T H A I

REFERENCE GRAMMAR
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This work was compiled and pub.
lished with the support of the Office
of Education, Department of Health,
Education and Welfare, United States
of America.
RICHARD B. NOSS
FOREIGN SERVItE INSTITUTE
WASHINGTON, D.C.
1964
D EPA R T MEN T o F S TAT E
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price $1.25
PREFACE
Standard Thai, the subject of this reference grammar, is the national spoken lan-
guage of Thailand and at the same time an educated variety of the diP-lect of Bangkok,
to some extent also of the entire Central Plains region of the country. As such it is the
most widely known representative of the Tai language family, which extends from south-
ern China to the Malay peninsula and includes present-day speakers in all the countries
of Mainland Southeast Asia. Standard Thai, along with its written counterpart, is known
to some extent to nearly all the people of Thailand, and it enjoys some status as sec-
ondary language in neighboring countries as well. As is the case with many national
languages, it is difficult to state the actual nbmber of native speakers. The usual esti-
mate of 18,000,000 is probably accurate.
The linguist responsible for all phases of the reference grammar project has been
Richard B. Noss. The present work is a greatly revised and expanded version of his
dissertation, 'An Outline of Siamese Grammar,' Yale, 1954. The original research was
made possible by concurrent grants from the Yale Southeast Asia Program and the Amer-
ican Council of Learned Societies. The revision and publication was supported by the
U.S. Office of Education through a grant to the Foreign Service Institute. Some of the
additional research on which this revision is based was done in Thailand iT. 1.961, when
Dr. Noss was serving as a Regional Language Supervisor in Southeast AsiP- for the For-
eign Service Institute.
Names of principal informants consulted for the study will be found in the Introduc-
tion (p.3). They include two other FSI staff members: Mr. Prasert Crupiti and Miss
Chotchoi Kambhu.
/ R ~
Howanl E. Solieabe'IIn, ~
School of Language and Area Studies
Foreign Service Institute
Department of State
1.1.1.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
O. Introductlon 1 IV. Bound Lexeme Classes 133
I. Phonology
4
1. Modals 133
1. Background
4
1. /khyyn/ Class 133
2. Summary
4
2. Class 136
3. Consonants 8
3. /maJ/ Class 138
4. Vowels 14
4. Mlscellaneous
143
5. Tones 17
6. ProsodlC Phonemes 20
2. Preposltlons 146
7. Dlstrlbutlon 24
1. Ina J/ CIa ss 147
8. Morphophonemlcs 27
2. /caag/ Class 148
3. /dooJ/ Class 152
II. Morphology and Syntax
35

/rSab/ Class 154
1. Summary 35 5. /sag/ Class 156
2. Prosodlc Morphemes 38 6. Mlscellaneous 160
3. Sub-lexemlc Morphemes 48

Lexeme Composltlon
59 3. ConJunctlons 168
5. Syntactlc Constructlons 72 1. /diaw/ Class 168
6. Classlflcatlon 79 2. /thaa/ Class 172
III. Free Lexeme Classes 81
3. /sYlJ/ Class 176
1. Isolatlves 81
4. /cYlJ/ Class 180
1. InterJectlons 81
4.
2. Responses 82
Postposltlons 183
1. J/ Class 183
3. Vocatlves 86
4.
2. Class 188
Imlta tlves 88
/baalJ/ Class 3. 193
2. Substantlves 88
4. Enumeratlve 196
1. Nouns 89
2. Complementlves 91
5. Sentence Partlcles 200
3. Pronouns 98
1. /r5g/ Class 201
4.
Demonstratlves 102
2. /ryy/ Class 207
5. Classlflers 104
3. Class 215
6. Numerals 109

/nll/ Class 217
5. Sample
3. Predlcatlves 114
Exchanges 219
1. Modal Verbs 114
2. AdJectlves 118
Toplcal Index 226
3. Transltlve Verbs 123 Index of Forms
237
4. Completlve Verbs 125
lV
TfAI REFERENCE GRAMMAR
O. INTRODUCTION
0.1 Purpose and Method
The purpose or the present work lS to outllne the maln structural rea-
tures or standard spoken Thal, the orrlclal language or Thalland, and also to
elaborate by sub-classlrlcatlon and example those structural reatures whlch
are least covered by eXlstlng grammars and dlctlonarles. In thls latter cat-
egory are the numerous mlnor or Thal ('slgn-words,' 'runctlonal
words,' 'empty morphs,' etc.) Jr lexlcal ltems whose arrangement
and condltlons or occurrence are not easlly descrlbed In terms or qUlckly-
understood grammatlcal labels, and whose largely non-rererentlal meanlngs are
not easlly translated, or translatable only In terms so broad as to be almost
meanlngless. An lndex or these mlnor rorm-class members lS provlded at the
end or the grammar.
The approach to classlrlcatlon or grammatlcal reatures attempts to rol-
low current technlques or Amerlcan descrlptlve Ilngulstlcs or the 'ltem-and-
arrangement' school. Certaln lnslghts dlrectly attrlbutable to other gram-
matlcal technlques (transrormatlonal, tradltlonal, etc.) have been explolted,
but the results are presented In terms or morphemes and order. From the pOlnt
or Vlew or general method and SpeClrlC categorles the most userul hlnts have
been gleaned rrom descrlptlons or languages wlth structures slmllar to Thal.
It would be lmposslble to mentlon all or them, but two were outstandlng In-
thlS respects The work or Charles F. Hockett on Chlnese (Pelplng) and Wllllam
A. Smalley's 'Outllne or Khmu? Structure. I
0.2. Scope
Standard spoken Thal, the subJect or thls grammar, lS not slmply the
audlble verSlon or a natIonally accepted wrltten language. As an oral manl-
festatlon, In ract, It has no orrlclal sanctlon or any klnd. But It lS the
language or communlcatlons medla, the deslred If not actual medlum of lnstruc-
tlon In publlc schools throughout Thalland, and the prestlge dlalect, repre-
sentlng the speech hablts or the maJorlty or educated speakers, regardless or
orlgln. Those who are not born to It adapt to It, or surrer the consequences.
Perhaps even more lmportant, It lS what rorelgners learn: standard spoken Thal
enJoys conslderable status as a second language In Laos, and some status even
1n parts or Cambodla and Burma.
The reglonal dlalect most closely resembllng the standard language lS
that spoken In the geographlcal area or Thalland called the Central Plaln.
1
ThlS dlalect centers around Bangkok, the capltal. It extends to the west as
far as the Burmese border, and to the southwest at least as far as Ratchaburl;
to the north and northeast lt lS generally bounded by mountalns, but can be
found as far away as Pltsanuloke; the eastern Ilmlt lS the Cambodlan border,
lncludlng the whole sectlon of Thalland WhlCh lS east of the Gulf of Slam.
Except for some lslands of non-Thal speakers, the central and most populous
portlon of the country lS thus entlrely blanketed by natlve speakers of a
dlalect close to the standard spoken language.
The prlnclpal lsoglosses separatlng the Central Plalns dlalect from ltS
nelghbors to the south, north, and northeast lnvolve the phonetlc shapes and
phonemlc dlstrlbutlon of tones. Consonant and vowel correspondences play an
lmportant, but lesser role. There are also conslderable dlfferences among
the ln lexlcon, but apparently very few In syntax. At thlS date It
lS probably safe to say that no natlve speaker of Thal wlthln the borders of
Thal,land proper has much dlfflculty In understandlng elther the Central Plalns
dlalect or the standard spoken language, glven a short perlod of adJustment.
Ablllty to speak standard Thal, In all areas, varles wlth the extent of formal
educatlon, soclal status, and contacts wlth other groups through work or
travel.
On the phonetlc level, the prlnclpal dlfference between the standard
language and the Central Plalns dlalect 18 the /r/ - /1/ dlstlnctlon. As
a legltlmate phoneme of a colloqulal Thal dlalect, /r/ probably does not
eXlst above the Malay penlnsula. In the Central Plalns dlalect, [rJ eXlsts
only as an unpredlctable varlant of the /1/ phoneme, alone and ln clusters.
Most speakers of the standard language make the dlstlnctlon a phonemlc one,
but vary as to the lexlcal ltems to WhlCh /r/ and /1/ are asslgned. In the
present work the cholce between the two phonemes lS made arbltrarlly, but ln
accordance wlth dlctlonary spelllngs wherever posslble.
0.3. Sources
Two separate perlods of fleld research In Thalland were lnvolved ln the
preparatlon of thlS grammar. 1950-52 and the summer of 1961. The flrst
research work was undertaken wlth the help of concurrent grants from the
Southeast ASla Program of Yale Unlverslty and the Amerlcan Councll of Learned
Socletles, and the results submltted ln 1954 as a Yale dlssertatlon en-
tltled 'An Outllne of Slamese Grammar.' The second perlod of research came
durlng a tour of duty by the author as FSI Reglonal Language Supervlsor for
Southeast ASla, wlth a contract between FSI and the Offlce of Educatlon for
the productlon of a Thal reference grammar as a stlmulus. It was declded to
take the orlglnal dlssertatlon as a basls for the grammar and expand lt, and
2
the summer of 1961 was devoted to testlng the analysls, shorlng up the weak
spots, and collectlng further examples.
The speclflc lnformants consulted for thlS study lncluded speakers of
the Central Plalns (CP) dlalect as well as standard (ST) speakers, both In
Thalland and the Unlted states. CP lnformants were lnteTvlewed entlrely In
Thal, and ST lnformants partly In Thal and partly In Engllsh. A llst of the
prlnclpal lnformants follows wlth thelr backgrounds and tlme and place of
lntervlews lndlcated.
1. Mr. Han Dltkum, student at Royal Mllltary Academy, Bangkok,
1951-52 (CP, Ayuthya Provlnce)
2. Mlss Chaluay Kanchanagama, Faculty of Arts, Chulalongkorn
Unlverslty, Bangkok, 1951-52 (ST)
3. Mr. Chote Raktlprakara, graduate student, Yale Unlverslty,
New Haven, 1953-54 (ST)
4. Mrs. Wllllam J. Gedney, wlfe of Amerlcan Ilngulst, Bangkok,
1951-52, and New Haven, 1954. (CP, Ayuthya Provlnce)
5. Mrs. Churee Indanlyom, employee of AUA Language Center,
Bangkok, 1961 (ST)
6. Mr. Prasert Crupltl, lnstructor, FSI Language School,
Washlngton, 1962-63 (CP, Chantaburl Provlnce, and ST)
7. Mlss Chotchol Kambhu, lnstructor, FSI Language School,
Washlngton, 1962-63 (ST)
Of modern descrlptlve work on Thal, the most frequently consulted pub-
llcatlons have been those of Mary R. Haas, especlally her Spoken Thal (wlth
Heng R. Subhanka, Henry Holt and Co., 1945). Many orlglnal concluslons of
Dr. Haas, lncludlng the broad outllne of phonemlc analysls ltself, of neces-
Slty recur In the present work, and It lS lmposslble to determlne WhlCh parts
of the analysls are orlglnal here and whlch are merely loglcal extenslons of
concluslons lmpllclt In her pedagoglcal work. The same could be sald of the
unpubllshed but equally valuable suggestlons of Dr. Wllllam J. Gedney, whose
gUldance In the orlglnal research proJect and later has conslderable rele-
vance to whatever appears on these pages.
A number of descrlptlve studles of Thal by llngulstlcally-orlented
Thal speakers, some of them graduate students at Amerlcan unlversltles, have
been done recently, but thelr flndlngs have not been lncorporated, expllcltly
or lmpllcltly, In the present work.
3
CHAPTER I
PHONOLOGY
1.1. Background
In general, the phonemlc analysls of the segmental features of stand-
ard spoken Thal \ST) follows the Solutlon proposed by Haas and Subhanka ln
Spoken Thal (1945). ThlS chOlce was made for two reasons: 1) the Solutlon
lS baslcally sound, and dlffers only mlnlmally, and In mutually convertlble
fashlon, from any more economlcal alternatlve Solutlon (such as the one pro-
posed In Outllne of Slamese Grammar), and 2) as a transcrlptlon system for
ST, lt has already achleved a wlde acceptance, and occurs ln a number of other
publlcatlons on Thal (lnclud1ng the FSI Bas1c Course). The only departures,
as far as symbollzat1on 1S concerned, are the wr1t1ng of long vowels w1th
double vowel symbols 1nstead of vowels plus ra1sed dot, as In Spoken Tha1,
t h ~ absence of a symbol for glottal stop (wrltten /9/ 1n Spoken Tha1, deter-
mlned by the presence of stress 1n the present analys1s) and the wrlt1ng of
short dlphthongs w1th /-e/ lnstead of /_a
9
/.
The 1mportant departures from the Haas analys1s 1nvolve prosod1c
features: ~ o n e s , stress, rhythm, and 1ntonat1on. The present analys1s pro-
poses SlX ST tones, 1nstead of f1ve. But even here, the four Haas tone sym-
bols, plus the unmarked tone, have been reta1ned to correspond w1th f1ve of
the SlX tones; only one new tone symbol, I-I, has been added. For the re-
malnlng prosod1c categor1es, the Spoken Thal system has no symbol1zat1on,
except perhaps the amb1guous 1mpl1cat1ons of space or lack of space between
syllables, and undeflned punctuat10n marks. The symbols used here for stress,
rhythm, and lntonat1on phenomena, then, are all new and correlate w1th spe-
c1flC phases of the complete phonemlc analys1s Wh1Ch follows.
1.2. Summary
1.2.1. Phonologlcal Unlts
Wlthln the ST utterance, the followlng phonologlcally slgnlflcant
subdlvlslons occur: the clause, the phrase, and the syllable. Clauses are
characterlzed by lntonat1on contours and Junctures, of WhlCh there are two
types each. Phrases are characterlzed by rhythmlc patterns, 1nvolv1ng rel-
at1ve syllable-duratlons of SlX dlstlnct klnds. Syllables are character1zed
by stress contours, of WhlCh there are SlX types. Phonemes of all the above
categorles are prosod1c phonemes.
4
Wlthln the syllable, there are four types of component. lnltlal,
nucleus, flnal, and tone. Consonant phonemes result from the analysls of
lnltlal and flnal components, vowel phonemes from nuclear components, and
tone phonemes from tonal components. These are all syllablc phonemes.
In the summary and the lndlvldual phoneme llstlngs, syllablc contrasts
are presented flrst, followed by prosodlc contrasts.
1.2.2 Inltlal Contrasts
There are twenty contrastlng lnltlals of one segment each, eleven
common lnltlals of two segments each, plus zero lnltlal, maklng a total of
32 contrasts.
/baa/ 'crazy' /laa/ 'donkey'
/paa/ 'forest' /raab/ 'flat'
/praab/ 'subdue' /caan/ 'pIate'
/plaa/ 'flSh' /chaam/ 'bowl'
/phaa/ 'cloth' /Jaa/ 'medlclne'
/phraan/ 'hunter r /kaa/ rteapot
r
/phlaad/ 'Sllp I /kraab/ 'prostrate'
/faa/ ' sky'
/klaa/ 'bold'
/maa/ 'come' /kwaa/ 'more'
/daa/ 'curse' /khraaw/ 'occaSlon'
/taa/ 'eye I /khlaaJ/ 'slmllar'
/traa/ 'stamp' /khwaa/ 'rlght slde'
/thaa/ 'daub' /haa/ 'flve'
/saam/ 'three r /lJaa/
rtusk r
/naa/ 'fleld' /aa/ 'open the Jaws'
1.2.3. Nuclear Contrasts
There are nlne contrastlng nuclel of one segment each (short vowels),
\
n1ne gemlnate two-segment nucle1 (long vowels), and flve nucle1 conslst1ng
of d1fferent segments (d1phthongs), for a total of 23 contrasts. Three d1ph-
thongs are long (those end1ng 1n /a/), and two are short (end1ng 1n /8/).
There 1S no zero nucleus.
5
Long Nucle1.
Short Nucle1.
/li1.g/ 'bypass' /phl{g/ 'turn over'
/riag/ 'call' /k{e/ 'wooden shoes'
/leeg/ 'number' ' small'
/lEcg/ 'exchange' /keg/ 'sharp sound'
/lyYm/ 'forget' /lyg/ 'deep I
/lyag/ 'choose'
/18eg/ 'qU1.t' /lJen/ 'SlIver'
/laag/ 'haul' 'steal'
/luug/ 'ch1.1d' 'get up'
/luag/ 'parboll' 'pure-wh1. te '
/loog/ 'world' /n6g/ 'b1.rd'
/lSag/ 'peel' /k;/ 'lsland'
Flnal Contrasts
There are elght common contrastlng flnals of one segment each, plus
zero flnal, maklng a total of 9 contrasts.
/dab/ 'ext1.ngu1.sh' /dad/ 'stralghten' /dag/ 'net'
/dam/ 'black' /dan/ 'push' /dalJ/ 'loud'
/daw/ ' guess" /da/ 'plunge ahead' /daJ/ 'any'
1.2.5 Tonal Contrasts
There are SlX contrastlng tones, four of them relatlvely level In
contour, one falllng, and one rlslng. There lS no zero tone.
Level Obllque
/khaw/ 'he' /khaw/
'feature'
'respect' /khaw/
/khaw/ 'knee'
'enter'
'hlll'
6
1.2.6. stress Contrasts
There are SlX contrastlng stress contours occurrlng on lndlvldual
syllables, three of them sustalned (level of loudness peaklng toward mlddle,
then dylng out slowly) and three dlmlnlshlng (level of loudness greatest at
beglnnlng of syllable, dylng out rapldly).
Sustalned Dlmlnlshlng
/1maa:/ 'Of course (It) came 1 ' /1maa/ 'C 'mere 1 '
/'maa:/ ' (I t) came,
(but) ,
/'maa/
I (It) came.
,
/maa:/ ... , Mah. ' /maa/ 'up to now. '
(The last two examples, wlth the translatlons 'Mah,' a man's name
used vocatlvely, and 'up to now,' a functlonal word that follows verbs, do
not occur In lsolatlon as do the flrst four examples.)
1.2.7. Rhythmlc Contrasts
There are SlX dlstlngulshable degrees of relatlve syllable-length
wlthln an utterance, three of whlch are determlned by stress and lntonatlon
features, two of whlch are In contrast, plus the shortest length whlch lS
lnterpreted as zero duratlon. The flrst flve relatlve duratlons are lllus-
trated wlth a syllable /'mll/ taken from contexts, In descendlng order
of length.
/'mll:
T
./ 'Yes, there are. '
/'mll./ 'There are.
,
/'mll: naa./ 'There are, you know. '
/'mll 'naa./ 'There are flelds. '
/ 'mll- 'naa./ 'The month of March. '
The last two examples lllustrate dlrect rhythmlc contrast. Zero
duratlon occurs In the syllable /ml/ In the followlng:
'Untll March.'
1.2.8 Intonatlonal Contrasts
Portlons of utterances have two contrastlng uypes of lntonatlon
contour: 1) hlgh pltch-llne, In whlch the absolute pltch-range of each
klnd of tone remalns roughly the same from one end of the clause to the
other, and lS relatlvely hlgh, and 2) falllng pltch-llne, In whlch the
absolute pltch-range drops steadlly. The effect lS most easlly audlble
7
'chaaw- 'naa 'plaa naJ- 'khuu t.
'The farmer lS shoot1ng the f1Sh 1n the pondJ'
when all syllables 1n the utterance-port1on have the same tone (In th1S case
m1d tone):
2) 'chaaw-'naa 'plaa naJ-'khuu.
'The farmer lS 100k1ng at the f1Sh 1n the pond. I
The second contour lS analyzed as zero 1ntonat1on.
Utterance-port1ons are separated 1n two ways. 1) by resumpt10n of
p1tch-l1ne at a lower level, 2) by resumpt10n of the p1tch-l1ne at a h1gher
level. When the f1rst port1on has fall1ng p1tch-llne, and the resumpt10n lS
at a low level, there must be pause otherw1se a slngle 1ntonatlon con-
tour results. The same lS true of a h1gh-P1tch-l1ne port1on w1th resumptlon
at a h1gh level.
In the follow1ng pa1r of utterances, the utterance-port1ons are
1dent1cal (all have fall1ng 1ntonat1on), and the contrast lS 1n the Juncture
alone. Example 1) lS 'close Juncture,' wr1tten /./, and Example 2) lS 'open
Juncture, I wr1tten /.f/.
1) 'sya tua- 'n{l: re8. khun 'saJ 'mYa-khyyn-'n{l.
'Is th1S the coat you wore last
2) 'sya tua-'n{l: re8 .f khun 'saJ 'mya-khyyn- 'n{l.
'Is th1S the You wore 1t last n1ght. '
Slnce both port1ons may have e1ther of the two 1ntonat1on contours,
and the separatlon may be by elther of the two Junctures, there are e1ght
poss1ble lntonat1on-sequences for th1S part1cular palr of utterance port1ons
(see 1.6.3).
1.3. Consonants
1.3.1. General
The 21 consonant phonemes of ST are def1ned schemat1cally as follow:
Lab1al Dental Pala tal Velar Other
Unasp1ra ted
Len1s stops /b/ /d/ /g/
Asp1rated
Lenls stops /ph/ /th/ /ch/ /kh/
Fortls stops /p/ /t/ /c/ /k/
Nasal Cont1nuants /m/ /n/
Oral Contlnuants /w/ /1/ /J/ /r/
Sp1rants /f/ /s/ /h/
8
All consonant phonemes except /g/ are In contrast ln lnltlal pOS1-
tlon. The oral contlnuants /w/, /1/, and /r/ are ln multlple contrast as
members of lnltlal clusters. All the 'unasplred lenls stops /b d g/,
the nasal contlnuants /m n and two of the oral contlnuants, /w/ and
/J/, are ln multlple contrast ln flnal posltlon. Other consonants occur In-
frequently as second members of clusters and In flnal pos1t10n; these occur-
rences are noted as 'rare' under the lndlvldual phoneme headlngs.
Fort1s glottal stop [9] occurs ln both lnltlal and flnal posltlons,
but lS not a phoneme. Its lnltlal occurrence lS determlned by the onset of
elther stress phoneme, /'/ or /J/, on any vowel nucleus (l.e., when no other
ln1tlal consonant lS present); ltS flnal occurrence 1S determ1ned by the
cessatlon of elther stress phoneme on any short vowel nucleus (l.e. when
no other flnai consonant 1S present, and the vowel lS short).
1.3.2. Allophon1c Sets
Certaln allophonlc general1zatlons are appllcable to whole sets of
consonants ln certaln enV1ronments:
1) The flnal consonants Ilsted as 'unreleased,' /b, d, g/, are
slowly released and may partly overlap w1th a follow1ng sound; they are
completely unreleased before /./.
2) The other flnal consonants, /m n w J/, have weak, short
allophones after long vowels and strong, long allophones after short vowels.
3) The fort1s stops /p t k/ (but not /c/), the nasals /m n and
the splrants /f s h/ are Sllghtly velar1zed before the h1gh vowels /1 y u/,
other lnltlal consonants partly asslmllate to these vowels.
4) All 1nlt1al consonants Ilsted as 'volceless' may be part1ally
vOlced 1n rapld speech when they follow a vOlced sound and precede an un-
stressed vowel: e.g. /ph/ ln 'wall' and /t/ ln /'aw-ta'puul
'take a na 11. '
5) All flnal consonants Ilsted as 'volced' approach v01celessness
at the end of a syllable wlth loud d1m1nuendo stress: /JI ln /JpaJ./ 'Let's
go. '
6) The consonants Wh1Ch occur as second members of clusters, Iw 1 r/,
are vOlced after unasplrated stops but v01celess (at least at the beglnnlng)
after asplrated stops: /'plee/ 'translate' (volced 11/), /'phlee/ 'wound'
(vo lceles s 11/).
9
1.3.3. Lab1al Consonants
/b/ Unasplrated len1S stop.
Always bllab1al, w1th full closure. As 1n1t1al - fully
v01ced, w1th V01ce beg1nn1ng well before closure 1S releasedl
/'baa/ 'crazy.' Under heavy stress, and occas1onally under
normal stress, sllghtly 1mpos1ve: /!baal/. (Var1antl pre-
nasal1zed. )
As f1nal - unreleased, normally v01celess: /'rab/ 'take.'
Occas1onally v01ced, espec1ally after long, h1gh vowel: /'rl1b/
'hurry.' F1rst 1n c l u s t e ~ (rare) -- vOlced: /'bryy/ 'extremely
fast. '
/ph/ Asp1rated len1s stop.
As 1n1t1al-vo1celess, always b1lab1al, w1th complete or near-
complete but loose closure: /'phaa/ 'cloth.'
F1rst ~ cluster - same, w1th less asp1ratlon: /'phrEE/ 'sllk
cloth.
/p/ Fortls stop.
As 1n1t1al-vo1celess, unasp1rated. B1lab1al, w1th closed
IlPS held t1ghtly aga1nst teeth for sharp, clean release: /'paa/
'aunt.' Var1ant, for some speakers: lab1o-dental stop.
F1rst 1n cluster - sames /'plaa/ 'flSh.'
/m/ Nasal cont1nuant.
Always b1lab1al, w1th full closure.
vOlced, fort1s, wlth IlPS aga1nst teeth
somet1mes aud1ble). /'maa/ 'come.'
As f1nal - len1s, v01ced strongly:
/'chaam/ 'bowl,' partly v01celess: /aJ
named 'Black1e.')
/W/ Oral cont1nuant.
As 1n1t1al - fully
(percuss1on from release
/'dam/ 'black,' weakly:
!dam/ (call1ng a dog
Normally b1lab1al, w1th at least some aperture, len1s. As
1n1t1al - fully v01ced, w1th narrow aperture anq slmultaneous
dorsal hump1ng (but no'protrus1on of IlPS as In /uu/): /'waa/
'say.' Often has aud1ble fr1ct1on, espec1ally before h1gh
vowels: /'Wl1/ 'comb.' Second ~ cluster - same, overlapp1ng
f1rst member of cluster, but w1thout dorsal hump1ng, v01ced:
/'kwaa/ 'more,' partly v01celess, some fr1ctlon: /'khwaa/ 'r1ght
slde. '
10
Varlant for some speakers, flrst two posltlons only:
vOlced lablodental splrant. As flnal - wlth wlder aperture,
less dorsal humplng, some protruslon, no frlctlon, vOlced
strongly; /Iraw/ 'we, I weakly: /Iraaw/ 'approxlmately, I partly
vOlceless: /law/ 'Take ltl'
/f/ Splrant.
VOlceless, hlgh-frlctlon, normally lablo-dental.
tlal - fortlsl 'sky.' Varlant for a few speakers:
bllablal, wlth very narrow aperture. As flnal (rare) - lenls:
/'cheef/ 'Chevrolet. I Flrst cluster (rare) - lenls, less
frlctlon: /'frll/ 'wlthout cost. '
1.3.4. Dental Consonants
/d/ Unasplrated lenls stop.
Broad tongue-tlp contact wlth backs of upper teeth; tlP
may also touch gums.
As lnltlal - fully vOlced, wlth VOlce beglnnlng well before
tongue-tlp lS wlthdrawna /'daa/ 'curse.' Under heavy stress,
and occaslonally under normal stress, sllghtly lmploslve: /'dll:/
'Sure, It's good! I (Varlanta pre-nasallzed.)
As flnal - unreleased, normally vOlceless: /rr6d/ 'car. I
Occaslonally vOlced, especlally after long hlgh vowel: /'myyd/
'dark.' Flrst In cluster (rare) vOlced: 'drlve (golf
9r automatlc transmlSSlon) I
/th/ Asplrated lenls stop.
As lnltlal - vOlceless, always apJco-dental, wlth complete
but loose contact: /'thaa/ 'landlng-place.'
Flrst cluster (rare) - same, wlth less asplratlon:
/lthruu-'mEEn/ 'Truman. I
/t/ Fortls stop.
VOlceless, unasplrated.
As lnltlal - aplco-dental, wlth tlP held tensely agalnst
teeth for sharp, clean release: /Itaa/ 'eye. I
Varlant, for some lnterdental stop. Flrst In
clustera-aplco-alveolara /Itraa/ 'stamp. I
11
/n/ Nasal contlnuant.
Always aplco-dental, wlth broad contact. As lnltlal -
fully vOlced, fortls, wlth flrm contact agalnst teeth: /'naa/
'face. '
As flnal - lenls, vOlced strongly: /'kan/ 'to ward off,' .
weakly: /'kaan/ 'affalrs,' partly vOlce]ess: /!dan/ 'Push!'
Allophone In close Juncture wlth lnltlal /1/ In followlng
syllable - nasallzed lateral. /'phon-la'maaJ/ 'frult.'
Allophone In close Juncture wlth lnltlal /r/ In followlng
syllable - nasallzed aplco-alveolar flap: /'man-ra'Jaad/ 'man-
ners. '
Allophone In close Juncture wlth lnltlal /J/ In followlng
syllable - palatal nasal: /'pan-'Jaa/ 'bralns.'
/1/ Oral contlnuant.
Normally aplco-dental lateral, wlth aperture on both sldes
of tongue, lenls.
As lnltlal - fully vOlced, no audlble frlctlon, no dorsal
humplng: /'laa/ 'donkey.'
Second In cluster - same, overlapplng flrst member of
cluster, vOlced: /'plaa/ 'flSh,' partly vOlceless, some frlc-
tlon: 'song.'
Varlant for some speakers, flrst two posltlons only:
aplco-alveolar lateral.
As flnal (rare, few speakers) - aplco-dental lateral.
L'bll/ 'Blll.'
/s/ Splrant.
VOlceless, hlgh-frlctlon, normally aplco-dental groove.
As lnltlal - fortlS: /'saam/ 'three.'
As flnal (rare) - lenls: /'n{s-'saJ/ 'characterlstlcs. I
Flrst In cluster (rare) - lenls, less frlctlon:
'money. '
1.3.5. Palatal Consonants
/ch/ Asplrated lenls stop (or vOlceless splrant).
Inltlal posltlon only. vOlceless, normally wlth loose
contact of tongue-blade wlth forward portlon of hard palate:
/'chaam/ 'bowl.'
Varlant: sIlt splrant In same posltlon.
Varlant. palatallzed aplco-alveolar stop.
12
/c/ Fortls stop
Inltlal posltlon only. VOlceless, unasplrated, wlth flrm
contact of tongue-blade and hard palate: /'caan/ 'dlSh.'
Varlant: palatallzed aplco-alveolap stop.
/J/ Oral contlnuant.
Normally hlgh-front semlvowel, lenls.
As lnltlal - fully vOlced, wlth narrow aperture extendlng
over wlde area: /'Jaa/ 'medlclne.' Often has audlble frlctlon,
especlally before blgh vowels: /'J11- 'sib/ 'twenty.'
Varlant for some speakers: vOlced palatal splrant.
Second ~ cluster (rare) - same, overlapplng flrst member
of cluster, vOlced or vOlceless: /'phJaa/ (tltle).
As flnal - wlth wlder aperture, no frlctlon, vOlced
strongly: /'paJ/ 'go,' weakly: /'baaJ/ 'afternoon,' partly
vOlceless: /JpaJ/ 'Let's goJ'
1.3.6. Velar Consonants
/g/ Unasplrated lenls stop.
Flnal posltlon only. Dorsal contact In mld-velar area,
unreleased, normally vOlceless: /'rag/ 'love.' Occaslonally
vOlced, especlally after long hlgh vowel: /'luug/ 'Chlld.'
/kh/ Asplrated lenls stop (or vOlceless splrant).
As Inltlal - vOlceless, wlth complete or near-complete
but loose closure In mld-velar area: /'khaa/ 'klll.'
Flrst ~ cluster - same, wlth less asplratlon: /'khruu/
'teacher. '
Varlant (both posltlons): vOlceless velar affrlcate.
Varlant (both posltlons): vOlceless velar splrant.
/k/ Fortls stop.
As lnltlal - vOlceless, unasplrated. Mld-velar, wlth
back of tongue held flrmly In contact untll sharp, clean
release: /'kaa/ 'crow. I
Flrst ~ cluster - same: / ' k l a a ~ / 'mlddle.'
/ ~ / Nasal contlnuant.
Always mld-velar, wlth dorsal contact.
13
As lnltlal - fully vOlced, fortls, wlth flrm contact over
broad area: 'tusk.'
As flnal - lenls, vOlced 'go down,'
weakly. 'mlddle,' partly vOlced: 'Get down! I
1.3.7. Other Consonants
/r/ Alveolar oral contlnuant.
Normally aplco-alveolar flap, wlth groovlng of tongue,
lenls.
As lnltlal - fully Ilttle or no frlctlon: /'raaJ/
'case. '
Second In clustel - same, overlapplng flrst member of
cluster, vOlced: /'traa/ 'stamp,' partly vOlceless, more
frlctlon: /'phrEE/ 'sllk cloth. I
Varlant(both posltlons): vOlced retroflex splrant wlth
low frlctlon.
/h/ Glottal splrant.
Normally a low-frlctlon splrant.
As lnltlal - fortls. /'haa/ 'flve.'
As flnal (rare) - lenls: /nah/ (flnal partlcle).
Varlant (both posltlons): vOlceless vowel of same posltlon
as contlguous vOlced vowel.
1.4 Vowels
General
The 9 vowel phonemes of ST are deflned schematlcally as follows:
Front
Hlgh /l/
Mld lei
Low /E/
Back Unrounded Back Rounded
/u/
/0/
/0/
All vowel phonemes are In contrast In the nuclear of the
syllable (between consonants). All types occur both long and short, the
long nuclel belng lnterpreted here as two lnstances of the correspondlng
short vowel phoneme: Ill/, feel, etc.
14
There are flve nuclear dlphthongs, three long and two short. The
long ones are analyzed as lnstances of slngle hlgh-vowel phonemes plus /a/,
the short ones as hlgh-vowel phonemes plus /e/.
Long:
Short:
Allophonlc Sets
/ya/ /ua/
/ue/
Certaln allophonlc generallzatlons are appllcable to whole sets of
vowels In certaln envlronments:
1) All vowel nuclel conslstlng of two lnstances of the same phoneme
(called 'double' In the Ilstlng of allophones by phoneme below) average longer
In duratlon than the vowel phoneme by ltself (called 'slngle' below), but less
than tWlce as long.
2) The long dlphthongs /la, ya, ua/ average sllghtly longer than
double vowels (e.g. Ill, yy, uu/), and over tWlce as long as slngle vowels
(e.g. /l, y, u/).
3) The short dlphthongs /le, ue/ average sllghtly longer than slngle
vowels, but shorter than double vowels.
4) The hlgh double vowels Ill, yy, uu/ start Wlth a gllde from mld
central posltlon after all fortls lnltlal consonants except /c/. The effect
lS less notlceable wlth the correspondlng short vowels /l, y, u/.
5) All hlgh and mld vowels have tenser allophones, generally speak-
lng, In long nuclel, and laxer allophones In short nuclel.
6) All low vowels have laxer allophones In long nuclel, and tenser
allophones In short nuclel. They are also nasallzed after /h/, nasal con-
sonants, and zero lnltlals: /'h88/ 'parade,' /'maa/ 'come,' and / ' ; ~ g /
'exlt.
1
1.4.3. Vowel Phonemes
/l/ Hlgh front vowel.
Double - tense upper hlgh front, unrounded: /'dll/ 'good, 1
after fortls consonant (except /c/) gllde from central to
front: /ISll/ 'four.'
(
Slngle - same quarlty as double before /w/ and zero flnal:
/'n{w/ 'flnger,' /Itl/ 'crltlclze,' but lax and sllghtly lower
before other flnals: /'tld/ Iget stuck. '
Before /a/ - long lax (no gllde after fortls consonants):
/Isla/ Ilose.'
Before /e/ - short tense: /'k{e/ 'wooden shoes. '
15
/e/ Mld front vowel.
Double - tense upper mld front, unrounded: /'thee/ 'pour. I
Slngle - same quallty before zero flnal. /Ite/ 'klck, I
lax and somewhat lower before other flnals: /Ipen/ 'allve, I
centrallzed before /w/: /'rew/ 'fast. I
/E/ Low front vowel.
Double - lax upper low front, unrounded, sllghtly center-
lng. /'kEE/ 'old,' after /h/, nasal, or zero lnltlal, sllghtly
nasallzed: /'meE/ 'mother. I
Slngle - same quallty before zero flnal, but tense. /'ke/
'sheep,' lax and less central before other flnals:
'hard. I
/y/ Hlgh back unrounded \owel.
Double - tense mld-hlgh, between central and back: /'dyy/
Istubborn, I after fortls consonant, upward gllde: /'myy/
'hand. I
Slngle - lax and sllghtly lower: 'pull. I
Before - long lax (no gllde after fortls consonants):
/'sya/ Itlger. I
/e/ Mld back unrounded vowel.
Double - tense lower mld, between central and backs /Ioeen/
Iwalk, I all the way back before /J/s /'leeJ/ 'to pass. '
Slngle - same quallty as double, 'slIver, r
'a lot. I
After and - fast mld central gllde: /Ik{e/
'wooden shoes, lpure-whlte. I
/a/ Low back unrounded vowel.
Double - lax lower low central: /Itaa/ 'eye, I after /h/,
nasal, or zero lnltlal, nasallzed: /'haa/ 'flve.'
Slngle - same quallty before zero flnal, but tenses /'ka/
'estlmate, I lax and sllghtly hlgher before other flnals. /'kan/
'ward off, I further front before /J/: /'paJ/ Igo, I further
back before /w/: /'raw/ 'we. I
After lxi, and -before zero flnal, slow gllde to
low central posltlon: /Itua/ 'body, I before other flnals, faster
16
1•.5.1
gllde through h1gher central pos1t1on (but not as h1gh as
lei); /'duaJ/ lalso, I /lr1an/ Istudy, , /'lyagl 'choose. I
lui H1gh back rounded vowel.
Double - tense upper h1gh, far backs I'duu/ 'look at, I
after fort1s consonant, gllde from central to backs I'tuul
'chest. I
Slngle - same qual1ty as double before IJ/ and zero f1nals
l'khuJ/ 'converse, I /Idu/ 'savage, I but lax and Sllghtly lower
before other f1nals /khun/ 'yoU.'
Before - long lax (no gllde after fort1s consonants):
I'tua/ 'body.'
Before - short tense: 'pure-wh1te.'
10/ M1d back rounded vowel.
Double - tense upper m1d back, far backs I'tool 'b1g. I
Slngle - same qual1ty before zero f1nal. /lt6/ 'table, I
lax and somewhat lower before other f1nals: I'ton/ Itrunk of
plant, I central1zed before IJ/: /doJ/ 'by means of. I
101 Low back rounded vowel.
Double - lax upper low, between back and central. I'k;ol
11nst1gate,' after /h/, nasal, or' zero 1n1t1al, nasal1zed:
I'h;ol 'package. I
Slngle - same qual1ty before zero f1nal, but tense. /'k;/
'1sland, I lax and less central before other f1nals:
Iroom. I
1. .5 Tones
General
The 6 tone phonelrles of ST are def1ned as follows:
Level Tones
PIa 1n H1gh 1'''/
Constr1cted H1gh /'1
M1d (unmarked)
Low /'/
Obl1que Tones
Fall1ng I "I
Rls1ng I vI
As far as 1solated syllables are concerned, all SlX tones are 1n
contrast only on syllables w1th susta1ned loud stress. /J 1/. In the
env1ronment I. I .1, for example, there 1S no contrast between m1d and low
17
tones, Wh1Ch are d1st1ngu1shable to most speakers only w1th reference to
tones of surround1ng syllables. In many other env1ronments, there 1S no
contrast between the two h1gh tones (pla1n h1gh tone hav1ng a very low func-
t10nal Y1eld.)
No tone 1S determ1ned, and the absence of any' sYmbol for m1d tone 1n
a stressed syllable 1S merely a graph1c conven1ence. In unstressed syllables
of short duratJon, however, the absence of a tonA symbol actually means zero
tonel /caphuud/ 'w111 speak' (f1rst syllable).
1.5.2 Allophon1c Sets
CertaJ_n genera11zat10ns are app11cable to all tones 1nsofar as the1r
allophones are concerned:
1) Tone contours are longer under any type of susta1ned stress, or
before pause, than they are under normal stress cond1t1ons 1n
the 1nter10r of a phrase. Unless a part1cular allophone of a
tone has other pecu11ar1t1es under these c1rcumstances, no
separate 11st1ng of the allophone 1S made.
2) The actual p1tch-range of a g1ven tone 1S determ1ned by 1tS place
on the 'pltch-11ne' of the 1ntonat10n contour of 1tS clause
(1.2.8); all lnd1cat10ns of pltch contour are glven 1n reference
to a relat1ve med1an p1tch, wh1ch 1S the level of m1d tone at
that part1cular place on the p1tch-llne. No allophones are
11sted for tone phonemes 1n d1fferent pos1t10ns of the clause.
3) The actual length of a g1ven tone contour 1S determ1ned by the
rhythm of 1tS phrase (1.2.7), as well as the type of stress) no
allophones are 11sted for tone phonemes 1n d1fferent pos1t1ons
of the phrase.
1.5.3. Tone Phonemes
/-/ Pla1n h1gh tone.
Normal stress - level contour, beg1nn1ng and end1ng above med1an
p1tch, no constr1Ct1oni /Ichan/ II, me.'
Loud susta1ned stress - contour beg1nn1ng at a very h1gh p1tch
and r1s1ng st111 h1gherl /J taaJI/ (exclamat1on.)
other susta1ned stress-- contour beg1nn1ng Just above med1an
p1tch, r1s1ng s11ghtly, then falllng off gently: /'fon 'tog 'suu:/ 'ra1n1ng
stead11y, I /lpaJ naa:/ 'Come on and gO, w111 y o u ~ ,
Weak stress - short h1gh level contour /'d11: nag/ 'too good. '
18
1
'1 Constrlcted hlgh tone.
Normal stress - level or sllghtly rlslng contour, beglnnlng and
endlng above medlan pltch, constrlcted throughout vOlced portlon of syllable,
glottallzed toward end If no stop present: /'chanl 'shelf', I'chad/ 'clear,'
droPPlng sllghtly toward end before pause 'It's hot.'
Loud sustalned stress - contour beglnnlng at a hlgher pltch,
rlslng sharply and falllng off gradually, contrlcted throughout:
'It's hot!'
Weak stress - contour same as for normal stress, but cut off by
glottal stop or shortenlng of nucleusl I'dll: IEEwl 'O.K. then,' l'dsJ I
waJI 'had gotten. '
I I (unmarked) Mld tone.
Normal stress - level contour, beglnnlng and endlng near medlan
pltch, no constrlctlOnt I'maa/ 'come,' dropplng very sllghtly toward end
before pause. /'maa./ 'Came.'
Loud sustalned stress - contour beglnnlng at medlan pltch,
rlslng and falllng gradually: /!maa:/ 'Of course (he) came!'
Weak stress - contour beglnnlng at medlan or lower pltch, VOlce
dylng out rapldly: l'daJ: maal 'got.'
Loud stress - contour same as for normal stress, but cut off by
vOlcelessness before end. l!paJI 'Let's go!'
Ii
below medlan
lsola tlon) I
l'phaa.1 'It
Low tone.
Normal stress - level contour, beglnnlng and endlng sllghtly
pltch, no constrlctlon (lndlstlngulshable from mld tone In
/'phaa/ 'spIlt,' dropplng very sllghtly toward end before pause,
spllt. '
Loud sustalned stress - contour low level at flrst, slldlng
upward toward end (dlstlngulshable from mld tone allophone of thls type):
I!Jaa:1 'Don't do It!'
Weak stress - contour beglnnlng at or lower pltch, VOlce
dylng our rapldly (same as mld tone): /'maa 'nil: k00n/ 'Come here a
moment. '
Falllng tone
Normal stress - contour beglnnlng Just below pltch-level for
the two hlgh tones, rlslng qUlckly above that level, then falllng rather
19
sharply to medlan pltch or below, wlth Sllght constrlctlon throughout, /rnaa/
'front,' dropplng less sharply all the way to low-tone pltch-level before
pause: l,naa.1 'It's In front. '
Loud sustalned stress - contour startlng hlgher than hlgh-tone
level, rlslng, then dropplng wlth lncreaslng speed and constrlctlon, all the
way to low-tone level or below: IJdaaJ:/ 'Of course lt'S posslbleJ'
Weak stress - contour falls from hlgh-tone level very Sllghtly,
wlth Ilttle constrlctlon, /maJ 'mll/ 'There aren't any. '
Loud stress - contour more rapld than for normal stress, but
cut off by vOlcelessness toward end, IJaawl 'For heaven's sake!'
/
V/
/ R1Slng tone.
Normal stress - contour beglnnlng Just above pltch-level for
low tone, dlpplng qUlckly below that level, then rlslng rather sharply almost
to hlgh-tone level, no constrlctlon: /'naa/ 'thlCk,' rlslng less sharply to a
pOlnt Just above medlan pltch before pause: /rnaa./ 'It's thlCk.'
Loud sustalned stress - contour startlng lower than low-tone
level, no constrlctlonl /Jnaa,/ 'Of course lt's thlCkJ'
Weak stress - contour beglns at medlan pltch or above and rlses
only Sllghtly: /phom 'mll/ 'I have It.'
1.6. ProsodlC Phonemes
1.6.1. General
To some extent prosodlc phonemes are dlstrlbutlonally lnterrelated,
In the same way that syllablc phonemes are. stress phonemes have a speclal
relatlonshlp wlth both rhythm and lntonatlon phonemes, and the latter have
some relatlonshlp wlth each other (see 1.7.4). It lS nearly feaslble, In
fact, to comblne stress and rhythm contrasts lnto a slngle type of phoneme,
Just as lnltlal and flnal syllable-contrasts are comblned lnto consonant
phonemes.
stress phonemes have to do wlth the (already-deflned) syllable,
rhythm p h o ~ e m e s wlth the phrase (deflned In 1.6.4, end), and lntonatlon
phonemes wlth the clause (deflned In 1.6.3 end). The order of presentatlon,
however, lS stress, lntonatlon, then rhythm. Prosodlc phonemes do not usually
have allophones In the sense that syllablc phonemes do. One exceptlon is the
lntonatlon phoneme Iii, WhlCh has posltlonal varlants (see 1.6.3).
20
1.6.2. stress Phonemes
The SlX stress-contours of ST syllables are analyzed 1n terms of
three phonemes and the1r comb1nat1onsl
Loud Onset IJI
Normal Onset I V
Susta1ned Contour 1:1
Normal Sustalned Stress: / 'pa J: kanl 'They went. '
Weak Dlmlnlshlng Stress: /'oogl paJI ' (He) went out. '
Weak Sustalned Stress: I'oog paJ: khrab/ ' (He) went out, Slr.
I
The symbols for onset phonemes are wr1tten at the beg1nn1ng of the
syllable 1n quest1on; absence of any symbol here 1nd1cates weak onset (not
a phoneme). The symbol for the susta1ned contour phoneme 1S at the
end of the syllable; absence of a symbol here 1nd1cates d1m1n1shlng stress
(not a phoneme).
The SlX posslble stress-contours are 111ustrated as follows, uSlng
the syllable IpaJI for contrastlve purposes:
1) Loud D1mlnlshlng Stress IJpaJI 'Let's go!'
2) Loud Sustalned Stress: 11paJII (he) went!'
3) Normal Dlm1nlshlng Stress: /'paJ/ 'Yes (he) went.'
4)
5)
6)
1.6.3. Intonatlon Phonemes
The elght posslble 1ntonatlon-sequences for a slngle palr of utter-
ance-portlons are analyzed In terms of only two phonemes and thelr
Clons:
Pause I. / Upper pltch-l1ne It/
The symbol for the pause phoneme 1S wr1tten wherever 1t occurs; 1ts
absence lmplles cont1nuous phonatlon throughout a sequence. The symbol for
upper pltch-llne, wrltten by ltself ItI of after pause I. t /, means a new
lntonat1on contour beglnnlng on a hlgh pltch-llne; absence of / tl after
pause 1mplles resumptlon of the pltch-llne at a low level. The same symbol
wr1tten before pause I t.1 means h1gh p1tch-l1ne 1ntonat1on contour; 1tS
absence 1n th1s pos1t1on 1mplles falllng p1tch-l1ne lntonat1on contour. The
comb1nat1on It .t/ occurs, mean1ng h1gh 1ntonatlon contour followed after
pause by new lntonatlon contour beg1nn1ng at or1g1nal pltch-l1ne (Wh1ch 18
the same or h1gher than the end of the f1rst contour). The comblna t10n IffI
does not occur.
The symbol 1...1 1S used to replace 1.1 whenever an utterance 1S
ObV1ously broken off short of completlon of the port1on 1n questlon. The
symbol 1... 1 has no phonem1c status.
21
The elght lntonatlon sequences are lllustrated as follows, uSlng lden-
tlcal constltuents for contrastlve purposes. Portlons separated by I. tl or
/ tl are sald to be In open clause Juncture; those separated by 1.1 are sa1d
to be In close clause Juncture.
1) Two falllng contours In close Juncture:
Isya tua- In{l: re8 • khun IsaJ 'mya-khyyn- In{l •
'Is thls the coat you wore last plght?'
2) Two falllng contours In open Juncture:
'sya tua-'n{l: re8 . t khun IsaJ Imya-khyyn-'n{l .
'Is thlS the coat1 You wore It last nlght. I
3) Hlgh and falllng contours In close Juncture:
'sya tua- 'n{l: re8 t. khun IsaJ 'mya-khyyn- 'n{l
'Is thlS the coat you wore last I
4) Hlgh and falllng contours In open Juncture:
Isya tua- In{l: re8t. t khun IsaJ 'mya-khyyn- 'n{l
lIs thls the You wore It last nlght.'
5) Falllng and hlgh contours In close Juncture: (rare):
Isya tua-In{l: re8 . khun IsaJ Imya7khyyn-ln{1: t.
'Is thlS the coat you wore last
More common would be the slngle-clause transform:
6) Falllng and h1gh contours In open Juncture:
'sya tua-'n{ll re8 . t khun 'saJ 'mya-khyyn- 'n{ll t
'Is th1S the coat1 You wore 1t last nlghtJ'
7) Two hlgh contours In close Juncture:
'sya tua- In{l: re8 t . khun 'saJ 'mya-khyyn- 'n{l t.
lIs thlS the coat you wore last
8) Two hlgh contours In open Juncture:
Isya tua- In{l: re8 t . t khun IsaJ lmya-khyyn-In{ll t •
'Is th1S the You wore 1t last n1ghtJ'
A phonem1c clause 1S any port1on of an utterance Wh1Ch has 1tS own
1ntonat1on contour or 1S separated from the rest of the utterance by one of
the clause Junctures. All the utterances above conslst of two clauses. The
follow1ng utterances cons1st of slngle clauses:
22
'sya reG 'khun 'saJ
'Is thls the coat you wore last
'sya tua- 'n{l: reG 'khun 'saJ 'mya-khyyn- 'n{l: ,.
'Is thls the coat you wore
(In meanlng, they correspond respectlvely to the two-clause
utterances 1) and 7) above.)
1.6.4. Rhythm Phonemes
The rhythmlc patterns of ST sequences are analyzed In terms of
two phonemes already mentloned, the lntonatlon phoneme / . / (pause) and the
stress phoneme / : / (sustalned stress), plus two new phonemes whlch have to
do wlth the relatlve duratlon of syllables not lmmedlately followed by / . /
or / , /; such syllables are lnternal. Syllable-duratlon lS deflned as the
tlme elapsed between the beglnnlng of the syllable In questlon and the begln-
nlng of the next syllable In the utterance, regardless of whether any phona-
tlon lS gOlng on or any sound belng produced. Thus, a weak-stressed syllable
wlth a short vowel and a vOlceless flnal stop, such as /nag/ 'too' may have
greater duratlon wlthln a glven sequence than a loud sustalned-stressed syl-
lable wlth vOlclng from beglnnlng to end, such as 'It's hotJ'
The last syllable In an utterance, of course, has lnflnlte
duratlon. The other phonemes and comblnatlons are Ilsted In descendlng
order of duratlon, as follows.
The comblnatlon / : . / determlnes extra-long duratlon for the
syllable whlch precedes. It lS never
lnternal.
/ . /
determlnes medlum-long lnternal-syllable
duratlon.
/ /
determlnes long-duratlon, never
internal
/ /
/ - /
(space after syllable) lS a phoneme meanJng
medlum lnternal-syllable duratlon.
(hyphen after syllable) lS a phoneme meanlng
medlum-short lnternal-syllable duratlon.
The absence of a hyphen or space after an lnternal syllable
short duratlon (not a phoneme).
23
The four 1nternal-syllable durat10ns are contrasted 1n the follow1ng
pa1rs of examples:
'paJ 'naJ: 'd11 t.
'Where are you gOlng, Dee'"
'paJ 'naJ 'd11: t.
'Where shall I go" r
2) rnaam 'thaa-ca'med •
'The water seems to be all gone. r
rnaam- 'thaa calmed •
'The water w1ll be used up. '
3) 'da J kawe- 'laa •
'Has to do w1th t1me.'
'daJ-'ka we-'laa •
'Has est1mated the t1me.'
A phonem1c phrase 1S that port1on of a clause Wh1Ch conta1ns only one
susta1ned stress I : I. In a clause cons1st1ng of two or more phrases the
cut 1S made 1mmed1ately before the next syllable after the / : / Wh1Ch has
normal / ' / or loud I J I stress.
All the examples above, except the flrst, conslst of a slngle phrase.
(The sYmbol for phrase boundary, I , I, lS not a phoneme). Two phrases:
'paJ 'naJ: , 'dlll t
, khun r sa J 'mya- khyyn- 'n{1 •
(The second example 1S the pauseless verSlon of the flrst lntonatlon
example, 1. 6.3 • )
1.7.1. Maxlmum and Mlnlmum Syllables
The maXlmum structure of the ST syllable lS sYmbollzed In the follow-
lng for:mln, WhlCh also summarlzes the posltlons In WhlCh phonemlc sYmbols
havlng to do wlth syllablc components are wrltten:
T
Sl Cl C2 VI V2 C3 S2
For example, the syllable IJplaaw:1 lD the utterance I!plaaw: t.1 'Of course
not!' contalDs one phoneme from each of these categorles.
24
The m1n1mum syllable 1S symbo11zed as follows:
VI
For example, the syllable lal 1n the utterance Irtham-a'raJ .1 'What are you
d 0 1 n g ~ ' cons1sts of a s1ngle vowel phoneme.
The mean1ngs of the symbols 1n the formulae are as follows:
T -- any tone phoneme
81 -
the stress phoneme
I
,
I or I
I
°1 -
any consonant phoneme
°2 -
any consonant phoneme, but normally only Iw 1 r/
VI -
any vowel phoneme
V2 -
any vowel phoneme
°3 -
one of the consonant phonemes IbdgmnlJ w
J
(f s 1)1
82 -
the stress phoneme I :
I
1.7.2. Normal Syllablc Dlstrlbutlon
Excludlng rare lnstances of dlstr1but1on (e.g. ln1tlal consonant
clusters such as Istl and flnal consonants such as /f/) , the normal Ilmlta-
tlons on dlstrlbutlon of phonemes wlth1n the syllable are as follows:
1) If
°2
lS /w/,
°1
lS /k/ or
Ikh/·
2) If 02 lS /1/,
°1
lS one of th1s set I /p, ph, k, khl
3) If
°2
lS Ir/,
°1
lS one of thlS set: Ip, ph, t, k, kh/.
4) If 02 lS Iw/, VI
1S one of thlS set: 11, e, e, a, el
5) If VI lS 11, e, el,
°3
lS not IJ/.
6) If
VI
lS lu, 0, 0, y/,
°3
1S not Iw/.
7) If
VI
lS Iyl and 03 lS
IJI, 02 lS la/·
B) If VI -V
2
1S Iyy/,
°3
lS not /g, lJ/.
9) If VI -V2
1S /11/,
°3
lS not
/lJ/.
10) If VI 18 one of thlS set: Ie, e, e, a, 0, 0/" then V2 lS the
same as VI or lS m1sslng.
11) If
VI
1S Ill, V2
18 one of thlS set: 11, a, e/, 01· mlsslng.
12) If
VI
lS lui, V2
lS one of thlS set: lu, a, e/, or mlsslng.
13 ) If
VI
lS Iy/, V2
lS /y, al or mlsslng.
25
14) VI-V2 lS IU8, l8/, c3 lS one thls set: Ib, d, gl or
mlsslng.
15) C3 lS Ib, d, g/, T lS one thls set: IN" 7.
16) V2 lS 181 or mlsslng and C
3
lS mlsslng, T lS one the
same set (15).
17) Sl lS present, VI lS 18/, and V2 lS mlsslng, then T lS not
I vI.
18) Sl lS present and C3 lS Ib, d, g/, T lS not I NI.
1.7.3. Abnormal Syllablc Dlstrlbutlons
Certaln speakers ST, most them also speakers one or more
Western languages, have recently lntroduced lnnovatlons lnto the scheme
syllablc component dlstrlbutlon whlch are not as yet accepted by the maJorlty
ST speakers. Such lnnovatlons lnclude trlple lnltlal consonant clusters,
usually lnvolvlng lsi as member, and double consonant clusters,
usually lnvolvlng IJI or Iwl as member. An example lncludlng both
types lnnovatlon
I (labor) strlke
l
Such patterns, along wlth the use of unusual flnals such as If, s, 1/,
are not consldered normal ST dlstrlbutlon patterns In the present analysls.
1.7.4. Other Dlstrlbutlon
The normal Ilmltatlons on dlstrlbutlon of prosodlc phonemes wlth
relatlon to each other and to syllablc phonemes (R = rhythm phoneme,
I = lntonatlon phoneme.)
1) R lS absent, Sl-S2 are absent, T lS I NI or / / (toneless),
V2 and C3 are absent.
Ithu'lawl
Ikl'laal
llmprove'
sports'
2) R lS I - I, Sl lS I r I or absent and S2 lS absent.
3) If S2 lS flrst I • I In phrase, Sl lS I ! I or I fl.
4) If I lS It. I, some syllable In clause has S2 1:1.
5) If I lS I t .1, and last syllable has Sl , then It also
has S2 I I I.
26
6) If In the flrst two of three succeSSlve syllables, the second
lS no longer than the flrst, for the second syllable Sl-S2
lS mlsslng and for the thlrd syllable R wlll be at least
normal I I, and Sl wlll be at least I ' I.
7) If, In two succeSSlve clauses, flrst clause ends wlth I I tl
and second clause beglns Wl th I I f I, I lS It. t I.
8) In two succeSSlve clauses, If I tl lS absent at the end of the
flrst clause and at the beglnnlng of the second clause, I lS
I · I.
1.8. Morphophonemlcs
1.8.1. Summary
Palrs of morphs exhlbltlng mlnlmal contrasts of syllablc phonemes
generally show a hlgh degree of reslstance to homonYmlty under the lnfluence
of prosodlc factors such as rhythm and lntonatlon. The areas where amblgul-
tles arlse are malnly conflned to 1) vowel length, 2) stl'ess, and 3) tone.
Under normal rhythm condltlons (medlum or longer syllable duratlon), the
followlng morphs are dlstlnct from each other:
1)
I'kaanl 'buslness, act'
2)
Ikanl 'as a group'
3) I'kanl 'hllt'
4) I'kanl
'to ward off'
Under fast-rhythm condltlons (medlum -short or short lnternal syllable dura-
tlon), however, all four morphsi may show up as /kan-/:
1) I'leeg kan-'rlanl 'stop (the buslness of) studylng'
2)
I 'pa J: kan- modi 'they all (as a group) went'
3) I' cab kan- 'mlldl 'grasp the knlfe-hllt'
4) I' Jaa-kan- , JU:t;]1 'medlclne for (wardlng off) mo SqUl toe s '
Also, under certaln lntonatlonal condltlons, such as between pauses, 3) I'kanl
and 4) I'kanl both show up as I. 'kan .1 (see 1.5.1.)
For another example of tones falllng together, conslder the followlng
four normally dlstlnct morphs:
1) I'khawl
2) / ' k h ~ w l
'he, she, they I
'feature, trace'
27
3) I'khawl
'enter I
4) I'khawl 'hlll
'
Under weak stress, however, all can show up as
Ikhaw-I:
1) I'rag khaw- Imaagl 'llke her a lot'
2)
I'duu khaw- Inaal 'look at the faclal features I
3) I Isa J: khaw-paJI 'put It In there'
4) l'thYlJ
khaw- Idlnl 'reached Khao-Dln
(mountaln) I
It lS deslrable, therefore, for the easy ldentlflcatlon of morphs,
to wrlte them In a conslstent morphopl1onemlc shape, lnsofar as posslble.
Thls requlres the postulatlon of rules for the reconstructlon of actual
phonemlc shapes, under varYlng condltlons, from Imorphophonemlc formulae.
In the case of long vowels and tones, thls lS easlly done. In the case of
morphs dlfferlng by stress and morphs composed of prosodlc phonemes, It lS
more compllcated.
1.8.2. Syllable Morphophonemlcs
Morphs whlch occur under condltlons of normal stress and medlum
lnternal-syllable length more often than not are always wrltten In the
phonemlc shape whlch they have under those condltlons, except that the
stress lS omltted:
Phonemlc
l'chaalJI
/ I chalJI
Ichanl
II chan/
'artlsan'
'to welgh
l
'shelf, c l a ~ s I
'to eat (sald of \monks)
Morphopbonemlc
IchaalJ/
IchalJI
/chanl
/chan/
The rules for determlnlng thelr actual phonemlc shape are as follows:
1) Morphs wlth long vowels occur wlth the correspondlng short vowel
when they have medlum-short duratlon I - I, provlded the pre-
cedlng syllable has medlum duratlon or better.
Phonemlc: 'look for a carpenter.'
Phonemlc: I'leeg kan-'rlan/ I stop s tUdylng ,
MorphophonemlC: /leeg kaan-rlanl
28
2) Morphs wlth short vowels occur wlth the correspondlng long
vowel under condltlons of loud sustalned stress.
Phonemlc:
Morphophonemlc:
I! chaazp t. I
I! chalJ t.1
'I welghed It!
3) Morphs wlth long dlphthongs are sometlmes replaced by short-
vowel morphs under condltlons of weak stress and medlum-short
or less duratlon. Such allomorphs must be llsted separately.
I' sla- 'daaJI 'regret' becomes Isa'daaJI
I'lya-'keenl 'excesslvely' becomes
118'keenl
l'duaJ- 'wlth wood' becomes Ida J- I a JI
4) Morphs wlth mld I I and low I 'I tone are replaced by toneless
morphs under condltlons of weak stress and medlum-short or
less duratlon.
l'rOOlJ-'rlanl
'school, , 'don't go'
Phonemlca
Morphophonemlc:
Phonemlc:
Morphophonemlc,
Phonemlc:
MorphophonemlcI
Phonemlc:
Morphophonemlc:
I'thil rOlJ-'rlanl
Ithil roolJ-rlanl
I'phil Ja- 'paJI
Iphil Jaa-paJI
I' Jaa-kan- , JUlJI
I Jaa-kan-
I'cab kan- 'mildl
Icab kan-mildl
'a t school'
'Brother shouldn't go. '
'mosqulto repellent'
'grasp the knlfe-hllt'
5) Morphs wlth constrlcted hlgh I falllng I AI, and rlslng
I vI tone are replaced by morphs wlth plaln hlgh tone I -I
under condltlons of weak stress and medlum-short or less
dura tlon.

