice shown in Iigure 12-2 shows the regular aspect oI Si atoms and the very
speciIic properties oI the material. One boron atom acts as a dopant in the structure.




Figure 12-2 . the silicon lattice and a boron dopant


112 17/08/06


|Backer| R.J Backer, H. W. Li, D. E. Boyce "CMOS design, layout and simulation", IEEE Press, 1998,
www.ieee.org
|Bai| P. Bai et.al., 'A 65nm logic technology Ieaturing 35nm gate lengths, enhanced channel strain, 8 Cu
interconnect layers, low-k ILD and 0.57 µm
2
SRAM cell¨, IEDM 2004, 13-15 Dec. 2004, pp. 657 660
|Ghani| T. Ghani et. al. 'A 90nm high volume manuIacturing logic technology Ieaturing novel 45nm gate
length strained silicon CMOS transistors¨, Digest oI International Electron Devices Meeting 2003, IEDM
`03.
|Hastings| A. Hastings "The Art oI Analog Layout", Prentice-Hall, 2001, ISBN 0-13-087061-7
|Lee| K. Lee, M. Shur, T.A Fjeldly, T. Ytterdal "Semiconductor Device Modeling Ior VLSI", Prentice Hall,
1993, ISBN 0-13-805656-0
|Liu| W. Liu "MosIet Models Ior SPICE simulation including Bsim3v3 and BSIM4", Wiley & Sons, 2001,
ISBN 0-471-39697-4
|Moore| Moore, G. E., 1965, Cramming more components onto integrated circuits, Electronics, Volume 38,
N°8.
|Razavi| B. Razavi "Design oI Analog CMOS integrated circuits", McGraw Hill, ISBN 0-07-238032-2,
2001, www.mhhe.com
|Sicard 2005| E. Sicard, S. Ben Dhia 'Basic CMOS cell design¨, Tata McGraw Hill, 2005, ISBN 0-07-
059933-5
|Sicard 2006| E. Sicard, M. Aziz 'Introducing 65 nm technology in Microwind3¨, application note available
on www.microwind.org, August 2006.
|Weste| N. Weste, K. Eshraghian "Principles oI CMOS VLSI design", Addison Wesley, ISBN 0-201-53376-
6, 1993
|Sharma| A.K. Sharma "Semiconductor Memories", IEEE Press, 1996, ISBN 0-7803-1000-4












13 References

113 17/08/06









ISBN 2-87649-xxx-y
Published by INSA Toulouse
135 Av de Rangueil
31077 Toulouse France
August 2006





MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL

1. The MOS device

About the author

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MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 - LITE USER'S MANUAL

1. The MOS device

Books Using Microwind

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ISBN 2-87649-xxx-x Published by INSA Toulouse 135 Av de Rangueil 31077 Toulouse France First print : September 2006

3

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"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ?. .05 """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ( @ -% G """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" '& * """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 1 D % """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 6 !< + % ' . * '"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 7( 3 3/ . """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" < / * % 0 """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ! % """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" . ' """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 7 % & 1 ' """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ? 5 . The MOS device Table of Contents % % """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 7 * + """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 7 /.MICROWIND & DSCH V3.""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ' $ """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ) -% 0 %""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ) 0 . * % $ """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 7! $ """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 7.LITE USER'S MANUAL 1.""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 7( // .

3 7 / """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" !! 3 0 """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" !. + + . ( ( ( .7 8 % 8 $ """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" . """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 7 . + # """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" )7 """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" )? """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" )) % 8 $ """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" )< $ & % $ % """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" )! % """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" )! ' ..""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" <7 """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" << +/ !) """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" <.' ' % """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ) 8 % 8 $ """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" < & & " ' ( + .1 . The MOS device # *3 8 3 8 3 +/ 3 8 D """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" )6 D """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" )7 . . ' * """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" !( +/ * """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ! +/ ** +/ * """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" . ( ' ( & """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" . """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" <( 0 """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" < 8 % + """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" !6 + .MICROWIND & DSCH V3. """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 6 / """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" # ' $ ' 0 """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ? % $ % * """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ) 8 % 8 $ """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ! *( ' 8 """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" + """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 53@ """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ** """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" .LITE USER'S MANUAL 1.) * 0 3 %/ 0 % + . (( ( / ) -% & ' """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" ( -% '"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 6 -% // . ' """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 5 17/08/06 & .0 ' H """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" <7 + . * """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" !7 8 % 8 $ """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" !7 ) ! ' $ """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" !? / """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" !< . 3 1 / """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" (7 3 ' ' ' ' $ """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" () 8 % 8 $ """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" (( # .< +/ * """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" . """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" . ..

