An Introduction to

Microwave Communications
Laboratory Manual CT60

Issue: MT194/B










































©2007 LJ Create. This publication is copyright and no
part of it may be adapted or reproduced in any material
form except with the prior written permission of LJ Create.
Lesson Module: 21.61 Version 1



CT60 An Introduction to Microwave Communications
Laboratory Manual About This Learning Program
About This Learning Program
LJ Technical Svstems i
Introduction
Microwave technology is being used in many ways as electronic communications
have greater inIluence in our lives. Understanding the principles oI how
microwaves behave in diIIering situations is an important part oI the design or
implementation oI a communication system.
The CT60 Introduction to Microwave Communications learning program provides
you with a hands-on` introduction to the principles oI microwave
communications. The program uses a purpose-made microwave training module
and a comprehensive student Laboratory Manual that contains both theory and
practical microwave experimentation.
Topics covered in the Laboratory Manual include polarization, reIlection,
absorption, diIIraction and interIerence oI microwaves. Also included is an
investigation oI standing waves and a Young`s Slits Experiment.
A series oI hands-on experimental exercises reinIorces the theory using the
microwave training module. The instructions in the Laboratory Manual will
provide you with a step-by-step guide to each experiment.
An Introduction to Microwave Communications CT60
About This Learning Program Laboratory Manual
ii LJ Technical Svstems
What do I need to follow CT60?
To Iollow the CT60 learning program you will need the Iollowing items, all oI
which are included in the CT60 Introduction to Microwave Communications
Training Module:
1. Microwave Communications Base.
2. Microwave Transmitter.
3. Microwave Receiver.
4. Microwave Probe.
5. 2 wide metal plates.
6. 2 narrow metal plates.
7. 2 plastic sheets.
8. 2 support brackets with pegs and 2 support brackets without pegs.
9. 1 hardboard sheet.
10. Microphone.
11. Headphones.
12. Phono to phono audio wire cable.
13. Power supply extension lead.
14. Polarization grille.
15. Waveguide Iitted with two horn antennas.
Items required but not supplied:
1. Tape Measure
Computerized Assessment of Student Performance
II your laboratory is equipped with the DIGIAC 3000 Computer Based Training
System, then the system may be used to automatically monitor your progress as
you work through the chapters oI the Laboratory Manual.
II your instructor has asked you to use this Iacility, then you should key in your
responses to questions at your computer managed workstation.
To remind you to do this, a

symbol is printed alongside questions, which
require a keyed-in response.
To remind you to make notes in your student workbook, a symbol is used.
The Iollowing D3000 Lesson Module is available Ior use with the CT60
Laboratory Manual:
D3000 Lesson Module 20.61
CT60 An Introduction to Microwave Communications
Laboratory Manual Contents
Contents
LJ Technical Svstems
Chapter Contents Pages
Chapter 1 Introduction to Microwaves ............................................................. 1 - 6
Chapter 2 Measuring the Microwave Signal .................................................. 7 - 16
Chapter 3 Polarization of Microwaves ......................................................... 17 - 26
Chapter 4 Reflection of Microwaves ............................................................ 27 - 34
Chapter 5 Radar and Radio Propagation ....................................................... 35 - 44
Chapter 6 Penetration Properties of Materials .............................................. 45 - 58
Chapter 7 The Polarization Grille ................................................................. 59 - 68
Chapter 8 Standing Wave Measurement ...................................................... 69 - 80
Chapter 9 Diffraction .................................................................................... 81 - 88
Chapter 10 Interference ................................................................................ 89 - 102
Chapter 11 An Introduction to Waveguides ................................................ 103 - 114
Chapter 12 Waveguide Experiment ............................................................. 115 - 126
Chapter 13 Behavior in a Dielectric ............................................................ 127 - 136
An Introduction to Microwave Communications CT60
Contents Laboratory Manual
LJ Technical Svstems
CT60 Polarization of Microwaves
Laboratory Manual Chapter 3
Chapter 3
Polarization of Microwaves
LJ Technical Svstems 17
Objectives of
this Chapter
Having completed this chapter you will be able to:
IdentiIy electromagnetic waves and the transverse
nature oI microwaves.
DeIine the terms Horizontal Plane Polarization and
Vertical Plane Polarization.
Investigate the transmission and detection oI plane
polarized microwaves.