l'nalJ-' syyl
'honey'
'book'
'seat'
Phonemlc:
Morphophonemlc:
Phonemlc:
Morphophonemlc:
l'haJ nam- 'phYlJI
IhaJ
I'haa thi'-'nalJI
Ihaa thil-nalJl
29
'honey- Jar' r
'look for seats'
Phonemlc:
Morphophonemlc:
/' duu nalJ-' sy-y/
/duu na::lJ- syy/
'look at books'
On the other hand, morphs WhlCh occur under condltlons of weak stress
and less than medlum duratlon more often than not are also wrltten wlthout
stress lndlcatlon:
/kan/
/chalJ/
/chan/
'as a group'
'certalnly does'
'I, me'
There are several reasons why no confuslon results from thlS:
1) Some morphemes, llke /kan/, are never stressed unless accompanled
by rhythmlc eVldence that they are stressed:
Phonemlc:
Morphophonemlca
/thYlJ-'kan l€-'kan/ 'toward each other'
/thYlJ-kan lE-kan/
2) Other morphemes, llke /chalJ/, have dlfferent shapes when they are
stressed. Wrltlng the alternate shape, WhlCh lS usually larger,
lS sufflclent lndlcatlon of stress.
PhOnelJ1lc:
Morphophonemlc:
Phonemlci
Morphophonemlc:
Phonemlc I
Morphophonemlcl
/chalJ-'phuud/
/chalJ-phuud/
/' chaalJ- 'phuud/
/chaalJ-phuud/
/' chaalJ 'phuud/
/chaalJ phuud/
'really talks'
'clever talker'
'the artlsan speaks'
(The last example lnvolves a dlfferent morpheme, the usually-
stressed morpheme /'chaalJ/.)
3) Stlll other morphemes, llke /chan/, are ldentlfled as normally
weak-stressed by the fact that they have plaln hlgh tone In
thelr prlnclpal allomorph. All morphs wrltten morphophcne-
mlcally wlth plaln hlgh tone belong elther to thlS category,
or to a category WhlCh has loud stress / ! / lin the prlnclpal
allomorph.
4) The functlonal load of the contrast weak stress/normal stress lS
extremely low In any case. There are a few cases llke the
followlng:
'cut halr'
30
'cut me'
(Even here, /phom/ 'I' has an alternate form Iphoml for some
speakers.)
5) All morphemes Wh1Ch character1st1cally have weak stress are 11sted
along w1th the1r allomorphs elsewhere 1n th1S grammar. They
are the pronouns, the class1f1ers, and other m1nor form-class
members.
From th1S p01nt on, normal stress / ' I 1S no longer wr1tten.
1.8.3. Phrase Morphophonem1cs
Phonem1c phrases are wr1tten wlthout 1nd1cat1on of stress-onset
except for loud stress I ! I. Phrase-boundar1es are marked by the morpho-
phonem1c symbol /, I, Wh1Ch means 'no syllables w1th normal or loud stress
occur after the syllable w1th susta1ned stress I : I.' (See 1.6.4., end.).
Clauses w1thout any 1nternal I, / cons1st of a slngle phrase. Rhythm pat-
terns are reta1ned 1ntact, and 1nternal-syllable durat10ns are wr1tten
phonem1cally.
The rules for pred1ct1on of stress-onset 1n morphophonem1cally wr1t-
ten phrases are re-stated as follows:
1) If the phrase has no susta1ned stress, the last syllable 1n the
phrase has at normal stress.
Phonem1c:
Morphophonem1c:
I'klab 'baan .1
/klab baan ./
fWent home. '
2) If the phrase conta1ns a susta1ned stress, the same syllable
that has the susta1ned stress also has at least normal stress
and the syllables after 1t have no more than weak stress.
Phonem1c:
Morphophonem1c:
I'klab 'baan: kan-the .1
Iklab baan: kan-the .1
fLet's go home. I
3) Syllables w1th med1um-short durat10n Wh1Ch occur after syllables
of the same or greater durat10n and before syllables of greater
durat10n have weak stress (See 1.7.4.6.):
Phonem1C: I'klab paJ- 'baan .1 'Went back home. '
Morphophonem1c: Iklab ./
Phonem1c:
Morphophonem1cI
l'saJ khaw-paJ-naJ-kra'paw .1
'Put 1t 1nto h1S pocket. '
IsaJ khaw-paJ-naJ-krapaw ./
31
4) All syllables wlth short duratlon have weak stress.
Phonemlc:
Morphophonemlc:
/kra'paw/
/krapaw/
'pocket'
5) Other syllables have elther weak or normal stress, (wlthln
the llmltatlons of predlctablllty set forth In the second
part of 1.8.2.):
Phonemlc: /'tad 'pham/ 'Cut halr. '
Phonemlc: /'tad pham/ 'Cut me.
,
Morphophonemlc,
/tad pham/ for both.
The constltuent phrases of the example 'Is thls the coat you wore
last n l g h t ~ ' (1.6.4., end) are now re-wrltten morphophonemlcally.
Flrst Phrase:
Second Phrase:
1.8.4 Clause Morphophonemlcs
Deslrable modlflcatlons In the notatlon of clause lntonatlons and
Junctures, and also certaln slmpllflcatlons of predlctable features In the
clause context, requlre the statement of the followlng rules.
1) Slnce / t / a t the end of a clause lS always preceded by / : /
If the last syllable In the clause lS stressed (See 1.7.4.5),
slmpllfy / : t / to / t /.
Phonemlc:
Morphophonemlc:
/'klab 'bian: t./
/klab bian t . /
'He went homel'
2) Slnce, In a phrase wlth no prlor / : /, a syllable before
phrase-boundary /, / havlng normal stress must by deflnltlon
have sustalned stress for the phrase-boundary to occur at all
(see 1.8.3, beglnnlng), replace the comblnatlon / : , / by
/,/ (provlded the last syllable In the phrase does not have
loud stress / 1 /, where the dlstlnctlon lS meanlngful - see
flrst two examples under 1.6.2.).
Phonemlc:
Morphophonemlc:
/'klab 'bian: , 'kln 'khiw ./
'Went home, and ate. '
32
3) Slnce the mean1ng of two succeSS1ve clauses w1th fall1ng 1ntona-
t10n and close Juncture, separated by pause, IA . B .1 1S no
dlfferent from the mean1ng of two succeSS1ve phrases 1n a
slngle clause w1th fall1ng 1ntonatlon IA , B .1, replace all
1nternal slmple pauses I . I by phrase boundarles I, I.
Phonem1c:
Morphophonem1C:
I'klab 'baan • 'k1n 'khaaw .1
Iklab baan , k1n khaaw .1
(Same as example 1n 2) above.),
4) Replace all 1nstances of I. t I by the symbol I . I (WhlCh has
no other morphophonemlc slgnlf1cance followlng the appllcat10n
of rule 3) above). Thus I . I 1n effect becomes the symbol
for open clause Juncture and utterance-f1nal pause.
Phonem1c:
Morphophonem1cs
I'klab 'baan • t 'k1n 'khaaw .1
'Went home. Ate.'
5) Replace all 1nstances of IA t . BI, where a clause w1th hlgh
1ntonat1on 1S followed 1n close Juncture by another clause,
by IA t BI, Wh1Ch In effect slgn1f1es close clause Juncture or
ltS equ1valent.
Phonem1c:
Morphophonem1c:
Iphom 'maa. t. tha'maJ camaJ- 'maa .1
'I came!- why wouldn't I have come.'
Iphom maa: nl1-khrab t thamaJ camaJ-maa .1
1ntonat1on sequences glven 1n 1.6.3.
! represents the clause or phrase
and B represents the clause Ikhun
n1ght. I
6) As a corollary of rule 4), replace the comb1nat1on IA t . t BI
by the comb1nat1on IA t . BI (Wh1Ch has no other morpho-
phonemlc slgn1f1cance followlng the appl1catlon of rule 5)
above) •
Phonem1c: Iphom 'maa: ni- khrab t t tha'maJ camaJ-'maa, tl
'I came! Why wouldn't I have come"! I
Morphophonem1cI Iphom maa: nl1-khrab t thamaJ camaJ-maa t
·1
The e1ght examples of dlfferent
are now symbol1zed morphophonem1cally.
/sya tua-n{ll reel, lIs th1S the coat" I
S8.J mya-khyyn-n{ll IYou 1Iwre (1 t) last
IA B.I
IA . B • I
'Is th1S the coat you wore last nlght?'
'Is th1S the coat" You wore 1t last n1ght. '
33
3) /A t B .j 'Is thls the coat you wore last nlght7J'
4) /A t . B .j 'Is thls the coa t7 J You wore lt last nlght. '
5) jA B t .j 'Is thls the coat you wore last nlght7J
6)
/A . B t ./ 'Is thls the coat" You wore lt last nlght! '
7) jA t B
t
.j 'Is thls the coat you wore last nlght7J
8) /A t . B t ./ 'Is thlS the coa t7 J You wore 1 t las t nlght J '
34
CHAPTER II
MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
2.1. Summary
2.1.1. Termlnology
ST has three categorles of meanlngful unlts: morphemes,
lexemes, and syntactlc constructlons. These terms are deflned In detall In
the sectlons whlch follow, but roughly speaklng morphemes correspond to the
smallest meanlu3ful unlts, lexemes to words (such as one mlght flnd In the
dlctlonary), and syntactlc constructlons to phrases, clauses, and sentences.
Morphemes and lexemes share the characterlstlc that they may have
varlants - dlfferent forms under dlfferent clrcumstances. Lexemes and syn-
tactlc constructlons share the characterlstlc of lmmedlate constltuents
occurrlng In varlOUS orders: consecutlve, slmultaneous, dlscontlnuous, rep-
etetlve, parallel, and lnterlocklng. Morphemes have no lmmedlate constltu-
ents (except on the morphophonemlc level), and syntactlc constructlonR (as
deflned here) have no varlants. Hence lexemes are the plvotal unlt at thls
level, Just as the syllable lS the plvotal unlt In phonology.
Morphology lS here deflned as the analysJ_s of structure between the
morphophonemlc and lexemlc levels. It lncludes such thlngs as the llstlng
of morphemes whlch do not partlclpate In lexeme constructlon (2.2.) as well
as the sub-syllablc ones whlch do (2.3.), and lllustratlon of ways and orders
In whlch morphemes comblne to form lexemes (2.4.)
Syntax lS here deflned as the analysls of structure between the
lexemlc level and the level of the hlghest order of syntactlc constructlon.
It lncludes such thlngs as the hlerarchy of constltuents - syntactlc unlts,
phrases, clauses, sentences, dlscourses, and exchanges (2.5.1.) - the anal-
YSlS of constructlons wlth regard to substltutablllty (2.5.2.) and order
(2.5.3.), ultlmately leadlng up to the classlflcatlon of lexemes and sen-
tences regard to functlon (2.6.).
2.1.2. Morphemes and Lexeme Constructlon
Morphemes, belng the smallest meanlngful unlts of ST, actually
sets of varlant forms called morphs. It lS therefore necessary to deflne
the latter term flrst.
1) A morph lS any morphophonemlc sequence (from one phoneme upwards
In length) whlch has meanlng assoclated wlth It by ST speakers. The utterance
35
IJdeen: t .1 'Sure, lt worksJ' contalns rour morphs. 1) the morph Ideenl
'to walk, to functlon properly,' 2) the morph IJ :1 'contradlctory assertlon, '
3) the morph / t/ 'emotlonal lnvolvement,' and 4) the morph I . / 'end of
clause constructlon.'
2) A morpheme lS any set of morphs WhlCh have the same meanlng and
WhlCh elther do not contrast In any slngle envlronment, or contrast In a
manner not regarded as SlgnlrlCant by ST speakers; or lt lS any slngle morph
WhlCh does not belong to such a set. Indlvldual members or a set of morphs
belonglng to the same morpheme are ltS allomorphs.
The morphophonemlc sequence /dam-neenl 'to conduct, to proceed' con-
~ a l n s a morph /d.•. een/, WhlCh lS an allomorph of the morpheme /deen/ (we
have seen another of ltS allomorphs In the sequence Ildeen: t ./); the other
morph /am-n/, WhlCh lS lnflxed to Id.••Ben/, lS an allomorph of a morpheme
/amn/ 'formal or technlcal connotatlon.' The dlscontlnuous allomorph Id•.• een/
does not contrast wlth the contlnuous allomorph /deen/ In any envlronment; the
same applles to lam-n/ and other allomorphs or /amn/ (see 2.3.2.1.). An
example of a morpheme lncludlng only a slngle morph lS / • / 'end of clause
constructlon' (morph 4) above); all other morphs clted so far are members of
allomorphlc sets.
3) Morphemes are classlfled accordlng to form and functlon as follows.
Prosodlc morphemes \2.2.) have morphs whose constltuents are prosodlc
phonemes. SUb-categorles lnclude lntonatlon and loud-stress morphemes (2.2.1.),
rhythmlc morphemes (2.2.2. and 2.2.4.), and normal-stress morphemes (2.2.3.)
Sub-lexemlc morphemes (2.3.) are morphemes some or all of whose morphs
have syllablc phoneme constltuents totalllng less than a syllable, or a s y ~ ­
lable plus a fractlon. Sub-lexemlc morphemes, therefore, do not occur by
themselves as lexemes, but enter lnto lexeme composltlon. Sub-categorles
lncluue preflxes (2.3.1.), lnflxes (2.3.2.), superflxes (2.3.3.), and other
fractlonal constltuents (2.3.4-5.).
Lexemlc morphemes are those morphemes WhlCh occur lndependently at
the lexemlc level. In form they range from one syllable upwards. The maJor-
lty or ST morphemes are, In fact, monosyllablc lexemlc morphemes: /maa/ 'to
come. ' Two-syllable morphemes are also qUlte common: /kaw-ll/ 'chalr'
Morphemes of more than four syllables In length are hard to flnd, but the
rollowlng flve-syllable sequence lS probably a slngle morpheme:
'monument. I
4) LexemlC morphemes, llke sub-lexemlc ones, enter lnto composltlon
of lexemes WhlCh are larger than themselves (2.4.). Such composltlon lS of
three general types: derlvatlves (2.4.1.), compounds (2.4.2.) and redupllca-
tlons (2.4.3.). ProsodlC morphemes are also lnvolved In lexeme composltlon,
to some extent.
36
2.1.3 Lexemes and Syntactlc Constructlons
Lexemes, llke morphemes, are actually sets of varlant forms. It IS
necessary, therefore, to deflne a prlor term, lexlcal unlt, In order to de-
flne a lexeme.
1) A lexlcal unlt IS any morph or comblnatlon of morphs correspond-
Ing morphophonemlcally to a slngle syllable or to an Integral number of syl-
lables (l.e. not a fractlon of a syllable, or syllables plus resldual frac-
tlons), such that It IS a mlnlmum Immedlate constltuent of the constructlon
In WhlCh It occurs. In other words, If lexlcal unlts are analyzable, they
can only be analyzed after everythlng else In the context has been cleared
away /dam-neen/ 'to conduct' IS a lexlcal unlt In the context /dam-neen Chll-
w{d! 'to conduct ones Ilfe,' because there lS no constructlon !dam•.. chll-
wld/, /neen Chll-W{d/ or the llke.
Of the morphs clted so far, the examples /1 :/, / t /, / . /, and
/am-n/ are not lexlcal unlts, because they fall to meet the requlrement of
syllablclty. Only two examples, /deen/ 'to walk, to functlon properly' and
!Chll-W{d/ 'llfe,' are lexlcal unlts, In the contexts /1deen: t ./ and /dam-
neen Chll-W{d/ respectlvely. On the other hand, /deen/ IS not a lexlcal unlt
In /dam-neen/ or In an expresslon such as /deen thEEW/ 'to march,' where It
IS merely one of the constltuent morphs.
Lexlcal unlts are not grammatlcally Important except Insofar as they
are the Indlvldual unlts of whlch sets called lexemes conslst. The propor-
tlon IS as follows:
morphs: morphemes:: lexlcal unlts: lexemes
The flrst and thlrd Items are Isolated forms; the thlrd and fourth, sets of
forms.
2) A lexeme IS any set of lexlcal unlts WhlCh have the same meanlng
and WhlCh elther do not contrast In any slngle envlronment, or contrast In a
manner not regarded as slgnlflcant by ST speakers; or It IS any slngle lexlcal
unlt WhlCh does not belong to such a set. To put It another way, lexemes are
what one flnds In a dIctlonary; the better the dlctlonary, the more lexemes
It IlstS, but It never IlStS them all, and It never IlStS anythlng but lexemes.
Alternate lexlcal unlts belonglng to the same lexeme are Its allolexes.
For example, the lexeme /dam-neen/ has an allolex of that shape and also an
allolex /damneen/, as In the sequence /ch58b damneen ~ a a n / 'llkes to conduct
the work.' The lexeme /Chll-W{d/ has an allolex /ChlW{d/, as In /chuaJ
ChlW{d: waJ/ 'to save someone's Ilfe.'
3) LeXlcal unlts, and therefore lexemes, can Include comblnatlons of
morphs WhlCh are lexlcal unlts In thelr own rlght. For example, /raad-
damneen/ 'royal processlon' meets all the crlterla of a lexlcal unlt - It
37
conslsts of three whole syllables, and has to be analyzed last In whatever
constructlon It lS a part of. But, as we know, /damneen/ ltself lS a lexlcal
unlt. Lexemes are therefore classlfled In terms of orders, dependlng on the
number of lmmedlate constltuents that can be dlstlngulshed.
Flrst-order lexemes are slngle morphemes consldered on the lexlcal
level. /deen/ 'to walk, to functlon properly. '
Second-order lexemes conslst of two constltuents, whlch are both
morphemes: /dam-neen/ 'to proceed, to conduct.'
Thlrd-order lexemes conslst of two constltuents, one of whlch lS
analyzable (usually a lexeme ltself), or three morphemes: /raad-damneen/
'royal processlon
l
and /wan-JaD-kham/ 'all day long
l
(/wan/ 'day, l /JaD/
'to,' /kham/ 'evenlng. I) Lexemes of hlgher orders also eXlst.
4) The comblnatlon of lexemes lnto hlgher-order constructlons has
been deflned as syntax (2.1.1., end). Lexemes comblne wlth each other In
all tJpes of order except the slmultaneous (2.5.2-3.). Lexemes also comblne
wlth prosodlc morphemes In slmultaneous order. Thls type of constructlon lS
consldered syntactlc (rather than morphologlcal), because larger syntactlc
constructlons comprlslng many lexemes also occur In slmultaneous order wlth
prosodlc morphemes (see 2.5.1.).
Besldes thelr classlflcatlon based on lnternal structure (Iflrst-
order,' etc.), lexemes are also classlfled on the basls of external structure
- l.e. accordlng to the types of syntactlc constructlon In whlch they charac-
terlstlcally partlclpate (2.6.1.). To dlstlngulsh thlS type of classlflcatlon
from the other, the term form-class lS used. A form-class lS a class of lex-
emes whlch flll.a glven posltlon In a glven syntactlc constructlon, or whlch
share a number of such posltlons.
2.2. Prosodlc Morphemes
2.2.1. Intonatlon and Loud-Stress Morphemes
1) /. / 'end of clause constructlon. I
Example of contrast wlth / , /.
kh00D khun-cid • khaw f ~ a g w ~ J .
'It belongs to Chlt. He left It here.'
kho0D khun-cid , khaw f ~ a g w ~ J •
'It's sumethlng of Chlt's that he left here.'
38
Example of contrast of I t .1 wlth I t I by ltself:
maJ t . dlaw Iud t .
'Not that way! It'll come loose!'
maJ t dlaw Iud t .
'Otherwlse, It'll come 100seJ'
2) I t I, In the context I t .1, 'emotlonal lnvolvement. '
Example of contrast wlth zero (In answer to the questlon
'Is he ,):
\
maJ-paJ: •
'No, he's not.'
maJ-paJ: r5g t .
'Not hlm! '
Allomorph: I t I In the context It ... t .1. (see last example
under morpheme 1), where 'emotlonal lnvolvement' applles to both clauses.)
3) I, I 'clause constructlon contlnues, wlth maJor lmmedlate
constltuent cut here. '
Example of contrast wlth I . Is see second example under
morpheme 1).
Example of contrast wlth zero:
le8w khun-samag , capaJ naJ •
'And Samag, where lS he I
lE8w khun-samag capaJ naJ •
'And where lS Samag or
'Where are you gOlng,
Allomorph: I t I In the context It ... .1 or the context I t ... t.1
(where It lS a portmanteau morpheme - see morpheme 2), end.)
Example of contrast In both contexts wlth I t .1:
!mll ryys t cabln daJ •
'Is there such a thlng as a human belng able to
!mll ryy: t . pham maJ-chya •
'Is there such a I don't be1leve It.!
39
... :1 'contrastlve emphasls' (always followed by t)
Example of contrast wlth normal stress (In answer to the
questlon 'Is he
!pa J: t .
'Of course he lsI'
pa J: •
,Ye s, he l s. '
Allomorph: IJ ... t/, when syllable lS last In clause before I . I.
(In thls posltlon, I t I lS the morphophonemlc verSlon of I : t I - see
1.8.4.1.).
Jpa J t .
'Of course he's gOlng!'
Allomorph: IJ S ••. s:l, when two or more syllables are covered by
'contrastlve emphasls.' (see /Jmll ryy:/ In last three examples under morpheme
3) above.)
Allomorph: /J S ••• tl, when two or more syllables are covered by
'contrastlve emphasls' and last syllable comes before I . I. Example In
second clause:
maJ-chaJ chaam J dlaw t . J chaam t .
'Not one bowl! 1li£ bowlsJ '
Note: / J : / and the other varlants Ilsted above are not members
of the morpheme 'contrastlve emphasls' In all cases of thelr occurrence. Cer-
taln lnterJectlons (3.1.1.) have these morphophonemlc sequences as part of
thelr morphemlc composltlon, e.g. /JtaaJ'/ 'Oh, my gosh! '
5) /! / by ltself 'exhortatlon to actlon; slgnal to conclude a
conversatlon or pass to a new tOPlC. '
Example In contrast wlth I J t /'
JpaJ .
'Let's go J '
Jpa J t .
'Of course he's gOlngJ'
Example In wlth normal stress,
Jaw •
'All rlght now (let's see).'
aw .
'All rlght (I'll accept It.)'
40
2.2.2. Rhythm1C Morphemes
1) I: I 'phrase construct1on cont1nues, w1th maJor 1mmed1ate
const1tuent cut here. '
Example of contrast w1th I , I:
v
pa J na J: maa •
'Where have you b e e n ~ ' (/maal lS an adverb)
v
pa J na J , maa •
'Where are you gOlng, M a h ~ ' (/maal lS a name)
Example of contrast w1th I I:
khaw phuud: khrab •
'He's talk1ng, Slr.'
khaw phuud khrab samee •
'He always says Ikhrabl ('slr').'
2) I - I 'm1nor or no 1mmed1ate const1tuent cut here; sub-lexem1c
or low-order syntact1c d1v1s1on.'
Double example of contrast w1th I I:
ta1J ton- sag •
'Stand a teak-tree upr1ght. '
ta1J- ton sag •
'Beg1n to tattoo.'
In the f1rst example, Ita1JI lS a verb lexeme mean1ng 'set up, stand
up (trans1t1ve),' and Iton-sagl lS a compound noun lexeme meanlng 'teak-tree.'
In the second example, Ita1J-tonl lS a compound verb lexeme mean1ng 'beg1n,'
and Isagl lS a verb lexeme mean1ng 'tattoo.' In both cases I - I represents
a sub-lexem1c cut.
Example of contrast w1th I : I:
tham r6d sla duaJ .
'Made the car break down too. '
tham r6d: sla-duaJ •
'Makes cars, bes1des (In add1t1on to d01ng other
th1ngs). '
In both examples, the f1rst two lexemes are a verb 'make' and a noun
'car,' and the las t lexerne lS an adverb 'also.' The d1fference lS 1n the
th1rd lexeme, Wh1Ch 1n the f1rst 1nstance f1l1s a maJor syntact1c slot as a
41
verb meanlng 'to be lost, destroyed,' and In the second lnstance lS a mlnor
lexeme meanlng somethlng llke 'unlt verbal actlon.' In thlS case I-I repre-
sents a mlnor syntactlc cut, WhlCh lS made after the maJor cut represented
by I : I·
Example of I-I representlng no cut:
talJ kaw-il .
'Set up chalrs.'
Ikaw-ill 'chalr' lS an unanalyzable lexeme. All such lexemes In ST
contaln the morph I-I, or ltS allomorph WhlCh follows below, In at least some
contexts.
Allomorph of 2):
lAB cl and Ix ABI only.
IABI (short syllable duratlon) In the contexts
No contrastlve examples occur.
Example of mlnor syntactlc cut:
phil capa J •
'Older brother lntends to go. '
The lexeme Ical lS preposltlon meanlng 'hypothetlcal actlon.' Last
cut lS between Ical and IpaJ/.
Example of sub-Iexemlc cut:
JUu thina J .
'Where lS 1 t'Z '
The lexeme IthinaJI 'where,' lS analyzable lnto two morphemes repre-
sented by the morphs Ithil 'at' and InaJI 'where.' Last cut lS between them.
Example of no cut:
, ,..
syy mamualJ •
'Buy mangoes. '
The lexeme ImamualJI 'mango' lS unanalyzable.
When IABI occurs In the contexts IAB-cl and IX-ABI (l.e. when the
morpheme I-I precedes or follows), lt lS not an allomorph of I-I.
phon-lamaaJ •
'It's frul t.
The compound lexlcal ltem 'frult' conslsts of three morphsl Iphonl
'frult, result,' the rhythmlc morph I-I, and IlamaaJ/, an allomorph of
ImaaJI 'wood, trees' occurrlng only In thlS comblnatlon. The sequence
I l a m ~ a J I contalns no rhythmlc morpho
3) I I (medlum syllable duratlon) In the context lAB c/, IA-B c/,
IA Bel, or IA B-Cl (l.e. when morpheme 2) above elther
lmmedlately precedes or follows): 'hlgher-order lmmedl-
ate constltuent cut here, to be made before any cut re-
presented by I-I; usually syntactlc but may be sub-
lexemlc. '
Examples of syntactlc cuts (from 2) above):
talJ-ton sag •
IBegln to tattoo.'
phil capa J •
'Older brother lntends to go. '
mamualJ dll •
'Good mangoes. I
(A-B C)
(A BC)
(AB C)
Example of sub-IeyemLc cut:
mahaa w{d-JaalaJ •
'The unlversltv. '
ThlS lS a slngle lexeme conslstlng of four morphemes: /mahaa/ 'blg,
/w{d-JaalaJ/ 'college' and the rhythmlc morphemes / / and I-I. The only cut
to be made lS between /mahaa/ and the remalnder, unless tne sequence /w{d-
JaalaJ/ proves to be analyzable.
Allomorph of 3), /A-B/ In the sequence /A-B-C/. Example:
Jaa-kan-JulJ •
'MOSqUlto repellent'
Immedlate constltuent analysls lS no dlfferent from the followlng,
WhlCh also occurs:
Jaa kan- JUlJ •
'Medlclne /Jaa/ for wardlng off /kan/ mosqultoes /JUlJ/.' fhe flrst
~ u t In both cases lS between /Jaa/ and /kan-JulJ/, the second cut between
Ikan/ and /JUlJ/. Both cuts are sub-lexemlc, Slnce the entlre sequence lS a
slngle lexeme.
(medlum syllable-duratlon) ln the context /A B: C/ (l.e.
when morpheme 1) above lmmedlately follows): 'hlgher-
order lmmedlate constltuent cut here, to be made after
the cut represented by / , / but before any cut repre-
sented by I-I; always syntactlc.'
/A BC/ chua J lya kan •
'Help Leua to prevent It.'
ThlS morpheme lS best lllustrated ln multlple contrast wlth the
rhythmlc morphemes already descrlbed, and wlth zero rhythmlc morpheme.
Examples:
43
chua J lya: kan •
'Help Leua, actlng as a group. '
chuaJ-Iya kan •
'ASS1St ln preventlng It.'
chuaJ-Iya: kan •
'AsslSt each other. '
/A B: e/
IA-B e/
IA-B: e/
/A B e/ - Immedlate constltuent cut not lndlcated. In thlS phrase,
the constltuent lexemes are a verb (A), a noun WhlCh lS a nlckname (B), and
verb (e). The lntonatlon morpheme I . I makes It a clause, but there
are no rhythmlc morphemes. The lmmedlate constltuent cut can be made tagmeml-
cally, but not on morphemlc eVldence.
IA B: el - MaJor cut after IBI, hence last cut between IA/ and IB/.
In thlS phrase the flrst two lexemes are as before, and the thlrd
lS a pronoun (C). The rhythmlc morpheme / : / lS present, hence the space
between /AI and IBI lS an lnstance of morpheme 4).
/A-B e/ - Sub-lexemlC or low-order syntactlc cut between /A/ and /B/,
hence flrst cut after IBI. The flrst two morphemes /A-B/ are constltuents of
a compound verb lexeme of somewhat more formal meanlng than IA/ by ltself.
The rhythmlc morpheme 1-/ lS present, hence the space between IB/ and /e/ lS
an allomorph of morpheme 3) above.
/A-BI el - Sub-lexemlc or low-order syntactlc cut between /A/ and
/B/, maJor cut after IB/. As before, /A-B/ lS the compound verb, but /e/
lS now the pronoun.
5) /-1 In the context of a compound lexeme composed of numeral
constltuents only: 'multlpllcatlon.'
Examples:
/haal 'flve' Isibl 'ten' /haa-sl.b/ 'flfty'
/S:1.1/ 'four' 'hundred' '400'
/saam/ 'three' /phan/ 'thousand' /saam-phan/ '3,000'
6) / I
Examples:
ln the context of a compound lexeme composed of numeral
constltuents only: 'addltlon.'
I
v " /
saam-phan sll-rooJ
44
'flfty-flye'
'3,400 '
2.2.3. Normal-stress Morphs
Normal stress lS not morphophonemlcally dlstlngulshed from weak
stress (see 1.8.3.), but a few prosodlc morphs eXlst WhlCh are more properly
characterlzed as normal-stress morphs (l.e. morphs whose phonemlc shape lS
normal stress) than as rhythmlc morphs. In the rhythmlc context /A-BI, syl-
lable IBI has normal stress unless I : I precedes ln the same phrase. Occur-
rence ln such a context, therefore, lS eVldence of phonemlc normal stress.
Most classes of lexemes conslst of members WhlCh lnclude normal
stress ln at least one syllable of soma ailolex (see 2.1.3. 2 .), but a few
classes characterlstlcally lack stress ln all thelr forms - e.g. pronouns,
preposltlons, and certaln klnds of classlflers. When normal stress occurs
ln connectlon wlth such lexemes, therefore, lt lS not part of the lexlcal
unlt but lS a morph ln ltS own rlght. Followlng are the two most easl1y
recogn1zed members of thls class of morphs:
1) I' / (normal stress): an allomorph of Idlaw/ 'one, slngle'
WhlCh occurs ln slmultaneous order wlth classlflers
and certa1n numerals.
chaaJ khon •
'Two more men. '
In thlS phrase IchaaJI lS a noun 'man,' lilg1 a preposlt1on 'further,'
1S a numeral 'two,' and Ikhonl 1S a class1fler for people.
chaaJ ilg-khon •
'One more man'
Here the stress on Ikhonl 1S an lnstance of the morph I ' / 'one. I
haa-sib •
'Two hundred and f1fty. '
rooJ haa-sib •
'One hundred and flfty. '
Here the numeral IrooJI 'hundred,' WhlCh usually has normal stress,
occurs ln a stressless allomorph, and the actual stress 1S aga1n an allomorph
of /dlawl 'one.'
2) I' I (normal stress) lS an allomorph of the demonstratlve
morpheme In 'I (2.3.4.1.) WhlCh occurs In slmultaneous
order wlth pronouns.
45
kha0D pham JUU naJ-tuu •
'My thlngs are In the chest. I
In the phrase Ikha0D pham/, the noun Ikha0DI Ithlngs
l
has normal
stress, and the pronoun Iphoml 'I, me' has lts usual weak stress and mod-
lfles the noun.
kha0D-phom JUu naJ-tuu .
'Mlne lS (are) In the chest. I
Thls tlme Ikha0DI lS the prepositlon 'of' and has weak stress, whlle
the pronoun Iphaml has normal stress lS ltS obJect. The translatlon
'mlne' corresponds to elther 'that of me' or 'those of me, I where the demon-
stratlve occurs In ltS allomorph I ' I.
Note that the lmmedlate constltuent analysls for both sentences lS
the same: IkhaoD phaml and IkhaoD-phoml both flll the same slot In the
sentence, regardless of thelr lnternal analyses, and the rhythmlc eVldence
lS of no help.
2.2.4. other Examples of Prosodlc Contrast
1) The palrs of rhythmlc contrasts presented below are glven wlthout
addltlonal context, as sentence-fractlons whlch mlght occur In a number of
slmllar envlronments.
tua JaalJ-n{l
tua-JaalJ n{l
faJ maJ-mll
faJ-maJ mll
khon-nan
naaJ nan
khon-naJ dll
khon naJ' dll
khaa-syg paJ-le€w
khaa syg: paJ-IE€w
thaa-naam CahE€lJ
thaa naam CahE€lJ
roolJ haJ-dalJ
r;0lJ-haJ dalJ
haa khwaam-sanug
46
'a body llke thlS'
Ithls example I
'therefs no electrlclty'
'flres occur I
'that offlcer of company grade'
'those hundred offlcers'
'whlch person lS
'whlch should be ,
'the enemy lS gone'
'I have left the monastery'
'the water sources wlll dry up'
'If the water drled up'
'try to shout loudly'
'weeps loudly'
Iseek pleasure'
haa-khwaam
tog-lolJ maa
tog: lOlJ-maa
maJ-thYlJ 188J
maJ-thYlJ: 188J
mll kam-lalJ dll
mll kamlalJ-dll
caw naa- ca-aw
"" ""
caw-naa ca-aw
,
maa-aw Sll moolJ
,
maa aW-Sll moolJ
,
mya waan paJ-syy
,
mya-waan paJ-syy
khaaw
thaan khaaw
'have fun plcklng arguments'
'agreed to come'
'fell down towards us'
'hasn't reached Loel'
'hasn't reached there at all'
'has good strength'
'has Just the rlght amount'
'you ought to take It'
'the broker wlll get It'
'cure poor people'
'was able to treat people success-
fully'
'come to get lt too late'
'came to answer the phone'
'came to get lt at 10 o'clock'
'chose to come at 10 o'clock'
'thlS fork'
'flX thlS one (car)'
'when asked to buy It'
'went to buy lt yesterday'
'ea t rlce'
'recelve a glft of rlce'
2) The palrs of stress contrasts presented below do not dlffer ln
the morphophonem1c representatlon adopted for thlS grammar, but d1ffer
phonem1cally. The example contaln1ng the normal stressed syllable ln con-
trast 1S placed flrst and the stressed syllable 1S underllned. In the
examples, the weak-stressed syllables 1n contrast are respect1vely a prepo-
31tlon, a conJunctlon, a class1fler, a modal, and a pronoun.
talJ naan 'has been set up a long tlme'
talJ naan 'for a very long t1me'
thaa
, ,
'that type of landlng-place' beeb-nan
tha.a bEeb-Mn ' 1f 1t 's tha t type'
47
khan-lalJ
khan-lalJ
khaw klab paJ raad-burll
khaw klab paJ raad-burll
boog khun
boog khun
'(my) back ltches'
'the one (car) behlnd'
'He went back to '
'He unexpectedly went to RaJaburl. '
'tell the vlrtues or'
'tell you'
3) The palrs or lntonatlon contrasts below all lnvolve the dlrrer-
ence between / , / and no phrase boundary. In all cases, a proper name lS
lnvolved.
,
khun ,samag , capa J: ma J •
khun samag capaJ' maJ •
tham haJ-sed koon , dll •
tham haJ-sed koon dll •
khun kholJ , capa J dua J I la t .
khun kholJ capaJ duaJ: la t .
'Are you gOlng,
'Are you volunteerlng to
'Get lt done rlrst, Dee.'
'It would be good to get lt done
rlrst'
'I guess Khong lS gOlng along. '
'You're certalnly gOlng along!'
2.3. Sub-lexemlc Morphemes
2.3 •1. Prerlxe s
Sub-lexemlc prerlxes are qUlte rare In ST, and all eXlstlng ones are
non-productlve. The rollowlng are the most lmportant members or the category,
Wl th example s •
1) /pra/, /pa/, /balJ/, and /p/ 'causatlve.'
The rlrst two allomorphs always occur wlth short syllable-duratlon,
and are In rree varlatlon berore most bases. The thlrd allomorph /balJ/
usually has short-syllable duratlon (never more than medlum-short) and lS
restrlcted to bases beglnnlng wlth /k/ and /kh/. The last allomorph /p/ lS
sub-syllablc, occurrlng only berore bases beglnnlng wlth /r/ and /1/. Arter
/p/, the base-morpheme occurs as a sub-syllablc allomorph; lr lt ends In a
stop, the tone changes to (or remalns) low. In most other cases, lncludlng
the base-allomorphs WhlCh rollow /pra/, /pa/, and /balJ/, the tone remalns
the same; there are a rew exceptlons.
48
Examples I
Base W1th Pref1x
/churn! 'to swarm' /prachum/ 'to assemble'
/som/ 'harmon10us' /pasom/ 'to
'to be on top of' /prathab/ 'to aff1x'
/khab/ 't1ght' /baIJkhab/ 'to regulate'
/keed/ 'to be born' /baIJkeed/ 'to or1glnate'
/10:0/ 'to go down' /plo:o/
'to
bury'
/raab/ 'flat' /praab/ 'to subdue'
/rab/ 'to rece1ve, hear' /prab/ 'to 1nfl1ct, tell'
'to wake up' /plug/ 'to waken'
/looJ/ 'to float' 'to release'
(The last example has 1rregular tone. )
2)
/kra/, /ka/, and /k/ 'reflex1ve'
The relat1onsh1p among the allomorphs 1S exactly the same as among the
f1rst, second, and fourth allomorphs of morpheme 1) /pra/, 1nclud1ng the
change to low tone for bases end1ng 1n stops, after the allomorph /k/ (Wh1Ch
occurs before bases beg1nn1ng w1th /w/ as well). The mean1ng of the pref1x
lS hard to p1n down, but seems to be vaguely 'self-affect1ng act10n or con-
dl t1on. '
Examples:
Base
/tham/ 'to do'
/dood/ 'to Jump'
/waa:o/ 'un1mpeded'
/raab/ 'level'
'h1dden'
Wlth Pref1x
/kratham/ 'to act'
/kradood/ 'to Jump'
/kwaa:o/ 'spac1ous'
/kraab/ 'to prostrate oneself'
/klab/ 'to turn around'
3) /c1:O-/ 'pref1x for anlmals; espec1ally mammals, llzards, and
large 1nsects'
Precedes many bases, a few of Wh1Ch occur by themselvas, w1th med1um-
short syllable durat1on. There 1S no change 1n the form of any base.
49
Examples I
/C1.lJ- c;g/
/Cl.lJ-cQag/
/cllJ-ri1d/
'small 11zard'
'fox'
'cr1cket'
4) /ka/ or /kra/ 'pref1x for an1mals; espec1ally b1rds and f1Sh'
Precedes bases, w1th short syllable-durat1on. If the morphs /nog/
'b1rd' or /plaa/ 'f1Sh' precede, they have med1um-short durat1on, and the
Iwhole comblnau1on lS a slngle lexeme.
Examples:
/kasaa/ or /nog-kasaa/
/kaI1lJ/ or /nog-kal1lJ/
/kapholJ/ or /plaa-kapholJl
, stork'
'parrot'
'sea- bass'
5) /ma/ 'pref1x for plants; espec1ally vegetables and fru1ts'
Precedes many bases, very few of Wh1Ch occur by themselves, w1th short
durat1on.
Examples.
/maphraaw/
/makhya/
/mamualJ/
'coconut'
'eggplant'
'mango'
Allomorph /malJ/ occurs before a few bases:
'mangosteen'
Allomorphs and occur w1th med1um-short durat10n before
many bases:


2.3.2. Inf1xe s
'peach'
'small palm tree'
Sub-Iexem1c 1nf1xes are more wldely dlstrlbuted In ST than
preflxes, and one of them (the second llsted) can actually be sa1d to be
productlve. There are only four common lnflxes.
50
1) /amn/, /am/, /ab/, and /m/.
meanlng of base. '
'formallty or technlcallty added to
The allomorph /amn/ lS selected for most bases beglnnlng wlth a slngle
consonant. The lnltlal consonant of the base plus /am/ becomes a syllable
wlth short (or no more than medlum-short) duratlon; /n/ plus the remalnder
of the base becomes a second syllable, WhlCh may have any duratlon except
short. (When the base has zero lnltlal consonant, the /amn/ lS 1n effect a
preflx.) For bases beglnnlng wlth a consonant cluster, the allomorph /am/
1S 1nserted between the members of the cluster. For monosyllablc bases
beglnnlng wlth /r/, the allomorph /ab/ lS selected. For d1syllablc bases,
the allomorph /m/ lS lnserted at the and of the flrst syllable. The result-
lng lexeme 1S In all cases two syllables long.
Regular tone changes accompany the flrst two allomorphs. If the base
morpheme has rlslng tone, the flrst syllable of the der1vatlve lexeme has
rlslng tone, and the second syllable has mld tone. If the base morpheme has
any other tone, the flrst syllable of the derlvatlve has mld tone. If the
base morpheme ends ln a stop, the second syllable of the derlvatlve has low
tone; otherwlse, the second syllable has the same tone as the base.
Regular examples:
Base
/deen/ 'to walk'
/sialJ/ 'volce'
/caa J/ 'to pay'
/uaJ/ 'to glve'
/traa/ I stamp, seal'
/thalaaJ/ 'to destroy'
/keed/ 'to be born'
/riab/ 'llned up'
/ram/ 'to dance'
/ralyg/ 'to be remlnded of'
Wlth Inflx
/damneen/ 'to conduct, proceed'
/samnlalJ/ 'accent'
/camnaa J/ 'to dlsburse'
/amnuaJ/ 'to admlnlster'
/tamraa/ 'textbook'
/thamlaaJ/ 'to rUln'
/kamneed/ 'blrth'
/ r a b ~ a b / 'order'
/rabam/ 'to perform a dance'
/ramlyg/ 'to remlnlsce'
other examples lnvolve lrregularltles of tone, unpredlctable forms of
the base morpheme or the lnflx, and unusual orders:
/aad/ 'to be capable' /amnaad/ 'power'
/nag/ 'heavy' /namnag/ 'welght'
/trolJ/ 'to go stralght' /damrolJ/ 'to contlnue'
51
/thaalJ/ 'way' /thamnoolJ/ 'method'
/laa/ 'to take leave' /amlaa/ 'to res1.gn'
/lyy/ 'to spread hearsay' /rabyy/ 'rumor'
/SOO13/ 'two, second' /samroolJ/ 'reserves'
/sed/ 'f1.n1.shed' /samred/ 'successful'
2) /ee/, /e/, /ee/, and /e/ 'r1.d1.cule or l.nexactness added to mean1.ng
of base morpheme. '
Th1.s h1.ghly product1.ve l.nf1.X always l.nvolves a spec1.al allomorph of the
base morpheme, Slnce the vowel nucleus represented by the 1.nf1.x replaces the
or1.g1.nal nucleus (or the nucleus of the last syllable, lf the base lS poly-
syllablc). ST speakers do not agree on the dlstrlbutlon of the l.nf1.x allo-
morphs, but a common pattern 1.S as follows.
If the base (or ltS last syllable) has a long vowel or d1.phthong nu-
cleus, a long-vowel allomorph, /ee/ or /ee/, lS selected; lf the base has
a short vowel, /e/ or /e/ lS selected. For bases w1.th an orlglnal vowel
nucleus of /ee/ or /e/, and for all bases endlng In /J/, the allomorph feel
or /e/ lS selected. For bases w1.th orlg1.nal /ee/ or /e/, and for most bases
endlng ln /w/, the allomorph /ee/ or /e/ lS selected. (Bases endlng In /eeJ/
or /eJ/ cannot take thlS lnflX, as /e8J/, /eJ/ are syllablc lmpoSSlbll1.tles.)
For bases other than the types roentloned, the selectlon can be elther /88,e/
or /ee,e/, the only certaln rule be1.ng the one whlch concerns length of nu-
cleus.
The result, lnflX allomorph plus base allomorph lS always preceded some-
where In the same clause by the base morpheme In ltS most common form. If
the base morpheme comes dlrectly before the lnflxed morph, the former has
roedlurn syllable duratlon, and the whole cornblnatlon lS a complex redupllcated
lexeme (2.4.4.) wlth four constltuent morphs: base morpheme, rhythmlc morph,
base allomorph plus lnflX allomorph.
Examples:
Base Morpheme
/kln/ 'to eat'
or
/kln ken!
/kln ken/
/thiaw th£ew/ 'fool around'
'electrlcal system'
'money and that sort
of thlng'
/theew theew/ 'general V1Cln1.ty'
/faJ feJ/
/lJen 13en/
'go around, VlSlt,
go out for pleasure'
'SlIver, money'
'flre, electrlclty'
'row, sectlon' /theew/
/thiaw/
52
/chuaJ/ 'to help' /chuaJ cheeJ/ 'help out and that
sort of thlng'
/maD/ 'pot' /maD mee/ 'pots and pans'
/pIDDm/ 'counterfelt' /plDDm pIe em/ 'counterfelt, etc. '
/huu/ 'ear' /huu heel 'ears and stuff'
If the base lS a polysyllablc morpheme or a compound lexeme, the lnflx
allomorph occurs In the last syllable, whethep thlS lS a whole morph or not:
'books, letters'
ttwo-syllable morpheme)
/hen-caJ/ 'sympathlze'
tcompound lexeme)
'llterature and that
sort of thlng'
'sympathlze and all
that stuff'
All lnflxed forms also occur In dlscontlnuous orders (see 2.5.3.4) and 5).
3) An extremely common but non-productlve lnflX wlth prlnclpal allo-
morphs/aa/ and /a/ has the same condltlons of occurrence as lnflx
2) feel, etc., but a very dlfferent meanlng: 'emphaS1S or lntensl-
flcatlon of the concept denoted by the base morpheme.' It occurs
malnly wlth redupllcated adJectlves, the belng an adverb,
but also comblnes wlth other redupllcated forms as well.
Base Derlvatlve
/weew/

/kras{b/
'brllllant'
'true, slncere'
'to whlsper'
/weew-waaw/

/kras{b-krasaab/
'brllllantly'
, s lncerely ,
'In whlspers'
ThlS lnflX has so many allomorphs, however, that the morphologlcal anal-
YS1S of the relatlonshlp between base and lnflx lS extremely compllcated for
most lexemes In WhlCh lt occurs. *
4) A double lnflx, occurrlng dlscontlnuously In redupllcated lexemes
(see 2.4.3.7.), wlth prlnclpal allomorphs /U-l/ and /UU-ll/, has
the meanlng 'lmpresslonlstlc vlsual or onomatopoetlc aUdltory
descrlptlon.' It occurs malnly In adverbs and lsolatlves, but a
few adJectlve lexemes lncorporate It. There lS some eVldence that
the prlnclpal allomorphs, at least, are productlve.
* See M.R. Haas, 'Technlques of Intenslflcatlon In Thal,' Word 2.127-30.
For most cases, a separate dlctlonary 11Stlng of all redupllcated lex-
emes contalnlng the lnflx lS the slmplest Solutlon.
53
Examples:
Ikrad'g/ ('to fldget')
IcAI ('concerned wlth detall')
Ic'g/ (Idetalls
l
)
/s 'b/ ( 'whlsper')
/kradug-kradig/ 'fldgety'
ICUU-Cll/ 'petty, nagglng
(of persons) ,
/cug-cig/ 'trlfllng (of
thlngs) ,
'In whlspers'
Other common allomorphsof the double lnflx are lllustrated In the
followlng examples:
Inflx
le-al
Derlvatlve
'cluttered, In
the way'
le-al
/8-E/
lu-al
-al
/J8-J8/
Ikhru-khral
'numerous'
'bumpy'
A quadruple lnflx, found In at least one redupllcatlon, lS probably an
allomorph of thls morpheme:
Inflx Derlvatlve
caa-cEEI 'sound of many
people talklng'
As In the case of 3) /aa/ etc., however, a separate d1ct1onary llst1ng
of such lexemes 1S requ1red. There are many cases where the two 1nf1x types,
3) and 4), overlap.
2.3.3. Superf1xes
1) Two superflxes whlch have the phonem1c shape / ' I, normal
stress, but do not show up morphophonem1cally except by
lnference from rhythm1c patterns, have already been mentloned
( 2 • 2 .3 . 1- 2 • )
Examples.
/khon/
Ipham/
'clasS1f1er for people'
'I, me'
54
/'khon/
I'pham/
'one person'
'that of me, m1ne'
2) A superf1x w1th allomorphs I A I falllng tone, I 'I low tone, and
zero (no change 1n tone) makes adverbs from four demonstratlves
and two numerals.
Examples:
Base Lexeme Der1vat1ve
In{l/
Iminl
I n ~ o n l
InaJ/
'th1S'
'that'
'yon, the other'
'Wh1Ch'
/nl1/
/nanl
Inoonl
InaJ/
'here'
'there'
'yonder'
'where'
(zero allomorph of superf1x)
'some'
'few'
'to some extent'
'a 11ttle'
3) Two superf1xes occur wlth certa1n responses and f1nal part1cles.
The f1rst has the shape I N I, pla1n hlgh tone, and means
'quest1on or suggestlon; reply or assent expected.' The second
has the shape I A I, fall1ng tone, or / ' /, constr1cted h1gh
tone, and means 'statement or command; no reply expected.' Both
of these superf1x morphs requ1re a spec1al toneless allomorph
of the base, Wh1Ch cons1sts of the or1g1nal 1n1t1al consonant
plus a short vowel, usually lal but 1n one case I 1 /.
Examples:
Base Lexeme
/khaa/ 'woman answer1ng
a call pol1tely'
/caa/ 'answer1ng a Ch1ld's
or equal's call'
/ Jaa;l
'man answer1ng
a call rudely'
IweeJ/ 'answer1ng an
l.nt1mate's call r
Ikhraab/ 'man answerlng a
call pol1tely'
/naa/ 'you see'
IS111 'not otherW1se'
Questlon Statement
Ikhal Ikhal
/cal Ical
IJal /Ja/
Iwal Iwal or Iwal
Ihal Ihal
££ Ikhrabl or Ikhrabl
Ina/ .£!: Inaal Ina/
Ist/ Isi/
55
4) A superflx wlth the shape / J N : / lS used by women on adJectlve
bases wlth the meanlng 'emotlonal lntenslflcatlon of base meanlng. '
It lS the only truly productlve superflx In the language, and 11ke
forms lnflxed wlth /e,e/ (2.3.2.2.), ltS superflxed forms occur
only In close assoclatl0n wlth the base morpheme Itself. All klnds
of adJectlves on all flve tones (other than / N /) occur wlth It.
The adJectlve base occurs In a toneless allomorph to WhlCh the
superflx / J N : / lS added, and lS lmmedlately followed by the
base morpheme In lts usual form. The extra duratl0n represented
by / : / lS not a morph, and so the complex lexeme WhlCh results
has three constltuent morphs;
Examples I
Base Morpheme
/dll/ 'good'
/kaw/ 'old'
/maag/ 'much'
'hot'
/naaw/ 'cold'
Derlvatlve
/Jdil: dll/ 'excellentJ '
/Jkaw: kaw/ 'anclentJ '
/Jmaag: maag/ 'a tremendous amount'
/Jr5Qn: 'blazlngJ'
/Jnaawl naaw/ 'freezlng'
2.3.4. SUb-syllablc Morphemes
Besldes preflxes, lnflxes, and superflxes, ST has a few other morph-
emes WhlCh have no allomorphs equlvalent to a whole syllable In form and hence
do not correspond to lexemes. The lmportant cases result from the analysls
of certaln demonstratlve and lnterrogatlve lexemes, but other classes of
lexemes are lnvolved as well.
The followlng 11St of sub-syllablc morphemes, together wlth the 11St
of morphemes havlng at least one sub-syllablc allomorph glven In the next
sectlon (2.3.5.), lS lntended to glve a complete Vlew of the lnternal cons-
tructl0n of demonstratlves, lnterrogatlves, and thelr derlvatlves.
1) /n #/ (lnltlal /n/ plus constrlcted hlgh tone) 'demonstratlve.'
Occurs Ln /n{l/ 'thlS,' 'that,' 'yon,' and the flnal partlcle
'you see.' Allomorph /n/ occurs In /naJ/ 'WhlChl' Allomorph / ' /
occurs wlth pronouns (see 2.2.3.2.).
2) /11/ 'close at hand, none other than, present.' Occurs In /n{l/
IthlS,' lts derlvatlves 'so' and, wlth falllng-tone superflx, /nll/
'here' (see 2.3.3.2), also posslbly In the flnal partlcle /Sll/ 'not other-
wlse,1 the adverb IJuu-dll/ 'all the same,' and the derogatory lexeme /11/
ltself: /11 'that very day,' /ll-meew/ 'the (blasted) cat.' (ThlS
/11/ lS a lexlcal preflx - see 2.4.1.)
56
3) /an/ 'farther away, comparatlvely far, removed from the present'
Occurs In /nan/ 'that' and lts derlvatlves /nan/ 'there' and 'thus,'
posslbly also In /than/ 'to catch up, get there.'
4) /oon/ 'other, absolutely far, two removes 'from the present'
Occurs In /noon/ 'yon, the other of two,' ltS derlvatlve /noon/ 'yonder, rand
/phoon/ (a reglonal varlant). Allomorphs of thlS morpheme posslbly occur In
the demonstratlve noun /yyn/ 'others' and the pronoun /phyan/ 'other ones.'
5) /aJ/ 'WhlCh of llmlted posslbllltles' Occurs In the demonstra-
tlve /naJ/ 'WhlCh,' ltS derlvatlves /naJ/ 'where' and the lsolatlve
'what do you and In the questlon partlcle /maJ/ 'yes or no.'
6) /aJ/ 'WhlCh of unllmlted posslbllltles' Occurs chlefly In the
free lexeme /raJ/ 'lndeflnlte what, some, any,' ltS allolex
/daJ/, and thelr many derlvatlves, such as /araJ/ 'what,' /thaw-raJ/ 'how
much,' /mya-raJ/ 'when,' /thll-raJ/ 'WhlCh lnstance,' /phuu-daJ/ 'anyone,'
/mya-daJ/ 'any tlme,' and /thaw-daJ/ 'to any extent.' The morph /aJ/ occurs
by ltself as a sub-syllablc constltuent In /thamaJ/ 'why' and 'how.'
The whole comblnatlon /raJ/ occurs as a sUb-syllablc constltuent ln /khraJ/
'who. '
7) /aJ/ 'the one lntended, the correct one of 11mlted posslbllltles'
Occurs In /ch8J/ 'to be the one lntended,' the negatlve /m8J/ 'not, other
than,' and posslbly such other lexemes as /h8J/ 'lntended for, r /d8J/ 'get,
succeed,' and the derogatory lexeme /aJI ltself: 'the (blasted) dog'
(a lexlcal preflx - see 2.4.1.)
Allomorph /aJ/ occurs In the flnal partlcle 'that's the one,'
and posslbly In /waJ/ 'for future purposes. '
8) 'manner' Occurs ln 'so,' 'thus,' 'how;
that's the one,' and thelr and
'what do you mean7'
9) /m/ 'negatlve' Occurs In /maJ/ 'not, other than' and the ques-
tlon-word /maJ/ 'yes or no. '
Ie) /ch A/ 'deslgnator' Occurs ln /chaJ/ 'to be the one lntended,'
/chyy/ 'name,' /chen/ 'to be an example of,' and posslbly an allomorph occurs
ln /chil/ 'to pOlnt out' and /chan/ 'class.'
Allomorph /cha/ occurs as syllablc morpheme constltuent In such lex-
emes as /chanil/ 'thlS way, thlS sort,' /chanan/ 'that way, that sort, ,
/chanaJ/ 'WhlCh sort,' and 'especlally.'
11) /r/ 'lndeflnlte member of class' (Opposlte of 1) /n '/) Occurs
chlefly In /raJ/ 'what, some, any' and ltS derlvatlves (see 6) above), but
also In the conJunctlon /ryy/ 'or,' the questlon-partlcle /ryy/ and ltS
allolex /ree/ 'or what,' and posslbly In the sentence-partlcle /rog/ 'or
anythlng. I
57
Allomorph /n/ posslbly occurs In and lone, a certaln
member of the class of. I
12) /yy/ lequlvalent' Occurs In /chyy/ 'name,' both lexemes /ryy/
above, and In /khyy/ lthat lS to say.'
Allomorph probably occurs In and lone, a certaln
member of the class of, I and In the conJunctlons lsuch that,'
and IWlth the result that. '
2.3.5. Morphemes wlth Sub-syllablc Allomorphs
Many morphemes of ST, other than those mentloned In the precedlng
sectlons, have at least one allomorph whose sllape lS less than a syllable.
A Ilst of the most lmportant ones follows.
1) /thll/ 'classlfler for lnstances' Occurs as a free lexeme wlth
the prosodlc-superflx morpheme / I / lone' In 'once more,' and In
the followlng demonstratlve phrases (among others): /thll-raJ/ 'WhlCh tlme, r
/thll-n{l/ 'thls tlme, I and /thll-dlaw/ 'once.'
Allomorph /thl/ occurs In /thldlaw/ 'qulte, completely.'
Allomorphs /th/ and /ch/ occur as sub-syllablc constltuents In
allolexes of the above: /thlaw/ and /chlaw/ 'qulte, completely.'
2) /an/ 'classlfler for thlngs' Occurs as a free lexeme wlth the
prosodlc-superflx morpheme / ' / 'one' In /pen ani 'lS one thlng, as a unlt,'
and In the followlng demonstratlve phrases (among others): /an-naJ/ 'WhlCh
one' and /an-n{l/ 'thlS one.'
Allomorph /a/ occurs as a sub-syllablc constltuent In /araJ/ 'what. I
3) /khon/ lclasslfler for people I Occurs as a free lexeme wlth the
prosodlc morpheme / ' / lone
l
In 'one more person,' and In the
followlng demonstratlve phrases (among others): /khon-naJ/ 'WhlCh person'
and 'that person. '
Allomorph /kh/ occurs as a sub-syllablc constltuent In /khraJ/ 'who. I
4) /tham/ 'to make, do' Occurs as a free verb lexeme In /tham
khrua/ Ito do cooklng. I
Allomorphs /tha-m/ and /thamm/ occur as a sub-syllablc constltuents
(syllable plus a fractlon) In /thamaJ/ 'why, f and lts allolex /thammaJ/.
58
5) 'classlfler for klnds of thlngs, adverb of manner'
Occurs as a free lexeme wlth the prosodlc morpheme / ' / In 'one
more klnd' and In the followlng demonstratlve phrases (among others):
n{l/ 'thls klnd,' 'whlch klnd,' and /JaaD-raJ/ 'how.'
Allomorph /JaD/ occurs In varlant forms of the same demonstratlve
phrases: /JaD-n{l/, /JaD-naJ/, /JaD-raJ/.
Allomorphs /Ja-D/ and /JaDD/ occur as sub-syllablc constltuents In
the followlng lexlcal unlts (whlch are all allolexes of forms flrst llsted
In 2.3.4.8.): /JaD{l/ and /JaDD{l/ 'so, thls way,' and
'thus, that way,' /JaDaJ/ and /JaDDaJ/ 'how, what way; that's the one.'
6) /dlaw/ 'numeral one' Occurs after classlflers: /khon-dlaw/
'one person, alone. I
Allomorph / ' / occurs In slmultaneous order wlth classlflers and
numerals (see 2.2.3.1.)
Allomorph /law/ occurs as sub-syllablc constltuent In /thlaw/ and
/chlaw/ 'qulte, completely' (see 1) /thll/ above).
2.4. Lexeme Composltlon
2.4.1. Derlvatlves
In the precedlng sectlon we have seen second-order lexemes derlved
from base plus preflx (llke /prachum/, 2.3.1.1.), base plus lnflx (llke
/damneen/, 2.3.2.1.), base plus superflx (llke /kha/, 2.3.3.3.), or from a
comblnatlon of two sub-syllablc morphemes (llke /n{l/, 2.3.4.1.), and thlrd-
order lexemes derlved from superflxed base plus repetltlon of orlglnal base
(llke /!dll: dll/, 2.3.3.4.), from orlglnal base plus repetltlon wlth lnflx
(llke /kln ken/, 2.3.2.2.), or from addltlon of a superflx to a comblnatlon
of sub-syllablc morphemes (llke /nll/, 2.3.3.2.). In all these types of
derlvatlve, sub-syllablc morphemes were lnvolved.
ST has stlll other derlvatlves, however, In whlch one of the constl-
tuents, whlle a free lexeme In ltS own rlght, lS nelther a modlfler nor a
head. Such derlvatlves are therefore not compounds or redupllcatlons of
free lexemes (see 2.4.3.), and must be treated separately.
In most derlvatlves lncorporatlng two or more constltuents whlch are
themselves lexemes, It lS the flrst constltuent that recurs In many comblna-
tlons and lS productlve of new formatlons. Such common constltuents
are lexlcal preflxes. The lmportant lexlcal preflxes are llsted below. All
have medlum-short syllable duratlon, unless the second constltuent lS extrem-
ely long and complex, In whlch case they have medlum duratlon.
59
1) /kaan-/ 'the act of, affalrs of'
Makes abstract nouns from verbs and verb expresslons, and from
speclflc nouns and noun expresslons.
Base Derlvatlve
/
w1
lJ/
'to run' /kaan-wllJ/ 'runnlng ,
/tad sya/ 'to cut clothes' /kaan- ta d- sya/ 'tallorlng'
/baan/ 'house, home' /kaan-baan/ 'homework'
/taalJ-pratheed/ 'forelgn' /kaan-taalJ-pratheed/ Iforelgn affalrs'
2) /khwaam-/ 'the condltlon of, the result of'
Makes abstract nouns from adJectlves and adJectlve expresslons, and
nouns descrlblng the result or obJect of actlon lmplled by verbs and verb
expresslons.
/lJOo/

Base
'stupld'
'to know'
Derlvatlve
/khwaam-lJOo/
/khwaam-ruu/
'stupldl ty'
'knowledge'
tholJ/ 'to do homage
to a flag'
3) /naa-/ 'worthy of'
/khwaam tholJ/ 'respect for
the flag'
Makes adJectlves from verbal bases.
'to love'
'lovable, cute'
/duu/ 'to look at' /naa-duu/ llnterestlng to
look at'
/falJ/ 'to 11sten
1
/mia-falJ/ 'lnterestlng to
llsten to'
Thlrd-order derlvatlves contalnlng both 2) /khwaam-/ and 3) /naa-/ are
qUlte common:
/khwaam-naa-duu/ 'vlsual lnterestlngness
1
4) /khl1-/ 'havlng a conslstent characterlstlc of'
Makes adJectlves from adJectlve and verb bases whose/meanlngs lmply
slngle lnstances of behavlor rather than characterlstlc behavlor ••
/aaJ/
/koolJ/
Base
'to be ashamed'
'to defraud'
Derlvatlve
/khl1-aaJ/
/khl1- koolJ/
60
'bashful'
'deceltful'
/kiad/
/maw/
'act slothfully'
'l.ntoxl.ca ted'
/khll.-kiad/
/khll.-maw/
'lazy'
'alcoholl.c'
(Note: /khll./ 'excrement' l.S a dl.fferent lexeme whl.ch heads many
compounds, all of whl.ch are also nouns - e.g. /khil.-taa/
'eye secretl.on.' Such compounds cannot be confused wl.th the
above derl.vatl.ves.)
5) 'other' and /naa-naa/ 'varl.ous, plural'
These two lexl.cal prefl.xes are grouped together because they share
many co-constl.tuents. Both make noun derl.vatl.ves of plural meanl.ng from
noun bases.
Base Derl.va tl.ves
/pratheed/
/caD-wad/
/chanid/
/chaad/
'country, natl.on'
'provl.nce'
'type, kl.nd'
'race, na tl.on'

/naa-naa pratheed/

/naa-naa chanid/

/naa-naa chaad/
'forel.gn countrl.es'
'countrl.es'
'the provl.nces
(outsl.de Bangkok) ,
'varlous kl.nds'
'forel.gn orl.gl.n'
'races, natl.ons'
6) 'collectl.on, equl.pment, mechanl.sm'
Makes collectl.ve nouns and nouns denotl.ng klnds of machl.nery from
all klnds of bases - nouns, verbs, adJectlves, and expresslons.
Base
/dyym/
/bl.n/
/phl.m-dil.d/
/karil./
'to drl.nk'
'to fly'
'to type'
'curry'
Derl.vatl.ve
/khryalJ-dyym/ 'beverages'
'al.rplane'
/khrYalJ-phl.m-dll.d/ 'typewrl.ter'
/khrYalJ-karll./ 'curry l.ngredl.ents'
(Examples of the type 'alrplane' and typewrl.ter' are compounds rather
than derl.vatl.ves, because /khryalJ/ can substl.tute for the whole.)
7) /khaalJ-/ and /byalJ-/ 'slde, aspect, ' and /phaaJ-/ 'tl.me, place.'
All three of these lexl.cal preflxes make abstract nouns from pre-
posltl.OnS havl.ng to do wlth place and tl.me relatl.onshl.ps. Examples of all
three wl.th the base 'after, behl.nd':

/byalJ-lalJ/

(For further examples,
'behl.nd, the rear sl.de'
'behl.nd, the hldden sl.de, the past'
'after, the future'
see /naJ/-class preposl.tl.ons, 4.2.1.)
6]
8) /raaJ-/ 'case, Instance,' and /pracam-/ 'assoclated wlth'
These are allomorphs o:f a lexlcal pre:flx WhlCh makes nouns re:ferr1ng
to :frequency o:f occurrence :from nouns deslgnatlng tlme-perlods. The allomorph
/raaJ-/ IS used only wlth the smaller unlts.
Base Derlvatlves
/wan/
/ sab- pa daa/
/dyan/
/pll/
'day'
'week'
'month'
'year'
/raa J-v.ran/
/pracam-wan/
/raaJ-sabpadaa/
/raaJ-dyan/
/pracam-pll/
'dally'
!dally'
'weekly'
'monthly'
'annual'
In a :few klnds o:f derlvatlves Incorporatlng two or more const1tuents
WhlCh are themselves lexemes, the last constltuent IS the one that recurs
and produces new comblnatlons. Such l a t ~ e r constltuents are lexlcal su:f:f1xes.
rwo of the most 1mportant ones are exempll:fled below (9-10). Slnce they
termlnate thelr lexemes, they can have any syllable-duratlon :from med1um up,
but the precedlng constltuent usually has medlum-short duratlon.
Makes verbs and adJectlves havlng to do wlth feellngs and thought
processes from verb and adJectlve bases.
Base
/dll/
/khaw/
/ch5;)b/
/ph;);)/
'good!
'enter I
'to llke'
'enough'
/dll-caJ/
/khaw-caJ/
/ch5;)b-caJ/
/ph;);)-caJ/
Derlvatlve
'glad'
'understand'
'be pleased'
'be satlsfled. I
10) /-phaab/ 'form, shape'
Makes abstract nouns from noun, verb, and adJectlve bases. ThlS
sufflX IS nearly In complementary dlstrlbutlon wlth 2) the preflx /khwaam-/,
as far as selectlon of bases IS concerned, and the meanIng of the two afflxes
1S about the same: 'the quallty o:f.' The sufflX sometlmes requlres a speclal
allomorph o:f the base: some bases endlng In consonants are extended by a
syllable o:f short duratlon, WhlCh conslsts of a fortls consonant of the same
posltlon as the flnal of the base, plus the short vowel /a/; other bases have
no extenslon, or unpredlctable extenslons.
62
Base Derlvatlve
/see-rll/
/id-sara/
/khun/
/sug/
/san/
'free'
'free'
'vlrtue'
'happlness'
'secure, peaceful'
/seerll-phaab/
/idsara-phaab/
/khun-naphaab/
/sug-kaphaab/
/san- tlphaab/
! freedom'
'freedom'
'quallty'
'happlness'
'securlty, peace'
(Notes /khwaam-sug/ 'happlness
'
also eXlsts.)
11) Other lexlcal sufflxes worthy of mentlon:
/-saad/
/-kaan/
/-k00n/
/-ch{g/ or /{g/
/-khom/
/- Jon/
2.4.2. Compounds
'dlsclpllne, SClence'
'work'
'worker'
'member'
'month wlth 31 days'
'month wlth 30 days'
Compounds In ST, as deflned here, are characterlstlcally endocentrlc:
the flrst constltuent lS the head and all other constltuents are modlflers;
further constltuent cuts can be made on the basls of rhythmlc patterns. In
nearly all cases, moreover, the form-class of the compound lexeme lS the same
as that of the head constltuent when It occurs as an lndependent lexeme. Com-
pounds are constructed from all types of head constltuent'lnouns belng the most
frequent, then verbs, then adJectlves, then numerals, other form-classes belng
relatlvely lnfrequent.
Examples:
/roolJ/ 'hall' (noun)
/rlan/ 'to study' (verb)
/rOOlJ-rlan/ ' school'
(noun)
/d88n/ 'to walk' (verb)
/theew/ 'row' (noun)
/ d88n- the ew/ 'to march' (verb)
63
/kee/
/faJ/
/kee-faJ/
'dark'
'f1re'
'scorched'
'f1ve'
'ten'
'f1fty'
(adJect1ve)
(noun)
(adJect1ve)
(numeral)
(numeral) plus rhythm1c morpheme
/-/ (see 2.2.2.5)
(numeral)
A few of the lexemes Wh1Ch occur most frequently as head-morphemes are
11sted below.
/khon-/ and /phuu-/
/chaa:t;]-/
/caw-/
/r88:t;]-/
/chaaw-/
/mee-/
/thl1-/
/roo:t;]-/
/h5:t;]-/
/baan-/
/mya:t;]-/
/t88n-/
/phaag-/
'agent, the one who does'
'craftsman'
'the one who f11ls a command or
C1V11 serV1ce funct10n'
'second-1n- command, V1ce-'
'nat1ve of, c1t1zen of'
'woman who does'
'place where someth1ng lS done'
'publ1C bU1ld1ng, hall'
'room'
'v111age of'
'town or country of'
't1me or port10n of'
, sec t10n of'
The except10ns to th1s pattern are of four types: 1) the head const1t-
uent lS a class1f1er, but the compound lS a noun, 2) the f1rst const1tuent
lS not the head, and hence the compound lS 1rregular, 3) one const1tuent or
another has a mean1ng 1n the compound unrelated to 1tS normal free-mean1ng,
and 4) const1tuents have 1rregular allomorphs.
1) Class1f1er as head const1tuent of a noun compound lexeme. Examples
w1th second const1tuent /maaJ/ 'wood, trees, pl&nts':
/ton/ 'class1f1er for trees and plants'
/ton-maa J/ 'tree' /ton-maaJ S08:t;] toni
64
'two trees'
/baJ/ 'class1f1er leaves, SllPS of paper, and receptacles'
/baJ-maaJ/ 'leaf' /baJ-maaJ baJ/ 'two leaves'
/d;og/ 'class1f1er for flowers and small-patterned obJects'
/d;og-maaJ/ 'flower' /d;og-maaJ d;og/ 'two flowers'
Examples 1nvolv1ng (4) 1rregular allomorph of const1tuent:
/phon/ 'class1fer for fru1ts'
2) F1rst const1tuent not head of compound:
Examples w1th /mahaa/ 'b1g', great':
/w{d-thaJalaJ/ 'college' /mahaa-w{dthaJalaJ/
/samud/ 'salt water body' /mahaa-samud/
'un1vers1ty'
'ocean'
Examples w1th /eeg/ 'f1rst':
/ag-kharaad-cathuud/
/eeg ag-kharaad-cathuud/
'h1gh-rank1ng d1plomat'
'ambassador'
W1th (4) 1rregular allomorph /karaad/:
/raad/ 're1gn' /eeg-karaad/
Same morpheme /eeg/ 1n normal compound lexeme:
'autonomous'
'woman' /naaJJ-eeg/ 'hero1ne'
3) Mean1ng of lexeme not deduc1ble from mean1ngs of const1tuents as
free lexemes:
to adorn'
/l:Jaan/ 'work, ceremony, fa1r'
'to be marr1ed'
/tog/ 'to fall'
'down'
'to agree'
/lEEW/ 'already, over w1th' /tEE/ 'but, only'
/IEEw-t8E/ 'depends on, lS up to'
4) Irregular allomorphs of const1tuents.
Examples repeated from above:
/lamaaJ/
/karaad/
1n /phon-lamaaJ/
1n /eeg-karaad/
65
'fru1t'
, autonomous '
Other examples:
/phon/ 'lnd1v1dual' 1n /phon-thahaan/ 'lnd1v1dual m1l1tary
man, pr1vate, etc.' (w1th /thahaan/ 'm1l1tary. ,)
Allomorph /phon-Ia/ 1n /phon-Iaryan/ 'c1v1l1an' (w1th ryan 'house-
hold'), and /phon-lamyaD/ 'populat1on' (w1th /myaD/ 'town')
/agsoon/ 'letters, 11terature' 1n /agsoon tam/
letters' (w1th /tam/ 'low')
'low class of
Allomorph /agsoon-ra/ 1n /agsoon-rasaad/ 'the study of 11terature'
(w1th /saad/ 'd1sc1pl1ne')
Allomorph /agkhara/ 1n /agkhara-w{th11/' 'phonet1cs
l
(w1th /with11/
'method')
The last two examples also 1nvolve reverse order of const1tuents (2).
2.4.3. Redupl1cat1ons
All redupl1cat1ons 1nvolve e1ther a repet1t1on of a base lexeme, w1th
or w1thout change 1n the shape of the base, or a construct1on of the base
lexeme w1th an element Wh1Ch, wh1le 1t may not resemble the base morpho-
phonem1cally, lS found only 1n assoc1at1on w1th 1t. The border-I1ne between
the two types lS not eas1ly drawn (see 2.3.2.3 end), but 1n all cases the
construct1on lS endocentr1c and the mean1ng of the redupl1cated lexeme lS
substant1ally the same as- the mean1ng of the base lexeme, although the form-
class may be d1fferent.
Nearly all common lexemes of one or two syllables belong1ng to the
maJor form-classes have spec1al comb1n1ng elements assoc1ated w1th them
Wh1Ch y1eld more compl1cated lexemes of roughly the same mean1ng. If the
comb1n1ng element 1tself occurs as a free lexeme w1th a slm1lar mean1ng, the
comb1nat1on lS called a compound (2.4.2.):
Const1tuent
/t;o/ 'to confront'
/chab/ 'qu1ck'
Const1tuent
/suu/ 'to compete'
/waJ/ 'sens1t1ve'
Compound
/t;o-suu/ Ito f1ght'
/chab-waJ/ 'alert'
If the comb1n1ng element lS the unchanged form of the base plus some
rhythm1c morpheme, one of the slmple redupl1cat1ons 11sted below (1-4) occurs.
If the comb1n1ng element lS an 1nf1xed or superf1xed form of the
base, one of the complex redupl1cat1ons 11sted below (5-8) occurs, and the
comb1nlng element lS an 1nflXed redupl1cator or a superflXeq redupl1cator.
66
If the comblnlng element has some other morphophonemlc resemblance to
the base, one of the lrregular redupllcatlons llsted below (9-10) occurs. The
comblnlng element may be a rhymlng redupllcator, In whlch some portlon of the
redupllcator matches the latter portlon of the base, or an alllteratlve redu-
pllcator, In whlch the beglnnlng of the redupllcator matches the beglnnlng of
the base.
If the comblnlng element has no appreclable resemblance to the base,
and also does not occur as a free lexeme In a meanlng assoclated wlth the
meanlng of the redupllcatlon, a quasl-redupllcatlon occurs. Quasl-redupll-
catlons are llsted along wlth lrregular redupllcatlons (In 9-11 below).
Examples of rhymlng, alllteratlve, and quasl redupllcators:
Base Redupllcator
/churn/ 'to swarm' /nurn/ (rhymlng, no meanlng1
/ph188n/ 'to be absorbed' /phle8d/ (alllteratlve, no meanlng)
/ s a n 1 ~ g / 'to have fun' /sanaan/ (alll tera tlve, 'to ba the')
/chuaJ/ 'to help' /lya/ ( 'to be left over' )
/klaalJ/ 'mlddle' /thaam/ (no meanlng)
For slmple redupllcatlons, the order of constltuents lS lrrelevant,
but the rhythmlc morpheme lS lmportant (1-4). For complex redupllcatlons,
the order of constltuents IS flxed, but the rhythmlc pattern does not play
an lmportant role (5-8). For lrregular and quasl redupllcatlons, the order
of constltuents lS varlable and slgnlflcant, but the rhythmlc pattern lS
automatlc (9-10). For the last type of quasl-redupllcatlon (11), both order
and rhythm are flxed.
The symbols used In the formulae for redupllcatlons are as follows.
B- base or slmple redupllcator
Bl- lnflxed redupllcator or base
Bs- superflxed redupllcator
Br- rhymlng redupllcator
Ba- alllteratlve redupllcator
Q- quasl redupllcator
R- any of the last three redupllcators
(Br, Ba, Q).
1) /B-B/ 'softenlng or approxlmlzlng of base meanlng'
The constructlon conslsts of a slmple redupllcatlon, plus the
morpheme /-/ 'sub-lexemlc lmmedlate constltuent cut.' It occurs
67
bases, where but also w1th a
m1nor bases. The redupl1cated lexemes
adJect1ve bases only as and adverbs, and cannot
the pred1cate pos1t1on (among others). In the mod1fy1ng pOS1-
the base adJect1ve lS Ilm1t1ng, wh1le the redupl1cated lexeme
lS non-l1m1t1ng, and a real contrast results:
/nog J8.J/
/nog J8.J-J8.J/
Other examples:
Base
'b1g b1rds' (an 1mpl1ed
(lnc1dental about slze)
Redupl1cat1on


/ly-yn/
/k8.w/
/kEE/
/kYab/
/thalJ/
'good, well'
'true'
'sllpp1ng'
'old th1ngs)'
lold (of people) ,
'almost'
'the whole of'

/C1lJ-C1lJ/
/lyyn-lyyn/
/k8.w-k8.w/
/kEE-kEE/
/kYab-kyab/
/thalJ-thalJ/
'rather good,
rather well'
'really'
'sllppery'
'old1Sh'
'elderly'
'approx1ma tely'
'lnclud1ng all
(The last two examples are not adJect1ve bases.)
2) /B-B/ 'plural1ty'
lS a homonymous redupllcatlng constructlon Wh1Ch occurs w1th
noun and class1f1er bases only. The noun bases WhlCh redupl1cate
th1S way are rather few 1n number, but the construct1on lS pro-
ductlve for class1fler bases. Examples:
Base Redupllcatlon
/deg/ 'Ch1ld' /deg-deg/ 'ch1ldren'
/talJ/ 'class1f1er for stacks' /pen talJ-talJ/ 'In stacks'
/wan/ 'day' /pen wan-wan: paJ/ 'from day to day'
/koon/ 'class1fler for lumps' /pen koon-koon/ 'In lumps'
Alternate form of /B B/
/pen talJ talJ/ 'In stacks'
3) /B B/ 'succeSS1on aud1tory or v1sual 1mpress1ons'
Th1S h1ghly product1ve construct1on cons1sts of a slmple redupl1ca-
w1th med1um durat10n (In pract1ce, never represent1ng the
68
morpheme / / 'hlgh-order lmmedlate constltuent cut' 2.2.2.4) on the
flrst syllable. Nearly all bases that redupllcate In thlS way also
occur, wlth the superflx / ' / or after numerals, as classlflers
meanlng 'one lnstance of such a nOlse or slght.' The redupllcated
lexemes are lsolatlves, and do not partlclpate In normal syntactlc
constructlons. Examples,
Base Redupllcatlon
/k€g/
/{ed/
/khameb/
/weeb/
'one rap'
'one creak'
'a labored breath'
, a flash'
/keg keg/
/{ed {ed/
/khameb khameb/
/weeb weeb/
'wlth rapplng sounds'
'wlth creaklng sounns'
'breathlng weakly'
'In flashes'
Alternate form /B-B/: /weeb-weeb/ 'In flashes'
Base In numeral phrase: / S 0 8 ~ keg/ 'two raps'
Except for the dlfference In form-class of redupllcatlons of thlS
type, they work exactly llke 2) 'plurallty' above.
4) /B, B/ 'repetltlve actlon'
The constructlon conslsts of a slmple redupllcatlon, wlth the flrst
lnstance of the base comlng at the end of one phrase and the second
at the beglnnlng of the next. Although the occurrence of /, / sug-
gests a maJor lmmedlate constltuent cut (rather than a sub-lexemlc
cut), the correct analysls for /B , B/ lS a redupllcated lexeme
WhlCh belongs to both phrases. Only verb bases occur In thlS con-
structlon.
'to walk'
'to go'
Base Redupllca tlon
/khaw deen , deen: paJ naan/
'He walked and walked for a long tlme. '
/khaw deen: paJ , paJ ph6b/
'He walked along untll he met .•. '
Alternate form of redupllcatlonl /B B/
/deen/
/paJ/
/mll khon paJ paJ ? maa maa ./
'There were people comlng and gOlng. '
5) /B Bl/ 'rldlcule or lnexactness added to base meanlng'
ThlS complex redupllcatlon, lnflxed base followlng
r
base (wlth
medlum duratlon), occurs only In connectlon wlth the lnflx /ee/-
/ee/(see 2.3.2.2.).
69
Examples:
'to eat' /kln ken/ 'wlnlng and dlnlng'
(For addltlonal examples, see 2.3.2.2.)
6) /B-Bl/ 'lntenslflcatlon of base meanlng'
ThlS complex redupllcatlon, lnflxed base followlng base (wlth
medlum-short duratlon), occurs only In connectlon wlth the lnflx
/aa/-/a/ and lts allomorphs.
Example:
'true' 'slncerely'
(For addltlonal examples, see 2.3.2.3.)
7) /Bl-Bl/ 'lmpresslonlstlc descrlptlon'
Thls complex redupllcatlon, conslstlng of two lnflxed bases (the
flrst of whlch has the least posslble duratlon) occurs only In
connectlon wlth the double lnflx /U-l/ and ltS allomorphs.
Example:
Example:

Alternate form: /Bl-Bl Bl-Bl/.
'fldgety'
'sound of many vOlces'
(For addltlonal examples, see 2.3.2.4.)
8) /Bs B/ 'emotlonal lntenslflcatlon of base meanlng'
Thls complex redupllcatlon, superflxed base (wlth medlum-long
duratlon) precedlng base, occurs only In connectlon wlth the
superflx / -: /, and hence only In women's speech. (see 2.3.3.4.)
Example:
'good' 'excellentJ'
(For addltlonal examples, see 2.3.3.4.)
9) /B-R/ 'generallty or formallty'
The constructlon conslsts of the base (whlch has the least posslble
duratlon, but not less than medlum-short) plus an or quasl
redupllcator. Some varlants are /B R/, /B-Br/, /B-Ba/, and /B-Q/.
It occurs wlth all types of maJor form-class bases, rarelywlth mlnor
form-class bases. The class of the base does not change; adJectlves
redupllcated In thls way, for example, can flll the predlcate POSl-
tlon. (cf. l./B-B/ above).
70
Examples:
Base
/churn/ 'to swarm' /chum-num/
Redupl1cat1on
'to assemble'
(B-Br)