"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 67 (""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 6? """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 6? '* 0 1 '2 ( # # ?" """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 6) 5 """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 6( """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 6 */ 6 17/08/06 .LITE USER'S MANUAL 1. The MOS device 0 / """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 66 """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 66 """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 66 7""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 66 7 """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 6 ?""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 6 ? """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 6 )""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 6 ) """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 6 <""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 6 < """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 67 !""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 67 ! """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 67 .""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" 67 .1 .MICROWIND & DSCH V3.

// * % /%. % $ 27 0 *.LITE USER'S MANUAL 1. " ' ' 1. " " ' " +4" + * % $ $ % I " + . * $ % ++ $ ' % ? / $ .MICROWIND & DSCH V3. The MOS device Introduction -% / . * % " + # $ ./ ' / $ 4" J + $ . " -% $ % $ % ' # + 0@ 5 * " -% $ 0 $ % 2 ' * % "+ " 7 ' % 3* % ' . / * (6< " -% + / ++ 0@ 5 % . + ' + % + .1 . " . * +/ . ' + ++ 7 17/08/06 . ' * * ' + " + 1 ' * # * ' % -% # # / ' + $ % ' % % ' ' + ' " ' " * * # / $ % + % % .% 1 * $ -% +/ $ + 3* ++ * % . . + (*!)" * 0@ 5 / ' + ' $ " -% / 1 ' ' ' ' ' + +/ -% / * + .

MICROWIND & DSCH V3.LITE USER'S MANUAL 1.net * "0 % * + * % 0@ 5 % ? * #? ? %? . +/ L " > %+ # /* ./ ' 1 * % % $ % 0 % / $ ) 2 ++ $ % 7 + H " % / ' + ? $ + % ' ' / 7 ' +/ 2 5 $ 0 4" -% . +/ # %+ # /* . +/ * % / * 4 2L " " * . +/ % 2+ * 3 3 . + . .microwind. 2L J 4 " L " L F " L "- L F " !" # 0 . 4" ' html 2L " . ' + + * % /3 4 % +/ F0 % < % % / * +/ * -% ++ % / / /" % / ( / * / = ' '$ '/ % / / ' * ' ' + $ " % % / / / / * " ' 3 ' 3 " -% * % % % /* 6" -% / ' + / * % / ' +" INSTALLATION % $ * % * " 9 K ' +8 K / ' www. The MOS device -% ' % / + % / % / 0 ?/ * % + $ % % ' " %+ !" . /% 3* I .+ 2+ ? " . 4" 2L "4 L J 4 " . + * # 0@ 5 0@ 5 ? % ' * 3 #? " % #? . + L " . + * 8 17/08/06 . ' % / $ " + +/ .1 . 2L " >4 %? " . ? . + . '$ .

9 17/08/06 . * * * * *+ ) ..1 ./ !< *' 3 4 ' +/ .6 . . + + . (+ DD $ 66 D + * . ' * . $ + D ( . % $% % % $ 3* $ . . . .MICROWIND & DSCH V3. %' % ' // . / / % * 2" " % %% ' $ .% H '" . % % ' /%.* / ++ 7 $ ' % * 7" + 6 + % + . .* * " " / . + / )66 + & '( ' / % % % % " .< (6 (< 6 < 7666 766< 76 6 ! $ & / & & '(# 01 Scaling Benefits -% '$ * * 6". N@ % " ' % +O 7 / . % %% % .///- - 6 D . Introduction 1 Technology Scale Down The Moore’s Law ' H ' . % / M % D + + .LITE USER'S MANUAL 1. . - //+ 66> * * * * + 6> > . + ' * 0 " % ' +/ $ + .