Items Required
for this Chapter
· Microwave Communications Base
· Microwave Transmitter
· Microwave Receiver
· Power supply extension lead
Polarization of Microwaves CT60
Chapter 3 Laboratory Manual
18 LJ Technical Svstems
3.1 Transverse Waves
It was mentioned earlier that microwaves belong to the Iamily oI electromagnetic
waves. Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves. To illustrate what we mean
by a transverse wave, consider what happens when the end oI a rope is moved up
and down, as shown in Eigure 12.
wave direction
transverse
movement
transverse wave
Figure 12 - A Simple Example of a Transverse have
Moving the end oI the rope up and down causes a wave to travel away Irom the
held end. Since the up and down movement is at right angles (90°) to the direction
oI travel oI the wave, we say that this is a transverse movement.
Now consider an electromagnetic wave, such as a microwave. An
electromagnetic wave contains energy associated with electric and magnetic
Iields.
Each oI these Iields has a transverse motion, that is to say the electric Iield and
magnetic Iield are at right-angles to the direction oI propagation (travel) oI the
wave. This is illustrated in Eigure 13.
CT60 Polarization of Microwaves
Laboratory Manual Chapter 3
LJ Technical Svstems 19
electric Iield (E)
magnetic Iield (H)
x
(transverse motion)
y
(transverse motion)
z (direction oI propagation)
Figure 13 - The Transverse Electric and Magnetic Fields of an Electromagnetic have
3.2 Polarization
The polarization oI an electromagnetic wave (such as a microwave) depends on
the direction in which the electric Iield oI the wave lies. Note Irom Eigure 13
above that the electric Iield varies within one plane only (the y-z plane in this
example), so we say that the wave is plane-polarized.
Two speciIic cases oI plane polarization are vertical plane polarization and
horizontal plane polarization. ReIerring again to the wave shown in Eigure 13
above, iI the direction oI the electric Iield (the y direction) is vertical (relative to
the surIace oI the Earth), we say that the wave is vertically plane polarized.
Conversely, iI the direction oI the electric Iield is horizontal, the wave is said to
be horizontally plane polarized.
Plane polarization is oI particular interest to us because plane polarized waves are
transmitted by microwave antennas and other types oI radio antenna used in
communication systems. The electrical Iield generated by a transmitting antenna
actually runs parallel to the antenna, while the magnetic Iield is at right angles
to the antenna.
Polarization of Microwaves CT60
Chapter 3 Laboratory Manual
20 LJ Technical Svstems
Since the transmitting radio antenna shown in Eigure 14 is vertical, the radio
waves transmitted will be vertically plane polarized. The radio signal picked up
by a receiving antenna will be at a maximum when this antenna is also in the
vertical position.
radio aerial
the electrical Iield is
vertically plane polarized
magnetic Iield
Figure 14 - Generation of a Jerticallv Plane Polari:ed have
In the Transmitter horn antenna oI the microwave trainer, vertically plane
polarized microwaves are generated by an oscillator and launched into a
rectangular metal tube called a waveguide. The waveguide opens into a horn
which emits the microwaves into the atmosphere, as shown in Eigure 15.
CT60 Polarization of Microwaves
Laboratory Manual Chapter 3
LJ Technical Svstems 21
horn
waveguide
oscillator
Figure 15 - Jerticallv Plane Polari:ed Microwaves Transmitted bv a Horn Antenna
The level oI the received microwave signal will be at a maximum when the
Receiver horn is correctly aligned with the Transmitter horn, and will be at a