I f1Sh-hook'
, Occ1dental'
'to have fun'
'temple'
/sanug-sanaan/

'odds and ends 1
(B-Br)
, Occ1dentals and
such' (B- Br )
'to be amused'
(B-Ba)
etc.'
(B-Ba)
'temples, etc.' aaraam/ 'rel1g1ous 1nstal-
lat1ons' (a th1rd-order lexeme,
/B-Ba Q/, 1n Wh1Ch /B-Ba/ and
/Q/ are const1tuents)
'to help'
'home, house'
/chuaJ-lya/
/baan- ch5alJ/
, to ass 1s t' (B- Q)
'hearth and home'
(B-Q)
10) /R-B/ 'prec1s1on,spec1f1cness'
Th1S construct1on, the reverse of 7) /B-R/ 1n form and nearly 1n
meanlng, conslsts of the lrregular or quasl redupllcator (WhlCh has
least durat10n poss1ble) followed by the base. Some var1ants are
/R B/, /Br-B/, /Ba-B/, and /Q-B/. It occurs ma1nly w1th maJor form-
class bases, but also w1th some 1mportant m1nor form-class bases"too.
In the latter case, espec1ally, the class membersh1p of the base
lexeme lS often d1fferent from that of the redupl1cated lexeme.
Examples:
Base Redupl1cat1on
'ra1se up'
'to be absorbed'
/nyaJ/ 'to be t1red'
/khaw/ 'h1ll, mounta1n, etc. '
/klaalJ/ 'm1ddle, am1dst'
/khaalJ/ 's 1de, be s 1de '
71
/coalJ-haalJ/
/phleed-phleen/
/ned-nya J/
/phuu-khaw/
/thaam- klaalJ/
'proud' (Br-B)
'completely en-
grossed! (Ba-B)
'exhaus ted' (Ba-B)
'mounta1n' (R-B)
'exact center'
(R-B)
'rather, on the
slde of' (Ba-B)
11) IB QI 'ult1mate degree'
The construct1on cons1sts of an adJect1ve or noun base plus a quas1-
redupllcator (Wh1Ch may have only a m1n1mal lndependent eX1stence
outs1de of th1S construct1on). The class membersh1p of the redu-
pl1cat1on lS the same as that of the base. The redupl1cator 1n
nearly all cases has the stress pattern I J I I, Wh1Ch lS not a
loud-stress morpheme but a part of the redupl1cat1ng lexeme 1tself.
Examples:
Base Redupl1ca t10n
Ikhaawl
IdE: E:lJI
Irewl
'Wh1 te'
'red'
'fast'
Ikhaaw Jcueg:1
IdE:E:lJ Jpred:1
Irew Jpryy:1
2.5. Syntact1c Construct1ons
'pure Wh1 te '
'V1V1d red'
'llghtn1ng fast'
2.5.1. Slmultaneous Construct1ons
1) A syntact1c un1t lS any lexeme or 1ntegral number of lexemes
marked by rhythm1c eV1dence (see 2.2.2.) as an 1mmed1ate const1tuent of some
larger construct1on, plus the rhythm1c morpheme or morphemes Wh1Ch so mark 1t
by occurr1ng slmultaneously w1th 1t. The m1n1mum syntact1c un1t lS a slngle
lexeme, w1th or rhythm1c morpheme. The follow1ng example conta1ns
two m1n1mum syntact1c un1ts, the lexemes IpaJI 'go' and Ikhrabl 'pol1te word
for men,' Wh1Ch share the slmultaneous occurrence of I : I 'phrase construc-
t10n cont1nues, w1th maJor 1mmed1ate const1tuent cut here' (2.2.2.1.):
paJI khrab • 'Yes, slr, (he's) gOlng.'
Syntact1c un1ts are always smaller than morphophonem1c phrases,
because of the requ1rement that 1mmed1ate const1tuent cuts be establ1shed
rhythm1cally, but may be of any length. The follow1ng sequence lS
marked off 1nto syntact1c un1ts w1th slant llnes for 111ustrat1ve purposes:
phuu-JllJ I khon-nan I maJ-daJ-pen I khruu: I r;g Ikhrab t .
'That woman lsn't a teacherJ'
('Woman lone-that I not-actually-be I teacher I utterly I slrJ')
The sequence end1ng Ikhruu.1 lS also a syntact1c un1t.
A sequence of three lexemes, the f1rst two of Wh1Ch have med1um
syllable-durat1on I I, corresponds to three syntact1c un1ts; the negat1ve
rhythm1c eV1dence makes any other d1V1S1on 1mposs1ble:
ch3nb k1n plaa .
72
'L1kes to eat flsh. '
2) A syntactlc phrase lS any lntegral number of ordered syntactlc
unlts comprlslng an lmmedlate constltuent of a hlgher order plus whatever
loud-stress morphemes may occur slmultaneously wlth the sequence (but not
lncludlng lntonatlon morphemes whlch may also occur slmultaneously). All
syntactlc phrases contaln at least one syntactlc unlt of two or more lexeme
constltuents, or at least two syntactlc unlts wlth a slngle lexeme constltuent.
Syntactlc phrases In consecutlve order are never longer than phonemlc phrases
(see examples In 2.5.2.), although those In non-consecutlve orders may conslst
of two or more phonemlc phrases (see examples In 2.5.3.).
3) A syntactlc clause lS any lntegral number of lower-order syntactlc
constltuents (lexemes, unlts, or phrases) occurrlng slmultaneously wlth a
slngle lntonatlon morpheme, plus the lntonatlon morpheme ltself. Hence syn-
tactlc clauses are always co-extenslve wlth phonemlc clauses (see 1.8.4.).
4) A sentence lS any syntactlc clause consldered from the pOlnt of
Vlew of ltS constltuents and thelr classlflcatlon. Sub-types of sentences
are llsted In 2.6.2., below.
5) A dlscourse lS any sequence of sentences uttered consecutlvely
by the same person, and corresponds roughly to the utterance on the phonemlc
level. Sentences quoted from the same dlscourse and used as examples In thls
grammar are not ldentlfled In any speclal way, but If quoted consecutlvely
are always separated by / . / In the text.
6) An exchange lS any sequence of dlscourses uttered consecutlvely
by dlfferent speakers In dlrect communlcatlon wlth each other. Sentences
quoted In the context of an exchange are ldentlfled by the prefaclng of a
capltal letter to represent each speaker lnvolved (A, B, Q, R, etc.)
2.5.2. Constructlons
1) An endocentrlc phrase, or expresslon, lS any consecutlve-order
syntactlc constructlon such that the flrst lexeme, or head, can substltute
for the whole constructlon. Endocentrlc phrases wlll later be characterlzed
by reference to the form-class of the head (whlch lS also the form-class of
the whole phrase), as noun expreSSlon, verb expresslon, etc. Examples:
/baan pham/ 'my home,' from /baan/ 'house' and /pham/ 'I, me.'
(noun expresslon)
/kln khaaw/ 'to eat,' from /kln/ 'eat' and /khaaw/ 'rlce.'
(verb expresslon)
/dll lakeen/ 'very good,' from /dll/ 'good' and /lakeen/ 'very'
(adJectlve expresslon).
73
The other of an phrase (the fol-
the head) the mod1f1er. In the examples above, /baan/, /k1n/, and
/d11/ are heads; /pham/, /khaaw/, and /lakeen! are mod1f1ers.
2) A pred1cat1on lS any consecut1ve-order syntact1c construct1on
such that some lexeme or const1tuent other than the f1rst lexeme or const1-
tuent can Subst1tute for the whole construct1on. Any slngle lexeme Wh1Ch
Subst1tutes 1n th1S way lS a pred1cator; a more complex const1tuent f1ll1ng
the same role lS called a predlcate. The f1rst const1tuent 1n a pred1cat1on
.LS the subJect.
The test of Subst1tut1on lS 9as1ly made 1n the context of a yes-no
quest10n and 1tS answer. Predlcat10ns w1ll later be character1zed by refer-
ence to the for.m-class of the pred1cator, as verb pred1cat1on, adJect1ve pre-
d1cat1on, etc. Examples.
Quest10n
khaw k1n: ma J •
'Wlll he eat
Yes-Answer
'Yes. '
/k1n/ 'eat! 1S a verb, and /khaw k1n/ 1S a verb pred1cat1on. /khaw/
1S the subJect.
khaaw d11: maJ •
'Is the r1ce !
d11 •
'Yes. '
/dl1/ 'good' lS an adJect1ve, and /khaaw d11/ lS an adJect1ve pre-
dlcat1on. /khaaw/ lS the subJect.
khaw tSD k1n: maJ .
'Does he have to eat
tSD. '
'Yes'
/tSD/ 'has to' lS a modal verb; 1t Subst1tutes for the endocentr1c
pred1cate k1n/ 'has to eat,' and also for the ent1re pred1cat1on /khaw
tOD k1n/, WhlCh lS hence a modal verb pred1cat10n.
The res1dual const1tuents of pred1cates, after the pred1cator has
been 1dent1fled, are objects. In the pred1cate /tSD k1n! 'has to eat,'
/k1n/ lS the obJect. Some pred1cates appear to have two obJects, but 1mme-
dlate const1tuent analys1s 1n such cases always shows two pred1cates, one
1ncluded 1h the other. Examplee
'He bored a hole 1n the box. '
The subject lS /khaw/ and th€ ma1n pr€dlcate lS /co-ruu Wh1Ch
has 1tS own oonstltuents, /co-ruu/ 'bore a hole,' a secondary predlcate, and
1ts obJect, /hi1b/ 'box.' The un1t /co-ruu/ conslsts of /eo/, predlcate,
and /ruu/, obJect. For obJects such as are called lndl-
-
rect ob,]ects.
74
3) An exocentrlc constructlon IS any consecutlve-order syntactlc
constructlon such that no slngle lexeme or constltuent can satlsfactorlly
Substltute for the whole constructlon. Exocentrlc constructlons have no
heads, but wlll later be characte.l'lZed by reference to the form-class of the
flrst lexeme, as preposltlonal phrase, classlfler phrase, etc., although the
constructlon does not belong to any such form-class. Examples:
/ k h ; 0 ~ pham/ 'mlne,' from / k h ; 0 ~ / 'belonglng to' and /pham/
'I, me.' (preposltlonal phrase)
/ k h o ~ kln/ 'IS sure to eat, I from / k h o ~ / 'lS sure to' and /kln/
'eat.' (modal phrase)
/maJ-dll/ 'not good,' from /maJ/ 'not' and /dll/ 'good.'
(negatlve phrase)
If a resldual constltuent of any klnd IS In an exocentrlc construc-
t1on, It IS called a complement rather than an obJect. (see 2.5.2.2. end).
Example: /khaaw JUu naJ-tuu ./ 'The rlce IS In the cab1net.'
The subJect IS /khaaw/ 'r1ce,' the predlcator IS /Juu/ 'to be located,' and
the resldue, /naJ-tuu/ IS a preposltlonal phrase meanlng 'ln the cablnet.'
/tuu/ IS a complement.
4) An equatlon IS any exocentrlc constructlon WhlCh as a whole IS
syntactlcally parallel to a predlcatlon; that IS, whose second constltuent
can be Substltuted for by a predlcator: Examples:
, v
wan-nll wan-saw.
, ,
wan-nll r00n .
pham khaa-hag .
pham maJ-sabaaJ .
'Today IS Saturday.'
'It's hot today' (predlcatlon)
'I have a broken leg!
'I'm not well.' (predlcatlon)
The flrst constltuent of an equatlon IS the tOPIC; the second constl-
tuent IS the equatlonal predlcator, If a slngle lexeme, or the equatlonal
predlcate, If a more complex constructlon. In the above examples, /wan-n{l/
and /pham/ are tOPICS, /wan-saw/ 'Saturday' IS an equatlonal predlCator, and
/khaa-hag/, WhlCh IS Itself a noun expressIon ('broken leg
l
), IS an equatlonal
predlca te.
Predlcatlons WhICh appear to have two subJects are shown by Immedlate
constItuent analysIs to conslst of a tOPIC plus an equatlonal predlcate WhICh
1S Itself a predlcatlon. Example:
wan-n{l aakaad dll . 'The weather IS nIce today.'
Here, /wan-n{l/ IS the tOPIC, and /aakaad dll/ IS the equatlonal predlcate,
conslstlng of a predlcatlon wlth subJect /aakaad/ 'weather' and predlcator
/dll/ 'good.'
75
5) An enumeratlon lS any exocentrlc constructlon WhlCh as a whole
lS syntactlcally parallel to an endocentrlc expresslon; that lS, WhlCh can
functlon In a larger constructlon as modlfler, subJect, tOP1C, or predlcate
(but not as a head). Example:
'two o'clock'
Nelther 'two! nor 'hours, o'clock' can Substltute for the
entlre phrase, WhlCh lS exocentrlc, and nothlng can Substltute for elther
constltuent so that the result lS a predlcatlon or expresslon.
The phrase occurs as a constltuent, however, everywhere that endocentrlc
expresslons occur. Examples,
TOP1C:
Equatlonal Predlcate.
SubJects
leEw •
'It's two o'clock.'
naltkaa •
'My watch (says) two o'clock.'
kO-daJ.
'Two o'clock would be all rlght.'
rod-faJ krabuan .
'The two o'clock traln.'
Second Constltuent In Larger Phrase:

'Untll two o'clock.'
2.5.3. Non-consecutlve Constructlons
1) Dlscontlnuous constructlons occur when one lmmedlate constltuent
lS SpIlt by the lnsertlon of another, so that consecutlve lmmedlate constl-
tuent cuts cannot valldly be made. Dlscontlnuous constructlons can be found
to correspond to all the sub-types of consecutlve-order constructlon llsted
above (2.5.2.). Examples:
keed khyn •
'It happened that a tlre blew out. '
The predlcatlon teEg/ 'tlre bursts' lS lncluded In the dlscontlnuous
modal phrase /keed ••• khyn/ 'It orlglnates, a new thlng happens.'
khaw od phuud maJ-daJ •
'He couldn't help telllng the truth.'
The verb expresslon /phuud 'to tell the truth' lS lncluded In the
dlscontlnuous modal phrase /;d ••• maJ-daJ/ 'not able to keep from.'
76
2) Parenthetlcal constructlons are a speclal case of dlscontlnuous
conitructlons, In WhlCh the lnserted constltuent can be 'moved' to another
locatlon, wlthout damage to the syntactlc relatlonshlp, In such a way that
a consecutlve constructlon results. That lS, for every parenthetlcal con-
structlon, a parallel consecutlve constructlon eXlstsJ the same lS not true
of ordlnary dlscontlnuous constructlons. Parenthetlcal constructlons of all
types occur, and are usually marked by prosodlc phenomena of one klnd or
another. Examples:
khoo syy , daJ: maJ-khrab, nuu tua-n{l, t.
'I'd llke to buy - may I, - thls mouse.'
The maJor lmmedlate constltuents /khoo syy nuu tua-n{ll 'I'd llke to buy
thlS mouse' and IdaJ: maJ-khrabl 'may I, also occur In consecutlve
order In the followlng sentence:
khoo syY nuu tua-n{l , da J: ma J-khrab t.
'May I buy thlS mouse,
3) Parallel constructlons occur when one lmmedlate constltuent lS
repeated two or more tlmes In the same syntactlc relatlonshlp wlth a number
of dlfferent co-const1tuents. Slmple parallel constructlons can be found to
correspond to all the sub-types of consecut1ve constructlons. The 1ntonatlon
morpheme I , I (see 2.2.1.3) usually separates the segments contalnlng the
repeated constltuent, and may occur also after the last constltuent of the
parallel constructlon. Examples:
paJ kO-daJ , JUu kO-daJ •
'You can elther go, or stay. '
The constltuent /ko-daJ/ 'can equally well' lS repeated In the same syntactlc
relatlonshlp wlth /paJI 'go' and /Juu/ 'stay.'
khaw maJ-daJ-aw ph8e , aw chana: kan •
'They don't pay any attentlon to (who) Wlns or
loses.'
The constltuent lawl 'to take' occurs tWlce, before verbs meanlng respec-
tlvely 'to lose' and 'to W1n.'
Two common conJunctlons ... 'each In a separate way' and
•.• 'the more .•• the more' occur only In parallel constructlons,
as does the postposltlon ••• 'do1ng one thlng lntermlttently
wlth another.'
4) Dlscontlnuous parallel constructlons occur when the separate
co-constltuents (l.e. not the repeated constltuent) are the two halves of a
redupllcated lexeme (see 2.4.3.). These construct1ons are extremely common
In colloqulal speech, and nearly every type of redupllcatlon except the
77
slmplest lS represented, as well as all sub-types of consecutlve construc-
tlon. Examples:
Dlscontlnuous Parallel Constructlon
aw clD , aw caD ,
'Act In dead earnest'
paJ wad, paJ waa ,
'go to the temples and such'
maJ paJ , maJ peJ: la .
'I guess I won't go.'
hen naa , hen taa ,
'See someone In person'
Redupllca tlon
clD-caD
'slncerely'
wad-waa
'temple s, etc.'
paJ P8J
'go, shmo r
naa-taa
'face r
5) Interlocklng constructlons occur when both constltuents of a
parallel constructlon are spIlt redupllcatlons. If redupllcatlon /AB/ lS
In such a constructlon wlth redupllcatlon JCD/, the resultlng order lS
/AC,BD,/. Example:
Interlocklng Constructlon
maag naa , laaJ taa ,
'Many faces (people)'
Flrst Redupllcatlon
maag-laaJ
'many'
Second Redupllcatlon
naa- taa
'faces'
Interlocklng constructlons, unllke dlscontlnuous parallel constructlons,
are extremely rare.
6) Comblnatlons of unusual orders wlth the varlOUS types of syn-
tactlc constructlons outllned In 2.5.2. yleld the followlng termlnology
(terms In parentheses are for contrast only):
(Consecutlve)
Dlscontlnuous
(Normal)
Parallel
Interlocklng
78
Endocentrlc Expresslon
Predlca tlon
Exocentrlc Phrase
Equatlon
Enumeratlon
2.6. ClaSSIfIcatIon
2.6.1. Lexeme CategorIes
All lexemes, regardless of theIr Internal (morphologIcal) construc-
tIon, are claSSIfIed In terms of the types of syntactIC constructIon In
WhIch they partIcIpate. ST has only two broad categorIes of lexemes, free
and bound, but each category has many subdIVIsIons.
1) Free lexemes occur SImultaneously WIth IntonatIon and loud-stress
morphemes, and In dIrect constructIQn WIth them form mInor sentences (see
2.6.2.5.). In SImpler terms, they occur 'In IsolatIon.' The maJor sub-
categorIes of free lexemes are lsolatlves, substantIves and predlcatlves.
They are descr.lbed In Chapter 3.
2) Bound lexemes occur as constItuents of syntactIC unIts and
hIgher-order constructIons only. The maJor sub-categorIes are preposItIons,
conJunctIons, modals, postposItlons, and sentence partIcles. Chapter 4 dea;s
WIth bound lexemes.
3) Some free lexemes have homonYmS WhICh are bound, and WIthIn each
category there are homonYmOus lexemes belongIng to dIfferent sub-classes.
There are also border-lIne cases between free and bound, but In general the
dIstInctIon IS a clear and Important one for ST speakers.
2.6.2. Sentence Types
Sentences are claSSIfIed WIth respect to the morphologIcal and syn-
tactIC constructIons WhIch are theIr prImary constItuents. The total number
of pOSSIble sentence-types IS twelve (as can be seen from the summary In 6)
below), but by the most type IS the maJor sentence, WIth the ex-
clamatory mInor sentence probably comIng second.
1) An exclamatory sentence IS a clause occurrIng SImultaneously
WIth the IntonatIon morpheme / t / Involvement. I
'Is thIS the
2) A complex sentence IS any syntactIC clause contaInIng the
morpheme / , / 'clause constructIon contInues,' provl'ded the occurrence of
/ , / COInCIdes WIth a syntactIC phrase boundary.
sya tua-n{l rea khun saJ mya-khyyn-n{l
'Is thIS the coat you wore last ,
79
The followlng clause, WhlCh also contalns / , /, lS not a complex sentence
because of the occurrence of a dlscontlnuous parallel constructlon:
dlchan cadaJ paJ wad, paJ waa: kakhaw duaJ •
'I'll be able to go to the temples and so on along wlth
the others.'
3) A maJor sentence has a predlcatlon as ltS prlmary constltuent.
The second example glven above (2) lS a maJor sentence, the predlcatlon
/dlchan cadaJ paJ wad-waa/ 'I'll be able to go to the temples, etc.' belng
merely modlfled by the remalnder. The flrst example In (2) lS not a maJor
sentence, Slnce the second phrase 'you wore last nlght,' although a predlca-
tlon, lS In an equatlonal relatlonshlp wlth the flrst phrase, WhlCh lS an
enumeratlon, 'thlS coat",
4) An equatlonal sentence has an equatlon as ltS prlmary constltu-
ent. The example 'Is thlS the coat you wore last nlght'" lS hence an equa-
tlonal sentence. Examples of slmple (non-complex) equatlonal sentences:
, v
wan-nll wan-saw.
pham chyy Clm •
pham khaa-hag •
'Today lS Saturday.'
'My name lS Jlm.'
'I have a broken leg. '
5) A mlnor sentence has any other constructlon or a slngle lexeme
as ltS prlmary constltuent. Examples are ldentlfled by reference to the
classlflcatlon of the prlnclpal constltuent.
Endocentrlc Constructlon:
Exocentrlc Phrases
Enumeratlon:
Slngle Lexemet
sya tua-n{l •
naJ tuu •
khon. thaw-nan •
, th1 s coa t. '
'In the bookcase.'
'Only two people. '
'For heaven's sake!'
6) Comblnatlons of the above sentence-types occur, and the terml-
nology corresponds. (Terms In parentheses are for contrast only.)
(Normal)
Exclamatory Complex
80
MaJor
Equa tlonal
Mlnor
Sentence
CHAPTER III
FREE LEXE:ME CLASSES
3.1. Isolat1ves
An lsola t1ve lS any free lexeme Wh1Ch typ1cally OCCU1"3 as an 1mme-
d1ate const1tuent of construct1ons no smaller than an ent1re sJntact1c clause
(except 1n hypostas1s), or 1n construct1on w1th other lsolat1ves. Isolat1ves
typ1cally occur as sole lexem1c const1tuents of ent1re phonem1c rrrases Wh1Ch
precede, follow, or 1nterrupt the larger syntact1c cons truct10ns I lla tare
the1r co-const1tuents. All lsolat1ves may occur as sole lexem1c Cl1llst1tuents
of ent1re clauses, but some typ1cally so occur. The class1f1cat1on of lSO-
lat1ves 1nto four sub-groups - 1) InterJect1ons, 2) Responses, 3) Vocat1ves,
and 4) Im1tat1ves - lS based on typ1cal occurrence w1th respect to co-con-
st1tuents.
Isolat1ves occur only 1n the loosest k1nd of construct1on w1th the
rema1nders of the1r clauses. Only as quotat1ons (e.g. 'He sa1d ouchl I) do
they enter 1nto normal syntact1c relat1onsh1ps, and even here there lS often
a phrase-boundary to set them apart. A few lsolat1ves seem also belong to
other lexeme classes, but mean1ng relat1onsh1p lS so tenuous that the more
reasonable analys1s lS two homonYmous lexemes. For example, the response
always means 'not yet, , whereas the modal IJaD/ means 'st1ll, even
now. '
3.1.1. InterJect10ns
An 1nterJect1on lS any lsolat1ve all of whose allolexes 1nclude the
element / 1 : /. (Th1S lS meant to exclude all syntact1c construct1ons 1n
Wh1Ch II :/ lS a superf1x.) InterJect10ns typ1cally occur as sole lexem1c
const1tuent of the f1rst phrase 1n a clause, or as sole lexem1c const1tuent
of a whole clause. The class of 1nterJect1ons lS rather small, but not
closed - new 1nterJect1ons enter ST rather frequently, and a few surV1ve for
long per10ds of t1me. The pr1nc1pal respectable members of the class are
11sted below 1n the1r most common allolexes; mean1ngs are only roughly sug-
gested. (Some extremely common members w1th obscene or profane connotat1ons
have been purposely om1tted.)
1) 11aaw:/
2) 11mEE::I
3) 11e,1
'WeIll (ch1d1ng or d1sappo1ntment) r
'Sayl My my 1 (surpr1se, adm1rat1on) 1
(surprlse, lack of understand1ng) ,
81
4) /Joo:/
5) /JuJ=/
6) /Joo-h60:/
8) /JooJ:/
9) /JnaJ-m1J:/
10) /!n8:/
3.1.2. Responses
'Oh! (Now I understand) ,
'OuchJ '
(and many al101exes wlth the same tonal and
consonantal pattern but dlfferent vowels-e.g.
/!yy-hyy:/) 'How about that!'
(and many compounds wlth /taaJ/ as flrst element)
'Good heavens! (horror, shock)'
'Wow! (amazement)'
'There, there. (soothlng).'
'Look! '
A response lS any lsolatlve (other than an lnterJectlon) WhlCh
typlcally occurs as the sole lexemlc constltuent of the envlronment /B,/,
where 'B' represents the beglnnlng of an utterance by some later speaker ~ n
an exchange (l.e. not the person who opens the exchange). In other words,
the response lS the sole lexemlc constltuent of the flrst phrase of the flrst
clause uttered by a respondlng speaker. Responses, llke many other classes
of lexemes, can also occur as the sole lexemlc constltuent of whole clauses
and even whole utterances.
The class of responses lS small, and closed except ln the semantlc
area of 'yes' answers, where lnnovatlons are posslble. Most responses have
para-llngulstlc behavlor accompanylng them (gestures, faclal expresslons,
and unusual vocal effects) WhlCh lS not descrlbed here. Examples are glven
ln the nearest morphophonemlc equlvalent of the most common allolex of each
response. Where two allolexes are common, both are clted. Where meanlngs
are vague, the entlre exchange lS glven:
2) /88/
'Yes (famlllar, all speakers). I (ThlS ltem lS
nasallzed throughout.)
'Yes (concesslve).'
A. ko wan-n{l wan-saw: nll-khrab t .
B. 88, CllJ: Sll •
A. 'Well today ~ Sa turday! '
B. 'Yes, tha t 's true.'
82
4) /00/
(skeptlcal or mlldly surprlsed) ,
A. JUu thll-paag saa J suan-phluu.
B. 0a, JUu klaJ kh8E-n{1: eelJ t .
A. 'It's at the entrance to Suan-phluu Lane.'
B. as close as all that!'
'Oh! (sense of loss) I
A. sag-saam baJ: na •
B. 00, chan p;ag: sa-m;d-IfEw t .
A. 'Save about three (of the frults), wlll
B. 'Oh, I've peeled them all! '
(further explanatlon or actlon requlred),
but, well but
'
A. wan-n{l chan paJ-syy phaa: maa .
B. naJ, aw-maa-duu kan-n;aJ: Sl t .
A. 'I bought some cloth today. '
B. 'We117 Let's see It!'
naJ , chuaJ SOlJ nalJ-syy maa-n;aJ .
'Say, hand me that book, wlll
na J , wa a lJa J: na t .
'What7 What dld you say7'
naJ , waa camaJ-maa: lJaJ t .
'Well, but you sald you weren't comlng!'
6) /lJaJ/ or /lJaJ/ 'Why, well, anyway.'
lJaJ , maa nag-lao
'Well, you're pretty late.'
v
lJa J , JalJ ma J-maa •
'In any case, lt hasn't come yet. '
7) /ree/ I I s tha t sO'l'
'No (That cholce lS not taken).'
Answers only questlons contalnlng the flnal partlcle
/rYy/·
83
A. wan-nll khun tOlJ pa J-wad: ry-kha .
B.
A
kha ma J- tOlJ ma J: , paJ .
A. 'Do you have to go to the temple today'll
B. 'No, I don't have to. '
A. khun maJ-paJ wad: ry-kha .
B. maJ: kha .
A. 'Aren't you gOlng to the temple'2 '
B. 'No, I'm not. '
'Not yet. '
Negatlvely answers all questlons 1n Wh1Ch an assump-
t10n lS made that an event wlll occur, or a sltua-
t10n perta1n, sooner or later.
A. thaan khaaw: leew rY-JalJ •
B. JalJ, JalJ ma J- ds J- thaan •
A. 'Have you eaten yet'l'
B. 'No, I haven't eaten yet. '
10) /plaaw/ 'No (the assumptlon or 1nference 1S wrong).'
Negatlvely answers yes-no quest10ns (other than those
answered by 8) and 9), and p01nts out the 1nappll-
cablllty of quest10ns conta1n1ng lnterrogatlve
words.
A. wan-nan khun paJ-wad , chSJ: maJ-kha •
B. plaaw: kha , chan maJ-daJ-paJ •
A. 'You went to the temple that day, d1dn't you'2 '
B. 'No, ma'am. I dldn't go there.'
A.
'"
kha paJ naJI .
B. plaaw: kha maa-deen len .
A. 'Where are you gOlng'2
B. 'Nowhere. I'm Just out for a walk. '
84
'Yes (man speaklng polltely).'
Occurs In answer to all types of questlons, but merely
lndlcates that the speaker has followed the Ilne of
dlscourse, not that he speclflcally agrees to every-
thlng sald. Also occurs after non-questlons. After
commands, lt nearly always lmplles 1ntent to obey.
12) /khraab/ ' Y e s ~ (man answerlng a call polltely).'
A. khun cid: khrab t .
B. khraab.
A. 'Say, Ch1 t .•• '
B. 'Yes" '
13) /kha/
15) /ca/
16) Icaal
'Yes (woman speaklng polltely).'
Parallel to 11) /khrab/.
'Yes" (woman answerlng a call polltely).'
Parallel to 12) /khraab/.
'Yes (among 1nt1mates, or to an lnferlor).'
Parallel to 11).
'Yes" (among 1ntlmates, or to an lnferlor) ,
Parallel to 12).
Responses 5-10 above are frequently followed 1n the1r phrase or
clause by sentence part1cles (4.5.), a class of unstressed bound lexemes
Some of WhlCh have a morphologlcal relatlonsh1p w1th responses 11-16 above.
Because of the stress pattern, such cases are not examples of two responses
In constructlon wlth each other; the flrst 1tem 1S always the response, the
second the sentence part1cle. Examples.
naJJ khrab . 'What's
that" '
5
maJ. kha 'No, ma 'am.'
8
,..
'Not yet. '
JalJ·
ca .
9
plaaw& khrab . 'No, Slr .
,
10
85
All responses can be followed In the same clause by vocaClves (3.1.
3.), WhlCh are normally In a phrase by themselves.
3.1.3. Vocatlves
A vocatlve any lsolatlve WhlCh typlcally occurs as the sole lexemlc
cons tl tuent of the envlronment /, • / (l. e. the flnal phra se of a clause).
Most vocatLves also occur as the only lexemlc constltuent of an entlre clause,
or wlth a sentence partlcle as co-constltuent, the usual case belng the speak-
er's attempt to attract the attentlon of a partlcular llstener.
The class of vocatlves lS extremely large and open. There are four
sub-categorles (semantl_cally classlfledJ a 1) general vocatlves,
3) klnshlp terms, 4) tltles, and 5) complex vocatlves. Representatlve
examples for each sub-category are glven below.
1) /nll/ 'general vocatlve'
Llke most general vocatlves, /nll/ has homonYms, the prln-
clpal one belng a demonstratlve meanlng 'here.' The voca-
tlve /nll/ lS also easlly mlstaken for a homonYmous sen-
tence partlcle, but ltS classlflcatlon as a vocatlve lS
corroborated by the fact that It occurs In a separate
phrase after flnal partlcles llke /khrab/ and /kha/.
Examples:
khun maJ-paJ baaD-seen: r;g r8-kha , nll t
'Then you're not gOlng to Bangsaen after
pham maJ-daJ-paJ naJ: leeJ khrab , nll t
'I dldn't go anywhere at all, (you)!'
2) 'name of a man'
(lS that what
you mean")"'
Used wlthout tltle or klnshlp term, glven names or
nlcknames of people commonly occur In the typlcal voca-
tlve posltlons In famlllar speech.
Examples:
pham maJ-daJ-paJ nSJl leeJ ha , cld t .
'I dldn't go anywhere at all, Chlt!'
cld: t
'Hey, Chl t! '
86
3) /phll/ 'older brother, slster, or cousln; husband'
Examplest
Nearly all klnshlp terms occur as vocatlves, sometlmes
wlth much broader meanlngs than they have as nouns. For
example, technlcally means 'older brother of mother
or father,' but as a vocatlve (and In other uses) can
apply to any male stranger of a certaln age.
waa na , phil
'What dld you say,
phil t .
'SlsterJ' (calllng)
4) /naaJ/ 'Master.'
Many tltles, llke /naaJ/, have homonyms WhlCh are voca-
tlves, but as In the case of klnshlp terms, the meanlng
may be qUlte dlfferent. example, /naaJ/ as a formal
tltle meanlng 'Mlster' 1S low In the soclal scale, but
as a vocatlve confers respect. Other tltles do not occur
as vocatlves at all; e.g. /phaJaa! 'hlgh-ranklng C1Vll
servant' lS replaced by /caw-khun/ In all forms of dlrect
address. *
Examplest pham maJ-daJ-paJ naJ: 198J , naaJ t .
'I dldn't go anywhere at all, master.'
naa J: kha.
(woman servant call1ng)
5) Apparent constructlons of two or more vocatlves always turn out
to be morphologlcal rather than syntact1c constructlons. The
cases In questlon are klnshlp term (3) or tltle (4) plus name
(2), and tltle (4) plus klnshlp term (3). The result lS a
slngle lexeme (always an lndlvlslble unlt, whether It lS a voca-
tlve or a noun, syntactlcally speak1ng), WhlCh lS an endocentrlc
derlvatlve, rather than a compound, because the name Qr Klnshlp
term Substltutes for the Whole.
Examplest than samid 'Mr.. S:I!I11. th. 1
4
2
,
lUaJ 'Younger slster Luay. '
3
2
khun ph30 '(Mr. ) Father.
1
4 3
* An as yet unpubllshed pamphlet by James N. Mosel, entltled 'Tha1
Names, Ranks, and Tltles' contalns much lnformatlon on th1S subJect.
87
An 1m1tat1ve lS any lsolat1ve (other than an 1nterJect1on, 3.1.1.)
Wh1Ch lS, morpholog1cally speak1ng, a redupl1cat1on (2.4.3.). Im1tat1ves
typ1cally occur 1n the same env1ronment as vocat1ves, /, • /, but 1f a
sentence part1cle occurs, 1t follows the 1m1tat1ve (whereas 1t precedes the
vocat1ve phrase). Im1tat1ves also occur, somewhat rarely, as co-const1tuents
of d1scont1nuous syntact1c construct1ons Wh1Ch bracket them; 1n such cases,
the 1m1tat1ve usually occup1es a whole 1nternal morphophonem1c phrase of 1tS
own (see example under 3) below.)
The class of 1m1tat1ves lS large, and almost certa1nly open, although
1d1olectal var1at1ons make 1t d1ff1cult to determ1ne what k1nds of 1nnova-
t10ns are acceptable. The sub-categor1es of 1m1tat1ves are determ1ned by
reference to structural type of redupl1cat1on, but th1S class1f1cat1on ac-
cords well w1th semant1c sub-categor1es as well. 1) Slmple-redupl1cat1on
1m1tat1ves are mostly onomatopoet1c, the 1m1tat1on presumably hav1ng to do
w1th sound. 2) Double-1nf1xed 1m1tat1ves are largely concerned w1th manner
of mot1on, and 3) Slngle-1nf1xed 1m1tat1ves w1th character1st1cs of people.
One example lS glven for each sub-category below.
1) khaw daJ-J1n siaD , {ed-{ed .
tHe heard someth1ng go creak-creak. I
2) mya-k{l hen khun deen , kaphloog-.kaphleeg •
'A moment ago I saw you walk1ng w1th a 11mp. I
3) khaw chaaJ Den kh80D-khaw , suruJ-suraaJ , paJ mod: thaD-nan.
'He used up all h1S money, 1n spendthr1ft fash1on. r
(The 1mmed1ate const1tuents are the 1m1tat1ve /suruJ-suraaJ/
and the d1scont1nuous rema1nder of the clause.)
3.2. Substant1ves
A substant1ve lS any free lexeme Wh1Ch occurs as co-const1tuent of
a pred1cat1on of Wh1Ch 1t lS not the pred1cator. Thus substant1ves typ1-
cally funct10n as tOP1CS, sUbJects, obJects, and complements. (Any substan-
t1ve wlllch fulf11ls not only the def1n1 t10n above but also tha t of pred1ca-
t1ve, 3.3., lS referred to 1n th1S grammar by the more spec1f1c des1gnat1on.
In fact, nearly all pred1cat1ves qual1fy as substant1ves, but the reverse 1S
not true. To put 1t another way, a non-1solat1ve free lexeme lS cons1dered
to be a substant1ve unt11 1t can be shown to be a pred1cat1ve; once the
88
latter class1f1cat10n has been estab11shed, however, the 1tem 1S thenceforth
a pred1cat1ve.) Some substant1ves also funct10n as equat10nal pred1cators,
and nearly all occur 1n prepos1t10nal phrases.
Substant1ves are class1f1ed, on the bas1s of typ1cal and absolute
occurrence, 1nto S1X sub-groups: 1) Nouns, 2) Complement1ves, 3) Pronouns,
4) Numerals, 5) Class1f1ers, and 6) Demonstrat1ves.
3.2.1. Nouns
A ~ 1S any substant1ve wh1ch occurs as the head of an endocentr1c
express10n. (Other types of substant1ves, part1cularly numerals and class1-
f1ers, also sat1sfy th1s def1n1t10n, but are referred to by the more spec1f1c
term once they have been shown to s8t1sfy further cr1ter1a.) The character-
lSt1C syntact1c pos1t10ns of nouns are those of substant1ves 1n general; the
only d1st1nct1ve use of nouns, as opposed to other substant1ves, 1S the1r
frequent and typ1cal occurrence as heads of noun express10ns (see 2.4.2.).
Of all the lexeme-classes of ST, the class of nouns 1S by far the
largest, compr1s1ng well over half of the ent1re vocabulary. The class lS
also one of the most open - nearly all new lex1cal 1tems enter1ng the lan-
guage, whether by borrow1ng, 1nnovat10n, or new-format10n, beg1n as nouns.
At the same t1me there 1S cont1nuous loss from the 1nventory, as nouns be-
come pred1cat1ves by 1nnovat10n.
Nouns are class1f1ed on the bas1s of the1r relat10nsh1ps w1th other
form-classes 1nto e1ght sub-categor1es. One example of each 1S g1ven below.
1) Concrete nouns have a covert lex1cal relat10nsh1p w1th one or
more of the un1t-class1f1ers (3.2.5.1.) necessary 1n count1ng
opera t10ns.
/maa/
maa SOOlJ tua •
'dog'
'T'wo dogs. '
2) Mass nouns are counted only by one or more of the metr1c
class1f1ers (3.2.5.2.)
/mlam/ 'water'
,
v
thuaJ 'Two of water. ' naam SOOlJ . cups
3) Common ~ are counted w1th both un1t class1f1ers and metr1c
class1f1ers. Most ST nouns fall 1nto th1S category.
/phaa/ 'cloth'
'Two cloths (str1ps or p1eces of
cloth) . '
89
'Two metres of cloth. '
4) Abstract nouns serve as thelr own counters, occurrlng both be-
fore and after numerals.
/w{chaa/ 'subJect of study, dlsclpllne'
'Two dlsclpllnes. '
5) Place are a speclal case of abstract nouns, WhlCh typl-
cally occur ln preposltlonal phrases and are counted elther
wlth themselves or wlth the general classlfler
/raan/
, " ,
raan raan •
'shop, store'
'Two stores.'
'Two stores.'
6) Tlme are a speclal case of abstract nouns, WhlCh typlcally
occur ln preposltlonal phrases and are used as classlflers them-
selves but do not occur tWlce ln the countlng-phrase.
/dyan/
na J dyan r8Eg .
phaaJ-naJ dyan •
'month'
'In the flrst month. I
'Wlthln two months. '
7) Personal occur also as vocatlves (3.1.3.), and are of four
sub-types. names, klnshlp terms, tltles, and comblnatlons (derl-
vatlves). Personal nouns occur as heads of endocentrlc expres-
Slons much less often than any other type of noun. When counted,
they usually take the classlfler /khon/ (as do many other nouns
WhlCh do not belong to th18 category).
'older slbllng or cousln; husband'
'Two older slbllngs. I
8) Personal-attrlbute flll the subJect posltlon ln equatlonal
predlcates of WhlCh a personal noun 18 the tOplC. ThlS sub-
category lS largely Ilmlted to parts of the body and lndlvldual
characterlstlcs (such as 'name,' 'age,' 'welght,' etc.).
I
/myy/
khun-cid myy Jaaw •
90
'hand, arm'
IChl t has long arms. '
3.2.2. Complementlves
A complementlve 1S any substant1ve Wh1Ch occurs only as a whole
pred1cate const1tuent 1n 1tself, or as a mod1fler, never as a head. (Other
substant1ves , e.g. demonstrat1ves, Wh1Ch sat1sfy th1S defln1t1on, but also
meet more spec1f1c cr1ter1a, are referred to by the more speclf1c term.) The
categor1es of noun and complementlve are thus mutually excluslve, and thelr
behavlor wlthln the clause framework lS qUlte dlfferent.
In predlca tlons conS1S t1ng of only two cons tl tuents (sub Ject and pre-
Jlcator, or predlcator and obJect), complementlves appear decept1vely llke
nouns. When the same predlcatlons are expanded to lnclude real nouns, however,
the complementlves 1nvar1ably move e1ther to the front or the end of the
clause. Complement1ves do not occur between nouns and predlcators, unless
there lS a speclf1c modlfylng relat10nshlp between them and the nouns (l.e.
the complementlve lnvolved lS part of a noun express1on).
In the followlng examples, /khruu/ 'teacher' lS a noun, and /mya-raJ/
'when' lS a complement1ve.
khruu .
khruu .
mya-raJ •
ca mya-ra J .
mya-raJ khruu .
khruu mya-raJ •
'The teacher w1II tell (them).'
'(Someone) w1II tell the teacher.'
'When w11I (you) tell
'When would (you) tell
'When w1Il the teacher tell
'When would (you) tell the
Complement1ves by themselves occur typ1cally as tOP1CS and complements,
less often as subJects and obJects. Sub-class1f1cat1on 1S made, on the bas1s
of typ1cal occurrence, 1nto three categor1esl 1) those Wh1Ch are found most
frequently at or near the beg1nn1ngs of clauses, 2) those Wh1Ch are found
most frequently at or near the ends of clauses, and 3) those Wh1Ch occur
freely 1n both pos1t1ons. The last category (and to some extent all comple-
ment1ves) have the common feature that pos1t1on before or after the pred1ca-
tor makes relat1vely 11ttle d1fference 1nsofar as the mean1ng of the ent1re
clause 1S concerned, whereas the subJect-obJect d1st1nct1on lS a v1tal one
where nouns are 1nvolved. In th1S sense, complement1ves are 'moveable' 1n
the clause context, wh1le the pos1t1on of nouns 1S f1xed.
members,
class.
The three sub-categorles of complement1ves are named, after typ1cal
1) the class, 2) the class, and 3) the /thamaJ/
91
/ ••• r6d sla ./
1) /baD-een! Class
The class conslsts of complementlves whlch occur at the beglnnlng of
clauses, comlng even before the subJect or tOplC. The class meanlng lS 'set-
tlng of the subJect-predlcate sltuatlon wlth regard to tlmlng, frequency, or
relatlve lmportance.' Most members of the class are morphemlcally complex
lexemes, ltself belng one of the few members whlch conslst of a
slngle morpheme. Some members have characterlstlc echoes later In the clause,
these are lndlcated where posslble.
The class lS open and very large, lncludlng many (but by no means
tlme expresslons, plus a large number of conJunctlon-llke transltlonal
expresslons whlch are not themselves conJunctlons. Only the most common and
representatlve members are lllustrated below, wlth reference to a slngle
frames
' •.• the car broke down.'
or /pha-een/