LITE USER'S MANUAL Technology (log scale) 1.2 " ( 1 2 2 3 Year 002 2 2 !" ( 4 Market Growth -% 8' % $ * ' $ 3?" . / 1 / 1 ' . * $ // . +/ / * Production # 4 $ 0 ( " . + $ 3 $ % % + % . $ M D% % ' + 1 % " -% / % N -% / " % * ' ' % !< + 2* ' % . ' % .. 766 4" ' + . % .1 . Introduction µ 4 2µ *µ # ( µ 0 $ " .MICROWIND & DSCH V3.2 2µ 2µ 2µ *µ Year 002 2 2 !" ( & 4 ( ( 10 17/08/06 .

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$ %" -% +/ 0 ] 7 + + . %" 46 17/08/06 . .LITE USER'S MANUAL 6. 6 ]U 6 !< ( ( + 4 & RS Latch -% " -% % % % % % $ + + * *' 3 8/8 /2 / * !37" / % K % % : : * F 84 8 50 350 F -% % * + / ' : + " / / F F * + 5 5 % : + + $ % ' -% + + . Latches 6 Latches -% '3 % / $ ' % % % $ / * " % " -% % % % % Basic Latch -% + * * +7 $ ' " ]U 6 + .1 .MICROWIND & DSCH V3.

/ " * % / / " . * ' . '/ : % 1 % + + .nQ). # % % ' 1 % . +/ ' ' '% +/ !0 $ → . % $ ' $ % +$ → 9 ' % . * 1 " -% 50 $ + $" RS. -% " %" '% ++ !0 $ ' % " +/ 50 *. Latches !" + # : 6: 5 87 8 ' -0 + . % + % 2"$ // ++ % * ** %+ " ' + * % + RS. 1/ / " +/ + " % 1 / / + 26")( 1 47 17/08/06 . output Q.nQ.4 .LITE USER'S MANUAL % 250 4 6 6 6 6 ] ] 6 6 ] ] 6.nQ. nor nor1(Q. nor nor2(nQ. // $ / .Reset).Set. $ 1% % *' !3?4" % ' % % $ ' 1 " I % / % . ** '/ ..Q). +/ 4 ' + $" % % ' % $ / .1 . // .sch .% J0 .0 % % J0 -" J 5D" +/ " 7D % 0@ 5 + .Set. input Reset. 8 50 " % . % ++ +$ → $ + $" ' // . endmodule @ % % : + % * / " 7" ?" 2 / / .Set.Q.MICROWIND & DSCH V3. : .v" % !0 $7@% +/ + * % module RSNor( Reset.

+ G . 1 + ' % + / ")( ! $ → !3) + " ' % ' % / ! $ / " -% 1 % * + ' / % : ' + K * ' " **' " -% !3) // %' % " @% + % / " "5 + **' 6 K K ' / : $ / % % %' %" % % $ / % S + .LITE USER'S MANUAL 6. / * K ' + F F 48 17/08/06 . Latches !" & & & ( : # 6: 5 E7 .1 . !% ( # : 6: 5 E7 )" <" % % : / *.MICROWIND & DSCH V3.

LITE USER'S MANUAL 6.1 . '" +/ ' + U 6 $ / ]U 6 1U 6 / $U 6 ]U 6 1U # U 9 $ / < 0 ) 1U 6 2 !" 6 E7 @% / 9 %' % + % % / " -% 1 -% " K % / $ $ . $ 2* ' % % + + + . . $ ' % % ' % * % + * % '3 ' ' % +/ '3 ' ' / % / 0 3 / // $ + + * % + + % 3 / " 0 .MICROWIND & DSCH V3. ' " -% !3<4" -% % 9 " -% F + % + $ 3 % . ' * % 49 17/08/06 . -% " ' % * % * 0 $ " . Latches Edge Trigged Latch -% -% +/ + $ + + . / * % % $ / / * " @% " -% ' $ $ 9' % ' * % ' * / * /" * % / 1* + " -% % + 6 $ % % % $ + + .