minimum when the two horns are 90° out oI alignment.
This requirement Ior the Transmitter and Receiver horns to be correctly aligned
will be investigated in the Iollowing practical exercise.
Polarization of Microwaves CT60
Chapter 3 Laboratory Manual
22 LJ Technical Svstems
3.3 Practical Exercise
Make sure that the power is switched oII.
Connect the system as shown in Eigure 16.
Figure 16
Set the Transmitter switches and dials as shown in Eigure 17.
Figure 17
CT60 Polarization of Microwaves
Laboratory Manual Chapter 3
LJ Technical Svstems 23
Set the Receiver switches and dials as shown in Eigure 18. Set both the
Transmitter and Receiver Gain Controls to their midway positions, then
switch the power on.
1
0
2
SlGNAL
3
4
5
RECEIVER GAIN
LOW HIGH
DEMODULATOR
AUDIO
AMPLIFIER
ANTENNA
HEADPHONES LOUDSPEAKER
ON OFF
AUDIO INPUT
PROBE INPUT
ST200
MlCROWAVE
RECElVER
4. Set Loudspeaker
switch to OII.
3. Set switch to
Demodulator.
2. Set Receiver
Gain switch low.
1. Set antenna horn
to -90 degrees.
GAIN
Figure 18
Adjust the Receiver Gain Control until the signal strength meter on the
Receiver reads 2.5. You may also need to adjust the Transmitter Gain
Control to achieve this.
Put on the headphones and note how loud the tone is, rotate the Receiver in
the vertical plane as shown in Eigure 19, while keeping the Receiver horn
antenna in line with the Transmitter horn antenna. Note the positions oI the
maximum and minimum received signal, by listening to the tone Irom the
headphones.
Record the positions of the maximum and minimum received signal in your
student workbook.
Polarization of Microwaves CT60
Chapter 3 Laboratory Manual
24 LJ Technical Svstems
ST200
Microwave Communications
ST200
MICROWAVE
RECEIVER
ST200
MICROWAVE
TRANSMITTER
Rotate
like
this
Figure 19
3.3a A minimum reading is obtained when the top side of the Receiver horn
(the side that faces upwards when the Receiver is in its normal
position):
a Iaces upwards or downwards.
b Iaces upwards or horizontally away Irom you.
c Iaces horizontally towards you or horizontally away Irom you.
d Iaces downwards or horizontally towards you.
3.3b Why do we get a minimum reading at certain positions?
a The transmitter is no longer emitting microwaves.
b The receiver is no longer aligned with the plane oI polarization.
c The transmitter is no longer emitting plane polarized waves.
d The wavelength oI the microwaves has increased.
Switch the power oII.
CT60 Polarization of Microwaves
Laboratory Manual Chapter 3
LJ Technical Svstems 25
Student Assessment 3
1. Microwaves are:
a sound waves.
b heat waves.
c electromagnetic waves.
d light waves.
2. Which of the following is not an electromagnetic wave?
a X-ray.
b Radio wave.
c Light wave.
d Mechanical wave.
3. Microwaves are:
a longitudinal in nature.
b slow in nature.
c long in nature.
d transverse in nature.
4. In an electromagnetic wave, the magnetic field is:
a in the same plane as the electric Iield.
b at right angles to the electric Iield.
c in the direction oI propagation.
d only present iI the wave is polarized.
Continued...
Polarization of Microwaves CT60
Chapter 3 Laboratory Manual
26 LJ Technical Svstems
Student Assessment 3 Continued...
5. An electromagnetic wave whose electric field varies in the horizontal plane only is said to
be:
a unpolarized.
b vertically plane polarized.
c horizontally plane polarized.
d longitudinally polarized.
6. The polarization of an electromagnetic wave transmitted by an antenna is always:
a at right angles to the antenna.
b parallel to the antenna.
c vertical.
d parallel to the Earth`s surIace.
Notes:
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