3. /thamadaa/
4. /Juu dll-dll/
5. /dooJ-maag/ and /suan-maag/
6.
7.
8.
9. /phr5-chamin/
10. /mi-chanan/
11. and
/ J-k5dll/
92
'accldentally' Often followed
by /khYn/.
'perhaps, sometlmes' When fol-
lowed by the meanlng
lS nearly always 'perhaps.'
'normally, usually'
'out of a clear blue sky,
unexpectedly'
'usually, for the most part'
'In partlcular, especlally'
'after tha t'
'In splte of that'
'because of that'
'otherwlse, except for that'
'nevertheless' Often followed
by /mYan-kan/.
2) feeD! Class
The class conslsts of complementlves WhlCh occur at the end of clauses,
Com1ng after the obJect and some types of complements. The class mean1ng 18
somethlng llke 'relnforcement of prlor lnformatlon about quantlty, excluslve-
ness, or lncluslveness of the subJect matter or manner of actlon.' Several
members, ln fact, are most commonly found after speclflc prlor elements In
the predlcate (thlS lnformatlon belng glven In the 11Stlng). There are,
however, no real palrs of semantlc Opposltes.
!eeD!-class complementlves are among the most common of all clause
constltuents. The class lS open and moderately large, and lt lncludes
stressed homonyms of several common bound lexemes.
1. feeD! 'by ltself (themselves), wlthout asslstance or outslde
lnfluence. '
meew man-maa: sa eeD •
'The cat came all by ltself. (It wasn't brought here by
somebody.) ,
,
pen thamadaaz JUu eeD •
'It's only natural. (It's nature by ltself.)'
2. !duaJ-kan! or !daJ-kan! 'along wlth others, In company. '
pham deen, paJ duaJ-kan , daJ: maJ .
'May I walk along (wlth
khaw samag calen kab-khaw: duaJ-kan •
'He offered to play along wlth them. '
3. /llg/ 'In addltlon, further, st111' Often follows /JaD/.
leew , khaw k5-maJ-maa: sa llg t .
'And he dldn't come thlS tlme, elther.'
JaD pen nag-rlan: llg.
'Younger brother was stlll a student.'
4. /thaw-nan/ or /thaw-nan/ 'only, no more than that.' Often
follows /tee/.
khuan catham paJ , thaw-nan.
'We Just ought to get lt flnlshed, that's all.'
khaw aw tee-klnz thaw-nan.
'The only thlng he wants to do lS eat.'
93
5. /duaJ/ lalso, 1n add1t1on to some other fact. '
188w , khaw k5-maJ-maa: sa duaJ.
'And he hlmself d1dn't come, e1ther.' (Compare w1th f1rst
example under 3. /i1g/.)
chaa J , pen nag-r1an: JUu dua J.
'Younger brother 1S also a student (In add1t1on to be1ng
someth1ng else).' (Compare w1th f1rst example under
6. /mYan-kan/.)
6. /myan-kan/ or /men-kan/ '11kew1se, 1n add1t1on to some other
sUbJect; anyway, at that'
, f' v
, pen nag-r1an: JUU myan-kan •
'Younger brother l.S also a stu.dent (ll.ke some other
person. ) ,
kS pham men-kan t
'Well, I ll.ke l.t all rl.ght ..• (but)'
khaw kS-talJcaJ waa , camaa myan-kan •
'He decl.ded he would come anyway (even so).'
7. /talJ-haag/ or /taalJ-haag/ 'on the contrary, l.nstead.' Usually
untranslatable l.n Engll.sh. Often
preceded by a /maJ/ -modal l.n the
preV10US clause.
pham maJ-daJ-chyy • chyy phon: talJ-haag •
'My name 1sn't Porn. It's Pone. '
khaw klab baan: sa talJ-haag •
'He went home (rather than dOl.ng somethl.ng else).'
8. /Juu-dl.l./ 'l.n spl.te of everythlng, anyway'
khaw waa , khaw maJ-sabaaJ maag t khaw k5-JalJ
paJ tham lJaan: JUU-dll.
'He reallzed that he was very slck, but he went to work
In sp1te of It. '
9. /than-th1l/ 'lmmedlately'
klab baan than-thll1 si •
'go r1ght on home. '
10. /188J/ 'slmply,' after negatlve 'at all'. Often preceded by a
a /maJ/ -modal 1n the same clause.
khaw kS-klab baan: 188J •
'He slmply went home. '
94
(Now 1S the t1me.)'
khaw maJ-daJ-klab baanr sa leeJ •
'He d1dn't go home at all. '
thl1-nl1 maJ-m11 satem: leeJ .
'There aren't any stamps here at all. '
11) /th11/ 'th1S one t1me, for once.' Often follows general modal
verbs llke /kh8a/ (3.3.1.2.) 1n commands and requests.
pham Jaag capaJ: sa th11 •
'I'd llke to go th1S once.
kh8a ha J khaw duu: th11 .
'Let h1m have a look at 1t. '
paJ Sa-th111 Sl •
'Why don't you goJ r
12) /noaJ/ or /noJ/ 'th1s Ilttle th1ng, for a wh1le' Often follows
general modal verbs llke /kh8a/ 1n commands
and requests.
phom Jaag capaJ: sa n;nJ .
'I'd llke to try gOlng. (It's the th1ng to do.)'
waan na:t;] nl:t;]-nl:t;]: no J, da J' rna J.
'Can you Slt st1ll for a ,
kwaad baan sa-noaJ: si t .
'Sweep up the house, w1ll ,
13) /k5-leew: kan/ 'and be done w1th 1t.' Common 1n suggestions
and agreements, and 1S usually set off 1n a
phrase of 1tS own.
ploaJ haJ-paJ , k5-leew: kan .
'Let 1t go and be done w1th 1t. '
3. /thamaJ/ Class
These complement1ves belong to both the /ba:t;]-een/ (1. above) and the
/ee:t;]/ (2. above) classes; that 1S, they occur at both the beg1pll1ng and end
of clauses. The class mean1ng 1S 't1me, place, or manner-or1entat1on oJ the
subJect-pred1cate sltuat1on.' The placement of the 1tems also makes a Sllght
but cons1stent d1fference In the1r mean1ng; the clause-f1nal pos1t1on makes
the t1me, place, or manner element d1st1nct1ve, and the clause-1n1t1al POS1-
t10n makes 1t 1nc1dental. The occurrence of bound elements llke /thy:t;]/ and
95
/sa/ around the pred1cate re1nforces th1s d1st1nct1on (see f1rst pa1r of
examples below).
The class 1S probably closed, but 1S qU1te large, S1nce 1t 1ncludes
a great many standard t1me express10ns, such as 'yesterday,' and most 1nter-
rogat1ve lexemeso The examples g1ven below are representat1ve ones.
1) /thamaJ/ 'why?'
thamaJ , khaw haa khun •
'Why d1d he (happen to) come call1ng on you?'
khaw maa haa khun: sa , thamaJ •
'What d1d he come ual11ng on you for?'
2) or 'how?'
naa la t .
'How d1d your face get l1ke that?'
tham naa , daJ lao
'How can you make your face l1ke that?'
3) /mya-raJ/ of /meraJ/ 'when? r
khun capaJ amee-rikaa , mya-raJ •
'When are you g01ng to ,
mya-raJ , khun capaJ amee-rikaa 0
'When would you ever go to Amer1ca? '
khun pen thahaan meraJ t 0
'When were you a sold1er?'
4) /thl1-naJ/ or /thinaJ/
khaw cood rod: waJ , thl1-naJ •
'Where d1d he park the car?'
thl1naJ , thl1 khaw cood rod •
'Where was 1t he parked the
5) 'that way,' and 'th1s way'
JaDan , khun l1g: ryy •
'In that case you don't need 1t any more.2'
khun ryY .
'Is th1s the way you want
96
6. /ph0-dll/ 'Just then,' /diaw-n{l/ 'now,' /welaa-nan/ 'at that
tlme, I 'from now on,' 'from
then on,' and many other tlme expreSSlons.
raw phuud khunl JUu thl-dlaw , ph0-dll khun maa .
'We were Just talklng about you, and then you came. '
raw phuud khun-samag: JUu thl-dlaw , khaw maa
ph0-dll .
'We were Just talklng about Samak when he came.'
diaw-n{l , pham mll thura maag •
'Now, I'm very busy.'
pham mll thura maag , diaw-n{l
'I'm very busy now.'
welaa-nan , khaw naJ •
'At that tlme he was stlll In Bangkok. '
7. /thll-nll/ or /thrnll/ 'here,' /thll-nan/ or /thrnan/ 'there,'
/thll-noon/ or /thrnoon/ 'over there, at the other
place,' /kha-thll/ 'on the spot,' and many other
place expreSSlons.
thll-nll , maJ-mll naam •
'There's no water here (lncldentally).'
mll naam , thll-noon •
'There's water way over there (that's where It lS).'
thll-nan mll .
'They have horse-raclng there dally (that's one of the
thlngs they have).'
man taaJ kha-thll •
'It dled on the spot.'
8. 'lnslde' and all derlvatlves of /naJ/-class pre-
posltlons (4.2.1.) belong In thls class of
complementlves, except when they functlon as
preposltlons themselves.
97
3.2.3. Pronouns
A pronoun lS any substantlve WhlCh occurs wlth weak stress ln one or
more of the typlcal substantlve posltlons - l.e. as tOP1C, subJect, obJect,
complement, or modlfler. Other substantlves, e.g. claSSlflers (3.2.5.), also
occur wlth weak stress, but only as constltuents of enumeratlons, not as Sln-
gle lexemes fllllng one of the maJor posltlons of a predlcatlon. Pronouns
also occur wlth normal and even loud stress, and commonly flll the maJor
posltlons. They are frequently modlflers, but seldom functlon as heads,
except when an enumeratlon lS the modlfler:
/khun/
/khun t h a ~ - s o o ~ /
'you'
'both of you'
Slnce weak stress lS not always predlctable from the morphophonemlc
transcrlptlon used here, lt must sometlmes be lnferred for pronouns. The
general rule lS that, unless the rhythmlc pattern glves clear eVldence other-
wlse, a glven pronoun has normal stress only when lt lS the head of an endo-
centrlc expresslon (example above), and has weak stress everywhere else. Ex-
ample of weak-stressed pronouns ln subJect and lndlrect obJect posltlons:
phil , khaw haJ s a t a a ~ khun le€w •
'My brother, he gave you the money already. '
Slnce pronouns typlcally do not head endocentrlc expresslons, one of
thelr maJor functlons lS to slgnal that a glven sequence of noun-plus-predl-
catlve lS a predlcatlon rather than a noun expreSSlon. ThlS lS done by lnser-
tlon of the pronoun In the subJect slot; the orlglnal subJect then becomes
tOP1C, and lS often set off ln a separate phrase. In the followlng examples
/baan/ 'house' lS a noun, /JaJ/ 'blg' lS a predlcatlve (adJectlve), and /man/
'It' lS a pronoun.
or
'The house lS blg.'
'A blg house. '
'The house (It) lS blg. '
(predlca tlon)
(noun expresslon)
(predlcatlon only)
Pronouns, llke classlflers, have covert relatlonshlps wlth nouns -
for example, /khaw/ Substltutes for nouns llke /phil/ 'older slbllng,' and
/man/ Substltutes for nouns llke /baan/ 'house' and /maa/ 'dog.' The meanlngs
and soclal connotatlons of pronouns ln ST are so complex, however, that clas-
slflcatlon on a semantlc basls lS extremely dlfflcult. (It should also be
pOlnted out that many semantlc 'equlvalents' of pronouns are structurally
nouns - for example, a prlest uses /aad-tamaphaab/, a noun meanlng 'I,' ln
all the contexts where an ordlnary man mlght use a pronoun such as /pham/
'I ' . )
98
The class of pronouns lS small, but not closed (for a recent lnnova-
tlon, see the 23rd set under 1) below). Whlle lt lS often dlfflcult to pln
down the meanlngs of pronouns, to some extent they do occur ln structural
sets. Such sets can be establlshed by analysls of slngle exchanges (lnvolv-
lng only two speakers), where soclal requlrements dlctate the cholce of flrst
and second person pronouns, the same pronouns belng selected throughout the
exchange. Thlrd person and other pronoun selectlon, however, does not depend
entlrely on the relatlonshlp between speaker and hearer, but also on the sta-
tus of persons referred to, and hence no slmllar sets can be establlshed
beyond the flrst and second person level.
Pronouns are sub-classlfled, therefore, lnto two groups. 1) members
of sets, and 2) general pronouns. Some lndlcatlon of meanlng and soclal
connotatlons has been attempted, but translatlons are of necesslty vague.
Certaln sets contalnlng only one real pronoun are fllled out wlth klnshlp
terms, WhlCh have normal stress and are personal nouns (3.2.1.7.). other
sets are fllled out wlth ordlnary nouns. The suppletlve ltems WhlCh are not
pronouns are glven ln parentheses.
Where there are several varlant forms of a pronoun lexeme, the most
common cltatlon form lS Ilsted flrst, wlth less careful varlants llsted below
In descendlng order of formallty, under the flrst occurrence.
1) Pronoun sets
Sltuatlon
1. General pollte, male speaker
2. General pollte, female speaker
3. Deferentlal, male speaker
4. Deferentlal, female speaker
Flrst Person
pham
pham
dlhan
dian
llchan
ian
aahan
dlchan
99
Second Person
khun
khun
Sltuatlon Flrst Person Second Person
5. To non-royal but extremely hlgh- kraphom ( ta J- thaaw)
ranklng superlors, male speaker
6. Same, female speaker dlChan ( ta J- thaaw)
7. Adult to Chlld chan nuu
(or klnshlp term)
8. Chlld to adult
v
(klnshlp term) nuu
9. Parent to Chlld khaa (luug)
(or klnshlp term)
10. Parent to Chlld khaa caw
caw
11. Parent to Chlld khaa kee
12. Parent to Chlld khaa
elJ
13. Parent to daughter kuu
elJ
14. Parent to son kuu
mYlJ
15. Chlld to parent nuu (klnshlp term)
16. Chlld to older slbllng
v
(phil) nuu
17. Intlmate, boy to glrl, or among
very young boys and glrls chan thee
18. Intlma te, glrl to boy, or
among older glrls chan khun
19. Intlma te, among young adult
frlends of the same sex chan kee
20. Intlma te, among older glrls chan (naa J)
21. Intlma te, among older glrls
(less often, boys) raw tua
22. Intlma te, among older glrls,
or between man and wlfe khaw tua
23. Intlma te, among modern boys
and glrls aaJ JUU
24.
,
lyy Intlma te, among adolescent boys ua
,
ue
100
25. Int1ma te, among boys and young men kan lyy
26. Int1mate, among men kan raw
27. Crude, among boys and men khaa
elJ
28. Crude, among boys and men kuu
mYlJ
Rema1n1ng sets are elther rec1procal k1nsh1p terms - e.g. /phua/
'I (husband speak1ng), you (w1fe speak1ng)' and /m1a/ 'I (w1fe speak1ng),
you (husband speak1ng)' - or pa1red express10ns - e.g. /khaa-phacaw/ 'I
(publ1C speaker)' and /than thalJ-laaJ/ 'you plural (aud1ence).'
2) General Pronouns
The follow1ng pronouns have more general mean1ng, and all can be
used w1thout regard to the soc1al relat1onsh1p of speaker and Ilstener. For
those pronouns Wh1Ch also occur as members of sets, the number 1n parentheses
after the translat10n 1nd1cates whether the set member 1S a f1rst person (1)
or second person (2) pronoun.
1. /phra-olJ/
2. /than/
3. /kEE/
4. /khaw/
5. /thee/
6. /map/
7. /raw/
8. /kan/
9. /tua/
10. /ton/
11. /khraJ/
12. /araJ/
'royal or revered th1rd person'
'respected th1rd person' (2)
'fam1l1ar th1rd person of our group' (2)
'general th1rd person; outs 1der r (1)
'respected but younger or female
th1rd person' (2)
'lnfer1or th1rd person; an1mal,
Ch1ld, or th1ng; 1t'
'we; I and my group; you and I' (1,2)
'each other; mutually; as a group' (1)
'oneself; 1nd1v1dually' (2)
'oneself, 1tself' (Sllghtly Ilterary)
'who, someone, anyone'
'what, someth1ng, anyth1ng'
The slngular-plural d1st1nct1on 1S lrrelevant for thlrd-person (1-6
above), all of Wh1Ch can be translated 'he, she, they' (/man/ can also be
translated 'It'). The pronouns /raw/ and /kan/ (7-8) are always plural when
they are used as general pronouns, and are also nearly ln complementary dls-
tr1butlon. /raw/ occurs ch1efly before the pred1cator and 1n stressed POSl-
t10n (e.g. as head of a pronoun expresslon, or obJect of a preposlt1on).
101
/kan/ occurs after the pred1cator, and 1f there 1S no sUbJect, 1tS mean1ng
1S rrearly always 'we' or 'ourselves.' It can follow any subJect (lnclud1ng
/raw/) and has the effect of plural1z1ng that subJect - 'they, you (plural),
etc. '
The general pronouns /tua/ and /ton/ (9-10) are normally slngular 1n
mean1ng, and llke /kan/ are often reflex1ve:
/khaa tue taa J/
/khaa kan taa J/
'to k1ll oneself'
'to k1ll each other. '
The pronouns /khraJ/ and /araJ/ (11-12) share an 1nterrogat1ve or
1ndef1n1te mean1ng, ne1ther nor plural, but can be plural1zed by
the add1t1on of a bound lexeme 'some':
/khra J:
lara J:
'who (plural)'
'wha t (plural)'
The pronouns /khaw/ and /khraJ/ are the most common Subst1tutes for
personal nouns, and the pronouns /man/ and /araJ/ for other types of nouns.
These four members of the general category are hence the most frequently
used, w1th /phom/, /d1chan/, and /khun/ lead1ng the set category.
3.2.4. Demonstrat1ves
A demonstrat1ve 1S any substant1ve Wh1Ch 1S 1nvar1ably the last free
lexeme 1n any non-pred1cate construct10n 1n Wh1Ch 1t occurs (e.g. enumera-
t10ns and endocentr1c substant1ve express10ns). Demonstrat1ves by themselves
do occur 1n most of the typ1cal substant1ve pos1t1ons - tOP1C, sUbJect, ob-
Ject, complement - but of course are never heads. The1r ch1ef funct1on,
however, 1S that of mod1f1er; hence they are a spec1al case of complement1ves
(3.2.2.). The occurrence of a demonstrat1ve 1S a sure slgn that an endocen-
tr1c express10n has come to an end; the same 1S not true of com-
plement1ves (3.2.2.3.). In the follow1ng examples, /n{l/ 'th1S' lS a demon-
strat1ve.
'The house 1S b1g'
or
'A b1g house. '
baan
, ,
n11
Ja J
.
bcsan
,
Ja J
n11 .
,
baan
,
n11
Ja J
'Th1S house 1S b1g. !
'Th1S b1g house. '
'Th1S lS the b1g house. '
102
The class of demonstrat1ves lS small and closed, and the members seem
to exclude each other semant1cally. There are two sub-categor1esl 1) /n{l/-
class demonstrat1ves, and 2) /d1aw/-class demonstrat1ves.
The members of th1S class are morpholog1cally complex (see 2.3.3.2.).
All but one have d1st1nct emphat1c forms alongs1de the1r base forms; two have
spec1al plural forms. The class mean1ng 1S 'spec1f1cat1on by relat1ve loca-
t1on. '
1. /n{l/
/law-n{l/
/nll/
2. /nan/
/law-nan/
/nan/
3. /noon/
/noon/

/naJ/
'th1S, these; closer to me'
'these'
'th1S one here, these here'
'that, those; closer to you'
'those I
'that one there, those there'
'yon; d1stant from us; the other, the others'
'that one yonder, those yonder'
'Wh1Ch; one or ones of llm1ted poss1b1l1t1es'
2) /d1aw/ Class
The class mean1ng 1S 'spec1f1cat1on
ence to the ent1re range of poss1bll1t1es. '
1ndependently ( 1 . ~ . outs1de of enumerat10ns
less often than /n{l/-class demonstrat1ves;
(or non-spec1f1cat1on) by refer-
The members of th1S class occur
or endocentr1c express1ons) much
they are nearly always mod1f1ers.
1. /d1aw/
2. /d1aw-kan/
3. /nYlJ/ or
/nYlJ/
4. /daJ/ or /raJ/
5. /rec;g/
6. / sUd- thaa J/
'one, a slngle one'
'the same one'
'a, a certa1n one (not spec1f1ed) t
'whatever; one of llm1tless poss1b1l1t1es'
'f1rst (h1stor1cally) ,
'last'
103
7. /d88m/
8. /yYn/
9. /naa/
10. /laIJ/
'former, or1g1nal'
'other, others; unspec1f1ed add1t1onal ones'
'next'
'later, ones 1n the future'
A class1f1er lS any substant1ve Wh1Ch occurs w1th weak stress d1rect-
ly before, and 1n construct1on w1th, demonstrat1ves (3.2.4.). L1ke pronouns
(3.2.3.), claSS1f1ers also do occur w1th normal stress; unl1ke pronouns, thelf
do not by themselves f111 all the n o r r r ~ l pos1t10ns of substant1ves, but are
almost ent1rely restr1cted to o c c u r r e ~ c € as complements. (In such cases the
normal stress lS a morpheme mean1ng 'one of th1S 1tem' - see 2.2.3.1.) In
the examples below, /S88IJ/ lS a class1f1er mean1ng 'pack. I
khaw khaaJ pen-s88IJ •
'They are sold by the pack (as one pack).'
aw bur11 phra-can , S88IJ •
'G1ve me a pack of Moon C1garettes. '
By far the most common use of class1f1ers, however, lS 1n enumera-
t10ns, where the class1f1er follows numerals (3.2.6) and precedes demonstra-
t1vesl
/haa S88IJ/
/ S88lJ- nan/
/haa SQ8IJ' nan/
'f1ve packs'
'that pack'
'those f1ve packs'
The whole enumerat10n lS often a mod1f1er 1n a noun express10n of
Wh1Ch the head noun mayor may not have a lex1cal relat10nsh1p w1th the clas-
slf1er (In th1s case /bur11/ 'c1garette, tobacco' lS the head; see 3.2.5.2.
below) ,
/bur11 haa S88IJI nan/
'those f1ve packs of c1garettes'
ClaSS1f1ers also serve as f1rst lexemes 1n class1f1er phrases -
enumerat10ns 1n Wh1Ch the second const1tuent lS not a demonstratlve but some
other k1nd of speclfylng 1tem, usually a noun, adJectlve, or ordlnal numeral
(3.2.6.2.):
/SQ'JIJ sll-1yaIJ/
/
S8Q
lJ-J8.J/
/SQQlJ thll- s11/
'the yellow pack'
'the b1g pack'
'the fourth pack'
104
(noun)
(adJect1ve)
(ordlnal)
Slnce all such phrases are by 1tself cannot sub-
st1tute for them, but whole class1f1er phrases are the syntact1c equlvalent
of noun express1ons. In other words, classlfler phrases can f1ll all the
substantlve pos1tlons, although classlflers by themselves cannot. Enumera-
t10ns lntroduced by numerals (numeral express1ons) behave In the same way
(see examples 1n 2.5.2.5.)
The sub-categorles of classlf1ers are determlned on the basls of
the1r relat10nshJps w1th other lexeme categorles. They are 1) unlt clas-
slflers, 2) metr1c classlflers, 3) general classlflers, and 4) lmltatlve
claSSlf1ers. Slnce all the sub-categorles except 3) have relatlvely large
membersh1ps, only representat1ve are glven. (Abstract nouns, 3.2.
1.4., Wh1Ch also occur d1rectly after numerals, are not classlf1ers, Slnce
they do not occur wlth weak stress before demonstratlves.)
1) A classlf1er lS any classlf1er Wh1Ch has a speclal relatlon-
ShlP wlth one or more concrete nouns (3.2.1.1.). For example, If an ST
speaker 13 gOlng to enumerate (l.e. count or speclfy) members of the class
of /rya/ 'boats, Sh1pS,' he has Ilttle but to select the unlt clas-
slfler /lam/. If he uses a general claSSlfler (3.2.5.3) he lS not conslder-
lng 1nd1vldual boats but k1nds of boats. Most unlt classlflers are used wlth
a great many concrete nouns of very d1fferent meanlng, but a few are restrlct-
ed to a slngle noun. In the latter case, for example, It lS posslble to say
not only that /chyag/ lS the classlfler for 'elephant,' but also that
lS the noun for /chyag/.
The sub-category of unlt classlf1ers lS qUlte large, but probably
closed. Most dlct1onar1es Ilst up to 200 ltems as class1f1ers, of WhlCh the
great maJor1ty are unlt classlflers. An attempt lS often made to relate
classlf1ers semantlcally w1th the nouns they represent, but a far better
lex1cograph1cal technlque, used by Mary R. Haas and others, lS to glve the
unlt classlf1er ln parentheses after each concrete noun 11sted - V1Z. /rya/
'boat, Shlpl (/lam/). The semant1c connectlon between classlf1er and noun
may be burled so deep In h1story that 1t makes no sense descr1pt1vely - e.g.
the classlf1er for 'book' lS /lem/, Wh1Ch lS also the classlfler
for and combs (a hlstor1cal explanat10n perhaps be1ng that anc1ent
books were long, slender, and sharp-edged).
There are, however, a number of semant1cally predlctable noun-clas-
slfler relat1onshlps, and even some overt relat1onshlps, where the classlfler
recurs as head of a compound concrete noun.
Examples,
Compound Noun
/baJ-maaJ/

'leaf'
'flower'
105
ClaSS1f1er
/ton-maaJ/
/khon-sag-phaa/
/raan-sag-phaa/
'tree'
'laundress'
'laundry'
/ton/
/khon/
/raan/
Not all such compounds have heads recurrlng as classlflers, however -
the classlfler for /kham-thaam/ 'questlon' lS not /kham/ but /kh5o/.
Followlng lS a 11St of the most common unlt classlflers for WhlCh
noun-reference lS relatlvely predlctable.
1.
2.
/khon/
/oYJ/
/tua/
Reference
ordlnary people
royal and revered personages, Buddha lmages
non-human thlngs wlth anthropomorphlc char-
acterlstlcs (arms, legs, etc.) - e.g.
anlmals, coats, trousers, tables, chalrs

/phEEn/
5. /baJ/
6. /ton/
7. /phyyn/
8. /sen/
9.
10. /luug/
11. /k5on/
12. /thEYJ/
13.
14. /kh5o/
flat thlngs
contalners
plants
strlps
long tubular obJects - e.g. strlng, Wlre
small round obJects
large round obJects
lrregular lumps
stlcks
coples
ltems, pOlnts (of language)
It frequently happens that there lS fluctuatlon ln the cholce of clas-
slfler for a glven concrete noun, both from the pOlnt of Vlew of the whole
speech communlty and for lndlvldual speakers. In such cases, however, no
matter WhlCh unlt classlfler lS chosen, the meanlng lS stlll 'one of the ltem
ln questlon.' For example, the compound noun /phon-lamaaj/ 'frult' lS clas-
slfled wlth /baJ/ 'contalner,' /luug/ 'large round obJect, I and jphon/ (head
of the compound).
2) A metrlc classlfler lS any Wh1Ch occurs ln
that modlfy predlcatlves, as well as nouns. Metrlc classlf1ers do not have
speclal relatlonshlps wlth nouns In the way that unlt classlflers do; each
106
metrlc classlfler occurs wlth a wlde range of heads, both mass nouns and pre-
dlc2tlves. The meanlng of the sub-category lS 'measure by flxed unlt or con-
ventlonal contents of a contalner.' In the examples below, a metrlc classl-
fler, /caan/ 'dlsh (as a measure for food),' lS lllustrated In a slngle enu-
meratlon whlch occurs In lsolatlon, as a mass noun modlfler, and as a verb
modlfler.
/saam caan: n{l/
saam caan/
/kln saam caan/
'These three dlshes (of food) ,
'Three dlshes of curry'
'Eat three dlshes (of It).'
The metrlc classlfler /caan/ has a homonym /caan/ whlch lS a concrete
noun 'plate, dlsh' havlng ltS own unlt classlfler /baJ/:
/ caan saam ba J/ 'Three plates (utenslls).'
The same mass noun can occur wlth many dlfferent metrlc classlflers,
dependlng on the type of measure used. Examples wlth /buril/ 'clgarettes,
tobacco' :
/buril haa 'Flve packs of clgarettes. I
/buril haa h;;)/ 'Flve cartons of clgarettes.
,
/buril haa klloo/ 'Flve kllograms of tobacco. '
/buril haa baad/ 'Flve-baht clgarettes. '
or
'Flve baht worth of clgarettes. I
The same /buril/ lS also a concrete noun 'clgarette' whlch has a
speclal relatlonshlp wlth the unlt classlfler /muan/:
'Flve clgarettes.'
The sub-category of metrlc classlflers lS not large, but It lS open;
a falrly recent lnnovatlon lS /fud/ 'foot, feet.' Two examples are glven
below for each of the broad semantlc groups whlch make up the membershlp.
1. Dlstance and Slze:
2. Welght:
3. Conta l_ner:
4. Value:
5. Tlme:
'metre,' /fud/ 'foot.'
/klloo/ 'kllogram,' /p;);)n/ 'pound.'
/caan/ 'dlsh,' /thuaJ/ 'cup'.
/baad/ 'baht, tlcal,' /rian/ 'dollar.'
'hour of the day,' /wan/ 'day'
The occurrence of value and tlme classlflers (4,5) after noun heads
lS relatlvely rare, except when the head noun means somethlng llke 'prlce,
value' or 'tlme, duratlon.'
107
3) A general classlfler lS any classlfler WhlCh occurs In enumera-
tlons after an extremely wlde range of nouns. General classlflers do not
have speclal relatlonshlps wlth elther concrete nouns or mass nouns; most of
them occur even after abstract nouns, replaclng the second occurrence of the
noun (see 3.2.1.4.). The class lS small and probably closed.
Examples:
1. /an/ 'plece, ltem'
Reference
All concrete nouns except those
referrlng to people and an-
lmals; most abstract nouns
2. /khuu/ 'palr' Potentlally all nouns, but
especlally personal attrl-
butes e.g. eyes, shoes.
3. /khaalJ/ 'one of a palr I

/chud/ I set, ma tChlng group'
5. /phuag/ 'group'
6. /chan/ 'class, ca tegory'
7. /koolJ/ 'dlsorderly plle'
8. /talJ/
'stack'
9. /JaalJ/ 'type, klnd'
10. /chan{d/ 'type, klnd'
11. /khralJ/ 'occa slon, lnstance'
12. /heElJ/ 'place, locatlon'
and /thll/
Same as 2.
Most nouns.
Nearly all nouns.
Nearly all nouns.
Most concrete nouns.
Many concrete nouns.
Nearly all nouns.
Nearly all nouns.
Many abstract nouns, especlally
those wlth verbal constltu-
ents - e.g. 'meetlng'
Potentlally all nouns, but
especlally place-nouns.
13. /raaJ/
14. /thll/
'case'
'repeated lnstance'
Many abstract nouns.
Nearly all nouns.
4) An lmltatlve classlfler lS any classlfler for WhlCh there lS a
morphologlcally related redupllcated lexeme whlch lS an lmltatlve (see 3.1.4.).
Most lmltatlve classlflers are of the onomatopoetlc varlety, and the sub-cat-
egory meanlng lS 'lnstance of a nOlse, movement, or other sensory lmpresslon.'
As such, the whole sub-category lS not merely a speclal case of general clas-
slflers, because enumeratlons wlth lmltatlve classlflers In them rarely modlfy
nouns (except nouns llke /sialJ/ 'sound') but enter lnto syntactlc constructlon
W1. th predlcates.
108
faa le8b , we8b •
'The llghtnlng flashed tWlce (there was llghtnlng In two
flashes) • '
The membershlp lS very large, and also open, Slnce lmltatlves are
frequently lnnovated, but occurrence of lmltatlve classlflers lS actually
qUlte rare In comparlson wlth other types of·classlflers.
Example:
3.2.6. Numerals
A numeral lS any substantlve whlch occurs as the flrst lexeme of a
two-lexeme enumeratlon havlng a Cla$Sl!ler as the second lexeme. The lnter-
nal constructlon of compound numeral lexemes lS qUlte complex, but mathemat-
lcally loglcal (see 2.2.2.5-6). Because of the compoundlng posslbllltles,
the class of numerals lS theoretlcally lnflnlte, but the actual numeral
phemes lnvolved are only 24 In number (lncludlng the two prosodlc morphemes).
The syllablc ltems, all of whlch also occur as numeral lexemes, are as fol-
lows:
l. 'one' 10. 'ten' 17. /laaJ/ ' several

2-9'
2. 'two' 11. 'hundred' 18. ' some r
3. /saam/ 'three' 12. /phan/ 'thousand' 19. 'how many'

'four' 13. /myyn/ 'ten thousand' 20. 'not many'
5. /haa/ 'flve'
14·
/sE8n/ 'hundred thousand' 21. 'few'
6. /hog/ 'SlX' 15. /laan/ 'mllllon' 22. /thug/ 'each,
16.
/khrYlJ/
every'
7. 'seven' 'half'
8. /pe8d/ 'elght'
9· /kaw/ 'nlne'
Items 17-22 are not true substantlves, Slnce they have suppletlve
forms In lsolatlon (see 3.2.6.3.), but qua1lfy as numerals otherwlse. Mor-
phemes 17-19 also enter lnto compound lexeme constructlons wlth other numeral
morphemes; ltems 2u-22 do not. Item 20. lS two morphemes, the remalnder are
slngle morphemes.
Constructlon of compound numeral lexemes from morphemes 1-19, plus
the prosodlc morphemes /-/ 'mu1tlply' and / / 'add,' lS almost entlrely
regular. The morpheme 1. has an allomorph after /sib/ In
addltlons, and the morpheme 2. has an allomorph /Jll/ before 10. /sib/
In that partlcular mu1tlp1lcatlon.
109
Morphemes 1-9 and 16-19 occur 1n mult1pl1cat1ons only as the f1rst
const1tuent; morphemes 1. and 16. only before 11-15 as second const1tuent,
the others before 10-15. Morphemes 10-15, beS1des occurr1ng as second con-
also occur as f1rst const1tuents 1n mult1pl1cat1ons, but only
when 15. 1S the second const1tuent.
Add1t1on construct1ons take effect only after all mult1pl1cat1on lS
complete. In add1t1ons, morpheme 16. 'and a half' follows all other
morphemes and mult1pl1ed const1tuents; 1t never leads an add1t1on construc-
t1on. Morphemes 1-9 precede only 16. and follow all other morphemes and
mult1pl1ed const1tuents. Morphemes 10-14 and the1r mult1pl1cat1ons precede
1-9 and 16 1n add1t1on processes, and fellow only a h1gher-rank1ng member of
the1r own set or 1tS mult1pl1cat1on (e.g. 14. /sEEn/ occurs only after 15.
but 10. /sib/ after any of the group 11-15, etc.). Morpheme 15. and
1tS mult1pl1cat1ons are always f1rst const1tuent 1n an add1t1on construct1on.
Morphemes 17-19 do not occur 1n add1t1on construct1ons.
Examples of 1nternal construct1on of compound numeral lexemes.
Add1t1on
sib
v
'13 '
saam-sib
v
'33 '
saam saam
sib
v
'12 ' J ll- sib
v
'22 '
sib haa '15' haa-sib
'51 '
,
'104'
"
sil-sib
'440 '
r:J:JJ Sll Sll-r:J:JJ
phan '1,600 ' hog-phan '6,900'
Jl1-sib '20'
haa-sib '50'
saam-sib '30'
hog-phan '600'
laaJ-phan 'thousands of, several thousand'
Mult1pl1cat1on
" ,
ced-myyn
ki1-sEEn
'70,000'
'how many hundred thousand'
myyn ced-phan
'17,000 '
'one m1ll1on'
'9 1/2'
saam-sEEn si1-myyn haa-phan pEEd khrYD
'2,345, 678 1/2
1
Add1t10ns 1n Wh1Ch the f1rst const1tuent 1S one of morphemes 11-15
or 1tS mult1pl1cat1on, and the second const1tuent lS one of morphemes 3-9
or morpheme 16, can be amb1guous, because there lS a second pattern whereby
morphemes 3-9 and 16 can stand for the mult1ple of the next order.
The amb1gu1ty recedes as the number of zeros 1nvolved 1ncreases, and the
alternate pattern takes over.
Example s I v , '"
haa
p€Ed-phan hog
'205, I or '250' 1f /haa/ equals /haa-sib/.
'8006,' or '8600' 1f /hog/ stands for
110
laan khrYlJ
myyn ced
'a m1ll1on and half' (almost certa1nly 1,500,000)
'ten thousand seven' (almost certa1nly 17,000)
Numerals h1gher 1n value than /laan/ 'm1ll1on' eX1st, but are not yet
1n general use, and may not 1n fact sat1sfy the def1n1t1on of 'numeral' 1f
they become acceptable. The lexeme /suun/ 'zero' 1S not a numeral, but 1S
used 1n construct1on w1th numerals (for example, 1n glv1ng telephone numbers),
as are other numeral Subst1tutes.
Morphemes 1-3 have allomorphs w1th d1fferent tones 1n a spec1al lexeme
of the lsolat1ve class used 1n ser1al count1ng (as when start1ng a race):
'One, two, three) ,*
Numeral lexemes, both slmple and compound, are sub-class1f1ed on the
bas1s of the1r behav10r w1th respect to class1f1ers. All numeral lexemes of
course occur before class1f1ers, but some also occur after class1f1ers and
1n lso1at1on. Because var1ant forms of lexemes are 1nvolved, there lS some
overlapp1ng of the sub-categor1es.
1) Card1nal numerals occur 1n 1solat1on. The mean1ng lS the same as
1t lS before class1f1ers I 'number of 1 tems.' Card1nal numerals 1nclude the
slmple lexemes represented by morphemes 1-15, and all the compound lexemes
represented by the1r mult1pl1cat1ons and add1t1ons, except those 1nvolv1ng
morphemes 17-19. Thus the membersh1p of the sub-category approaches that of
numerals 1n general.
2) Ord1nal numerals occur 1mmed1ately after class1f1ers and 1n cqn-
struct10n w1th them. The m e a n ~ n g of the sub-category 1S 'pos1t1on 1n a
ser1es. '
/saam chan/
/cha.n saam/
'Three classes' (card1nal)
'The th1rd class' (ord1nal)
The membersh1p of the sub-category lS exactly the same as that of
cardlnal numerals, except that each ord1nal numeral, whether 1t 1S slmple or
compound, has a der1vat1ve allolex beg1nn1ng w1th the pref1x /thl1-/ 'ordlnal
number.' (Numerals conta1n1ng the morpheme 16. /khrYlJ/ 'half' are marg1nal
members of the category.) Whereas card1nalphrases (numeral plus classlf1er)
are exocentr1c, ord1nal express10ns (classlf1er plus numeral) are endocentr1c.
Examples:
'th1rd class'
'th1rd class'
'the eleventh person'
* From pr1vate conversat1on w1th M1SS Kanda Sltach1tta, 1963.
III
h0lJ saam-s:i.b kaw
wan thll-pEEd
thlaw thll-hog
'room 39'
'the elghth (day of the month) ,
'the slxth race'
Besldes occurrlng after classlflers, ordlnal numerals also serve as
modlflers of nouns, In a slmllar constructlon:
'page 417'
(not all) , baalJ khon
3) Partltlve numerals occur only In the cardlnal posltlon, never lD
lsolatlon or In ordlnal constructlons. The sub-category lncludes ltems 17-22
plus the multlpllcatlons of 17-19, and e set of derlvatlves endlng In /kwa/
(see end of sectlon). The meanlng lS 'proportlonal, approxlmate or unknown
number of ltems. '
Examples:
'how many
laaJ-s:i.b tuu
laaJ tua
'tens of cablnets'
'several (anlmals)'
baad
maJ-kil wan
'how many hundred ,
'not many days'
,
nQQJ khan
thug chan{d
hog-sib kwabaad
'few people!
'every klnd'
'slxty-odd baht'
Partltlve are actually a bound lexeme class, Slnce they do
not occur In ls01atlon, but are lncluded here because of thelr relatlonshlp
wlth substantlve numerals. Thelr suppletlve lsolatlon-forms are, syntactlc-
ally speaklng, members of the /eelJ/ class of complementlves (3.2.2.2.) WhlCh
serve as numeral Substltutes. They are llsted below (rather than wlth the
/eelJ/ class) to pOlnt up thelr speclal relatlonshlp wlth partltlve numerals.
Partltlve Numeral /eeD/ -class Complementlve
'several, two to nlne'
'some, part of'
'how many'
/mag-maag/
/thalJ-laaJ/
/baalJ/
/thaw-raJ/
J/
'qUl te a few'
'the several'
'some'
'how much'
fhow many'
112
'few'
'each, every'
/maJ-thaw-raJ/ 'not much, not
many'
'a few'
'all of them'
Both the partltlve numerals and thelr related comple-
mentlves frequently occur after /sag/-class preposltlons (4.?5.), and
further examples of thelr use are glven under the headlng of
postposltlons (4.4.3.)
A speclal set of partltlves lS made from cardlnal numerals by derlva-
tlon wlth a sufflX /kwa/, WhlCh ltself (unstressed and wlth mlnlmum
syllable duratlon) to the classlfler WhlCh follows. The derlvatlves are made
from any slmple cardlnal numeral lexeme or any multlpllcatlon, but not from
acdltlons. The meanlng of each derlvatlve lS 'that number plus a fractlon'
(for slmple lexemes) or 'that number plus an odd remalnder of lntegers of
the next lower order' (for multlpllcatlons). In other words, the sufflX
/kwa/ 'plus' operates In exactly the same way as the morpheme 'and a
half' operates In addltlons, but the meanlng lS less preClse.
Examples:
kwamaJ
sib kwachan
'Seven baht and a fractlon'
'Four-hundred-odd mlles'
'Mdre than ten classes'
The correspondlng lnexact cardlnal numerals, however, are not derlv-
atlves but syntactlc constructlons, cardlnal numeral plus postposltlon
/kwakwaa/. (The dlfference lS that a classlfler can lntervene between the
numeral and the postposltlon.)
Examples:
sib: kwakwaa
baads kwakwaa
maJ: kwakwaa
'Seven and a fractlon. '
'Four hundred plus. '
'In the teens'
'Over seven baht. '
'More than 400 mlles. '
4) ClaSSlfler numerals occur before, and In dlrect constructlon
wlth, demonstratlves (3.2.4.). The numerals WhlCh flll thls posltlon are
not classlflers, however, because they have normal stress (see deflnltlon
of classlflers, 3.2.5.). The usual pattern lS for the stressed numeral to
have medlum-long duratlon, wlth the demonstratlve WhlCh follows havlng weak
·stress. The most common demonstratlve occurrlng In thlS constructlon lS
'a, one,' but others are found as well.
113
'a hundred' nYlJ

roo J'
The membershlp of the sub-category of classlfler numerals lS conflned
to the slmple lexemes 11-16 (mlddle column of chart at beglnnlng of 3.2.6.).
Examples.

phan: nan 'that thousand'
, , ,
myyn sud-thaaJ 'the last ten thousand'
v
sE:en, nYlJ
r8eg
'a hundred thousand'
'the flrst mllllon'
'a half'
3.3. Predlcatlves
A predlcatlve lS any free lexeme WhlCh occurs as a predlcator (In a
non-equatlonal predlcatlon, see 2.5.2.2.). Any lexeme WhlCh quallfles as a
predlcatlve lS no longer consldered to be a substantlve, Slnce the more
speclflc classlflcatlon lS that of predlcatlve (see statement ln flrst par-
sgraph of 3.2.). BeSldes occurrlng as predlcators and heads of endocentrlc
predlcates, many members of thlS class also flll the typlcal posltlons of
substantlves: tOP1CS, subjects, objects and complements.
Predlcatlves are classlfled, on the basls of typlcal and absolute
occurrence, lnto four sub-groups. 1) Modal Verbs, 2) AdJectlves, 3) Tran-
sltlve Verbs and 4) Completlve Verbs. The thlrd sub-group lS also referred
to slmply as 'verbs.'
3.3.1. Modal Verbs
--- ---
A modal verb lS any predlcatlve WhlCh occurs as the predlcator, or
as head of an endocentrlc predlcate, w1th an object WhlCh lS also a pred1ca-
t1ve or pred1cat1ve expreSSlon. The test of pred1cate subst1tut1on lS made
1n the context of a yes-no quest10n and lts answer.
Examples:
or
Q. khaw tOlJ paJ: maJ •
A. tOlJ.
A. ma J tOlJ
'Does he have to
'Yes, he does.'
'No, he doesn't. '
Slnce /paJI 'go' lS 1tself a predlcatlve, /tolJ/ 'muat' lS a modal
verb. One klnd of modal verb (sub-class 1) below) lS restrlcted to
ence ln th1S type of constructlon, but there are other modal verbs (sub-class
2) below) WhlCh also take substant1ve objects.
114
Examples:
Q. khaw c h 5 ~ b WllJ: maJ . 'Does he llke to
run'? '
A. c h 5 ~ b 'Yes, he does. '
Q. khaw c h 5 ~ b Sll-dEElJ: maJ 'Does she llke red'? '
A. c h 5 ~ b . 'Yes, she does.
,
Slnce /WllJ/ 'run' lS a predlcatlve, and /Sll-dEElJ/ 'red' lS a sub-
stantlve, the modal verb / c h 5 ~ b / 'to llke' occurs before both types of obJect.
A feature of one sub-class, speclflc modal verbs (below) lS that they
act as predlcators In any klnd of predlcatlon In whlch they occur, no matter
what the membershlp of the other constltuents may be. For example, even In
a predlcate conslstlng of a modal verb and an adJectlve (3.3.2.), the modal
verb substltutes for the whole.
Example I
Q. t5lJ dlll maJ •
A. t5lJ.
'Must It be good'?'
, Ye s , l t must. '
The class of modal verbs lS not very large, as free lexeme classes
go, but except for sub-category (1) below, It lS probably open. The class
meanlng lS 'mode of actlon, or speclflc appllcablllty of sltuatlon descrlbed. '
Modal verbs are paralleled by a class of bound lexemes, called slmply 'modals, I
whlch flll the same posltlon In predlcatlons but do not substltute for them
(4.1.). They are also paralleled In the same way by a sub-class of adJectlves
(3.3.2.3.) whlch flll the modal verb posltlon but do not substltute.
Some true modal verbs have homonyms belonglng to other classes. For
example, /aad/ lS a modal verb meanlng 'capable of' and also a modal meanlng
'apt to.' In the flrst case, the negatlve precedes /aad/; In the second case
It follows:
mSJ-aad capaJ
aad camsJ-paJ
'Unable to go'
'Mlght not go. '
Two sub-classes of modal verbs are establlshed, on the basls of type
of obJect occurrlng In thelr predlcatlons.
1) Speclflc modal verbs occur only wlth obJects whlch are themselves
predlcatlves. The class lS small and closed, probably belng con-
flned to the followlng members.
1. /kh88J/ 'to have experlenced, to have done at least once;
ever, used to'
Occurs before verbs and verb expresslons, and before other
modal verbs.
115
khun kheeJ rab-prathaan aahaan thaJ:
'Have you ever trled eatlng Thal food?'
khee J. 'Ye s. ' ma J khee J. 'No. '
khaw kheeJ Jaag pen thahaan-rya •
'He once wanted to be a sallor.'
2. /ruu-cag/ 'to have been; ever, used to be'
Occurs before adJectlves and adJectlve expresslons.
pham len , maJ-ruu-cag bya .
'I never get bored wlth playlng golf. '
3. 'must, lS obllged to, has to
'
Occurs before all types of predlcatlves, lncludlng other
modal verbs.
khun paJ: rag t .
'You don't have to goJ'
rewa ma J •
'Must It be
naJ thll-sud , khaw Joom phe8 •
'In the end they had to admlt defeat.
4. /Joom/ 'be wllllng to, allow oneself to; accept'
Occurs malnly before verbs (but may follow other modal ver.bs
-see last example above).
m88W , man maJ-Joom klna sa .
'The cat won't eat a blt of It. '
pham Joom-rab waa dll •
'I'm wllllng to admlt that It'S good.'
5. /Jaag/ 'to want to, to wlsh for'
Occurs malnly before verbs (but may follow other modal verbs-
see last example under 1. /kheeJ/.)
khun Jsag capaJ duaJ: maJ •
'Do you want to go too?'
khaw maJ-Jsag khun •
'He doesn't want to bother you. '
116
6. /samag/ and /samag-caJ/ 'to volunteer, offer ones serV1ces.'
Occurs ma1nly before verbs, but may follow other modal verbs.
khaw samag capen thahaan: ryy .
'D1d he volunteer for m1l1tary
pham khoo samag pen samaa-ch{g •
'I would llke to make appl1cat1on to be a member. '
7. /khuan/ 'should, ought to; properly does'
Occurs before verbs, adJect1ves, and other modals.
khun maJ-khuan caphuud JaDan .
'You shouldn't talk llke that.'
man khuan cad11 •
'It ought to be better than th1S. '
khaw khuan caJoom-phe8 •
'He should be w1ll1ng to accept defeat. '
(/khuan/ has a der1vat1ve /sam-khuan/, an adJect1ve mean1ng
'f1tt1ng, proper. ,)
8. /aad/ and /saa-maad/ 'to be capable of'
Occurs ma1nly before verbs.
pham maJ-aad l88J
'I can't argue about 1t at all. '
maJ-saamaad catoo-suu. too-paJ-i1g .
'He was 1ncapable of f1ght1ng any further. '
9. /phaJaJaam/ 'to try, make a phys1cal effort'
Occurs ma1nly before verbs.
khaw phaJaJaam myan-kan .
'He was try1ng to f1ght, anyway.'
Modal verbs 1-4 normally precede the1r pred1cator-obJects d1rectly,
wlthout the 1nterpos1t1on of the part1cle /ca-/ 'hypothet1cal pred1cate. I
Modal verbs 5-9 occur e1ther w1th or w1thout /ca-/, more often wlth 1t (as
In the examples above).
2) General modal occur w1th both pred1cat1ve and substant1ve
obJects. The class 1S much larger than that of spec1f1c modal verbs, and 1S
almost certa1nly open. One or two 1nstances of each general semant1c category
of these modal verbs 1S glven for 111ustrat1ve purposes.
117
1. Verbs meanlng 'to llke'
2. 'to hate, to mlnd, to obJect' /ralJ-k:i.ad/
3. 'to thlnk, to plan' /kh{d/, /r{/
4. 'to hurry' /rllb/
5. 'to beg1..D, to start' /r88m/, /talJ-ton/
6. 'to J top, to end' /188g/, /Jud/
7. 'to tryout, to experlment wlth
'

8. 'to help' /chuaJ/
9. 'to ask a favor, to beg' /waan/
10.
' to
depend on someone els6' /faag/, /aas.9.J/
11. 'to lnVl te I /ch88n/, /nimon/
12. 'to accept I

13. Many verbs descrlblng the act of speaklng-
/tyan/
14·
All completlve verbs (see 3.3.4. )
As a class, general modal verbs usually precede speclflc modal verbs
when they occur In the same constructlon (see In last example under
/samag/, above) and they are almost never lmmedlately followed by the par-
tlcle /ca-/, except sub-categorles 3. and 5.
3.3.2. AdJectlves
An adJectlve lS any predlcatlve WhlCh occurs as a predlcator wlth a
subJect WhlCh also a predlcatlve or predlcatlve expresslon. (Thus adJectlves
are, so to speak, the dlrect Opposltes of modal verbs.) The test of substl-
tutlon, as before, lS made In the context of a yes-no questlon and lts answer.
Example:
Q. khun paJ J: maJ
'Do you go to the temple often'Z '
A. b;J rYes, often. '
or
A. maJ b;J . 'No, not often. '
Slnce /paJ/ 'gor lS a predlcatlve, headlng a predlcatlve expreSSlon
/paJ then /b;J/ 'often' 1S an adJectlve. One klnd of adJectlve typl-
cally occurs In thlS klnd of constructlon, but there are other adJectlves
WhlCh also take substantlve subJects. (Hence the sub-classlflcatlon of
adJectlves In thlS respect parallels that of modal verbs.)
118
Q. khun paJ sanug: maJ •
'D1d you have fun gOlng to the
(llt. 'Was your gOlng to the temple ,)
A.
,
sanug •
'Yes, 1t was fun.'
Q. sanug: maJ •
'Is th1S fa1r any r
A.
'" ,
maJ sanug •
'No, 1t'S no fun.'
'Very good. ' /d11 maag/
Slnce /paJ lS a pred1cat1ve express1on, and 'fa1r' lS a
substant1ve, the adJect1ve /sanug/ 'fup' occurs after both types of subJect.
AdJect1ves do not 'have obJects' 1n the way that other pred1cat1ves
dO; they are, 1n a sense, 1ntrans1t1ve verbs. There eX1st, however, adJect1ve
express1ons, 1n Wh1Ch one adJect1ve lS mod1f1ed by another.
Example:
'Better. I /d11 kwaa/
Both /d11/ and /maag/ are adJectlves. Another common type of adJec-
tlve express10n has one of a spec1al class of bound mod1f1ers as the second
const1tuent (see 4.4.2.).
Examples:
/sanug: th1d1aw/ I QU1 te amus 1ng. '
'old, dark'
'flre' (noun)
'dark from the flre) overcooked'
/k€8/
/f8J/
/k€8-fa J/
Other endocentr1c construct1ons (for example an adJect1ve plus a
substantlve) WhlCh appear at flrst glance to be adJectlve express10ns are
usually best analyzed as slngle lexemes.
Example:
The comb1nat1on 1S a compound adJect1ve lexeme.
One k1nd of adJect1ve, (sub-class 3) below) does occur, however, 1n
the modal pos1t1on. The constructlon 18 exocentr1c, because such adJ8ctlves
do not Sub8t1tute for the ent1re pred1cat1on In the way that true modal verbs
do.
fllllDg the predleator poslt10n. adJect2ves of sub-classes
2) and 3) serve as modlf2ers of substantlve and ex-
presslons. In substantlve express10ns the head 13 usually a noun or a clas-
slfler; 1n predlcatlve expresslons, 1t lS a verb, a complet1ve verb, or an-
other adJectlve.
119
Examples I
Noun Head: /baan Ja J/
Classlfler Head. /lalJ JaJ/
Verb Head: /WllJ rew/
such as /WllJ rew maJ-daJ/
Completlve Verb Head: /daJ rew/
such as /WllJ ma J-da J rew/
AdJectlve Headl /rew maag/
'a blg house, blg houses'
'the blg one (speaklng of houses) ,
'run fast' (In a context
'Cannot run fast')
'successfully fast' (In a context
'Was unable to run fast enough')
'very fast'
AdJectlves of sub-class 1) do not normally occur as modlflers.
A feature of the entlre class of adJectlves lS that they act as pre-
dlcators In every klnd of two-part predlcatlon except those lntroduced by
modal verbs. In other words, In a constructlon conslstlng of ordlnary verb
plus adJectlve, It lS always the adJectlve rather than the verb whlch substl-
tutes for the whole.
A morphologlcal characterlstlc of adJectlves lS that nearly all
lexemes belonglng to thls class have slmple redupllcatlons (2.4.3.1.). These
adJectlve derlvatlves cannot flll the predlcator posltlon, however.
Example.
/b;J/ 'often' /b;J-b;J/ 'often'
/maJ-b;J/ 'not often' /b;J: maJ/
(Forms llke ·/maJ b;J-b;J/ and /b;J-b;J: maJ/ do not eXlst.)
Some adJectlves also redupllcate In other ways: /sanug/ 'fun'
/sanug-sanug/ 'fun' /sanug-sanaan/ 'be amused' (a general adJectlve llke
/sanug/ ltself - for redupllcatlon type, see 2.4.3.9.).
The class of adJectlves lS extremely large, and, except perhaps for
sub-class 1), open. By far the largest number of adJectlves belong to sub-
class 2) adJectlves.' The total number of adJectlve lexemes lS
stlll smaller than that of nouns or transltlve verbs, however. Examples of
the tl,lce sub-classes follow.
-,) Speclflc adJectlves typlcally occur wlth subjects whlch are pre-
predlcates, and predlcatlve expresslons, and are rarely found wlth
substantlve subJects and as substantlve modlflers. The sub-cless lS small
and probably closed; lts meanlng lS 'manner, tlmlng, or frequency of actlon.'
Redupllcated lexemes from speclflc adJectlve bases almost lnvarlably
belong to the /ef,I,,/ class of complementlves (3.2.2.2.). Speclflc adJectlves
120
themselves frequently occur at the ends of clauses In the complementlve po-
sltlon (cut off from the maln predlcatlon by speclal bound lexemes or by
rhythmlc patterns), and In other non-predlcatlve constructlons. (The term
'adverb' refers to a member of some other form-class, such as speclflc ad-
Jectlves, occurrlng In a typlcal complementlve constructlon. 'Adverbs' are
not a free lexeme class In thelr own rlght.)
The prlnclpal members of the sub-class are lllustrated wlth reference
to a slngle frame.
/khaw tham-Daan: sa .•. /
'He works (or worked) •..
2. /samee/
3.
4. /J£E:/
5. /phleen/
'contlnuously'