1 . " 9 $ $ % " % - +/ / B % ' . + ' % / / % / % . * $ ' * % % * " -% 50 17/08/06 . #" '% B C ' $ / % 6 % ' D * / ' % / ": 6 6 . + / '* + * % / + $ dreg" 8 ' ' .2* ' % " @% * % % 9 '3 ' ' : ' !3!4" -% 3 ' $ 9 ' $ $ / % / 18 " ' * % K % % 7 *' 6 % 1 " % $ ' / " ' % ' ' : K + K " K % * % ' !3!" -% K K " @% $ K 1 + + . 3 ' % . + $ ! & 4 # < & &6 & E7 8 / % -% + .LITE USER'S MANUAL 6. C // ++ " -% / * % 3 !0 $→ 3 * /* / . % // ' % : / / H * % % $ . $+ + . !3!" + + . Latches % ' + • • • : / 9 3 9 ' +/ % + % $ 1 % % $ * % ' ' ' + % '3 ' ' / * + % .MICROWIND & DSCH V3. !0 $ ' * **' / $ 1 6 " -% % . % $ % / " H ' .

LITE USER'S MANUAL 6. Latches 1 !.1 . & & 6 ( & # & E7 # & % * * ' * ] 1 . * '% * % * I ' %* 51 17/08/06 . % % 38 /38 / * *! + * % D 2 ' +/ " >4 Added Features in the Full version % -% % 8 /38 / / " -% 3 1 -% " " ' +/ + ' % + ' + * % " -% + % / " " ' / * % * % 3 % % ' .MICROWIND & DSCH V3.

3 % 1 % 53 3 * 4" / . M% + N " " -% + . / 67) + + . $ 6)(<.1 .LITE USER'S MANUAL 7. Memory circuits 7 Memory Circuits Basic Memory Organization 8' 7 5 . 5 0 @ * 7 + + + + =@ 0 1 !" (& ( = RAM Memory 52 17/08/06 . / 6 . 7 + + . * + 7 7 5 . * + 7 % 1 + 67) 2 '3 " -% + + .+ + . ' H = " -% + .MICROWIND & DSCH V3. % + 75 + + . % % / " . / + + + .! * 5 + * + + . ' 75 .

8' .LITE USER'S MANUAL 7. 6: " 87 -% % H * '+ * * ). % .+ * + ' ' / + + / / D% L D% F 7<! *' J + .1 . * % +" -% % + 53 17/08/06 . * + % %+ 7 ?" -% " -% '$ / / .) " -% . . 7<! .37" -% / ' * * % 7 1 !" ( # ( 6: " 87 1 ! ( # " ( > .3?" -% % L D% % " * ' H + + ' %' " % ?% + " . ' % + ' ' + / '$ ! 8' * " % . Memory circuits -% " -% 3 / * / $ + + .3 .MICROWIND & DSCH V3.3)" -% D% // .

!" ( # : 6: " E7 @ % @% +/ $ " -% % J % " ? ? % " -% % " / / ' 6+ % ' % ' / " -% 6 % ? % L % D " % + D % 3 $ % % 1 " + + .MICROWIND & DSCH V3.LITE USER'S MANUAL 7.1 .^. Memory circuits 1 . $ / / ' $ $ % D % L D $ % " J $ * + D % L 8 ' . _ 1 2 !" 6: " + % E7 & M M# ' + # ( 54 17/08/06 .

LITE USER'S MANUAL 7. "0 ' % % * % % " -% % H " $ ' " -% + / . ' 6" L D / U 6 . / * + % % D $ .3<4" -% * Y . Memory circuits .05" -% -% / / /% . 55 17/08/06 . & 2 * ' .Y / / * . . * + D % . 4 $ @ 6 > / 6 @ 2> / 4 1 !? ( # : 6: " E7 Selection Circuits -% % . 4 U 6 ./ * -% / % + + . + $ 6 % * % * + + / BC 28 ' / / + / ' B 6C % BC % . * + * $ " & 2@ % + + .3!" % L + 6"6 % * + ' " 6" % + 6"< 6 % + + .1 . % 6 & 2@ % ' % U . 4 & 2@ *' " % + ' " "< . ' " '% % % / ? % D % % + + . 4 ' % + + . L % D ' % % ' % BC " ' " B 6C * % ' " % B " -% D % 6C ' .MICROWIND & DSCH V3.

MICROWIND & DSCH V3. . 7 + + + + =@ 0 1 * !" & & -% % % / + + + . * $ . % + + . " -% + P + . " -% * ' % . + ' * + * " 3 % " + + . 4 * + % 56 17/08/06 . + / . % ' % / % 28 ' % 2@ / . + % % 2 % * * % * + % + + . % + H @ + + % ' % @ 8 % + % 1 1 !" % ' 5 ' / 3 * +/ % !.) " % %% % . Memory circuits 5 0 @ # ' % *.1 .3(4 * % . 4" + + *. +/ .LITE USER'S MANUAL 75 2@ 4 7. .

3 6" . / ) + + . %" % .8 " % % $ ) * + + . < 7 @ 7 ! 6 ) 6 =@ 1 @ 1 ? 7 !) 2 !. E7 57 17/08/06 . .) 4 0 < @ 6 ) ( ? 7 ? 7 @ 6 6 6 < . Memory circuits A Complete 64 bit SRAM -% !) ' H 2 % * .+ : 6: .MICROWIND & DSCH V3. *) ' + * '% + + . ?%N O ?%N O * % !) 8' ? @ ? 7 ? . % / % I * / / %/ 6"" *' .1 . E7 1 !" & : ( 6: .+ = 1 0 !" # .3 " -% !) .LITE USER'S MANUAL 7. * " -% + ' !" -% + + .

+ * / $ " @% ?% % * YY % % ' " $ % ' + + . . / 7 3 ' + % ' 2 07 % % .1 .3 7" -% " -% % * % *+ " -% ' ' / / + * & . $ + % ' % 1 / % % % ' . " . " -% / *' % / / % . % % ' * + % + + . / . " . / * % $ ' * % % ' "0 % ** % * % ' % $ % " -% $ * ' &2 % . % ' / /R ∆ % ' / /3∆ 1 ! # : ( # ( : 6: " 87 -% / ++ ' . / % YY " ' + % % % +/ $ % + + .MICROWIND & DSCH V3. + =74" @% % P '$ * *' ** / % $ 4 % * + . . + . / % % D% % " -% $ % + + . 76*8 % / '"#' % 58 17/08/06 .3 " -% 3. Memory circuits Dynamic RAM Memory -% / % % . % ' .% *+ ' .LITE USER'S MANUAL 7.∆ -% + / . % % % * + " // . + ' ' % / % '$ % " -% $ .

6< & <' & 87 59 17/08/06 .1 .LITE USER'S MANUAL 7. ' * 0 4+ + . +/ '' + . Memory circuits 1 !" 9 & 6 < E7 EEPROM -% " -% % / % 3' % ' % * $ 0 % $ " @% ' ' % + // ? %' $ % + * / . . / % % % +/ $ // / .3 ? % * ' 3' 0 4" % ' * 4 % % 1 !" # + . % / . * % '% // ' ' " -% % ' % $ % ' ' * % ' "# < + $ * % * 0 2 $ .* % % % + % + H" % 28 ' 0 2 .MICROWIND & DSCH V3.

% % . + / * % / . 7 % / */ .1 . * " 0/ + + * " -% % * ' / . % % * ' % % '' / 3' 6. % ' $ . %/ .& ( * ' % . " .MICROWIND & DSCH V3.3 )" -% . * % ' 1. Memory circuits @% $ + / ' / / . / * . 28 ' / / $ ' % * . / ' % ' %' % ** ' % * * % + % // % * * // " ' * . 7=+ 8 '/ . $ . " 8 % 28 ' +/ 3 + + . % % % % *' // + ' . ' 7 . % & ( /" -% // 3 " % " -% ' 3 ' & ( @ % 1 & (@ ( & * *' . + " 60 17/08/06 . 3 0 + $ +/ % % '$ / '% % $ . !" + .3 ) ' % $ Flash Memories 8 % + + . / . ' 0 + $ 0 . 7 . . 0 +/ '/ . * 1" 8 % + + " 8 % + + + . " 0 . . 1 .3 ) *4 % * % 0 % % $ + % " . + ' * . % % ++ ' . = .LITE USER'S MANUAL 7.3 <4" -% + + . . I // *' ' 3 . * $ + + * 0 + + . * % % / / ' ++ ' ++ .' % ' . . $ . . + ( 6< & E7 -% % / . 7 8 ' / .