(Sentence1 'He keeps on worklng. I)
'always'
'often'
'wlth unbearable dlfflculty'
'wlth pleasurable absorptlon'
(Sentence: 'He was absorbed In hlS work. ,)
'bUSlly, wlth unpleasant absorptlon'
(Sentence: 'He was busy worklng. r)
8. /C1D/
9.
10. /leE:w/
'borlngly'
(Sentence:
rreally'
'prevlously'
'already I
(Sentence:
'He was bored wlth the work. ,)
'He has done the work. ,)
In most respects, members of the class behave exactly llke other ad-
Jectlves. FolloWlng are some example of speclflc adJectlves negated, mod-
lfled, and redupllcated:
pham kheeJ paJ-thlaw thll-nan , .
II haven't been to V1Slt the place very often. '
khun tOD kh€E:n: ryaJ paJ .
'You have to keep on soaklng your arm. '
pham hna sa , th£b JE:E: .
'It was almost lmposslble to flnd a parklng place. '
phuud kakhaw , naan •
'I talked wlth hlm so long lt was startlng to be a bore. I
121
khuJ kakhaw Juu-phleen: thldlaw .
'I was qUlte absorbed In talklng wlth hlm. '
luug-krataaJ nab-wan-tEE catoo khyn: ryaJ-ryaJ •
'In no tlme the baby rabblts wlll start gettlng blgger and
blgger. '
kh5w tham haJ leEw-leEw: paJ , thaw-nan.
'He dld It Just so as to get lt over wlth. '
Internal order of the class lS apparently 1-8, 9, 10, but examples
of two speclflc adJectlves In the same clause are hard to flnd, except for
those lnvolvlng 10. /leEw/ as second member:
pham t ~ d thura J U ~ : leEw
6 10
'1
'
m already tled up In all klnds of buslness. 1
mll khon n a ~ Juu-k;8n: leEw
9 10
'There had been somebody Slttlng there prevlously. '
2) General adJectlves occur In all the posltlons of speclflc ad-
Jectlves, but also have substantlves and substantlve expresslons as subjects,
and occur as modlflers of nouns and classlflers (see examples at beglnnlng
of 3.3.2.). ThlS subdlV1Slon lS by far the largest In the class of adJec-
tlves, and the membershlp lS open. Semantlc categorles covered are too nu-
merous to permlt any meanlngful breakdown, but In general the sub-class cor-
relates well wlth form-classes such as ladJectlve
l
and Ilntransltlve verb'
In other languages.
Examples:
'The food lS not good. '
or
'Tasteless food. '
caan tEEg •
, ,
caan Ja J- Ja J •
or
'The dlshes broke. '
'Broken dlshes. '
'The larger dlshes. '
Redupllcated forms of general adJectlves (see last example) occur
as modlflers and as complements.
3) Modal adJectlves are general adJectlves WhlCh lntroduce exocentrlc
predlcatlve phrases, occurrlng In the modal posltlon (lnstead of the U'sual ad-
Jectlve posltlon toward the end of the predlcate.) The sub-class lS small but
probably open. The meanlng lS 'general personal characterlstlc applled to a
glven sltuatlon.' Members lnclude many derlvatlves endlng In the sufflX
122
/-caJ/ (2.4.1.9.) or beg1nn1ng w1th the pref1xes /khl1-1 (2.4.1.4.) and
/naa-/ (2.4.1.3.). The pred1cate lS nearly always 1ntroduced by /ca-I.
Examples:
pham J1n-d11 .
pham J1n-d11 catham haJ •
maJ phDo-caJ •
maJ phoo-caJ cadaJ-rab
khon khl1-kiad .
khaw khl1-kiad capaJ •
naa-klua capaJ maJ-than •
3.3.3. Trans1t1ve Verbs
'I'm glad.'
'I'll be glad to do 1t for you.'
'St1ll not sat1sf1ed. '
'st1ll not sat1sf1ed (W1ll1ng) to
rece1ve 1t. '
'A lazy person. '
'He's (too) lazy to go.'
'(I'm) afra1d of not gett1ng there
1n t1me. '
A trans1t1ve verb 1S any pred1cat1ve, other than a modal verb (3.3.1.)
or complet1ve verb (3.3.4.), Wh1Ch occurs as pred1cator 1n pred1cates that
have substant1ve obJects. (The term 'verb' 1S used to apply to all three
classes of verb, Wh1Ch share the feature of 'hav1ng obJects,' as opposed to
adJect1ves, Wh1Ch do not 'have obJects,' but lS also used to apply to tran-
slt1ve verbs, the central and most numerous class of pred1cat1ves.) L1ke
all pred1cat1ves, trans1t1ve verbs occur 1n pred1cat1ons Wh1Ch have substan-
t1ve subJects, and also occur, llke adJect1ves, 1n endocentr1c express10ns
headed by nouns and class1f1ers. Examples 1nvolv1ng trans1t1ve verb /lyag/
'to choose, p1ck out':
khaw lyag phaa sll-araJ .
'What color cloth d1d she choose7'
phaa n{l lyag Jaag.
'Th1S cloth 1S hard to choose from.' (llt. 'chooses hard. ,)
pen khon-lyag .
'She herself lS the one who chose 1t.'
All trans1t1ve verbs occur both w1th and w1thout obJects, and both
w1th and w1thout subJects. The mean1ng of the verb-obJect construct1on, lS
that the referent of the obJect lS the goal of the act10n des1gnated by the
verb. The mean1ng of the subJect-verb-obJect construct1on 1S that the re-
ferent of the subJect lS the actor 1n1t1at1ng act10n toward that goal. But
the mean1ng of the subJect-verb construct1on by 1tself lS amb1guous - the
subJect TIlay refer e1ther to the actor or the goal (as 1t does w1th many
Engl1sh verbs- cf. 'Th1S bread sllces well' and 'Th1S kn1fe sllces well. ,)

The meanlng of the toplc-subJect-verb constructlon lS that the referent of
the tOplC lS the goal and the subJect deslgnates the actor, or that both
tOPlC and subJect refer to the actor. The meanlng of the verb-obJect-lndl-
rect obJect (or verb-abJect-complement) constructlon lS that the obJect rep-
resents the goal and the referent of the lndlrect obJect or complement may
be elther actor or secondary goal. Examples of these constructlons follow,
the transltlve verb always belng /pid/ 'to close.' (Symbols used In the for-
mulae are 'T' for tOPlC, 'S' for subJect, 'V' for transltlve verbs, '0' for
obJect, and 'C' for lndlrect obJect or complement.)
VOl pid pratuu .
SVO: khaw pid pratuu .
SV: khaw pid .
SV: pratuu pid .
TSV(C) • pratuu , khaw pid: mod .
'Shut the door.'
'He shut the door.'
t He shut (l t) • '
'The door lS shut. '
'He shut all the doors.'
(L1 t : ' The door s, he shut
'em all. ' )
VOC: pid pratuu r6d . 'Shut the car doors. '
(Llt. 'Perform door-shuttlng
operatlon on car.
,
-cf. /ssJ kuncE:E: r6d/ 'lock the car. ,)
VOC. pid pra tuu: kan • 'You (plural) shut the door. '
(/kan/ refers to the actor,
not the goal.)
TSVOC(C)
kan mod •
'The students, (they) shut
all the doors.'
The dlfflculty In lnterpretlng transltlve-verb predlcatlons lS often not
so much one of ST structure as It lS of Engllsh translatlon. For example,
/mll/ lS a typlcal transltlve verb, but constructlons llke 's /mll/' have to
be translated'S eXlsts, there lS S' whlle constructlons llke '/mll/ 0' must
be translated 'someone has O. I The constructlon 's /mll/ 0,' on the other
hand always means'S has 0.'
'He was beaten. ' khaw t h ~ u g tll •
The amblgulty of the constructlon SV (actor-actlon or goal-actlon) can
be avolded by the placement of speclal functlonal words wlth passlve meanlng
between Sand V. There are a few common lexemes (members of the class of
completlve verbs, 3.3.4.) that have thls effect: / t h ~ u g / 'suffer (a bad
actlon)' and /daJ/ or /daJ-rab/ 'recelve the beneflt of (a good actlon).'
Examples:
'I was lnVl ted. '
124
The class transltlve verbs lS very large (probably second only to the
class nouns) and lS open. could posslbly be made on an
lntrlcate structural basls, and certalnly by semantlc crlterla, but lS not
attempted here. There lS one group transltlve verbs, however, whlch are
dlstlngulshed the others by the covert lexlcal relatlonshlp whlch they
have wlth certaln completlve verbs (see examples In next sectlon).
3.3.4. Completlve Verbs
A completlve verb lS any predlcatlve whlch occurs both as a predlca-
tor wlth a substantlve obJect and as a predlcator wlth a predlcatlve subJect.
Thus completlve verbs the both adJectlves (3.3.2.) and
transltlve verbs (3.3.3.), and are commonly In typlcal constructlons
both types, sometlmes slmultaneously. Examples wlth the completlve verb
/than/ 'to catch up, be In tlme,' contrasted wlth a transltlve verb and an
ad.J e c t l vel
than J • 'Caught the traln.'
. 'Rode the traln.'
lS a transltlve verb meanlng 'Slt
l
)
maa than 'Came In tlme. '
maa chaa 'Came late.'
(/chaa/ lS an adJectlve meanlng 'slow')
maa than • 'Came In tlme to catch the traln.'
The class completlve verbs, besldes all the posltlons
verbs and adJectlves, has another lmportant Its members
occur wlth whole predlcatlons (lncludlng a subJect, but rarely a tOPlC) as
thelr objects. The same thlng lS true those transltlve verbs whlch have
1exlca1 relatlonshlps wlth completlve verbs. In the examples below two palrs
such verbs (transltlve and completlve) are lllustrated, together In
the context, and then separately wlth an ldentlcal predlcatlon as
the obJect each.
'Can't see anythlng. '
(llt: 'look at somethlng not-see-
l t. ,)
khaw-Ien don-trll •
125
'Can't hear anythln
9
. '
(Llt. 'llsten to somethlng not-
hear-l t. ,)
'Watched them play mUSlC. '
'Saw them playlng mUSlC. '
khaw-Ien don-trll •
daJ-Jln khaw-Ien don-trll •
'Llstened to them play mUSlC. '
'Heard them playlng mUSlC. '
Three completlve verbs have already been mentloned (3.3.3. end) as havlng
a speclal paSSlve meanlng when they occur dlrectly before transltlve verbs.
These same ltems can also have entlre predlcatlons as thelr obJects, In whlch
case the subJect of the predlcatlon remalns the actor. Example I
chan man-tll aw . 'I was hlt hard by It. '
Completlve verbs In the adJectlve posltlon can be followed only by other
adJectlves, whlch then become the predlcator:
v , ..,
Q. hen chad: maJ • 'Can you see It
A. 'Yes, clearly.'
A common feature of all completlve verbs lS that when they occur In a
syntactlcally amblguous context (such as a response In whlch the completlve
verb stands for an entlre predlcate or predlcatlon), the form of negatlon
clearly shows whether they are playlng the role of adJectlve or transltlve
verb. Examples wlth the completlve verb 'warm':
Y. un IEEw •
"" ..
N. maJ-un .
Q. un IEEw • •
Y. IEEw
'Is the englne warm yet? '
'Yes, It lS.'
'No, l t 's not. '
'Have you warmed up the englne

, Ye s, I ha ve. '
, No, I hav en' t. '
The negatlve /maJ/ lS characterlstlc of adJectlve predlcates, and /maJ-
daJ/ of transltlve verb predlcates.
The class of completlve verbs lS relatlvely small, but not closed, Slnce
any adJectlve or transltlve verb lS a potentlal candldate for membershlp.
The class meanlng lS 'successful completlon of attempted actlon,' and the
class meanlng of the transitlve verbs occurrlng In the same predlcate wlth
them lS 'attempted actlon. ' In such predlcates, the negatlve precedes the
completlve verb, but other pre-verbal modlflers (e.g. modals) precede the
transltlve verb. Example:
'I stlll can't see anythlng. '
Sub-classlflcatlon of completlve verbs parallels that of classlflers
(3.2.5.), but there are only two groups, and these two are not mutually
excluslve.
126
1) General completlve verbs occur as predlcators after a wlde range of
transltlve verbs. The prlnclpal members of the sub-class are the
followlng (some of WhlCh recur as speclflc completlve verbs, 3.3.4.2.)
'to be able, posslble; to succeed.'
pa J da J ' ma J •
kln da J • rna J •
tham da J lJaa J •
'Can one go'"
'Can It be eaten'"
'It can be done easlly. '
2. /pen/
tham maJ-pen •
suub pen: maJ •
'to know how to, to do from hablt.'
1(1) don't know how to.'
'Do you smoke'"
3. /wa J/
tham ma J- wa J •
kln maJ-waJ , p h ~ d
pa J.
k88n-
'to be physlcally capable of'
'(I) can't posslbly do It.'
'(I) can't eat It - It'S too peppery.'
'Is It safe to smoke It'
'to accompllsh safely or freely'
'(We) won't make It (not safe to go). '
'to follow through all the way'
'Sweep It all the way through,
wlll you" '
pham JalJ haa- duu ma J- tal;;:,d • 'I stlll haven't searched all the
way through l t. '
4.
/r5;:,d/
paJ maJ-r5;:,d .
suub r5;:,d : maJ
5. /tal;;:,d/
kwaad haJ-tal;;:,d na .
6. /thua/ and /thua-thYlJ/ 'to cover an entlre area, accompllsh
thoroughly'
kwaad haJ-thua , na • 'Sweep allover, wlll you" '
khaw duu-lEE maJ-thua-thYlJ • 'He dldn't supervlse It thoroughly. '
7. /thYlJ/
yam myy thYlJ : maJ •
naa-klua capaJ maJ-thYlJ •
Jib maJ-thYlJ •
'to reach, go far enough'
'Can you reach It (wlth your hand)" '
'Afrald we won't get that far.'
'Can't reach It. 1
127
'to be 1n t1me, reach soon enough'
'W111 we get home 1n
'Afra1d we won't get there 1n t1me. '
'St111 haven't used them up. '
'to use up, exhaust a set'
'Buy the rest of the books, w111
you? '
'St111 haven't found all of them. '
'to succeed 1n f1111ng up a set,
to complete'
8. /than/
naa-klua capaJ maJ-than .
klab baan than
v
: maJ .
9.
,
v v
syy nalJ-syy
: na .
JalJ haa .
10. /mod/
JalJ maJ-mod .
11. /sed/ 'to f1n1sh, accompl1sh a temporary
or 1ndef1n1te task'
pham r1an nalJ-syy sed 188W • 'I'm f1n1shed study1ng (for now).'
'Not f1nlshed work1ng. '
12. /cob/ 'to f1n1sh, accompl1sh a prescr1bed
w1th def1n1te Ilm1ts'
pham
v v
cob
,
r1an nalJ-syy 188W . 'I've f1nlshed my stud1es
(gradua ted) • '
khaw cob
,
f1n1shed 188W 'They've slng1ng the song.
I
But
le8w khaw sed . 'They're f1.n1Shed slng1ng songs .
,
2) Spec1f1c complet1ve verbs occur as pred1cators after certa1n tran-
slt1ve verbs or groups of trans1t1ve verbs w1th Wh1Ch they have a
covert relat1onsh1p. The sub-class mean1ng 1S 'to be able to,' and
th1.s lS a poss1ble Engl1sh translat10n for nearly all 1.nstances of
spec1f1.c comp18t1ve verbs. The relat10nsh1p between a verb and 1.ts
complet1ve verb lS therefore very slm11ar to that between a concrete
noun (3.2.1.1.) and 1tS un1t claSS1f1er (3.2.5.1.). Whereas the
un1t class1.f1er always means 'one 1nstance of the part1cular class
of th1ngS denoted by the noun,' the spec1f1c complet1.ve verb always
means 'one 1nstance of ach1evement of the attempted act10n denoted
by the verb.' Verbal act10ns not pred1cated w1th complet1.ve verbs
(spec1.f1.c or general) are no more f1n1te than are concrete nouns
w1thout the1.r class1f1ers.
128
Examples of the most lmportant members of thlS sub-class are glven below,
along wlth some of the transltlve verbs they are used wlth. For each tran-
sltlve verb glven, at least two wlth ltS completlve verb (ap-
pearlng In the headlng) are posslble - one meanlng 'able to V' and the other
'll.nable to V,' wlth /maJ/ comlng between the two constltuents In the latter
case. For example, under ltem 1., the flrst two such constructlons would be
as follows:
'can put In, able to be put In (wlll go In) ,
'cannot put In, unable to be put In (won't go In).'
1. /khaw/ 'to enter' Used after:
/saJ/ 'to put In' /pid/ 'to close (door, etc.) ,
/c;/ 'to drlll' /klyyn/ 'to swallow'
/Jad/ 'to stuff'
/peed/ 'to open (door, etc. ) ,
2. /a;g/ 'to emerge' Used after:
/thoan/ 'to wlthdraw' /th;ad/ 'to take off I
/peed/ 'to open (door,
etc. ) ,
/dYlJ/
Ito
pull'
/kaaw/ 'to advance'
and nearly all verbs of speaklng, thlnklng, uSlng the vocal apparatus
and deallng wlth language:
/phuud/ 'to speak' /aan/ 'to read'
/nyg/ 'to thlnk' /plee/ 'to transla te '
'to cry out' /kh{d/ 'to flgure out'
'to laugh'
3. /khyn/ 'to rlse' Used after:
/J6g/ 'to ralse' /aaclan/ 'to vomlt'
/Jib/ 'to plck up' /peed/ 'to open (a cover, etc. ) ,
4. /lolJ/ 'to descend' Used after:
/thaan/ and /kln/ r to ea t' /syy/ 'to buy'
/pid/ 'to close (cover, etc.) ,
129
'to see' Used after verbs of look1ng: 5. /hen/
/duu/
/m881;]/
'to look at'
'to try to d1st1ngU1Sh'
- and the1r compounds
/lee/ 'to watch'
6. /daJ-J1n/ 'to hear,' /khaw-caJ/ 'to understand,' and
'to know what someth1ng 1S about' All used after:
/fa1;]/ 'to Ilsten'
7. 'to 1dent1fy the odor of' Used after:
/dom/
8.
/chlm/
'to sn1ff, try to smell'
'to ldentlfy the taste of' Used after:
'to taste'
9. 'to h1t' Used after:
/Jl1;]/ 'to shoot'
/khwaa1;]/ and /Joon/ 'to throw'
/daw/, /thaaJ/, and /khaad/ 'to guess'
'to beat'
10. /waJ/ 'to mover Used after:
/khlyan/ 'to Sh1ft' /laag/ 'to pull (cart,' etc.) I
/thon/ 'to endure' /khen/ 'to push ( cart, etc. ) I
11. /cee/, and other verbs mean1ng 'to meet' Used after:
/haa/ 'to look for, try to f1nd'
/khwaa/ 'to grope' -and the1r compounds.
12. /tog/ 'to fall' Used after:
/kee/ 'to solve, f1X, undo'
'to thlnk out (come to a declslon)'
130
'to rummage'
13. /than/ 'to catch' Used after.
/laJ/ 'to chase'
/laa/ 'to hunt (anlmals)'
/taam/ 'to follow'
14. 'to get clear of' Used after:
/nll/ 'to flee' 'to avold'
'to escape' - and thelr compounds.
15. /lab/ 'to close the eyes, sleep' Used after:
/noon/ 'to lle down, try to sleep'
16. 'get up' and /tyyn/ 'wake up.
,
Used after.
/plug/ 'to awaken' /noon/ 'to be lylng down'
(/noon means 'unable to get up')
17. /haaJ/ 'to recover' and /fiYn/ 'to regaln consclousness' Used after
expresslons relatlng to slckness and these verbs:
/rag-saa/ 'to treat, cure'
'to re SUSCl ta te '
18. /taa\J/ 'to dle' Used after verbs of vlolent actlon, wlth the
meanlng 'to dea th'.
/tll/ 'to beat' /thab/ 'to over-run'
/chon/ 'to colllde wlth' /khaa/ 'to klll'
19. /tld/ 'to stlck, be stuck' Used after:
/Juu/ 'to remaln'
(/Juu maJ-tld/ means 'won't stay In place. ,)
20. /lud/ 'to come loose' Used after:
/dln/ 'to wrlggle'
- and other verbs meanlng 'to pull. '
131
Some constructlons WhlCh appear to be transltlve verb plus completlve
verb are actually slngle compound lexemes. Examples:
/s;ob-IaJ/ 'to pass an examlnatlon'
/s;ob- tog/ 'to fall an examlnatlon'
/tog-loI;J/ 'to COme to an agreement'
'to catch on (to a fact) ,
These comblnatlons do not pass the crltlcal test of lnsertlon of the
negatlve between the flrst and second constltuents.
132
BOUND LEXEME CLASSES
4.1. Modals
A modal lS any bound lexeme (2.6.1.2.) whlch occurs as Ixl In the con-
text Is x pI, where lsi stands for a subJect and Ipi for a predlcate. Thus
modals flll the same posltlon as the free lexeme class of modal verbs (3.3.1.),
the dlfference belng that modals do not substltute for thelr predlcatlons and
hence are not predlcators. The class meanlng lS the same: 'mode of actlon,
or speclflc appllcablllty of sltuatlon descrlbed.' The whole class lS appar-
ently closed, and the membershlp lS relatlvely small.
Modals are sub-classlfled on the basls of more speclflc contexts, re-
volvlng around a central sub-class (4.1.3.) whose members have negatlve
meanlng. The general deflnltlon of modals also flts some klnds of conJunc-
tlons, especlally the class (4.3.4.), but Slnce these bound lexemes
always precede other modals, thelr classlflcatlon as conJunctlons lS con-
sldered pre-emptlve. There are three deflnlte sub-classes of modals, plus a
resldue of dlscontlnuous lexemes and other mlscellaneous ltems whlch make up
a fourth group.
4.1.1. Ikhyynl Class
These modals occur between IJaal 'don't' and a verb. (The verb, llke
all verbs followlng IJaa/, lS never preceded by Ica-I, but the modal ltself
may be.) The class meanlng lS 'attltude of speaker toward the effect, tlmlng,
or settlng of the actlon.' Ikhyyn/-class modals also occur frequently wlthout
IJaa/, and are negated In statements wlth ImaJ-daJI rather than ImaJI (see
4.1.3.). The class lS closed, and rather small, the prlnclpal members belng
the followlngl
1. Ikhyynl 'to do somethlng one knows lS wrong'
Jaa-khyyn pl;oJ haJ-nuu tua-nan paJ .
'Don't release that mouse, agalnst your better Judgment.'
khyyn tham , thee s;ob tog •
'If you keep on dOlng that,you'll certalnly fall the examln-
atlon. '
133
2. /fyyn/ 'to force oneself to do somethlng dlstasteful'
phed: nag, k5-Jaa fyyn kln: khaw-paJ •
'If It'S too peppery, don't force yourself to eat It.'
khll-kiad ryy maJ khll-kiad , th88 fyyn tham: paJ •
'Lazy or not, you've got to go ahead wlth It. I
3. /mua/ 'to keep on, to act stubbornly or tardlly'
Jaa-mua kan Juu-188J •
'Let's stop thlS senseless argulng.'
khaw mua duu thll-Wll ph188n: paJ •
'He kept on watchlng televlslon In a state of trance.'
4. or - 'to act prematurely' (after /Jaa/)
'to have acted recently' (otherwlse)
paJI na, fan tog.
'Don't go yet; It'S ralnlng.'
khaw klab-maa , mya-kil •
'He Just got back a moment ago. '
5. € or 'to pretend, to act so as to decelve'
thaa khruu khyyn haJ kaan-baan maag-maag , chan €
tham •
'If the teacher perslsts In glvlng such a lot of homework,
I'm Just gOlng to put on a show of dOlng It.'
khaw € chom •
'She wasn't Just pretendlng to admlre It.'
6. 'to act wrongly wlthout reallzlng It'
kh{d: paJ waa , wan-n{l pen wan-sug .
'Don't make the mlstake of thlnklng thlS lS Frlday. '
nag-bln khab khaw-paJ khaa-syg .
'The pllot unwlttlngly flew the plane lnto enemy
7. /klab/ 'to act contrary to expectatlons or to reverse preVlOUS
behaVlor'
chan tyan dll-dll , th88 klab tham maa-krood •
'I was chldlng you gently, but you got mad anyway. '
134
maa
tEs-k;8n chan chS8b tEs dlaw-n{l chS8b Sll-khlaw .
'Formerly I was fond of red, but now I llke green'
chan nyg waa , khaw chom waa ar;8J , thl1-thES khaw
chS8b
'I thought she was Just pretend1ng to llke the flavor of 1t,
but 1n fact she really d1d llke 1t.'
8. /ESb/ 'to act surrept1t1ously or from concealment'
chan Esb paJ-duu khaw tham •
'I sneaked 1n and watched them do 1t. '
9. /ph188J/ 'to act as a follower, to tag along'
pham ph188J paJ-duaJ , daJ' maJ .
'May I go along w1th
10. /phaaa kan/ and /chuaJ: kan/ 'to act as a group'
khaam thanan: paJ .
'The ch1ldren all ran off across the street'
maa •
'The dogs are all bark1ng at once. '
11. /maa/ 'to act toward the speaker, or so as to affect the speaker
and h1S group'
khlan bon kradaan-dam .
'Don't wr1te on th1S (or our) blackboard.'
thood pham thamaJ t .
'Why come and blame me for r
12. /paJ/ 'to act away from the speaker, or so as to affect 1nterests
other than the speaker and hlS group'
khian bon kradaan-dam .
'Don't wr1te on that (or the1r) blackboard.'
dlaw capaJ tham thuaJ-kEsw tESg .
'Watch out you don't go breaklng any glasses. '
Members 1-8 of th1S class apparently exclude each other semantlcally,
although the only ObV10US palrs of antonyms are 3-4, 5-6, and 11-12. Internal
order of the class 1S 1-8, 9-10, 11-12.
Example: khyyn 188J •
1 10
'If [we] all Just keep sltt1ng st1ll 1t won't be any fun at all. '
135
'It may happen. '
deg phaa-kan-paJ keb d;og-maaJ len.
10 12
'The chlldren went off to plck flowers for fun. '
Members of the class also occur freely In constructlon wlth modal verbs
and other pre-verbal classes. The usual order has the /khyyn/-class modal In
second posltlon.
th88 klnl khaw paJ •
'You Just have to make yourself eat It down. '
khaw € khl.an bon kradaan-dam .
'He certalnly llkes to fool around wrltlng on the blackboard. '
4.1.2 /mag/ Class
These modals are deflned by the context /x camaJ-V/. All members of
the class occur more frequently wlthout /maJ-/ than wlth It, and In non-
negated verb phrases they behave exactly llke the modal verbs (3.3.1.), some-
tlmes enterlng lnto constructlon wlth them (below). All members except
group 5-7 occur frequently wlthout /ca-/. The class meanlng lS 'llkellhood
or lmmlnence of actlon,' and for those members whlch occur wlthout /ca-/ also
'frequency of actlon.' 8-11, WhlCh all mean 'almost,' are commonly
found before numeral phrases as well. /mag/-class modals cannot be dlrectly
negated, except wlth /maJ-chaJ/ In hypostasls. The class lS closed, and
rather small, the prlnclpal members belng the followlngl
1. /mag/ 'frequently' /mag ca-/ 'llkely to'
2. /aad/ 'characterlstlcally' /aad ca-/ 'apt to, may'
3. /J5om/ 'frequently, /J5om ca-/ 'llkely to, apt to'
characterlstlcally'

'ordlnarlly, certalnly' /kholJ ca-/ 'must, must have'
naJ ryduu-n{l fon mag tog nag: chlaw .
'In thls season It frequently ralns qUlte hard. '
aad capen paJ-daJ •
'It's qUlte posslble.'
khaw aad camaJ-paJ k5-daJ.
'Then agaln he mlght not go. '
J50m pen .
'The drlvers are frequently forelgners. '
khon thll-chyy prlldaa , kholJ pen phuu-chaaJ •
'People named Prlda are ordlnarlly men. '
136
mya hen waa pham , khaw caklab baan •
'When he saw I was not there, he must have gone home. '
camaJ-mll •
'There must not be any of the red. '
5. /hen ca-/ 'seems to, apparently'
6. /duu-myan ca-/ 'seems to, apparently'
7. /thaa ca-/ ' seems to, apparently'
hen camaJ-mll •
'There doesn't seem to be any of the red. '
khaw duu-myan caklab baanl le£w •
'I guess he has gone home already.'
naam thaa-camed •
'The water lS apparently all gone. '
khun-cid thaa camaJ-maa •
'I guess Chlt lS not comlng. '
8. /kyab/ 'almost' /k:Yab ca-/ 'about to, nearly'
9. /cuan/ 'almost' /cuan ca-/ 'about to, nearly'
10. /theb/ 'almost' /theb ca-/ 'about to, nearly'
11. /rlm/ 'almost' /rlm ca-/ 'about to, nearly'
naam k:Yab camed •
'The water lS nearly all gone. '
chan khooJ: , kyab saam •
'I was waltlng for almost three hours. '
khaw len: kan , con myyd •
'They played untll It was almost dark. '
r6d-faJ cuan capaJ: •
'The traln lS already about to go. '
chan nyaJ theb-cataaJ •
'1
1
m about to dle from fatlgue. '
theb camaJ-mll •
'There are almost no seats left. '
12. 'In the process of,
somewha t'
13. 'rather, qUlte'
137
ca-/ 'about to'
ca-/ 'beglnnlng to'
'rather, qU1te' 'beg1nn1ng to'
phl1-chaaJ kamlaD r1an naD-syy thl1-nan •
'Older brother 1S study1ng there. '
kamlaD capaJ haa-syY naD-syy thl1-nan .
'I was about to go shopp1ng for books there.'
tEED rooD JaD{l khon-khaaD suaJ.
'The hall 1S rather pretty, the way 1t'S decorated.'
Daan chan{l , prachaa-chon capaJ-kan-Ji
J
.
'The people are beg1nn1ng to go for th1S k1nd of fa1r 1n a b1g
way. '
phuud kakhaw •
'It was rather bor1ng talk1ng to h1m. '
The members of th1S class apparently exclude each other semant1cally,
although there are no ObV10US pa1rs of antonYms. There 1S consequently no
1nternal order for the class.
modals comb1ne freely w1th modal verbs and other pre-verbal
classes. They always precede such 1tems.
aad camaJ-toD paJ kO-daJ •
'The students may not have to go, at that. '
pham kYab camaJ-kheeJ paJ thalee .
'I have almost never been sW1mm1ng'ln the ocean.'
Daan n11 cakhoJ-sanug khyn •
'Th1S celebrat10n 1S f1nally start1ng to get roll1ng (beg1nn1ng
to be more fun).'
Th1S class of modals cons1sts of the negat1ve /maJ/ and 1ts replace-
ments, most of Wh1Ch are lexemes conta1n1ng the morph /maJ/ as f1rst const1t-
uent. The var10US members of the class 1nd1v1dually precede only certa1n
cypes of pred1cate elements, w1th Wh1Ch they are 1n d1rect construct1on, but
the class as a whole occurs before all types of pred1cate: verb, modal verb,
adJect1ve, complet1ve verb, noun, and prepos1t1onal or numeral phrase. Each
member has a spec1al relat1onsh1p w1th /ca-/ Wh1Ch has to be stated separately.
The class mean1ng 1S 'negat1ve; restr1ct1on on the appl1cab1l1ty of a
propos1t1on.' The members of the class not only exclude each other but also
exclude the 1nterrogat1ve part1cle /maJ/ from the same clause. The class 1S
small and closed, cons1stlng of only these n1ne members.
1. /maJ/, or /maJ/ 'not, other than'
Occurs unstressed and In close Juncture wlth ltS predlcator, whlch
lS a verb, adJectlve, completlve or modal verb. Flrst form nearly
always occurs before preposltlonal and numeral phrases, but other-
Wlse /maJ/ lS more common. Both forms follow /ca-/, and never pre-
cede It.
pham maJ-kh88J paJ: 188J .
'I have never gone there.'
pham maJ-paJ: 188J •
'I'm not gOlng at all.'
pham paJ maJ-daJ' 188J •
'I can't go at all. '
pham paJ 188J •
'It's not at all convenlent for
me to go.'
pham aad camaJ-paJ kS-daJ •
'I may not go, elther.'
/kh88J/, modal verb
/daJ/, completlve verb
adJectlve
A V
maJ nll •
'Well, It's not two o'clock yet.'
khaw caan , maJ naJ-tuu •
'She put the dlshes not (elsewhere than) In the cablnet.'
2. /maJ-daJ/ or /maJ-daJ/ 'In fact not, subJect other than what
lS assumed. '
(Commonest In past sltuatlons but also occurs In present and
future sltuatlons regarded as not capable of change.)
Condltlons of occurrence are the same as for /maJ/, except that
/maJ-daJ/ lS rare before modal and completlve verbs and preposl-
tlonal phrases.
seem to thlnk) good. t
cloth
pham maJ-daJ-paJ .
'I dldn't go.' or 'I'm not the
one who lS gOlng. '
phaa nll maJ-daJ-dll •
'Thls cloth lS not the good
(some other cloth lS).'
or 'Thls cloth lS not (as you
verb
adJectlve
r6d-faJ maJ-daJ-paJ .
'The traln hasn't gone yet. '
D9
, ""
nag-r1an tr1am . nag-r1an naaJ-r88J: thaw-nan,
thll •
'The preparatory students don't compete. Only the off1cer
cand1da tes do.'
The contrast between /maJ and /maJ-daJ/ 1S neatly p01nted up by the
follow1ng pa1r of exchangess
'Is the englne warm ,
'No, not yet. (It 1sn't warm yet.)'
'" ,
ma J-un •
un le8w .
ma J- da J-un •
Q.
Q.
A.
A.
'Have you warmed up the eng1ne
'No, not yet. (I haven't warmed lt
up yet.)'
In add1t1on to Subst1tut1ng for /maJ/, /maJ-daJ/ also occurs 1n places
where /maJ/ does not, for example before /khyyn/-class modalss
chan chom: r5g t .
'I d1dn't pretend to adm1re 1t!'
3. /maJ-chaJ/ or /maJ-chaJ/ 'not a case of, pred1cate other than what
1S assumed'
Occurs most commonly before noun pred1cates, but 1S also found
before adJectlves, verbs, prepos1t1onal and numeral phrases, and
(facultat1vely, at least) before any lexeme of the language whatso-
ever, 1n hypostas1s. F1rst form occurs 1n 1solat1on and normally
precedes nouns and non-pred1cates; second form occurs elsewhere,
unstressed and 1n close Juncture. Both are preceded by
maJ-chaJ baan. tyg .
'It's not a (wood) house. It's a stone bU1ld1ng.'
aakaad . ph88 sabaaJ.
'The weather lsn't hot, 1t'S Just r1ght.'
khaw caan maJ-chaJ naJ-tuu .
'She puts the dlshes somewhere bes1des 1n the cupboard.'
maJ-chaJ hog khon . haa khon, thaw-nan
'Not SlX people. Only f1ve. '
nag-r1an tr1am . fyg •
ICompet1ng 1S not what the preparatory students do. They prac-
t1ce. I
(Compare w1th last example under 2. /maJ-d&J/ above)
The contrast between /maJ-daJ/ and /maJ-chsJ/ lS also lllustrated by
the followlng,
khon-nan maJ-daJ-chyy phoon •
'That person lsn't named Porn. '
chyY khon-nan maJ-chsJ phoon . sanid •
'That person's name lsn't Porn. It's Sanlt.'
ThlS modal occurs also ln many flxed expresslons; for example:

'not a few, not a llttle, much, many'
maJ-chaJ-len
'ln earnest, conslderably'
(llt, 'not for fun')
4. /maJ-khoJ/ or ImaJ-khoJ/ 'hardly, not very; hardly ever, not very
much'
Condltlons of occurrence are the same as for /msJ/, except that
/maJ-khoJI lS rare before modal verbs and numeral phrases and ln
lsolatlon. Also, lt normally precedes /ca-/, rather than followlng
lt as ImsJI does, and ln such cases occurs ln ltS flrst form.
phaa nil maJ-khoJ-dll •
'ThlS cloth lsn't very good. '
maJ-khoJ-paJ •
'I myself hardly ever go. '
khaw maJ-khoJ Jaag capaJ •
'She doesn't really want to go'
duu maJ-khoJ casuaJ: 188J .
'It doesn't look at all pretty. '
duu IE£w , noon maJ-khoJ-Iab •
'After havlng seen lt, one can
hardly sleep. '
/paJ/, verb
/Jaag/, modal verb
Ilab/, completlve verb
5. /maJ-than/ 'has not had tlme to, had not (by that tlme) ,
Occurs commonly before verbs and completlve verbs; rare else-
where. Follows lea-I.
'" , v,.", v
weelaa-nan kh££n rag-saa maJ-than-haaJ
'At that tlme the arm had not yet been
healed. '
pham maJ-than khaad: sa-ilg .
'I hadn't even guessed lt yet. '
/khaad/, verb
/maa/, verb
Iklua/, verb
6. 'has not (In the long run), not (lD splte of expecta-
tlons) ,
Condltlons of occurrence are the same as for /maJ-than/.
chan ch88n khaw 18EW , tEE khaw maa.
'I lnvlted hlm, but he dldn't come. '
sanid
tEE
khaw
,
khun paJ , mla maJ-Jag pa J
'Sanl t went, but hlS wlfe dldn' t. '
!ne
t
l€EW.
t
,.
,
chaJ maa nan: ! aaw maJ-Jag
'There! There he comes. Oh! It's not hlm after all. '
7. /maJ-hen/ or /maJ-hen/ 'apparently not, In my 0plnlon not'
Occurs commonly before verbs and adJectlves; rare elsewhere.
The correspondlng constructlon wlth /ca-/ lS /hen-camaJ/, In WhlCh
/hen/ lS a member of the class and /maJ/ lS tbe only repre-
sentatlve of the present class.
khun sanid ma J-hen-maa: sa- thll .
'Apparently Sanlt hasn't come. ' or
'I don't thlnk Sanlt lS comlng. '
nil, chan maJ-hen suaJ: 188J .
'ThlS flower doesn't seem at all pretty /suaJ/, adJectlve
to me. '
8. 'not really, really not'
Condltlons of occurrence are the same as for /maJ-hen/. Does
not occur wlth Ica-I.
pham klua: thldlaw rog .
'Well, I wasn't really exactly afrald
at all. '
9. IJaa/ 'don't, shouldn't'
Occurs commonly before transltlve verbs and Ikhyyn/- class
modals, and In lsolatlon; less commonly before adJectlves and other
verbs. Never occurs before preposltlonal or numeral phrases, or
In the same constructlon wlth Ica-I.
Jaa-pa J na J: lee J na t .
'Don't go away anywhere, wlll
phil Jaa duu-thuug •
'Older brother shouldn't dlsparage It.'
Jaa-khyyn kln khaw-paJ: Sl .
'Then don't (obstlnately) eat It. '
, ,
Jaa rew: nag •
'Not so fast1'
Mlscellaneous Modals
/ duu- thuug/, verb
/khyyn/, modal
/rew/, adJectlve
The followlng do not comprlse a sub-class of modals, but are reSl-
due from the precedlng three clearly-deflned sub-classes. The dlscontlnuous
and parallel modals (1-4) satlsfy the class deflnltlon only lnsofar as some
of thelr elements are concerned; the remalnlng modals (5-8) satlsfy the gen-
eral deflnltlon perfectly but have functlonal pecullarltles WhlCh prevent
thelr belng lncluded In one of the sub-classes.
1. /ad•.. maJ-daJ/ 'to be unable to keep from'
Occurs dlscontlnuously (see 2.5.3.1.) around verbs and verb
expresslons. The morph /ad/ ltself does not Substltute for such
predlcates, and hence lS not a modal verb by ltself. Examples:
khaw ad phuUd khwaam- Cll;) ma J- da J .
'He was unable to keep from telllng the truth.'
chan ad maJ-daJ •
'I couldn't repress a smlle.'
lS a verb, 'to smlle. ,)
2. /keed ••. khyn/ 'It orlglnates, a new thlng happens'
Occurs dlscontlnuously around verbs, verb expresslons and whole
predlcatlons. (In the last case any ltem precedlng /keed/ In the
same clause lS a tOP1C.) In all cases, nelther /keed/ nor /khyn/
Substltutes for the whole. Examples:
rod-pham keed Jaal;)-tEcg: khyn •
'My car developed a flat tlre.'
(/Jaal;)-tEcg/ lS a posslble predlcatlon: 'tlre bursts'.)
keed rod chon: kan khyn •
'It happened that there was an accldent. '
chon: kan/ lS a posslble predlcatlon: 'cars colllde. ,)
keed kan khyn •
'Suddenly started competlng wlth each other. '
kan/ls a verb expresslon: 'to compete. ,)
3. .•. 'each one In a dlfferent way'
Occurs In parallel constructlon (see 2.5.3.3.) wlth whole pre-
dlcatlons. The subJect fllls the slot between the two
the second lS the part of the redupllcated lexeme WhlCh fllls
the modal posltlon, and can be followed by any klnd of predlcate.
Example:
khon , •
'Each person travels separately (goes hlS own way).'
On the basls of ltS flrst element, .•. lS also clas-
slfled as a /diaw/-class conJunctlon (4.3.1.).
4. .•• 'the more ..• the more'
Occurs In parallel constructlon, lntroduclng two predlcatlons
WhlCh mayor may not have the same loglcal subJect. In cases where
a real subJect lS present, the element precedes lt, and only
when a subJect lS lacklng does elther fall lnto the modal
posltlon. Examples:
naa-1Ykaa , aw-paJ-kEE: , deen rew: khyn,
rew: khyn, thug thll •
'The more I take my watch to be repalred, the faster lt runs. '
(The tOP1C /naa-1Ykaa 'my watch' lS the loglcal obJect
of the flrst predlcate /aw-paJ-kEE:/ 'take to be repalred' and the
loglcal subJect of /deen••• thug thll/ 'runs faster and faster all
the tlme.' Both predlcates, however lack real sUbJects.)
'" ,
mll khon maag , sanug •
'The more people there are, the merrler. '
On the basls of the posslble occurrence of elther element
before subJects, the ltem ... 1S also classlfled as a
/diaw/-class conJunct10n (4.3.1.).
5. 'really, how surpr1s1ngly so, how, sure'
Th1S modal probably belongs to the /mag/ class (4.1.2.) but has
several pecul1ar1t1es. Unl1ke all other members of the /mag/ class,
1t 1S never followed by /ca-/. It has a lex1cal relat10nsh1p wlth
the negat1ve 'not really' (4.1.3.8.) w1th Wh1Ch 1t 1S
144
ln complementary dlstrlbutl0n, and In the form /chaU/ cannot be
negated at all. The clauses In WhlCh lt occurs qUlte often have
the 'emotl0nal lnvolvement' lntona tl0n morpheme / t /. Flnally,
lt sometlmes comes before the subject (lnstead of after lt, as do
all true modals). Examples.
deg khon-n{l t
'ThlS Chlld really knows how to talk!'
!mEE , duu si t maJ-kluat sa-IeeJ t .
'Say, but look! He's not a blt afraldl'
phuud daJ t .
'How can you say such a thlngl'
khun rews lakeen t
'You sure do drlve fast!'
6. /khoJ/ or /khoJ/ 'only then, not untl1 then, after havlng walted
a whl1e. '
ThlS modal resembles the /khyyn/-class modals (4.1.1.) ln every
respect except that lt does not occur ln the deflDltlve context
(after /Jaa/ 'don't'). It precedes malnly verbs and adJectlves, and
follows /ca-/ and the /mag/-class modals. It lS frequently found
ln commands, where lt lS In dlrect contrast wlth /Jaa-pheu/ 'don't
yet.' Its semantlc Opposlte now, not untl1 now' lS ln
fact a /khyyn/-class modal (4.1.1.4.). The morphologlcally related
negatlve /maJ-khoJ/ 'not very' (4.1.3.4.) does not have an exclu-
slvely temporal meanlng, and lS consldered to be a separate l€xeme,
rather than a syntactlc constructl0n of /maJ/ plus /khoJ/, because
lt replaces /maJ/ everywhere. In the examples below, 111ustratl0ns
of are lncluded for contrast.
khaaw mya pll thll-1EEW tEE pll-n{l khoJ dll khyn •
'The rlce last year dldn't grow well, but thlS year It's a
11tt1e better.'
roon khyn .
'It dldn't get hotter untl1 yesterday. (Only yesterday dld lt
get hotter.) ,
khaaw • ilg haa naa-thll , khoJ •
'Don't cook the rlce now. Walt flve mlnutes and then '
koon . dlaw khoJ-paJ .
'Not yet. Walt a 11ttle and then go. '
145
chag-cakhoJ-sanug khyn •
'Thls celebratlon lS startlng to be fun.'
7. /kh5J-kh5J/ 'gradually, gently'
/rllb-rllb/ 'hurrledly, wlthout pauslng'
These and other lexemes of meanlng are
sometlmes found In the modal posltlon as well as thelr normal
complement posltlon. The flrst lS based on the modal /kh5J/ above,
the second on a modal verb /rllb/ 'to hurry.' The dlfference In
meanlng seems to be that the modal posltlon refers more to the
of actlon and the complement to the actlon as
a '\.vhole.
kh5 J-kh5 J len t .
'Don't play excltedly (when you start to play); I
len kh5 J-kh5 J t .
'Play more qUletly (than you are now)J'
kh5J-kh5J phuuda na •
'Speak softly, now.'
khaw rllb-rllb phuud •
'He started talklng In a blg rush. '
8. /ca/ 'hypothetlcal the most common modal of all, lS
also a preposltlon - see 4.2.6.3.2. for examples.
4.2. Preposltlons
A preposltlon lS any bound lexeme whlch lntroduces exocentrlc comple-
ment phrases. The functlon of preposltlons lS analogous to that of modals,
the dlfference belng that the co-constltuents of preposltlonal phrases are
substantlve rather than predlcatlve expresslons. The relatlonshlp between
preposltlons and head-nouns lS the same as that between modals and modal
verbs (whlch always head thelr predlcates); the larger constructlon lS of
the same type but the preposltlon (or modal) cannot replace It, whereas the
head noun (or modal verb) In preposltlons normally have weak
stress.
The class of preposltlons 1S not very large, but must be consldered
open. Members 1nclude homonyms of both substantlve and predlcatlve lexemes
Wh1Ch, when stressed, are heads of endocentr1c express1ons. For example,
the stressed ltem /we-laa/ means 1tlme
'
and lS an abstract noun:
/we-laa
we-laa/
'free tlme'
'two separate tlmes'
146
But weak-stressed /welaa/ lS a preposltlon 'at':
'at two o'clock'
On the other hand, many of the most common preposltlons do not have such
homonYms - e.g. /naJ/ 'In. r
The class meanlng lS 'spatlal, temporal, numerlcal, or loglcal restrlc-
tlon on a substantlve concept.' Preposltlons are sub-classlfled lnto flve
categorles, wlth an lmportant resldue of extremely common ltems (4.2.6.).
4.2.1. /naJ/ Class
ThlS class of preposltlons lS morphologlcally deflned by occurrence
In derlvatlves wlth the lexlcal preflx or 'slde' (see 2.4.1.
7.).A few also make other derlvatlveswlth the prlor elements 'slde, r
'way,' /phaaJ-/ 'scope,' /t00n-/ 'part.' The resultant derlvatlves
are nouns, and at the same tlme /thamaJ/- class complementlves (3.2.2.3.8.).
They also flll of the posltlons of thelr base preposltlons as well. By
themselves, /naJ/-class preposltlons occur wlth weak stress before and In
constructlon wlth all types of nouns and noun-expresslons; they are rare
before verb-expresslons. The class meanlng lS 'locatlve reference. '
The class lS closed and small, and ltS members are grouped In palrs
of semantlc OPPosltes. Followlng are the lmportant members and thelr
derlvatlves. The context for all examples lS the same:
, ,
man JUu ••. nan
, It 1 s • •. there. '
Preposltlon Derlvatlves
2. /no0g/ 'outslde of'