3 !4" ' ** 1 . 7 % H + ' % " -% % H % $ * % + 1 7 * % 7 + 1 !" # (& 6 *' * E7 61 17/08/06 .LITE USER'S MANUAL % ' 7. / / + + % % ' % 2.% " -% % H ' Y % / Y -3 / . Memory circuits % ' 1 2 !" # (& & & # @ 6 ( 87 -% 8 % + + .MICROWIND & DSCH V3.1 .

+/ . + 4 .3 . % " 3/ ." -% 1 ' ' * . 0 + + * / $ * % " ' " -% -% / ' ++ ' * % * '' % ' + $ " 8 + + + + . $ $ " % 9% // .% % H " -% ./ + * % 8 * + % % / ' ++ ' % + * % 8 % + + . 2 4 $ . Memory circuits Memory Interface / % ? $ % * % * ' * % *' $ / * % I . % ' " -% 8 " +/ / * ' + * + / $ * ' * % 1 " 62 17/08/06 . 1 1!( : Added Features in the Full version @ + + + ' 3' 0 8 * + ./ +/ + + .% .MICROWIND & DSCH V3. % 5 + 2 4 @ 2@ 4 2 4 0 2 4 + .1 .LITE USER'S MANUAL 7.3 . + 12 1 4 2 4 . % '" 0 + % . ' % % $ 3 / / " % + + % % $ $ % % * % +/ *+ + ' + " / * + . / 1 % % *' ' * % ' + . % $ % 1 " ' * % . % % + + % + $ * + . + . ." -% " -% * 1 .

*' (37 % + ' + / % * ' . " % + '$ . . =/ . / ' ++ *' 63 17/08/06 . 5 % % 3 .6Ω 7 Z . / .% ' $ % % / * % % 1 Y " . % I +/ + . (3? % % / % % 66 4" # " * 1 * * % % // % * + * + % . / I 0 / $ 6Ω % % I * + / * / .LITE USER'S MANUAL 8. / % . + $ % % % 7 $ . 6ΩU .MICROWIND & DSCH V3.!Ω . + $ 28 ' (3 4" / . . Analog Cells 8 Analog Cells -% % / $ .. / % .1 . " Resistor 3 ** * + $ / . * % / M # ' * 'N " ' * + % + . 7 0 I * 766Ω 7 * !" & ( & % / . '2 / * % / .766ΩU )66Ω 7 Z . +/ * / M H $N % / +/ * ' . +/ / % / $ % -% + $ Y + $ / / . .!6Ω" % * / . "# % $ 1 .. % % % + % % % . 7 0 I * 6Ω 0/ . Y %+ / I " -% Y Ω= " -% 766Ω * % $ .

(3) ' ) + ! + / * 4" % 7λ % $ .1 .MICROWIND & DSCH V3. . " " % * % $ . $ .LITE USER'S MANUAL 8. + $ * !: 4 9 & ( 0% + / -% + % ' * $ $ % % ' % + +7 + I $ 76Q $ ' % " $ * 5R R ** $ " ** '* " -% ** * ** % / = . 28 ' 64 17/08/06 . Analog Cells * / 2 4 5 / 2# ' 4 % - % * !: 4 6: . %$ ∆@ * 6"7λ 6Q $ * ' + % % % % "& ' ' / ' + . * % / . % +/ ** . / * % + * % % * )λ" % % ' /%. ( E7 0/ % .

% ' 5 % 1 % " / " @% ' % % H % $ % +/ . ∆% . Analog Cells ∆@U 6"7λ ∆5 2 . / $ * % % 5 / % % % ** $ % 1H ' 5 '$ / *' $ (3!" -% " % % ' % / / ' $ ' T / $ +7 // .% +/ % 5R ' / ' % / 5R ** / ' * +/ % % $ 3 % $ % * $ % 5 ' %' % / % / ' ** / % ' "" . % $ * % $ % %+ . + I .+ 5 5 - 5W - ' * 2 !" ## 4 + & 6 & E7 -% / ** .% 8 I 6 ' % 3 ( ' % " $ + " .LITE USER'S MANUAL ∆@ ∆@U 6"7λ 8.MICROWIND & DSCH V3. % ' 65 17/08/06 . 3 $ '. / ' 4 7λ 76Q $ )λ 6Q $ * .1 . / ' % % 3 H 26 4" 6" 7T % + 5 ?66 8 +7 2 =T 8 4" 3 5R 5V . + " * / 5 * % % +/ .! $ % % / Capacitor / / * I % / .

. * % 0 !<3 + / * / . 74 % / . / .4" -% / % / . *8 + " =T * ' % % !<3 + '4 . % / % ' * 1 !" # & (@ ( & & & -% / . Analog Cells Q F 4 & 5 6 @ I 7 " 5 P &( # > !66 & ' + ( 26 4 ?66 6 3 6 =7 5 * !" ## & 4 & = 4 Poly-Poly2 Capacitor /3 $ % % 0 " ' CP2PO" Y '$ * 2 + !< +" * + 0 " / / / * * + 0 / .MICROWIND & DSCH V3. 66 17/08/06 . =/ 7 / * / . % 28 ' *' ++ Y = * / . 2/ . 3/ 7 8. 7 " / .1 . % % 763 + * % % * % * / . + 7 →% + / '' → % ' / (3. / 0@ 5 .LITE USER'S MANUAL 8. +/ . % 1 7 / 76 + . .

LITE USER'S MANUAL 8.MICROWIND & DSCH V3. % / . // ' % 67 17/08/06 .1 . +/ " / / 0 @U )T 6" + . " 1 / ! $ % + )6>Ω" % & $ " + / + * % $ 7 28 ' % + (3 64" * % $ % I $ / / % % / @ / * + 0 % % % % = % "8 6") 0@ 5 % % / ' % *. Analog Cells Diode-connected MOS -% % + % % ' " % * /3 % * % ' + * % + + 0 " % 3 " -% 1 . ' 0 / / / + % * 3 % 0 *' (3(" -% * % %' % * *! # . U ")T -% +" " -% % H ' .% ' I $ % * 0! # . 6 : 87 + % % % * " 3 . 6: E7 5 * " -% % + + " . =+ % % ** . 0 ' / % ' % " ' % ** *' ' * " (3 " '% ' 1 $ . % % $ % ' / % 6"! * 6T .

LITE USER'S MANUAL 8. $ * + $ ' $ + * + " -% / $ ' # = :5 :5 + :. Analog Cells -% = / I * U ' % I $ % % + % I $ / % / .+ 0 % " $ ' " -% / * ' B % %' % .MICROWIND & DSCH V3.$ ' 2 "6 * % 3 % * % /3 % !<3 +4 0 2Ω4 0 2Ω4 . % % 66>Ω Voltage Reference -% $ # ' * * .1 . 3 % ' * % /3 % + * $ 0 ' " 3 0 * 3 % $ ' 0 ** I $ UI $ 5 %' % % *' (3 " % 3 0 /3 0 / / + " -% + . % %' % % % % $ . 6: E7 ++ . ++ +/ 0 "8 68 17/08/06 . 2 I (3 4 " U / 5U // . * !G % ( # # . I (3 " .

3 % $ * . 4 -% % % // % $ * + /3 % % ' / % ' $ * % *' 3 % . .LITE USER'S MANUAL 8. ' / * " % /3 % $ 28 ' (3 $ 17/08/06 . **' (3 74 " * ! # 6 7 . 5 . .5 " % % * 0 . 6+ 7 & .2 $ 0 * $ / ' + .1 .MICROWIND & DSCH V3. & . / 0 4 ' * * " -% 0 $ % " -% +/ ' %' " * ' +/ * $ + . 6 # E7 Amplifier -% ' 0 % ?4" -% / 0 69 * % $ $ 2 +/ * % % % % +/ * % / + 3 % + % / /. Analog Cells * ! # .