/phaa J-na J/

'lnslde'
'Wl thln'
'outSlde '
3. /bon/ 'on, up In' bon/

147
'top, upper portlon, upstalrs'
'upper slde, etc.'
'bottom, lower portlon, down-
stalrs'
'lower slde, etc.'
5. /nya/ 'above'
7. /naa/ 'In front of'
/khalJ-nya/ 'up above'
/phaa J-nya/ 'In superlor posltlon'
/thaalJ-nya/ 'north'
/khalJ-taJ/ 'down below, underneath'
/phaa J- ta J/ 'In lnferlor posltlon'
/thaalJ- ta J/ 'south'
/khalJ-naa/ 'front'
/phaaJ-naa/ 'future'
/khalJ-lalJ/ 'back!
/phaaJ-lalJ/ !future, after'
/khalJ-khaalJ/ 'alongslde, to one slde'
10. /klaalJ/ 'In the mldst of' /khalJ-klaalJ/ 'mlddle'
/toon-klaalJ/ 'mlddle part!
As slmple preposltlons, the members of the /naJ/ class exclude each other,
but many comblnatlons lnvolvlng the derlvatlves occur. Therd lS no lnternal
order for the class.
4.2.2. /caag/ Class
The class conslsts of preposltlons WhlCh occur In the same construc-
tlons as the /naJ/ class, but also occur before, and In constructlon wlth,
phrases lntroduced by /naJ/-preposltlons. The class meanlng lS 'dlrectlon
and Ilmlts of motlon. '
The class must be consldered open, Slnce weak-stressed verbs of mo-
tlon f r e e l ~ enter In (an example lS 13. /saJ/), but the number of frequent,
standard members 1S small. In thlS latter category are members 1-4, Wh1Ch
are among the most frequent lexemes In the language. Most members have
homonyms belonglng to other classes.
Besldes the members 11sted below, the followlng ma1nly Ilterary pre-
posltlons belong to the /caag/ classl
/na/
/suu/
'at!
'toward'
'agalnst, toward, object slgn\
'to!
Where these 1tems have colloqulal uses, however, they are llsted under the
approprlate category (e.g. /JalJ/ In 4.2.3.6.). Also not Ilsted below are
three preposltlons requlrlng speclal treatment: /kwaa/, /khoolJ/, and /heClJ/
(see 4.2.6.4.). The prlnclpal colloqulal members of the /caag/ class follow.
148
1. /caag/ or /cag/ 'from, away from, out of'
;og maa caag tSJ •
'Came out from under a tree.'
dln-soo Iud paJ-caag-myy .
'The pencll sllpped out of hlS hand. '
2. /tec/ or /te/ 'from, from the dlrectlon of, from the tlme of'
tec-chaaw myYd •
'Started travellng In the early mornlng. '
('from the early mornlng. '
khyn pratuu •
!There was a nOlse from behlnd the door.'
3. /thl1/ or /tht/ 'at, to, over at, In the possesslon of'
khooJ Juu-thl1-naa •
'He's waltlng (over) In front of the school.'
kan tht-baan phyan •
'We met at a frlend's house.'
paJ tht-baan phyan •
'Go over to a frlend's house.'
JUu tht-chan , haa baad •
'I stlll have (or owe you) flve baht.'
('There remalns to me flve baht. ,)
4. or and /con/ 'to, all the way to, reachlng'
paJ mEe-naam •
'Went out lnto the mlddle of the rlver.'
klab-maa welaa thum •
'Got back to the house at elght p.m. '
JUu thl1-nan con saam thum .
'Stayed there untll nlne p.m. '
5. 'rlght at, rlght to'
JUu mEe-naam •
'It's rlght In the mlddle of the rlver. '
JUd •
'stop rlght there.'
149
thuug naa-og .
'Was hlt rlght In the chest.'
6. /taam/ or /tam/ 'along, followlng, accordlng to, from one to
another of'
paJ-tam-thanan •
'Run along the street.'
phuud taam-pham •
'Say It after me. '
taam caD-wa.
'Slng accordlng to the rhythm. '
haa-syy •
'Shop for It from one store to the next. '
7. /thaaD/ or /thaD/ 'In the dlrectlon of, by way of'
JUu pratuu .
'It's somewhere outslde the door. '
l{aw .
'Turn to the left. '
maa .
'Came by way of the rlver. '
paJ thaaD rya-bln •
'Go by plane. '
8. /thEEw/ or /th€w/ 'to or In the general vlclnlty of, near'
len kan thEw-naa •
'They play around the front of the school.'
thEEw-baan pham mll J8 •
'There are a lot of them In my nelghborhood. '
9. /kab/ and /ka-/ 'wlth, wlth respect to, to'
JUu klaJ kab-baan pham •
'It's near (wlth respect to) my house.'
paJ kab-pham dll kwaa •
'Better go wlth me. '
faag naD-syy kab-phyan •
'Leave books wlth a frlend. '
150
haJ kaphyan •
books to a '
(See also /ka-/ under 10. /kec/ and under preposl-
tlons, 4.2.6.3.).
10. /ke8/ or /ke/ and /ka/ 'toward, to, for'
ke-kam lE8w •
'He dead (has to death).'
haJ ke-phyan .
books to a
daJ
or: daJ •
to all klnds of '
11. /t;o/ or /t;/ 'toward, the presence of, to'
phuud t;o-naa khaw •
'Say to face.'
Jyyn taa t;-taa .
'Stand eye to eye. '
Before metrlc classlflers and numeral phrases, /t;o/ means 'per':
t;o .
'Flfty kllometers per hour. '
12. /khE8/ 'StOpplng at, gOlng no further than'
paJ khE8 •
'Goes only as far as the palace. '
(Also a member of the /dooJ/-class, 4.2.3.16.)
13. /S3J/ 'lnto, at so as to hlt.'
tog s3J-caan tecg .
'The fell the and broke It. I
J llJ sa J J •
'Shoot at a tree.'
14. /pracam/ 'located at, assoclated wlth'
pen thuud pracam •
'He's a dlplomat statl0ned ln Bangkok.'
There lS no 1nternal order for the class, but spec1f1c comb1nat1ons of
members occur, w1th1n the class and outs1de, Wh1Ch are better cons1dered as
slngle lexemesl
/thYlJ-
kab
/
4 9
/taam-thl1/
6 3
/trolJ- khaam/
5
/lalJ-caag/
1
/talJ- t Ee/
2
/thYlJ-kh8e/
4 12
'to the p01nt of'
'accord1ng to'
'Oppos1te, r1ght across from'
'after'
'slnce'
'only to the p01nt of'
The class cons1sts of prepos1tlons Wh1Ch occur before, and 1n con-
structlon wlth, both noun and verb express1ons. Most members, 1n fact, occur
before whole clauses as /thaa/-class conJunctlons (4.3.2.). The class mean-
lng 1S 'temporal, spat1al or loglcal cond1t1on,' and the result1ng phrases
funct10n syntact1cally as complements. L1ke /thamaJ/-class complement1ves,
for Wh1Ch /dooJ/-1ntroduced prepos1t1onal phrases freely Subst1tute, the
phrases are reverslble w1th respect to the head const1tuents; the only d1f-
ference 1n mean1ng 1S a sllght change of emphas1s.
The class 1S open, and qU1te large, conta1n1ng many nearly-synonymous
members. Follow1ng are the most 1mportant members, w1th the1r approx1mate
mean1ngs.
1.
2.
3.
6.
7.
/mya/ or /mya/
/koon/ or /kon/
/welaa/ and /toon/
or /ton/
/phoo/ or /pho/
/con-thYlJ/ or /con-thYlJ/
and /con-krathalJ/
/ JalJ/
/lalJ-caag/ or /lalJ-cag/
I a t the t 1me 0f '
'before'
'dur1ng the t1me of, at or 1n (a part
of the day)'
'as soon as the t1me of'
'unt1l, up to the t1me of, up to the
p01nt of'
'to, to an end-po1nt of'
'after'
152
9. /noog-caag/ or /noog-cag/
10. / w ~ n / and / w ~ n - t e c /
11. /rawaalJ/
12. /tal;od-con/
13. /JaalJ/ or /JalJ/
14. /chen/
15. /myan/ or /myan/
16. /thaw/ or /thaw/ and /khec/
17. /dooJ/ or /doJ/
18. /duaJ/ or /daJ/
19. /phro/ or /phr5/
20. /nyalJ-caag/ or /nyalJ-cag/
21. /phya/
22. /sam-rab/ or /samrab/
and /suan/
23. /chapho/
24. /faaJ/
25. /pen/
26. /thccn/ or /then/
27. /ryalJ/
'slnce, all the way from, wlth begln-
nlng member as'
'besldes, outslde of'
'except for'
'between, among, durlng the tlme of'
'lncludlng, wlth flnal member as'
(Often follows 8. /talJ-tec/, In the
meanlng 'everythlng from.•• to ... ,)
'llke, such as, In the manner of'
'llke, for example' (constructlon
often closed wlth /pen-ton/)
'resembllng, llke'
'to the extent of'
'by means of, by the agency of'
'wlth, wlth the materlal of'
'because of'
'on account of'
'for the purpose of'
'for, as for, for the purpose of'
'dlrected toward, especlally for'
'on the part of, from the slde of'
'as, so as to become'
'lnstead of, so as to replace'
'on the subJect of'
Members of the /dooJ/-class normally exclude each other except lnsofar
as they form slngle-lexeme compounds, for example:
'such as'
Of all the members of the class llsted above, only a few can substltute
for thelr typlcal phrases, and even these members occur by themselves only
at the end of clauses, not at the beglnnlng, and hence are /eelJ/-class com-
plementlves (3.2.2.2.). These are:
2. /k;on/ 'beforehand' But also, /k;on-nan/ 'before that'
153
18. /duaJ/ 'wlth It, In addltlon' But also, /duaJ-kan/ 'wlth each
other, together'
26. /thEEn/ 'lnstead'
All other members form complement phrases or derlve complementlves by
addltlon of obJects llke (e.g. 1, 3, 7, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16) or /kan/
(e.g. 15, 16, 18) or /n{l/ (e.g. 2, 3, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 16 /khee/) wlth
varlOUS meanlngs. There are also a few hlghly lrregular derlved complementlves:

/pho-dll/ 'Just now, Just then'
14. /chen-dlaw-kan/ 'In the same way'
19. 'for that reason'
21. /phya/ 'for a purpose, In reserve' (note
change of tone)
23. 'especlally'
Two addltlonal members of thls class whlch requlre speclal treatment,
/haJ/ and /aw/, are llsted wlth the mlscellaneous preposltlons (4.2.6.1.).
These preposltlons belong to none of the precedlng classes but are
weak-stressed forms of verbs (mostly completlve verbs, 3.3.4.) whlch occur
before nouns In the typlcal preposltlonal constructlon. They do not normally
occur before verbs or lntroduce clauses. The class meanlng, lS 'route or
tlmlng of motlon or dlstrlbutlon'. The resultlng phrases can all be substl-
tuted for by the correspondlng free form wlth normal stress.
The class lS not large, but presumably open, Slnce any completlve verb
lS a candldate for membershlp. Phrases lntroduced by /roob/-class prepOSl-
tlons, especlally 5-10, are rnore frequently negated than any other type of
preposltlonal phrase. Followlng are some lmportant members.
deen khaam-thanon
2.

3. /roob/ and /rob-roob/
roob-t6
'across, over on the other slde, of'
'walk across the street'
'It's across the street.'
'dlrectly across from, Opposlte'
'Opposlte the
'around, completely clrcllng'
'seated around the table'
154
4. /3om/ and /3m-3om/
deem 30m-to •
5.
thaalJ
6. /thua/
thua-loog •
7. /khrOb/
syy daJ •
B. /mod/
9. /phon/

10. /than/
than rOd-faJ
11. /raJ/ or /raaJ/ and
/praad-sacaag/
raJ
praad-sacaag khwaam-maaJ
12. /tem/
tem kamlalJ
tem-naa
13. /tid/
'around, detourlng, half-clrcllng'
'walk around the table (as a detour)'
'all the way through (one dlmenslon, as
tlme or a road), from one end to the
other'
'all through Ilfe'
'the whole way'
'throughout (two or three dlmenslons),
pervadlng, allover'
'allover the world'
'completlng a set, the full amount of'
'able to buy the whole set'
'depletlng a set, the last blt of'
'every last blt of strength'
'beyond, past, clear of, free of'
'free of sorrow'
'In tlme for, catchlng up wlth'
'In tlme for the traln'
'wlthout, devold of'
'wlthout reason'
'wlthout meanlng'
'full of, fllllng up'
'at full strength'
'allover the face'
'stlcklng to, up agalnst'
'on the walls'
155
14. /too/
too faa-phanalJ
t o o - r ~ a lOlJ-paJ
15. /thaw/ or /thaw/
'Jolned to, extendlng from, In Ilne wlth'
'In Ilne wlth the wall'
'extendlng down from the fence'.
'to the extent or, equal to'
'as tall as hlS elder brother'
(Also a member of /dooJ/ class, 4.2.3.16.)
The class conslsts of preposltlons WhlCh occur lmmedlately before,
and In constructlon wlth, cardlnal numeral (3.2.6.1.) phrases. The class
lncludes one set of members WhlCh are homonymous wlth /mag/-class modals
(6, below) and these are the only members after WhlCh /ca-/ lntervenes before
the numeral ( ~ n tlme expresslons). The entlre constructlon In all cases lS
stlll a cardlnal numeral constructlon, and non-negatable. The class meanlng
of /sag/-preposltlons lS 'attltude toward the accuracy, slze, dlstrlbutlon,
or lncluslveness of a numeral expresslon.' The class lS closed, and rather
small; all common members are represented here.
'another, an addltlonal number of'
khaw daJ-rab cOd-maaJ ilg-SQOlJ chabab •
'He recelved two more letters.'
t5lJ khooJ ilg-sib wan.
tWe have to walt another ten days. '
2. /thYlJ/ or /thalJ/ 'up to, a complete set of'
aad-cat5lJ khooJ thYlJ-sib wan, k5-daJ •
'We may even have to walt the full ten days. '
khaw capaJs kan , thalJ-saam khon •
'All three of them are gOlng.'
3. /te-la/ and /khon-la/ 'each, dlfferent, ••• at a tlme'
(Although /khon/ lS also a classlfler for persons, and /la/ a
dlstrlbutlve postposltlon, descrlbed In 4.4.4., It lS clear that /khon-Ia/
lS a compound preposltlon of the /sag/ class, because, llke /te-la/, lt 1S
used to refer to all types of nouns, not merely people.) Examples:
khaw paJs kan , khon-la-thaalJ •
'They went off In dlfferent dlrectlons (each one way).'
156
aw an dll •
'It's better to take two of each. '
phid kan •
'Each klnd lS dlfferent. I
4. 'every, at lntervals of'
chaaJ thug-thug seam dyan •
'It lS shown every three months. '
(ThlS ltem, WhlCh lS a redupllcatlon of and ltem 3. above
closely resemble the partltlve numerals descrlbed ln 3.2.6.3., but dlffer ln
that they occur before cardlnal numerals, whereas partltlve numerals do not.)
5. /raaw/ or /raw-raaw/
and /pramaan/
'approxlmately (tlme or quantlty)' and
'approxlmately (quantlty only) ,
khaaJ raakhaa pramaan haa-ro0J •
'It sells for approxlmately flve hundred baht. '
pham 00g caag thil-nan raw-raaw Sil thum •
'I left there at about ten p.m. '
caag nil , k5-raaw
'It's about a hundred meters from here. '
6. /cuan/ or /cuan ca-/ and /kyab/ or /kyab ca-/ 'almost'
pham kh00JI JUU , •
'I was waltlng for almost two hours. '
cuan-casaam leEw •
'It's nearly three o'clock.'
7. /keen/, /keen-kwaa/ and 'ln excess of'
pham kh00JI JUU , •
'I was waltlng for over two hours. '
khaaJ raakhaa keen haa-ro0J .
'It sells for more than flve hundred baht. '
8. and or 'only'
khaaJ raakhaa haa-ro0J baadl thaw-nan
'It sells for only flve hundred baht. '
157
pham SyY daJ chabab •
'I was able to buy only flve coples.'
saam •
'It's only three o'clock.'
khaw mll luug khon •
ora khaw luug khon •
'She has only two chlldren.'
(See also the modal In 4.1.1. and 4.1.4.)
9. or 'all of, as much as, the surprlslngly hlgh number of'
pham khoOJ: JUu ,
'I was waltlng for all of two hours. '
caag nil , haa-r6o
J

'It's at least flve hundred meters from here.'
10. /sag/ or /sag/ 'the lnexact number of, the unreal quantlty of'
pham capaJ-syy lem
'I'm gOlng to buy a couple of books.'
pham capaJ-syY sag-lem •
'I'm gOlng to buy a book (unspeclf+ed)'
khaw maJ-daJ-syy sag-lem dlaw •
'He dldn't buy (so much as) a slngle book. I
phoo deen paJ-daJ sag-haa naathll ,
'After he had been walklng along for perhaps flve mlnutes .•. I
Two /sag/-class preposltlons In sequence are not uncommon. The class
conslsts of palrs of semantlc 0pposltes whlch Ilmlt the actual posslbllltles
- for example, members of groups 1-2, 3-4, 5-8, and 9-10 exclude each other
lnternally; /keen/ lS followed only by and only by /sag/.
Examples of actual comblnatlons follow. The lmmedlate constltuents are
always A/BC.
llg pramaan sib khon •
'Approxlmately ten more people. '
kyab-sll •
'Nearly four whole hours.'
keen baad •
'Even more than flve hundred baht. I
_ v ,
med .
'Only about two meters. '
kyab •
'Almost as much as two hundred meters. '
Mlscellaneous Preposltlons
These two preposltlons, whlch as preposltlons are members of the
/dooJ/ class, each have homonYms belonglng to several other form-classes.
The two are llsted here together because they share a number of constructlons
and have a common meanlng: 'transfer of possesslon or lnstrumentallty.' The
constructlons ares
1. Post-verbal phrase
IhaJ/ 'to or for someone, havlng an lntentlonal effect on
somethlng'
/aw/ 'to or at somethlng, havlng an unlntentlonal effect
on somethlng'
Jyyn haJ •
'Hand It to the clerk.'
m88W takhuJ aw-sya •
'The cat sharpened ltS claws on the mat. '
thuam •
'Bullt a dam for floodlng. '
('Bullt a dam to make It flood. ,)
lawl lS very common after verbs of holdlng and grasplng:
aw-pag-kaa •
'Plck up the pen.'
fon aw-naam thuam •
'It ralned and floodlng resulted. '
('The raln made It flood. ,)
2) Pre-verbal phrase
/haJ/ 'wlth the (human or anlmate) agency of'
lawl 'wlth the (lnanlmate) lnstrument of'
m88-khrua haJ-deg tad nya pen-ch{n •
'The cook has the chlld cut the meat lnto sllces.'
159
mEE-khrua aw-ml1d tad nya pen-ch{n •
'The cook uses a kn1fe to cut the meat 1nto sllces.'
Apart from the order of the preposltlonal phrase (before the verb),
these construct1ons correlate w1th those of /dooJ/-class prepos1t10ns. Com-
pare the follow1ng:
,
'Make 1t w1th aw-maaJ tham . wood. '
tham dua J-maa J . 'Make 1t w1th wood. '
aw r6d-Jon paJ . 'Go by car .
,
paJ dooJ . 'Go by car.
,
3. As /waJ/-class postpos1t1ons (4.4.1.)
HomonYms of the two prepos1t10ns occur unstressed after verbal
phrases wlthout any obJect. L1ke a few members of the /dooJ/-class (2,18,
26), th1S lS a case of Subst1tut10n for the typ1cal prepos1t1onal phrase In-
troduced by that member. But Slnce /haJ/ and /aw/ as postpos1tlons occur In
m1xed order w1th members of the /waJ/-class, they are asslgned to th1S class
rather than to the the members of Wh1Ch they always precede. As
a postpos1tlon, /haJ/ never has the form /haJ/.
/haJ/ 'to or for someone else'
/aw/ 'for oneself, for ltself
l
keb d;og-maaJ: haJ .
'Plck flowers for them'
keb d;og-maaJ: aw •
'P1ck flowers for themselves'
'They plck them for each other. '
'They p1ck them for others. '
'They p1ck them for the(mse 1ve s (as
a group) '.
'The p1ck them for themselves (as
1nd1v1duals) '.
keb: kan aw •
khaw caJYYm haJ: i1g •
'He's gOlng to lend 1t (to others) as well. I
khaw maJ-daJ-b;og pham t pham dawl aw •
'He d1dn't tell me. I guessed 1t for myself. '
In assoclat10n w1th the plural pronoun /kan/, lt lS 1mportant to
d1st1ngu1sh whether /haJ/ and /aw/ occur as preposlt10ns or postpos1tlons.
keb haJ-kan .
keb: kan ha J .
keb aw-kan •
160
4. As conJunctlons
Both /haJ/ and /aw/ before subJect-predlcate constructlons,
as conJunctlons of the (4.3.3.), wlth the common meanlng 'change
of subJect.' In many cases thlS lS an extenslon of thelr preposltlonal use
In post-verbal phrases, llke the occurrences of /dooJ/-class preposltlons as
/thaa/-class conJunctlons (4.3. 2.).
/haJ/ 'so that, WhlCh lS supposed to'
/aw/ 'so that, WhlCh accldentally'
khaw aw luug-boon , haJ khoom-taD tog.
'He took the ball and threw lt at the lamp to make lt fall. '
('so that the lamp would fall. ,)
khaw aw luug-boon , khwaaD aw khoom-taD tog •
'He threw the ball and lt knocked down the lamp. '
('In such a way that the lamp fell. ,)
In both examples, the flrst /aw/ lS a preposltlon (see 4.2.6.1.2.
above), 'he threw wlth the ball,' though /khwaaD/ lS also transltlve.
A slmllar use, also common to /dooJ/-class preposltlons, lS occurrence
before adJectlves:
tll man haJ-rcD-rccD: na •
'Beat lt hard, wlll
man tll chan aw-rcD-rccD •
'It hlt me hard. '
5. As Maln Verbs
Llke IwaJ/-class postposltlons, /haJ/ and /aw/ occur, stressed, as
prlmary verbs. In the examples below, the maln verb lS underllned.
haJ sataaD: paJ
(daJ sataaD: maa
maa-haJ sataaD
paJ-aw sataaD
maa-haJ
161
'to glve'
'to take, to choose'
'to glve money away'
'to recelve money')
Ito take the money away'
'to brlng the money'
'to come and glve money'
'to go get money'
'to brlng for someone'
haJ
aw paJ-haJ
haJ maa-aw
haJ aw-wsJ
wSJ-haJ
'to have someone go get'
'to take to someone'
'to have someone COme get'
'to glve money for a future purpose'
'to keep money on hand for someone'
2. /t£8/ or /te/ and /con/
These preposltlons, of Opposlte meanlng, share some,but not all con-
structlons wlth each other. Baslcally they are both members of the /caag/
class (4. 2•2, numbers 2 and 4, respectlvely), but both occur In compound
preposltlons of the /dooJ/ class (4.2.3.5.8,10,12) and In other compound
lexemes. Besldes thelr baslc meanlngs, /te8/ 'startlng from' and /con/ 'up
to' have quantlty-related meanlngs whlch are the exact equlvalents of two
/sag/-class (4.2.5.) preposltlons, /sag/ 'as Ilttle as' and 'as much
as,' respectlvely. These occur only In numeral phrases; /te8/ and /con/
replace them elsewhere. Followlng are some examples of these other construc-
tlons. In the flrst two cases, only one of the palr of preposltlons occurs,
and the constructlons are mlrror lmages of each other.
1) Between a verb and ltS obJect: /te8/ 'only'
kln tEE nya-muu
aw te- kln
kln nya-muu te-nooJ
'eats only pork'
'wants only to eat'
'there are only a few'
'stays only In the nest'
'eats only a llttle meat'
ch50b tB-JUU 'llkes only to stay In the nest'
In thls constructlon, /te8/ occurs before all types of obJects,
lncludlng sUbstantlves, predlcatlves, expresslons, and phrases. It lS
characterlstlcally echoed wlth /thaw-nsn/ at the end of ltS phrase, or at
the end of the clause.
2) Between a verb and a completlve verb or adJectlve: /con/ 'flnally.
all the way to'
haa con-da J
haa con-thua
con- da J
162
'flnally found'
'looked everywhere'
'swam untll exhausted'
'flnally hlt by throwlng'
In all such construct1ons, the f1rst constltuent lS a trans1t1ve
verb and the second an adJect1ve or complet1ve verb. In slm1lar pred1ca-
t10ns 1nvolv1ng a substant1ve as f1rst constltuent, the conJunct1on
(4.3.4.3.) lS used 1nstead of /con/:
pham cYlJ-pa J •
sll-khlaw thYlJ-cad11 .
'I flnally went'
'Only green lS good. '
3) As conJunct1ons, the two ltems st1ll contrast sharply:
/tEE/
/con/
'but'(/dlaw/ class, 4.3.1.)
'unt11, although' (/thaa/ class,
4.3.2.)
chan boag leEw: waa , chan maJ-ch5ab sll-khiaw , teE
khaw JalJ-khyyn syy maa-i1g con-daJ •
'I had told h1m that I d1dn't 11ke green, but he st1ll
ended up bUy1ng green aga1n anyway. '
con chan boag leEw: waa , chan maJ-ch5ab sll-khlaw , khaw
k5-JalJ khyyn syy maa-i1g con-daJ •
'Although I had told h1m I d1dn't 11ke green, he st1ll
ended up bUy1ng green aga1n anyway. '
khaw daJ-rab kaan-rag-saa , con-phon kheed an-taraaJI
leEw .
'He rece1ved excellent care unt1l he was past the dangerous
stage. '
khaw daJ-rab kaan-rag-saa J$alJ-d11 , naJ roou-phaJaa-baan:
thaw-nan.
'He rece1ved excellent care, but only 1n the hosp1tal. '
3. /ka-/ and /ca-/
Each of these two preposlt1ons occurs 1n close Juncture w1th the
other const1tuent of 1tS phrase (or w1th the f1rst syllable of the const1t-
uent 1f 1t lS pclysyllab1c). They are the only prepos1t1ons Wh1Ch have no
stressed forms 1n conversat1onal style, although each lS Subst1tuted for by
stressed forms 1n c1tat1on and 1n formal style: /ka-/ lS replaced by /kab/
or /kEE/, and /ca-/ by /ca/.
163
1) /ka-/ occurs excluslvely before substantlve expreSSlons: nouns,
pronouns, demonstratlves, numerals (but not classlflers), and
phrases of all these types. Its meanlng lS 'In relatlon to, ,
and lt frequently follows other preposltlons and a few verbs
and adJectlves. It also has a covert relatlonshlp wlth the
pronoun /kan/ 'In relatlon to each other, as a group,' WhlCh
can replace most /ka-/ phrases. Slnce /ka-/ follows all other
preposl tlons, 1 ts occurrence alone (Wl thout other pr'eposl tlons)
lS lnterpreted as an lnstance of a /caag/-class preposltlon. As
such, lt can replace /k£E/ and /kab/ In all thelr uses (see
examples under 4.2.2.9, 10.).
Examples:
paJ kakhun
thYlJ kasanaam
t;o ka thEEW
trolJ kana-likaa
,
JaalJ kakhaw
'go Wl th you'
'up to the fleld
'
'In extenslon of
the row'
'rlght wlth the
clock'
'llke hlm'
pa J: kan
thYlJ: kan
t;o: kan
trolJ: kan
'go together'
'meetlng'
'In Ilne'
'In agreement'
myan kakhaw
duaJ kaphom
haJ kaphom
trolJ-khaam kabaan
klaJ kabaan
khlalJ kabaan
thaw kas80lJ
thllug kakhaw
"
'llke hlm' myan: kan
'wlth me' duaJ: kan
'to me' haJI kan
'Opposlte the trolJ-khaam:
house'
'near the house' klaJ: kan
'next to the house' khlalJ: kan
'equlvalent to two' thaw: kan
'In harmony wlth thllug: kan
them'
'llke each other'
'together I
'reclprocally'
kan 'Opposlte each
other'
'near together'
'next to each otmr'
'to the same degree I
'In harmony'
phid kakhaw
kiaw kalJaan
'dlfferent from
them'
'concerned wlth
work'
phid: kan
kiaw: kan 'related'
kakhruu
J kakhruu
'at the same tlme kan
as the teachers'
lresembllng kan
teachers'
164
'slInul taneous '
'Slmllar'
Examples:
2) /ca-/ occurs before pred1cat1ve express1ons, espec1ally before
verbs, adJect1ves, modals (other than and some
modal verbs and the1r phrases, and 1S also common before enu-
merat10ns and equat10nal pred1cates. It 1S extremely common
after modals (4.1.2.) and some modal verbs (3.3.1.
1,5-9). Its mean1ng 1S 'hypothet1cal sltuat10n or putat1ve
act1on, rand 1t 1S used both for future states and for unreal
or reconstructed present-past states. Slnce the order of /ca-/
w1th respect to modals and modal verbs 1S ent1rely f1xed, the
occurrence of /ca-/ w1thout modal elements present 1S best
1nterpreted as an 1nstance of a spec1al bound modal (belong1ng
to a class of one), /ca-I. (see 4.1.4.8.)
Phrases 1ntroduced by /ca-/ cannot be replaced by any
slngle lexeme (as can /ka-I-phrases), but 1t 1S 1nterest1ng
to note that /ca-/ and the sentence part1cle Ithe/ 'Let's,
why not' (4.5.1.8.) seem to exclude each other semant1cally,
although the1r pos1t1ons 1n the clause are qU1te d1fferent.
khaw capaJ-duaJ •
khaw capaJ-daJ •
'He's gOlng to go along.'
'How could he go (have
diaw khaw capaJ . 'He's gOlng soon.'
(/paJ/ 18 a verb.)
khaw paJ .
khaw Jaag capaJ-duaJ .
khaw cakh88J paJ mya-raJ t.
'He'll have to go.'
'He wants to go along. '
'When would he ever have
/Jaag/, and /kh88J/ are modal verbs.)
khaw aad capaJ k5-d8J .
khaw capaJ: .
khaw capaJ: .
'He m1ght even go. '
'He must have gone already.'
'He's about to go already.'
(/aad/, and are modals.)
khaw camaJ-paJ: •
khaw cakhyyn paJ thamaJ .
165
'Maybe he's not
'Why would he be gOlng 1n sp1te
of
(/maJ/ and /khyyn/ represent thelr own classes of modals.)
thll-nll casaduagl kwaa •
'Slttlng here would be more comfortable.'
khyn rod-mee cachaa: paJ-n;oJ •
'Taklng the bus would be a Ilttle too slow.'
and /chaa/ are adJectlves.)
ilg haa-nathll •
'In flve mlnutes It'll be two o'clock.'
(I t 's fl ve to two.) ,
khaw cakhaa-hag da J J '.
'How could he get a broken I
lS an enumeratlon and /khaa-hag/ lS an equatlonal
predlca te. )
4. /kwaa/, and
These three preposltlons are members of the /caag/ class (4.2.2.).
whlch commonly occur In rather speclal envlronments, and also have homonyms
whlch belong to speclal classes. They occur excluslvely before substantlve
expresslons and, In the deflnltlve /caag/-class context, before /naJ/-class
preposltlons.
1) /kwaa/ or /kwa/ 'more than' lS almost entlrely restrlcted to
occurrence after adJectlves and adJectlve phrases. Its homonym,
/kwaa/ 'more,' lS a/nag/-class postposltlon (4.4.2.) whlch'
,substltutes for all /kwaa/-phrases.
Examples:
roon kwa- na J- baan 'hotter than In the house'
,
kwaa 'hotter' roon
chaa kwaa-phom:
,
slower than

llg 'even me'

chaa kwa- ilg 'even slower'
,
kwa-d88m 'blgger than before'
Ja J
,
kwaa 'blgger'
Ja J
dll kwa-phyan 'better than the others'
dll kwaa 'better'
2) or and or 'of, belonglng to' as
preposltlons are almost entlrely restrlcted to occurrence
before substantlve expresslons, although a few adJectlves can
166
Examplest
have a modlfylng them (see last examples In
sectl0n). The substantlve followlng normally has person,
anlmal, or small obJect as referent, whl1e that followlng
has a large obJect, place, or abstractl0n as referent.
Phrases lntroduced by and commonly modlfy sub-
stantlves (usually nouns), but lf the head-noun lS mlsslng the
phrase stl11 operates syntactlcally as a substantlve, and caL
fl11 the tOP1C, sUbJect, object, or complement posltlon. In
fact, Slnce one of the meanlngs of the constructl0n 'head noun
H plus modlfler nounM' 18 already 'the H of M,' the preposltl0ns
and more often 'that of' than slmply 'of' -
1.e. they are more freoQent when the head noun lS mlsslng.

sanaam
chaad

'My book (book of me) ,
'My book'
'Mlne (that of me) ,
'Natlonal Stadlum (stad1um of nat1on) ,
'nat1onal anthem'
'the nat1on's'
Both prepos1t1ons have homonyms Wh1Ch are nouns: /kh00DI 'th1ng'
and 'place.' Nelther noun, by 1tself, Substltutes for the
correspond1ng type of prepos1t1onal phrase, but as normal-stressed
head nouns wlth mod1f1ers both occur 1n d1rect semant1c contrast
w1th the homonymous (weak-stressed) prepos1t1on plus 1tS complement.
Compare the follow1ng:
'They gave my th1ngs away. '
(Noun /kha0D/)
'They gave m1ne away.' (Prepos1t1on
/khaaD/)
Where 1nd1rect obJects are 1nvolved, there lS an 1mportant con-
trast between /k88/ 'to, for' and 'of, I the head
1f1er noun construct1on be1ng amb1guous 1n th1S case. Examples.
khaw haJ D8n phom: paJ . 'They gavE" my money away.
,
or
'They gave the money away to me.
I
khaw haJ paJ 'They gave my money away.
1
khaw haJ kE-phom: paJ . 'They gave the money away to me.
I
167
Addltlonal examples of all types.
JUu nll •
JYym •
'Mlne lS here. '
'Lend me yours. '
prath8Ed-thaJ JaJ kwaa • 'The army of Thalland lS '
pratheed-thaJ JaJ kwaa 'Thalland's lS larger. '
an-na J khaw •
haaJ: paJ-mod •
phyan phyan-phom •
thuug khaw .
'WhlCh one lS hlS7'
'Hls thlngs all dlsappeared.'
'A frlend of a frlend of mlne. r
'He lS rlght.' (Llt. 'rlght of
hlm.' /thuug/ lS an adJectlve.
and follow /kwaa/ when they lntroduce a non-modlfYlng
phrase; otherwlse the three preposltlons exclude each other.
dll kwaa • 'It's better than yours. r
4.3. ConJunctlons
A conJunctlon lS any bound lexeme WhlCh occurs as a prlor constltuent
In a syntactlc constructlon WhlCh has a whole predlcatlon as co-constltuent.
Just as modals (4.1.) lntroduce predlcatlve expresslons, and preposltlons
(4.2.) lntroduce substantlve expreSSlons, conJunctlons lntroduce entlre pre-
dlcatlons wlthout belng able to substltute for them - l.e. the constructlon
rconJunctlon plus predlcatlon' lS exocentrlc. There lS some overlap between
the membershlps of the preposltlon and conJunctlon classes, lnvolvlng espe-
clally the /thaa/ sub-class (4.3.2.). One klnd of conJunctlon class,
4.3.4.) actually follows the subJect of ltS predlcatlon, rather than preced-
lng It, but thls lS a clear case of dlscontlnuous order, Slnce the lmmedlate
constltuent analysls lS the same as In the case of other conJunctlons.
Except for the open /thaa/ sub-class (4.3.2.), the class of conJunctlons
lS small and closed. Many of lts members, however, are among the most fre-
quent lexemes In the language.
4.3.1. /diaw/ Class
The class conslsts of conJunctlons WhlCh occur In absolute lnltlal
posltlon (comlng even before and /thamaJ/-class complementlves,
3.2.2.) In clauses WhlCh 1) come flrst In a serles of clauses, and 2) are
In open clause Juncture (1.2.8. end). The second stlpulatlon lS necessary
168
to dlstlngulsh /diaw/- conJunctlons from /thaa/- and conJunctlons
(4.3. 2 , 3.), whlch are otherwlse ldentlcal In syntactlc functlon. The
class meanlng lS 'temporal or loglcal correlatlon wlth precedlng message
(whlch may be a clause, sentence, utterance by another speaker, or non-
verbal behavlor).' Clauses lntroduced by /diaw/-class conJunctlons,
therefore, may occur ln any part of an utterance. The conJunctlon ltself lS
frequently separated from the rest of ltS clause by phrase boundary.
The class lS small and closed, conslstlng only of the followlng elght
members, plus two dlscontlnuous lexemes WhlCh can also be classlfled as
modals (4.1.4.3,4.) other forms flttlng the deflnltlon but not recorded
here are varlants of one of the All members, In at least one of
thelr forms, occur as members of other classes.
1. /diaw/ and /pradiaw/ 'In a moment, soon, (be careful) or else,
otherwlse'
pradiaw , khaw khoD camaa • rDD , daJ: maJ •
'He's sure to be here soon. Can you walt a Ilttle
diaw , chan capaJ-aw maa-haJ .
'I'll go get lt for you ln a moment.'
',.. , tv, ,
Jaa wlD rewa nag dlaw hog: mod
'Don't run so fast, or you'll splll lt all.'
2. /leEw/ and
or /le/ and
'then, after that, and'
'and, then'
leEW pham capaJ syy khun caklab baan: rY-DaJ .
'Then I'm gOlng shopplng. Are you gOlng to go home, or what?'
lew-kSD laa khaw-paJ paJ-paa •
'And then the donkey ran lnto the forest.'
pham carlan , Ie faD sag-n;DJ duaJ •
'I'm gOlng to study, and 11sten to some records, too.'
3. /ryy/ or /ry/ and /ry-waa/ 'or, alternatlvelYJ lf not, then'
rJ-waa , tham dlll maJ • maJ-sia welaa maag •
'Or shall we do It thlS It won't take much tlme. '
pham carlan , ry sag-n;DJ k5-daJ
'I'm gOlng to study, or maybe llsten to some muslc.'
ryy haJ khaw klab paJ-k;Dn dll kwaa: .
'Or perhaps we'd better let hlm go back flrst.'
169
4. /khyy/ and /khy-waa/ and /k3-khyy/ 'or In other words, that lS to
say'
khyy , khaw pen nag-rlan: nl khrab • khaw maJ-daJ-pen khruu •
'(What I meant to say was) he's a student, you see. He's not
a teacher.'
khyy raw t3D-JUU naJ-h3D tal;od-welaa •
'In other words, we have to stay In the room the whole tlme.'
khaw pen . khy-waa , khaw pen khon ruaJ maag ..
'He's a rlch man - that lS to say, he's very wealthy.'
5. /tr,8/ or /tE/ and /tE-waa/ and /tE-k3o/ 'but, on the other hand'
tE-waa , khaw pen nag-rlan: Pl khrab . khaw maJ-daJ-pen khruu •
'But he's a student, you see. Hefs not a teacher. I
te-kSo pham t3D klab baan diaw-n{l: eeD •
'But I have to go home rlght away. '
khaw pen , k5-ClD: JUu t tEE pen khon caJ-dll: myan-kan .
'It's true that he's a rlch man, but on the other hand he's
good-hearted. '
6. /k3o/ or /k5/ 'Well, why, don't you know that' (Often followed by
sentence partlcle /nil/.)
k30 khaw pen nag-rlant ni khrab t . khaw maJ-daJ-pen khruu t .
'Why, he's a studentJ He's not a teacherJ'
k30 pham khil-kiad: thaw-nan nil •
'Well, I'm Just lazy, that's all.'
, 1"01 V A "
tham JaDDll , ko phom maJ-waa araJ .
'If (you want to) do It thlS way, well, I don't mlnd a blt. '
7. /188J/ or /18J/ 'then, that belng the case, so'
188J khun t3D klab baan diaw-n{l: eeD ryy .
'In that case you have to go home rlght away, do
188J pham capaJ syy . khun caklab baan: rJ-DaJ .
'So I'm gOlng shopplng. Are you gOlng home, or
8. /con/ 'by thls tlme, It'S come to the pOlnt that'
con pham maJ-ruu catham-JaDaJ dll .
lItIs come to the pOlnt that I don't know what to do.'
170
Internal order of the class 1S compl1cated by the fact that the slxth
and seventh members, /k3o/ and /leeJ/, have homonyms Wh1Ch belong to the
(a class of conJunct1ons Wh1Ch follow the subJect, 4.3.4.). In
clauses Wh1Ch have no subJect, the /k3o/ 1S amb1guous, unless 1t 1S followed
by /nl1/ and thus marked as belong1ng to the /dlaw/-class. Examples:
k5-d11: myan-kan .
'Well, that would be f1ne. '
'That, too, would be f1ne.'
leJ haaJ paJ-mod .
'30 1t all d1sappeared. '
lAs m1ght be expected, 1t all
d1sappeared. '
(/dlaw/-class)

(/dlaw/-class)

Members of sets 3-4, and 5-8 exclude each other semant1cally, w1th
the comb1nat1on /k5-leeJ/ apparently occurr1ng only when both 6 and 7 are
members of the The 1nternal order lS 5-6, 3-4, 1-2; 7-8 are
not known to occur 1n comb1nat1on, cases of 6-7 follow1ng 1-2 or 3-4 belng
lnterpreted as the1r homonyms. Examples:
k30 , dlaw fan tog •
6 1
'Well, 1t'S gOlng to ra1n 1n a moment.'
, khKY pham pen samaa-ch{g .
'But, you see, I'm a member.'
khyy , dlaw hog: mod .
4 1
'In other words, otherw1se 1t'11 sp1ll.'
18ew , leeJ k1ab baan •
2
'Then, as mlght be expected, he went home. '
dlaw , k5-haaJ paJ-mod .
1
lIn a moment 1t wlll all d1sappear, too.'
In the last two examples, and /k5-/ are members of the
class.
171
The class conslsts of conJunctlons WhlCh occur In absolute lnltlal
posltlon In clauses WhlCh 1) come flrst In a serles Df clauses, 2) are In
close clause Juncture, and 3) functlon syntactlcally as complementlves (not l
nouns). The class meanlng lS 'temporal or loglcal condltlon on another clause
(WhlCh lS usually the one lmmedlately followlng, less often the one preced-
lng),' and Engllsh equlvalents of the members are often subordlnate conJunc-
tlons. Llke /thamaJ/-class complementlves (3.2.2.3.), for WhlCh they freely
substltute, clauses lntroduced by /thaa/-class conJunctlons are reverslble
wlth respect to thelr head constltuents; the only dlfference In meanlng lS a
sllght change In emphasls (see example under 1. /thaa/ ltself).
When the clause lntroduced by the /thaa/-class conJunctlon precedes
the head-clause, conJunctlon ltself may follow a /diaw/-class (4.3.1.)
conJunctlon (e.g. /teE thaa •.. / 'But If ... I). Otherwlse, /thaa/-class con-
Junctlons always come flrst In thelr clauses (See flrst two examples under
1. /thaa/).
The class lS falrly large and probably open, Slnce It lncludes many
homonYmS of /dooJ/- class preposltlons, an open class (4.2.3.). No member
belongs dlscretely to the /thaa/ class, wlth the exceptlon of morphologlcally
complex varlants such as 2. and For exam-
ple, 1. /thaa/ ltself has a homonYm WhlCh lS a /mag/-class modal (4.1.2.).
The ltems Ilsted below are the most common members, and a few representatlve
/dooJ/-preposltlon types have also been lncluded.
1. /thaa/
'If '
/haag/ and /thaa-haag/ and /thaa-haag-waa/ 'If (on the contrary) ,
If (unexpectedly) , If only'
/phya/ and /thaa-phya/ and /thaa-phya-waa/ 'If, In case'
teE thaa khun maJ-paJ , pham capaJ-daJ •
'But If you don't go, how can I
tEE pham capaJ-daJ t thaa khun maJ-paJ •
'But how can I go, If you don't
thaa-haag mll , pham ko-capaJ daJ
'If only I had a car, I could go. '
thaa-phya pham mll , pham ko-capaJ daJ •
'If I have a car, I'll be able to go.'
172
2. or and 'even lf, although'
and mEEn-waa/ 'even lf It should come to the pOlnt
that'
and /con/ 'although It has come to the pOlnt that'
khaw capaJ , pham ko-maJ-paJ: myan-kan •
'Even lf he goes, I'm not gOlng.'
chan camaJ-cho0b khaw , chan ko-phuud dll kakhaw .
'Although I don't llke hlm, I say nlce thlngs of hlm. '
V A V , V
phom camll rod , phom k0-maJ-paJ
'Even lf I had a car, I wouldn't go.'
fan tog, khaw 00g paJ-thiaw, ilg •
'Although It was ralnlng, he went out anyway. '
3. /mya/
/to0-mya/
/naJ-mya/
'when'
'only when, only lf'
'at a tlme when'
mya pham mll , pham ko-capaJ daJ •
'When I have a car, 1
'
11 be able to go.'
pham kheeJ paJ bOJ-bOJ , mya pham mll •
'I went often when I had a car.'
khaw b00g waa , khaw capaJ t00-mya pnam paJ •
'He sald he would go only lf I went. '
thammaJ khun 00g , naJ-mya fan tog: JUU •
'Why are you gOlng out (at a tlme) when lt'S
4. /wee-1aa/ and /naJ-we1aa/ 'when, whlle'
and 'whlle'
wee-laa khaw pen , khaw kheeJ paJ bOJ-boJ •
'Whlle he was a student he went often. I
deg-deg paJ-ded , khon-tham-suan maJ-Juu •
'Ghlldren go and plck flowers whlle the gardener lS not there.'
k00n pham s1a , pham kheeJ paJ bOJ-bOJ •
'Before my care broke down, I used to go often. I
173
khun khuan carlan sag-nooJ , koon-thll cakhaw noon.
'You ought to study a Ilttle, before gOlng to bed. '
6. /phoo/ 'as soon as, by the tlme that'
phoo raw thll-nan , raw ca-aab-naam daJ .
'As soon as we get there, we'll be able to bathe.'
phoo khaw daJ-Jln , khaw tyyn than-thll •
'The moment he heard that, he woke up. '
7. /kwaa/ and /con-kwaa/ 'untll such tlme as, by the tlme that'
Clause usually has no subJect, and predlcate 1S preceded by
/ca-/
kwaa thll-nan , k5-mYyd. leEw .
'By the t1me we get the.L'e, lt'll be dark already.'
tham ryaJ: paJ , cahaaJ .
'Keep on dOlng thls untll 1t heals. '
8. /con/ and and 'untll, to the pOlnt that'
chan waaJ-naama sa con myaJ paJ-mod •
'I swam untll I was completely worn out. '
khaw chaaJ khaw mods paJ-leeJ .
'He kept on spendlng llke thlS untll all hlS money was used up. '
9.