4 6 & 87 4 . + % * +/ * * 1 (37" % % % $ *$ 4 * % / $ % $ ' 4 // .1 . + 2 I " (374 = 4 70 17/08/06 . I *' % $ " . !" 4 & # & > & 4 & # -% -% + % / ' % / ' +/ * 'H % / /5J /5J % $ % " * / ' % ' / % % 4 % / * % $ /5 % * * % + ' .LITE USER'S MANUAL 8.MICROWIND & DSCH V3.G" R4 4 / $ ' 2 4 /5J /5 /5J * .G" -% ' 2 / 4 %' % % ' /5 R4 D .G" -% (3 )" / "0 $ + ' % $ $ ' ' . Analog Cells * ! & # ' 0 / $ ' 2 4 H .

8 " $ $ $ ' * % %' % /5" % 6"7 " +/ * % 6"?6 % <" -% * $ 6"?6 * % ' 5 0 -R $ 2 4 2D +/ * + . Analog Cells *' / 0 (3 < " <6 + 0 $ / $ 24 4 % % ' 24 4 % / +/ + ** + + % 2 4" . 6 & E7 @% + 28 ' (3 !4" -% % % ' % / / H " ' 6") + * <"6 * 1' $ ' *$ % % ' / $ % $ / ' / % % ** % C .1 .MICROWIND & DSCH V3./ <66 + * 2! & # ( & .% @ % +/ ' // / + + ** / 2* ' % / (3 !4" % ** / .LITE USER'S MANUAL 8.G" '% ** 6"< 2 /54" %' % @% .+ + <"64 / $ ' ' 5R 2 4 $ * ! & # & 4 & 4 6 & E7 71 17/08/06 .

LITE USER'S MANUAL 8. ' * ' +/ . / = E( & − -% % + % / / + ' + * % * ) ** ** % % %+ * / 2 I " (3?4 +/ * % ' % / / % " -% / *' (3 . =+ % % )Y % . Analog Cells Simple Differential Amplifier -% ' ** 6 // . % ' E ** .$ * % +/ * 666" -% ' + " ** * + I % +/ * / % ** +/ 2 I +/ * ' ' (3?4" / +/ *. " -% ' '* + * % %' % $ . 72 17/08/06 .MICROWIND & DSCH V3. % . " / * % % % // / % * % ' $" ." / + ** 0 $ % " $ ' ** % + +/ $ % ' " -% ' '/ * + * 1! & 4 ## & # 6 & ## 87 -% / $ * . + $ " % ^ + % ** +/ // ' _ Y & +/ * / .1 . % % " -% & + " -% ' % / / / "@ )+ * / .

" ' $ + * *.MICROWIND & DSCH V3.* % $ ' " -% / +/ + % '/ U 6"< U 6"( U 6"! * 0 !<## # + ## & # & # 6 & ## + E7 73 17/08/06 .1 . / / $ +$ → *' (3 1 / / +/ $" . Analog Cells 0 / % ** ' '% 0/ +/ * ' ' * % +/ * * !" ( & & 4 ## & # 6 & ##% % E7 -% + + + * % B + 6 7" * / ' ' + / * + C " ' + % / $ " % * '% * + % . ' / $ '6") % ' / -% $ .LITE USER'S MANUAL * + ? 0 % ' + '% + & % ) % 8. * % + %' + % %' % / % '" % % % ' . 0 6" 7T + ' + ' $ 0 %' $ % % " -% * '" .

* % + 0 + $ $ / + . / -% + +/ / -% $ % .MICROWIND & DSCH V3.LITE USER'S MANUAL 8. % -% . " ' % $ 9 0 % ' " % / % " ** * '" '$ $ $ * + ' H + % /" +/ / / '" % I % %+ +H % . -% / %3/ +/ * % + ' + / * + * ' '% + ** % I % I ** ' $ ' " +/ $ % ++. Analog Cells Added Features in the Full version +/ * +/ $ % I .1 . $ % ** // / * % $ / * + % %% */ $ + . / *+ " -% / " -% +/ + + /. " -% +/ * % + " -% / / + + " / + . % * ' $ 74 17/08/06 .

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ISBN 2-87649-xxx-y Published by INSA Toulouse 135 Av de Rangueil 31077 Toulouse France August 2006 113 17/08/06 .

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