'after, later than the tlme that'
'slnce, contlnulng from the tlme that'
rab-prathaan aahaan , phom keed khyn-maa •
'After eatlng, I got a stomach ache. '
taD-tee rab-prathaan aahaans maa , phom ryaJ •
'Ever Slnce eatlng, I have had a stomach ache. '
10. /noog-caag/ 'except that, unless'
Clause usually has no subJect, and predlcate lS usually preceded
by /ca-/.
nag-rlan ko-klab baan daJ: leeJ , noog-caag camll
haJ-tham .
'The students can go rlght home, unless there lS speclal work
to be done.'
174
11. and ka-/ 'llke, as'
/myan ka-/ 'as If'
khun waa , pen an-taraaJ maag •
'As you say, It's very dangerous.'
khaw araJ maJ-hen , myan ka-taa b;od .
'He can't see a thlng, Just as If he were bllnd.'
12. /dooJ/ and /duaJ/ 'by, wlth, wlth the attendant clrcumstance that'
Clause usually comes second and has no subJect If /dooJ/ occurs.
khaw khab r6d dooJ maJ-chaJ leeJ .
'He drlves wlthout uSlng hls hands at all. '
duaJ khaw pen khon-khab , raw klua: leeJ •
'Wlth hlm as drlver (lnasmuch as he's the drlver) we don't
have anythlng to be afrald of. '
13. and /phr5-waa/ and 'because, oWlng to the
fact that'
raw klua: leeJ , khaw pen khon-khab •
'We don't have anythlng to be afrald of, "because he's the
drlver. '
cam-nuan khruu maJ-phoo , maJ peed
maJ-daJ pll-n{l .
'OWlng to the fact that the number of teachers lS stlll
lnsufflclent the new school can't open thls year. '
pham paJ maJ-daJ , phr5-waa r6d sla •
'I can't go, because my car's broken.'
14. /phya/ 'In order to, for the purpose of'
Clause usually has no subJect, and predlcate lS usually preceded
by /ea-I.
khaw keb waJ , phya casyy r6d khan-maJ •
'He lS savlng money to buy a new car. '
phya capen samaa-ch{g : nan, khun haa
khon ha J- da J •
'In order to become a member, you have to flnd two sponsors. '
ConJunctlons of the Ithaa/ class do not necessarlly exclude each other
semantlcally (cf. such Engllsh comblnatlons as 'Although In order to save
17.5
money may be necessary to cut corners ••• ,). Examples of two members of
the class the same constructlon are extremely rare, however, except
the second member lS actually a /dooJ/-class preposltlon. No lnternal order
has been establlshed.
4.3.3. Class
The class conslsts of conJunctlons whlch occur In absolute lnltlal
posltlon In clauses whlch 1) come flrst In a serles of clauses, 2) are In
close clause Juncture, and 3) functlon syntactlcally as substantlves. A
corollary of the last condltlon lS that assoclated wlth
members lack one of the typlcal substantlve constltuents - usually tOplC,
subJect, or obJect.
In addltlon to occurrlng In the deflnltlve context, conJunc-
even more frequently lntroduce the second of two clauses. In such
cases the clause so lntroduced may be elther a substantlve constltuent be-
longlng to the flrst clause as a whole, or a modlfler of a substantlve con-
stltuent actually present In the flrst clause. The class meanlng, then, lS
'substantlve constltuent follows, elther modlfler of somethlng In precedlng
clause, or ltself a constltuent of an adJacent clause.' Engllsh equlvalents
are relatlve pronouns such as 'who, whlch, what, that.'
When the clause lntroduced by a conJunctlon comes flrst,
It lS very frequently closed wlth /nan/ or /nil/, and no matter whlch member
of the class occurs, the Engllsh equlvalent lS nearly always '(the fact) .
that .•. ' When the lntroduced clause comes second, the echolng /nan/
or lS less common, and the selectlon of a partlcular conJunctlon lS
more
The class lS small and closed, the followlng belng the only
lmportant members. Three members of the class, 1. ltself, 6./kaan-thil/,
and 8. /an/, are assoclated wlth formal Ilterary style, but also sometimes
occur In colloqulal speech.
1. or 'That whlch, such a one as, such ones as'
khaw waa: nan, maJ-daJ khwaam .
'Thlngs he says don't make sense.'
tog naJ-khuu , khaw
'It fell down lnto a dltch - one that had been dug. '
2. /thil/ or /thi/ and /thi-waa/ 'That whlch, the one that, the ones
that'
(Restrlcts a element much more than does.)
176
thll khaw tham: nll , maJ-daJ phan •
'What he has done here lS of no use. '
thl-waa pham nan , leeJ .
'That I look down on them lS slmply not true. '
tog naJ-khuu , thl khaw waJ •
'It fell down lnto the dltch that had been dug for It.'
na , thll pharo maa saaJ:
'Excuse me for comlng so late. '
('Excuse me that I come so late. ,)
,

3. /waa/ or /wa/ 'that, saYlng, thlnklng, or knowlng that'
(lntroduces a quote.) /waa/ lS homonymous wlth a post-
posltlon of the same meanlng WhlCh occurs at the end
of clauses (4.4.4.4.).
waa pham duu-thuug: nan , leeJ •
'To say that I look down on them lS slmply not true.'
chuaJ b;og khaw duaJ: na khrab , wa pham camaa saaJ. n;oJ •
'Please tell hlm also that I'll be a Ilttle late.'
lchan maJ-saab nEE-noon, wa capen-paJ-daJ: ryy-maJ .
'I stlll don't know for sure whether lt wlll be posslble or not.'
4. /haJ/ or /haJ/ 'so that, who should, WhlCh should, the
hypothetlcal sltuatlon that'
In commands and all types of hypothetlcal sltuatlons, and ln
noun expresslons lnvolvlng unreal referents, /haJ/ 1S selected.
Especlally, lt replaces and /waa/, the flrst three
members of thlS class. (See also 4.2.6.1.4.)
Compare the folloWlng:
khaw lakhoon , thll than lyagl waJ •
'They wlll show the plays that you have selected.'
khaw lakhoon , than lyag: waJ •
'They wlll show such plays as you have selected.'
khaw lakhoon , haJ than lyag: waJ •
'They wlll show plays for you to select from'
(l.e. 'plays WhlCh you should select from')
pham b;og waa-khun paJ duu: si.
'1 sald, 'You go take a look.' (Dlrect quote)
177
Other examples of /haJ/'
haJ khaw dll kwaa •
'Better let hlm go In flrst. '
('Wash the clothes so that they. are
clean. I)
pham paJ duu: sl •
'I sald for you to go take a look.' (Indlrect quote; you may
not even have been present.)
pharo khun waa , paJ dUUI sl .
'I told you, 'Go take a look.' (Dlrect)
pham khun haJ-paJ-duu, sl •
'I told you to go take a look.' (Indlrect, but you were present.)
( 'Hls hypothetlcal enter1ng f1rst
1S better. ' )
chan capaJ-aw , haJ kh8cg .
'I'll go get some assorted fru1ts for the guests to eat.'
In addltlon to these uses, /haJ/ lS obllgatory 1) where the subJect of
a prlor clause lS not the same as the subJect of the dependent clause, but
the new subJect lS not ment10ned, and 2) before all adJect1ves In hypothet-
1cal predlcates.
Compare the followlng:
1) aw maa-duu: •
'Get the book and see. '
aw maa haJ-duu: •
'Get the book (for someone else) to see.'
khraJ law la •
'Who told (you) that? ('Who told (for you) to llsten. ,)
2) pham cam daJ-dll .
'I can remember It well. '
cam J ha J- dll: na t.
'Remember 1t well, wlII you? '
phaa haJ-sa-aad: sl t.
'Get the clothes clean!'
khaw kh{d haJ-Ia-iad maag.
'He's try1ng to thlnk 1t out In great deta11.'
('He thlnks so that It wlll be very detalled.')
178
5. /aaJ/ or /aJ/ and /aJ-thll/ 'that, thls buslness of'
/aaJ/ most commonly before clauses wlth no subJect. /aJ-thll/ lS
the colloqulal equlvalent of 6. /kaan-thll/ ln many cases.
aaJ capaJ saan: nil , maJ-daJ phan: 188J •
'ThlS buslness of taklng lt to court lS absolutely useless. '
aJ-thll khaw tham baab: nan, chan maJ-thyy •
'That he may have commltted a sln, I don't hold agalnst hlm. '
6. /kaan-thll/ 'the fact that, the SUpposltlon that, that WhlCh,
lna smuch as'
kaan-thll khaw s;ab tog, pham maJ pralaad-caJ: 188J .
'That he should have falled the examlnatlon doesn't surprlse
me at all. '
kaan-thll khaw tham-daJ nan, Jaa paJ-thood: khaw l88J •
'Inasmuch as he was able to do lt by hlmself, don't blame hlm
so much. '
7. and sam-rab/ or /samrab/ 'As for the fact (or SUpposltlon)
that'
paJ-waa: nan maJ-khaad: sa sag-thll •
'As for gOlng to the temples and that sort of thlng, she never
falls to.'
samrab kan nil , pham •
'As for thelr competlng together, I know nothlng about It.'
8. /an/ and /an-waa/ 'one that, such that'
The form /an/ Substltutes for /thll/, and the form /an-waa/ for
/waa/ (when the /waa/-clause comes flrst) ln formal style.
naJ loog an-tem paJ-duaJ nil .••
'In thls world WhlCh lS full of mlsfortune ••. '
an-waa khaw tham phid: nan , •
'(To say) that he dld wrong lS true enough.'
9. /thaw-thil/ or /thaw-thll/ and /taam/ and /taam-thll/ 'lnsofar as,
to the extent that, accordlng to what'
thaw-thll pham saab , khaw sabaaJ dll •
'As far as I know, he's well.'
179
phom phaJaa-Jam catham haJ-maag , thaw-thll catham daJ .
'I'm trylng to do as much of lt as can posslbly be done.'
phom phaJaa-Jam catham taam-thll khaw •
'I'm trylng to do lt as he ordered.'
10. /chen/ or /chen/, and 'such as, llke' /chen/
lS frequently followed by a complementlve /pen-ton/ at the end
of ltS clause.
khaw tham araJ-araJ , chen aw-law paJ-haJ kln: pen-ton.
'She does everythlng wrong, llke glvlng WhlSky to bables. '
khaw € € lakhoon , than lyag: •
'They wlll show plays such as you have selected.'
(Compare flrst three examples under 4. /haJ/, and also see
/thaa/-class, 4.3.2.11.)
Internal order of the class lS not flxed, but two
do occur In the same clause:
h[J-khaw tham nan...
'The fact that he should be allowed to do lt hlmself .•• '
aaJ paJ-waal nan•••
7 5
'As for thlS buslness of gOlng to the temple ••• '
waa nan•.•
10 3
'Such as lS sald to be correct ••• '
4.3 ·4. /!El!J/ Class
These conJunctlons are the only ones WhlCh occur after the subJects
or tOP1CS of thelr clauses. They come lmmedlately after the subJect and
before all elements of the predlcate, lncludlng all types of modals. Syn-
tactlcally thelr clauses are exactly llke clauses lntroduced by /dlaw/-class
conJunctlons - l.e. they are lndependent clauses WhlCh can occur flrst In a
serleswlthout belng In close Juncture. The class meanlng lS partlally the
same, also: 'temporal or loglcal correlatlon wlth precedlng message, or
establlshment of tlme-sequence, expectedness, or unexpectedness of event. '
The class lS closed, and extremely small, conslstlng of only four
members and thelr varlants. The flrst member, /koo/, lS easlly the most
180
common lexeme 1n the ent1re language and 1S very d1ff1cult to translate 1n
most of 1tS contexts. All members except 1tself (Wh1Ch has a sllghtly
Ilterary flavor) have homonYms belong1ng to other classes.
1. /k5o/ or /k5/ or /ko/ 'then, that be1ng the case, ln addlt1on,
slm1larly, at least' (The f1rst form occurs under normal stress,
the last two forms elsewhere.)
sed leEw , khaw k5-paJ noon.
'When 1t was f1n1shed, he went to bed. '
('Hav1ng f1n1shed, he then went to bed. ,)
thaa pen khruu , pham ko-maJ-waa araJ •
'If 1t'S a teacher, then I m1nd.'
raw paJ-duu k5-daJ: nl khrab •
'We could go to a mov1e, too, you know. '
('Our gOlng to a mOV1e 1S an add1t1onal poss1b1l1ty, here. ,)
pham .
'I myself, at least, don't know anyth1ng about 1t.'
d1aw saam11 k50 than .
'Pretty soon her husband w1ll f1nd out (too) •. '
pa J , ko pa J: si .
'If we're gOlng, let's go.'
Bes1des occurrence 1n the def1n1t1ve context, /k5o/ has two other sem-
ant1cally 1mportant uses: 1) after an 1nterrogat1ve word of any class,
changes the 1nterrogat1ve mean1ng to '1ndef1n1te,' and 2) repeated 1n par-
allel 1t means 'both.•• and ..• ' or 'e1ther .•. or ...
1) araJ ko-maJ-hen •
'I can't see anyth1ng.' ('Whatever I look at, I can't see. ,)
thl1-naJ k5-d11 •
('Anywhere 1S all r1ght. ') 'Anywhere at all.'
2) paJ k5-daJ , JUu k5-daJ •
'You can e1ther go or stay. '
khruu k5-m11 , nag-r1an k5-m11 .
'There are both teachers and students. '
2. /188J/ or /18J/ 'consequently, as m1ght be expected, therefore'
mya hen waa , phyan , khaw 188J klab baan •
'When he saw h1S fr1end was not there, he (for that reason) went
home. '
181
mll meeg , pham l88J maJ-ncc caJ: wa , fan
catog ry-plaaw .
'There were only a few clouds, so I wasn't sure whether It
would raln or not. '
3. and or 'subsequently, only then, It comes to
the pOlnt that'
(The form lS more formal than the other two.)
dyan naa , camll •
'There won't be another falr untll next month. '
('Next month, only then, wlll there be another falr. ,)
ilg-sag-khruu , lS2w paJ •
'Walt & moment longer, and (only) then go. '
mya hen waa , phyan maJ-Juu , khaw thYD klab baan
'When he saw hls frlend was not there, he (after that) went
home. '
Another lmportant use of lS In clauses lntroduced by /thamaJ/-class
complementlves-see examples (3.2.2.3.).
4. /JaD/ 'stlll, even, contlnues to, goes so fas as to.'
Frequently echoed by /Juu/ at end of verb expresslon, or /ilg/ at
end of whole clause.
khaw JaD pen nag-rlanl JUu •
'He lS (or was) stlll a student. r
pham JaD tDD-kaan casyy buril: ilg .
'I stlll need to buy clgarettes also. '
khaw khun waa , khaw aad camaJ-paJ •
'They even told you they mlght not go. '
JaD ilg ryY t .
'Isn't the traln leavlng ,
maJ-daJ-paJ •
'It hasn't gone yet. t
hen waa , phyan maJ-Juu , khaw baana ilg •
tAlthough he saw that hls frlend was not there, he stlll (In
splte of that) went home. '
182
Internal order of the class lS 1, 2-3, 4, but the comblnatlons 13 and
34 are rare. Examples:
khaw k5-188J baan .
1 2
'He then (consequently) went home. '
(see last example under
1 4
A '" ,
khaw 18J maJ ruu-cag kan .
'80 they stlll don't know each other. '
4.4. Postposltlons
A postposltlon lS any bound lexeme that occurs as a latter const1tuent
of an express1on, predlcatlon, enumeratlon or phrase, such that the larger
constructlon (prlor constltuent plus postposltlon) lS less than an ent1re
clause. The class of postposltlons lS thus 1n general contrast wlth that of
sentence partlcles (4.5.), WhlCh together wlth thelr co-constltuents compr1se
entlre clauses, although there lS some overlap between the two classes.
Llke the bound lexeme classes WhlCh lntroduce constructlons - modals
(4.1.), preposltlons (4.2.), and conJunctlons (4.3.) - postposltlons are
sub-clasSlfled accordlng to the nature of thelr co-qonstltuent. The sub-
classes are 1) /waJ/ class (verb modlflers), 2) /nag/ class (adJectlve
modlflers), 3) class (substantlve and predlcatlon mod1f1ers), and
4) enumeratlve postposltlons, WhlCh mod1fy or create enumeratlons. The con-
structlons resultlng from the flrst three types of postposltlon are endo-
centrlc, and from the last type, elther endocentrlc or exocentrlc.
All postposltlons characterlstlcally have weak stress, and, llke the
sentence partlcles, frequently occur after the morpheme / : / In thelr phrases
and clauses. The class meanlng lS 'restrlctlon as to tlme, space, quantlty,
or degree of a free-lexeme concept' for the flrst three sub-classes, and
'lncluslveness, dlstrlbutlon, or cross-reference of an enumeratlon' for the
fourth sub-class. Except for the and to s'ome extent the /nag/
class, the membershlp lS extremely Ilmlted.
4.4.1. /wa .1/ Class
These postposltlons occur wlth weak stress lmmedlately follow1ng and
In constructlon wlth verb expresslons. If the verb expresslon lncludes an
obJect, the /waJ/-class member always follows the obJect; If the predlcate
lncludes a preposltlon, the /waJ/-class member elther precedes or follows the
183
prepos1t1onal phrase. The members of the class are not negatable 1n any
pos1t1on, but all have homonYms Wh1Ch are verbs.
The class mean1ng 1S 'or1entat1on of act10n w1th respect to space and
t1me relat1onsh1ps,' and the forms together const1tute a k1nd of aspectual
system for the verb. The ent1re class cons1sts of pa1rs of semant1c oppo-
sltes, but sets 1-4 and 7-10 have an even more complex 1nternal relat1onsh1p.
Members of set 1-4 exclude each other ent1rely. Members 8 and 10 have 1den-
t1cal allomorphs, but on the bas1s of greater frequency of /sla/ 1n mean1ng
8, and /sa/ 1n mean1ng 10, the pattern1ng of Oppos1t1on lS ma1nta1ned (7-8,
9-10) •
The class lS small and closed, cons1st1ng only of these ten members.
1. /khaw/ 'lnto an enclosed space, or closer to the center of 1nterest'
man luug-boon •
'He threw the ball lnto the room. '
deen khaw-maa klaJ-klaJ: na •
'Walk r1ght up close, w1ll
2. /oog/ 'out of an enclosed space or farther from the center of
1nterest'
, '" ,
Jaa waaJ-naam oog-paJ klaJ-klaJI ne .
'Don't SWlm out too far, now.'
khaw wiD oog-maa-caag-hnD' phoo-d11 •
'He came runn1ng out of the room Just then.'
3. /khyn/ 'upward, newly arr1ved on the scene'
khew Jib naD-syy khyn-maa •
'He Ilfted up the books.' (/Jib/ 'plck up')
slaD pyyn-koo daD: khyn •
fA p1stol-shot rang out (suddenly).'
4. /loD/ 'downward, depart1ng from the scene'
khew phaa-kan-th{D knon-hin 10D-paJ naJ-khuu •
'They were all dropp1ng stones down 1nto the pond. '
faJ kamlaD dab: 10D •
'Th0 flre lS dy1ng down. '
184
5. /paJ/ 'away from the speaker, toward the future or an lndef1nlte
or lrrelevant goal,' before prepos1tlonal phrase: 'toward
a defln1te but d1stant goal, toward the future.'
laa khaw-paJ-naJ-paa •
'The donkey ran off 1nto the forest (to get away).'
khaw Jam naa: paJ •
'(One of the th1ngs) they (do 1S) trample the f1elds.'
raw paJ-i1g-naan: rnaJ •
'Do we have to keep on wa1t1ng
wan-nan: paJ •.•
'From that day (In the future) onward ..• r
6. /maa/ 'toward the speaker, up to the present or toward a def1n1te,
relevant, nearby goal. '
wan-nan: roaa •••
'From that day (In the past) onward ..• '
raw maa-naan l8Ew.
'We have been wa1t1ng a long t1me already (the wa1t1ng mayor
may not be over).'
v
paJ naJ: maa .
'Where have you been?' (/paJ naJ/ 'Where are you ,)
, thl1 khaw daaJ: maa •••
'The money Wh1Ch he had gotten... '
laa khaw-maa-naJ-paa .
'The donkey ran 1nto the forest (toward us).'
mya-waan-n{l lyym syy: maa .
'I forgot to bUl 1t yesterday. '
, ,
cf. mya-waan-n11 lyym syy: paJ .
'I forgot to buy 1t yesterday. '
7. /waJ/ or /waaJ/ and /aw-waJ/ and 'removed from the scene
but w1th future relevance, put aS1de temporar1ly for future ref-
erence, act10n deferred. '
1chan ded ' saJ cEE-kan .
'I'm p1ck1ng flowers to put 1n a vase.'
pham ,
'I have the car parked out front. '
185
dlchan waJ leEw waa camaa-haa khun •
'I had already lntended to come to see you. r
cam waaJ haJ-dll: na •
'Remember lt well, wlll r
sya: waJ , thll-nan: s{ .
'Leave the coat there (where you can get It).'
8. ISlal or /sa/ 'removed from the scene permanently, wlth no future
relevance'
sYa. sia thll-nan: s{ .
'Leave the coat there (to get rld of It).'
met maJ-daJ-paJ nSJ: sia .
'Your mother hasn't gone anywhere (for good).'
9. IJuu/ 'remalnlng on the scene, unchanged, actlon contlnulng,
temporary, wlthout necessary future slgnlflcance. r
dlchan khDDJ: JUu , leEw •
'I am belng kept waltlng an awfully long tlme. '
laa khaw-paJ-Juu naJ-paa •
'The donkey had run lnto the forest (and was stlll there, lf
only temporarlly).'
caan Juu-bon-to •
'The dlshes had been placed on the table (wlth what lntent, we
don't know.)'
rlan JUu , naJ-amee-rikaa .
'He lS studylng In Amerlca (for the present, at least). r
pham pen samaa-ch{g Juu-IEew •
1 I am alrea dy a member (a s 1 t happens).'
thll pham mll' JUu ••.
'The money WhlCh I (happen to) have ... '
10. Isa/ or ISlal 'sltuatlon changed, actlon vlewed as a unlt, not
contlnulng lnto the future'
tEE pham pen samaa-ch{g sa-lEEw .
'But now I've become a member.'
N ' _ A
khaw caan waJ sa-naJ-tuu .
'She has (gone and) put the dlshes away In the cupboard.'
186
kln: sa Sll t .
'Eat It upJ' (/kln Sll/ 'EatJ ,)
dlchan khooJ: sa , t a ~ - n a a n le€w .
'I walted an awfully long tlme (the waltlng lS over now).'
Internal order of the class lS 1-4, 5-6, 7-8, 9-10, wlth representatlves
from no more than three of the sets belng found In a slngle constructlon.
Dlstrlbutlon of 1-4 wlth respect to 5-6 lS complete.
1.
2.
3.
4.
khaw paJ 'golng In'
khaw maa 'comlng In'
..
out' oog paJ 'golng
oog maa 'comlng out'
khyn paJ 'golng up'
khyn maa 'comlng up'
lOlJ paJ 'golng down'
lOlJ maa 'comlng down'
The remalnlng dlstrlbutlon lS as follows:
"
Sla
waJ sa
,. ..
waJ JUu
'gone away for good'
'gone subJect to recall'
'gone to stay, lncldentally'
'gone, slgnlflcantly'
'havlng gone there subJect to recall'
'as of now, gone subJect to recall'
pa J
paJ
paJ
paJ sa
paJ
paJ
does not occur) 6. (maa sla (8)
,.
maa wa J (7)
maa JUu (9)
maa sa (10)
maa waJ sa
'come subJect to recall'
'come to stay, lncldentally'
'come, slgnlflcantly'
'as of now, come subJect to recall'
7.
,. ..
waJ JUU 'kept, lncldentally'
'kept, slgnlflcantly'
8-10. are termlnal.
Addltlonal examples.
k3on-hln tog lOlJ-paJ-Juu n a J - n ~ a m
459
'The stone had fallen down lnto the water. '
187
k3on-hin tog naJ-naam •
4 5 10
'The stone fell down lnto the water. '
k3on-hin tog sia .
458
'The stone fell down lnto the water (and was lost).'
pham tham dll maa-sa-maaga lEew t .
6 10
'I've already done a lot of good!'
pham tham dll Juu-maag: lEew •
9
'I'm already dOlng a lot of good.'
dlchan ded d;og-maaJ: maa-waJ , sSJ cee-kan .
6 7
'I've plcked some flowers to put In a vase.'
4.4.2. /nag/ Class
These postposltlons occur wlth weak stress lmmedlately after, and In
constructlon wlth, adJectlves. The class lncludes some members whlch are
homonYmOus wlth /waJ/- class postposltlons (5-8 below) but have qUlte dlf-
ferent meanlngs, and some members whlch are homonYmOus wlth
postposltlons (13-15, 18) and have slmllar meanlngs. /nag/ ltself occurs
most commonly after negated adJectlves, members 2-17 rarely so occur, and
18-19 are found In both types of constructlon. The class meanlng lS 'to a
certaln extent.' The class lS open (and, In fact, seems to act as a magnet
for slang lnnovatlons); the membershlp lS qUlte large. The followlng llst,
however, lncludes the most frequent members.
1. /nag/ 'to such an extent, too, so'
thaa thee tyyn chaa: nag, thee k3-capaJ maJ-than r6d •
'If you get up so late, you'll never make the traln.'
pham kheeJ paJ , tee maJ-b;J' nag.
'I've been there, but not too often.'
2. /dll/ 'to a deslrable degree, nlce and ... '
dll •
'Thls room lS nlce and spaclous.'
lEew 10m dll duaJ .
lAnd the wlnd lS nlce and strong, too.'
188
3. /thldlaw/ or /chlaw/ and /tem-thll/ 'qulte, completely'
kh;ob-khun , pham im: thldlaw (tem-thll) •
'Thank you, I'm completely full.' (refuslng food)
wan-n{l maa chlaw t mua paJ-Juu sa thll-naJ t .
'You're qUlte late today; where on earth have you
len rew: tem-thll •
'The car went at full speed. '
4. /keen-paJ/ and /paJ/ 'too, excesslvely'
hen camaaga keen-paJ lamaD •
'Don't you thlnk that's Ilttle too
chan tham leGJ t phuud JaD{l k5-waa , paJ-ilg •
'I can't do anythlng rlght; even when I talk llke thlS, you
stlll say It's too slow.'
5. /;og/ and /;og-cataaJ/ 'to an undeslrably great extent. '
naD-syy lem-n{l naa: ;og-cataaJ .
'Thls book lS terrlbly thlCk. '
chan phuud ;og JaD{l leEw t JaD faD maJ-than: ilg reG.
'I've already slowed down an awful lot as It lSi can't you
understand what I'm saYlng
6. /khaw/ 'closer to a deslred goal or ultlmate condltlon,
progresslvely more'
phoo thaaJ ruub pen: khaw leEw••.
'When you get a Ilttle better at taklng plctures ••• '
rew !khaw: Sll t .
'Hurry up! Faster! I
7. /khyn/ 'more than before, In lncreaslng fashlon'
8. /IOD/ 'more than before, In decreaslng fashlon'
khaw uant khyn .
'He's gettlng fatter.'
khaw kEEl lOD •
'He's gettlng older.'
phuud rew: khyn ilg-n{d , daJ: maJ •
'Gan you speak a Ilttle
189
phuud chaa: ilg-n{d , daJ: maJ •
'Can you speak a Ilttle
aakaan dll: khyn •
'Hls condltlon lS lmproved.'
ph00 ,
'When the flghtlng flnally qUleted down'
(Selectlon between these two ltems lS to a large extent lexlcally
condltloned, but /khyn/ lS by far the more common.)
9. /kwaa/ and /keen-kwaa/ 'more than somethlng else of ltS klnd,
comparatlvely more'
tham dll kwaa .
'It's better to do It thls way.'
lem-n{l naa: kwaa •
'Thls book lS thlcker (than some other book).'
khaw phuud chaa: kwaa •
'He speaks even more slowly (than someone else).'
10. /thll-sud/ or /thlsud/ and /kwa-phyan/ 'more than all others of
ltS klnd, most, extremely'
khan-n{l lEn rew: thil-sud •
'Thls car runs the fastest of all. '
tham kS-dll: thlsud •
'It would be best to do It that way. '
khon-nan phuud chaa: thlsud .
'That one speaks extremely slowly.'
lem-n{l naa kwa-phyan .
'Thls book lS thlcker than the others. '
11. /thaw-kan/ or /thaw-thaw: kan/ 'to the same degree, equally'
khan: n{l , chaa: thaw-kan .
'These two students both speak slowly. I
dln-SQ0 n{l , Jaaw thaw-thaw: kan .
'These two penclls are equally long. '
12. /ph00/ and /ph00-chaaJ/ 'to a satlsfactory degree, enough'
kS khaw khab rew: ph00-chaaJ .
'Well, he drlves fast enough. '
190
leEw 10m phDD duaJ •
'And the wlnd was stlll sufflclently strong, too.'
13. /maag/ (and many slang Substltutes) 'very'
14. /n{d-dlaw/ 'very (restrlcted to small-scale concepts) ,
15. /noDJ/ 'a Ilttle, rather, somewhat'
khaw khab maag •
'He drlves very slowly. '
baan kla J: maag •
'The house lS very far away. '
baan JUu klaJ: n{d-dlaw •
'The house lS very close. '
baan JUu klaJI nODJ •
'The house lS rather far away. '
16. /lya-keen/ or /lakeen/ and Item-thll/ 'excesslvely In an undeSlr-
able sense, terrlbly'
Jm8E t wan-n{l lakeen •
'My, It's awfully hot today.'
khaw khab rew: lya-keen •
'He drlves terrlbly fast. '
suan-maag can: tem-thll •
'Most of the lnhabltants are terrlbly poor. '
17. and 'really'
leeg •
'The mOVle lS really slow lettlng out. '
pham ch5Db maag: •
'I really llke lt a lot. '
18. /thaw-raJ/ or /thaw-raJ/ 'how much, to any extent'
Ja J: thaw-ra J .
'How blg lS
maJ-JaJ: thaw-raJ.
'It's not blg at all.'
19. /leeJ/ 'qulte', after negatlve, 'not at all'
thll-nll sabaaJ: leeJ •
'It's qUlte pleasant slttlng here.'
191
phaa n11 maJ-d11: 188J •
'Th1S cloth 1S no good. '
Two postpos1t1ons follow1ng a slngle adJect1ve are not
uncommon, and th1S 1S apparently also the maX1mum number of mod1f1ers. From
the sets 1-5, 6-8, 9-11, 12-15 and 16-19, only one member of each set may
occur 1n such construct1ons. Internal order of the class works as follows:
From set 1-5, /k88n-paJ/ and 1tS alternant /paJ/ are followed by 13-15,
and 19; other members of th1S set are term1nal.
Set 6-8 1S followed by 9 and by 12-15 and 16-19.
From set 9-11, /kwaa/ 1S followed by 13-15 and 18-19; other members
are term1nal.
From set 12-15, /maag/ 1S followed by 1 or 3 and 16-17; other members
are term1nal.
Set 16-19 1S not followed by members of any other set.
Examples of double mod1f1catlon of adJect1ves by members
follow. In all cases but the last the 1mmed1ate const1tuent analys1s 1S
AB/C.
rew khyn: kwaa
7 9
rew khyn: maag
7 13
rew khyn: thaw-raJ
7 18
rew kwaa: n{d-d1aw
9 14
'faster than ever'
'much faster than before'
'how much faster than before'
'a Ilttle faster than the other'
rew kwaaa
9
'how much faster than the other'
rew maag: ch1aw
13 3
rew maag:
13 17
,
rew: paJ-nooJ
4 15
'def1n1tely very fast'
'really very fast'
'a Ilttle too fast'
Construct1ons w1th members 6-8 as a const1tuent also occur frequently
1n parallel phrases,
khan maa paJ-mod ,
khaw , khaw , th11 .
'There were so many people wa1t1ng for the bus 1t kept
hav1ng to slow up more and more. r
192
naa-likaa , aw-paJ-kE8 , deen rew: khyn , rewa
khYn, thll.
'The more I take my watch to be repalred the faster It runs. '
, deen chaa: , chaa: , thll •
'The I take It to be flxed, the slower It runs. '
4.4.3. /baalJ/ Class
These postposltlons are all weak. stressed forms of those feeD/-class
complementlves (3.2.2.2.) whlch have the syntactlc functlon of replaclng
partltlve numeral phrases (3.2.6.3.), and they follow both /waJ/-class and
/nag/-class postposltlons In the same clause. Just as the /waJ/-class mod-
lfles verbs and the /nag/-class modlfles adJectlves, the /baaD/ class can be
saJd to modlfy substantlves, In the sense that when a noun expresslon occurs
In the prlor part of the clause, the /baaD/-class postposltlon refers to It
(see flrst example under 1. /baaD/ below). When no noun expresslon lS so
modlfled, the postposltlon has the entlre predlcatlon as ltS co-constltuent
(see second example under 1. /baaD/ below).
Llke thelr counterpart members of the feeD/-class of complementlves,
the members of the have covert lexlcal relatlonshlps wlth par-
tltlve numerals (see tabulatlon In 3.2.6.3.) - for example /baaD/ ltself
replaces any numeral phrase lntroduced by /baaD(. All members of the /eeD/
class whlch correspond to /baaD/-class postposltlons, moreover, can be pre-
ceded by /sag/-class preposltlons (4.2.5.), although lndlvldual members are
Ilmlted as to the type of preposltlon they can follow - for example
ltself lS preceded only by /ilg/. The occurrence of normal stress on the
ltem followlng the /sag/-class preposltlon and the nature of the construc-
tlon requlre lnterpretatlon of thls ltem as a complementlve rather than a
postposltlon In all cases.
The class meanlng of both the /baaD/-postposltlons and thelr corre-
spondlng complementlves lS 'quantlty of a substantlve expresslon, or fre-
quency of a predlcate or predlcatlve expresslon.' The class lS small but
open, wlth frequent slang lnnovatlon. For each member lnformatlon lS glven
on the partltlve numeral replacement and the /sag/-class preposltlons whlch
precede (the latter lnformatlon applYlng only to the complementlve).
1. /baaD/ or /maD/ 'some, sometlmes, some of It, some of them'
Replaced In numeral phrases by /baaD/, follows only /llg/.
pham tOD-kaan naam ilg-baaD •
II need some more water. '
193
lchan Jaag capaJ aJud-thaJaa; s{ •
'I'd 11ke to go to Ayuthya
2. 'a few, few, 11ttle, a 11ttle'
Replaced by /n68J/, follows /ilg/ and
phom naam •
'I need only a 11ttle water. '
aad camll phaJu •
'There may be a few more storms.'
3. and /maJ-thaw-raJ/ 'not many, not much'
Replaced by /maJ-kil/, follows only iilg/.
fan aad catog ilg maJ-thaw-raJ •
'Not much more raln lS 11kely to fall.'
4. /maag/ or /mag-maag/ and 'much, many, lots of, the
several'
Replaced by /laaJ/, follows only /llg/.
Selectl0n among the three forms lS compllcated: /maag/ 18 general, but
/mag-maag/ lS usually used where /maag/ mlght be lnterpreted as one of ltS
homonYmS (see flrst two examples); lS used ln dlrect modlflcatlon
of nouns and pronouns as a general plurallzer.
khaw chQ8b rab-prathaan aahaan: mag-maag.
'He 11kes to eat lots of food (large meals).'
khaw chQ8b rab-prathaan aahaan maag •
'He 11kes to eat lots of food' or 'He llkes eatlng food very
much. '
nag-rlan t .
'Students]'
fan 11g-maag (mag-maag) .
'Much more raln lS stlll needed. '
5. /kll-man68J/ and /thaw-raJ/ 'how much, how many'
Replaced by /kil/, follows /ilg/ and /sag/.
khun naam ilg-thaw-raJ •
'How much more water do you ,
mll nag-rlan sag-k{1-man68J •
'About how many students are
194
6. and fall of It, the whole buslness
'
Replaced by preposltlon (4.2.5.2.), follows only /kyab/.
khaw khan paJ leEw •
'They have taken nearly all the stuff away. I
ruam , kh{d thaw-raJ •
'Includlng everythlng, how much do you flgure It would I
7. fall of them, every one I
Replaced by follows only /kYab/.
khaw 188J kan •
'They all went to the wat. '
8. /n{d/, and /n{d-n;oJ/ 'a Ilttle blt
'
Not replaced In numeral phrases, follows /sag/ and
khoo sag-n;o J •
'Please glve me a water. I
phuud , daJ: maJ .
'Can you speak a Ilttle
pham teE n{d-n;oJ: •
'I only need a Ilttle blt of It. '
9. or /J8/ or 'a whole lot'
Not replaced, follows and /ilg/.
pham •
'I stlll need a whole lot more water. '
I'oJ V V V tAo
khaw khaaJ .
'They sell an awful lot of books. '
10. /naan/ 'a long tlme
'
Replaced by /laaJ/ and a tlme-classlfler, follows only and

paJ-ilg-naan: maJ •
'Must we walt much I
khaw thll-nll lleEw •
'He has been worklng here for an awfully long tlme. I
195
11. /maJ-naan/ and /maJ-chaa/ 'not long'
Replaced by /maJ-kil/ and a tlme-classlrler, rol10ws only /ilg/.
khooJ paJ-ilg : maJ-naan.
'We won't have to walt much longer. '
One dlscontlnuous postposltlon, WhlCh occurs only In parallel construc-
tlon, probably belongs to thlS class, although It does not clearly correspond
to any partltlve numeral, except posslbly 'half':
12. •.• 'slmultaneously, sometlmes •.• sometlmes •.. ,
half •.• haIr ... '
khaw phuud: , hua-ro: •
'He was half talklng, half laughlng. '
Members of the class seem to exclude each other completely. No
order can be stated.
4.4.4. Enumeratlve Postposltlons
The remalnlng postposltlons are always the flnal constltuents of
enumeratlons, occurrlng wlth weak stress In the last posslble posltlon In
the constructlon. There are four sub-groups: 1) those WhlCh occur after
cardlnal numeral phrases (3.2.6.1.), 2) those WhlCh occur after
class demonstratlves (3.2.4.1.) and thelr derlvatlves (see tabulatlon below),
3) those WhlCh occur after lnterrogatlve lexemes contalnlng the morphs /aJ!
and /aJ/ (see 2.3.4.5, 6. and tabulatlon below), 4) those WhlCh occur after
all types of aonstructlon and make enumeratlons out of whatever precedes.
The enumeratlve postposltlons do not form a well-deflned, mutually excluslve
class, but constltute a resldue. Some double as sentence partlcles (4.5.).
For convenlence of reference, the related group of common demonstra-
tlve and lnterrogatlve lexemes and constructlons WhlCh are followed by enu-
meratlve postposltlons of sub-groups 2) and 3) are llsted below.
/khon-nan/
/khon-n{l/
/an-nan/
/an-n{l/
or
or
Demonstratlve
'that person'
'thlS person'
'that thlng'
'thlS thlng'
'thus'
'so'
Interrogatlve
/khraJ/ 'who'
/khon-naJ/ 'WhlCh person'
lara J/ 'what'
/an-naJ/ 'WhlCh thlng r
/thamaJI 'why'
/ J/ 'how'
196
/mya-min/ 'then'
/dlaw-n{l/ 'now'
/thll-nan/ 'there'
/thll-nll/ 'here'
/thll-noon/ 'over there'
'that much'
/kheE-n{l/ 'thls much'
/thll-n{l/ 'thls tlme'
/mya-raJ/
/thaw-raJ/
/khEE-naJ/
/thll-raJ/
'when'
'where'
'how much'
'to wha t extent'
'whlch tlme'
1) Numeral postposltlons
1. or and /kwaa/ or /kwa-kwaa/ 'plus a resldue'
baad: •
'Over two hundred baht. '
haa mooD: kwa-kwaa •
'Later than flve o'clock.'
(See also 3.2.6.3, end.)
2. /la/ 'per, based on the precedlng unlt'
Occurs malnly after the slmultaneous constructlon of a unlt or
metrlc classlfler (3.2.5.1,2.) or classlfler numeral (3.2.6.4.)
plus the normal-stress morpheme 'one' (see 2.2.3.1.), but also
after ordlnary cardlnal numeral phrases.
kluaJ raa-khaa baJ-Ia-baad •
'The bananas are one baht each (one-baht per one-banana).'
raa-khaa kl-loo: la , sib baad •
'The sugar lS ten baht per kllo. '

'Two percent (two per hundred).'
saam dyan .
'Once every three months. '
197
2) Demonstratlve postposltlons
1. 'the very one, exactly, none other than'

dl.aw-n{l: •
,.
.
thll-nlla •
'Just that much. '
'Rlght now. '
'Preclsely that way. '
'Rlght here. '
2. /lE/ and 'there It lS, that's the one (polntlng out some-
thlng that has been sought) ,
nll: J .
lE •
khon-n{l: J .
'That's all. That does It.'
'Here It lS. Thls lS the one.'
'That's how It lS.'
'Thls lS the person. '
(Speakers seem to prefer the form /lE/ after /noon/, and thelr
derlvatlves, after /n{l/ and lts derlvatlves.)
3. /nE/ 'look at thls new thlng (polntlng to somethlng not sought) ,
noon: nE t duu: Sl t
nll: nE , kun-cEE •
'Over there! Look!'
'Here's the key to the room.'
The members of thls sub-group exclude each other. /lE/,
and /ne/ are also sentence partlcles (4.5.2.).
3) Interrogatlve postposltlons
1. /kan/ 'reasonable answer not foreseen'
maa thamaJ: kan t .
cf. maaa kan , thamaJ t .
ara J: kan t .
'Why the devll have you come7'
'Why have you (plural)
(pronoun /kan/)
'What In the world! '
2. 'plural or multlple answer foreseen'
'Who all are you gOlng wlth7'
198
khun capa J
v
baalJ 'What places are you gOlng to'?' na J: .
ara J: baalJ . 'What (plural)" '
3. /la/ or /law/ 'answer demanded'
maa thama J: law t . 'Why have you come'"
khun capaJ
v
la 'Where are you naJI
ara J: la t . 'Wha t. ' (Engllsh falllng lntona tlon)
4. /na/ 'answer not expected, or should be already known to speaker'
maa thama J I na •
khun capaJ naJI na •
'I wonder why he came.'
'Where lS It you're gOlng'"
'What" ' (Engllsh hlgh rlslng
lntona tlon)
Internal order of the sub-group lS 1, 2, 3-4, the last two members
excludlng each other. Example:
JUu thll-na J: kan baalJ la t .
'Where the devll are they all'?' ('They are In what unreason-
able places, tell meJ ,)
Members 3. and 4. also occur as sentence partlcles (4.5.2.).
4) General enumeratlve postposltlons
1. or /nll/ or /nle/ 'thls sort of thlng (prevlously mentloned) ,
The flrst two forms are weak-stressed verSlons of the demonstra-
tlve 'thls,' and the thlrd contalns an addltlonal morpheme
(probably to be ldentlfled wlth /18/ and /nE/, demonstratlve post-
posltlons descrlbed above).
wan-alJkhaanl , pen kham san-sakrid .
'Thls (word) 'Tuesday' lS a Sanskrlt word. '
(cf.) wan-alJkhaan , pham caJud lJaan .
'I'm gOlng to take thls Tuesday off.' (demonstratlve /n{l/)
suan nag-rlan trlam paJ kan nie ...
'As for thls buslness of the preparatory students gOlng to
drlll •.. '
199
2. /nan/ or /nan/ or /na/ 'that sort of thlng (prevlously mentloned) ,
The flrst two forms are weak-stressed demonstratlves and the thlrd
lS probably a comblnatlon of /nan/ and /nE/ or /le/.
kaan cab-plaat nan, mll laaJ •
'For that flsh-catchlng operatlon there are several methods. '
chaluaJt na , pen chyy thaw-nan.
'That (name) Chaluay lS a woman's name only.'
3. /la/ or /la/ 'the new or contrastlve thlng (I have Just mentloned) ,
ThlS ltem lS probably to be ldentlfled wlth the complementlve /lE£w/
'already. '
chaluaJ: la , pen chyy thaw-nan.
'Now Chaluay (on the other hand) lS a woman's name only. '
suan nag-rlan trlam paJ kan la ...
'If one brlngs up the subJect Df the preparatory students gOlng
to drlll, now... '
4. /waa/ 'as follows (new or old quotatlon) ,
ThlS ltem lS a homonYm of a conJunctlon wlth slmllar meanlng (4.3.
3.3.). There lS a Sllght dlfference In emphasls dependlng on whether
the /waa/ occurs before or after the lntonatlon break. Compare the
flrst two examples below.
khaw phuud samee: waa , aahaan maJ-ar;0J •
'What they always say lS that the food lS no good. '
khaw phuud samee , waa aahaan maJ-ar;0J •
'They're always talklng (about lt, saYlng among other thlngs)
that the food lS no good. '
Internal order of the sub-group lS 1-3, 4. The forms /na/, /la/
and /la/ are related to homonymous sentence partlcles (4.5.1.).
4.5. Sentence Partlcles
A sentence partlcle lS any bound lexeme WhlCh lS always the last con-
stltuent, or part of the last constltuent, apart from lntonatlon, In any
clause In WhlCh It occurs (regardless of the order In WhlCh lt actually
occurs). The co-constltuents of sentence partlcles are entlre predlcatlons,
enumeratlons, expresslons, and phrases, and also such constructlons plus
200
thelr postposltlonal modlflers. The term 'sentence partlcle' (chosen lnstead
of 'clause partlcle') lndlcates a further relatlonshlp: most types of sen-
tence partlcles (except 3. /khrab/-class, below) occur only once per sentence,
rather than once per clause. In addltlon, many sentence partlcles have var-
lant forms condltloned ln two ways: 1) by clause lntonatlon, and 2) by the
presence of other sentence partlcles.
Slnce the members of thlS class often occur ln clusters at the ends of
clauses, always after the morpheme / : /, the term codaphrase lS used to
refer to such groups of sentence partlcles. The maXlmum length of a coda-
phrase lS four lexemes (or four syllables, lf one or more two-syllable par-
tlcles are present). The sub-classlflcatlon of sentence partlcles lS based
on posltlon ln the codaphrase, and the names of the sub-classes are taken
from one of the posslble maXlmum sequences:
khun maJ-paJ kab-khaw: r;g-ryy-khrab nll t .
SUb-classes:
rWell, (you mean) yourre not gOlng wlth t h e m ~ ! r
The general class meanlng of sentence partlcles lS 'attltude of the
speaker toward what he lS saylng, I but the members of the flrst sub-class
(/rog/-class) also resemble enumeratlve postposltlons (4.4.4.) ln that they
have close tles wlth speclflc syntactlc elements ln the clause. The whole
class lS closed, and small, posslbly belng Ilmlted to the members Ilsted ln
the followlng sectlons. All members occur both by themselves and ln coda-
phrases.
The meanlngs of sentence partlcles can be only vaguely stated, because
a great deal'depends on the emotlonal lnterplay between speakers. For the
same reason, lt lS dlfflcult to quote out of context examples of sentences
contalnlng partlcles. In order to avold repeatlng examples wlth sufflclent
context under dlfferent headlngs, a number of lengthy examples are glven
consecutlvely ln the last sectlon (4.5.5.) under the general headlng 'Sample
Exchanges.' Reference lS made to these examples after the lllustratlons of
use of lndlvldual members of the class of sentence-partlcles.
4.5.1. /rog/ Class
These sentence partlcles occur ln the flrst relatlve posltlon of the
codaphrase, and are ln complementary dlstrlbutlon wlth respect to each other.
Some of them have varlant forms dependlng on clause lntonatlon, and others
have forms WhlCh occur ln absolute clause-flnal posltlon only. The flrst
flve members have strong tles wlth the substantlve elements of the clause,
and the last three wlth predlcatlve elements. None has an emphatlc form
201
(occurr1ng slmultaneously w1th / J I); when / J / lS present a member of
2; /ryy/-class lS also present 1n the codaphrase.
1. /r5g/ and or or 'not that' (after negat1ve),
'that's what' (otherw1se)
The h1gh-tone var1ant occurs 1n absolute clause-f1nal pos1t1on
when / t / lS present (th1S be1ng the most common env1ronment of the ent1re
1tem), and one of the low-tone var1ants occurs elsewhere. In codaphrases,
1t 1S followed by these members of sub-class 2): 1. /ryy/, 2. /Sll/, and
3. /naa/. When followed 1mmed1ately by a member of sub-class 3), 1t deter-
m1nes the select10n of the statement form - e.g. /kha/, but when sub-class
2) 1ntervenes, the quest10n form of the sub-class 3) member may be selected
- e.g. /kha/ (see also 2.3.3.3.).
The 1tem /r5g/ 1S almost ent1rely restr1cted to occurrence 1n clauses
conta1n1ng a negat1ve (member of the /maJ/ class of modals, 4.1.3.), but
occas1onally turns up 1n pos1t1ve statements (see last two examples below).
It does not occur after /Jaa/ 'don't.' It has reference to substant1ve ele-
ments 1n the clause, often to the subJect, and d1rects the force of the
negat10n toward them and away from pred1cat1ve elements. In Ch1S mean1ng 1t
contrasts semant1cally w1th the 1tem /188J/ 'at all,' Wh1Ch 1S a complement1ve
of the /eeD/ class (3.2.2.2.10.) and a postpos1t1on, rather than a sentence
part1cle (see contrast1ve examples below).
pham maJ-daJ paJ: r5g t .
'I d1dn't goJ' ('not me')
pham maJ-daJ paJ: 188J .
'I d1dn't go at all.' ('not anywhere, not any t1me')
khaw maJ-maa thamaJ: t .
'Why wouldn't he
maJ-chaJ naD-syy kh0QD-chan: .
'You see, 1t's not book.'
wan-nan khun mSJ-daJ-paJ r;g-ree .
'D1dn't you go to Bangsaen that
chan len: . Jaa krood: 188J •
'I was only fool1ng (that's what). Don't be angry.'
diaw daJ hua-tEEg kan-maD: r5g t .
'Pretty soon you'll get your heads cracked, that's whatf'
(See also Exchanges, 4.5.5., Nos. 1-2, 2-1, 3-3, 7-2, 7-7, 8-4, 11-4,
12-3, and 14-2.)
202
2. /na/ 'that's what, that's who, that's where, etc.'
Thls ltem by ltself lS easlly confused wlth the postposltlon /na/
(4.4.4.4.2.), and wlth homonymous forms In the /ryy/ and /n{l/ sub-classes of
sentence partlcles (4.5.2.3. and 4.5.4.2.), but lS clearly dlstlngulshable
when It lS followed In codaphrases by one of these members of sub-class 2):
1. /ryy/, 2. /Sll/, 3. /naa/, and 4. /le/. Semantlcally It replaces /r5g/
In most posltlve statements, and lS rare after negatlves.
k5 naSll t .
'Well, It was you yourself (that's who)!'
khun nar88 , s;8b daJ .
rDld Chlt really pass the exam (lS that who you mean)?'
man cathuug hua nanaa •
'Why, you mlght hlt yourself In the head wlth It, that's what. '
khun: nalE , Ch08b tham •
'You really llke to make a lot of nOlse, you do. '
(See also Exchanges I-h, 2-1, 3-4, and 7-4.)
3. /nll/ or /nl/ lthlS lS who, thls lS what, etc.'
Statements about /na/ apply also to thls ltem, and the dlstrlbutlon
lS the same except that /nll/ does not appear to occur before /ryY/. The
dlfference meanlng lS very sllght, but speakers prefer /nll/ to /na/ whenever
the hearer lS not presumed to know the lnformatlon glven. (Thls may In turn
account for the absence of /nll/ before the sentence partlcle /ryy/, whlch
requests lnformatlon.)
k5 khaw kan JUU-188W, nllnaa .
'But they already know each other. '
k5 man cathuug kracog: nllnaa •
'Well, you mlght hlt the wlndow wlth It, don't you see. '
('thls lS what
r
)
nile , ch58b tham .
'Say, you really llke to make a lot of nOlse. '
(See also Exchanges 2-2, 9- 2 , and 9-5.)
4. 'somethlng known prevlously becomes newly relevant' or 'how
can one overlook thls fact'
Thls ltem lS easlly confused wlth a postposltlon of slmllar meanlng
(4.4.4.2.2.) and also lS homonymous wlth one form of a complementlve meanlng
'how' (the other form belng It occurs alone In clause- and phrase-
203
flnal posltl0n, and In codaphrases before only one member sub-class 2):
5. /la/. Whether followed by /la/ or not, It determlnes selectl0n of the
questlon form of any sub-class 3) member In the same codaphrase. lS
very frequent as a flnal partlcle In sentences lntroduced by the responses
/naJ/ and (3.1.2.5, 6.).
Jaaw t thamaJ syy sll-khiaw maa-l1g: la • naJ , boog-waa maJ-choobl

'Why on earth dld you buy green I thought you sald you
dldn't 11ke It.' ('how can one explaln
nll thll khun-cld faag maa-haJ: •
'Here's that book Chlt gave me to glve you.'
(More commonly sald wlth postposltlon
nlll , thll khun-cld faag maa-haJ .)
chan boog lE8W. , waa man phed •
'I already told you (dldn't I) that It was SP1CY. I
(See also Exchanges 12-2 and 13-2.)
5. /ne/ or /nle/ 'somethlng prevl0usly unknown lS now relevant' or
'don't overlook thlS new thlng. '
Both forms also occur as postposltl0ns wlth slml1ar meanlng (4.4.
4.). The form /ne/ occurs only In clause-or phrase-flnal posltl0n, but the
form /nle/ (posslbly analyzable morphemlcally as /nll/ plus /le/) also pre-
cedes one member of sub-class 2): 1. /rYy/. Llke 4. wlth WhlCh It
lS In semantlc contrast, thlS partlcle determlnes the questl0n form of any
sub-class 3) member In the same codaphrase.
duu khaw tham araJ: ne •
ILook at what (new thlng) they are dOlng now. I
chan syy phaa maa-faag ne •
'Here's a plece of cloth I bought for you.'
'Just the one
paJ naJI kan n18 t .
'Where do you thlnk you're (thlS lS news to me)'
(See also Exchanges 1-3, 4-1, and 4-2.)
6. /la/ or /la/ or /la/ 'changed sltuatl0n'
ThlS ltenl lS sa1d by ST speakers to be a shortened form of /1£8W/
'already,' but 1n fact lt occurs d1rectly after /1£8W/ ltself 1n the same
204
wlth /ryy/
Any lnterrog-
lndeflnlte
clause. It lS, however, closely tled to predlcatlve elements, rather than
substantlve ones. The form /la/ occurs In clause-and-phrase-flnal posltlon,
the forms /la/ and /la/ elsewhere. In codaphrases lt lS followed by these
members of sub-class 2): 1. /ryy/, 2. /Sll/, 3. /naa/, and 6) By
ltself lt determlnes the statement form of any sub-class 3) partlcle.
thaa , chan maJ-paJ: la •
'In that case I won't go, then.'
aw: la , phoo thaw-nil: koon •
'All rlght, then, that's enough for the tlme belng.'
khun capaJ: lares.
'Are you gOlng, ('You weren't, Just a mlnute ago. ,)
must be full I ,
dlchan paJ-koon: lana.
'I'd better be gOlng, now.'
hen camaag: paJ •
'Maybe lt's too much already.'
(See also Exchanges 15-2.)
7. /maJ/ 'Yes-no questlon'
ThlS partlcle lS tled dlrectly to the predlcator of the clause, and
does not occur In clauses WhlCh have no predlcatlve elements (for example,
In clauses conslstlng of substantlve expresslons, equatlons, and enumera-
tlons). Morphologlcally speaklng, lt lS related to the negatlve /maJ/, and
does not occur In clauses contalnlng any /maJ/-class modal. If the predlca-
tor lS a transltlve verb, the use of /maJ/ lmplles that a voluntary cholce
lS posslble, or that the sltuatlon lS capable of change - lt lS not used,
for example, for past sltuatlons of for scheduled future events. If the
predlcator lS an adJectlve, the selectlon of /maJ/ lS nearly automatlc,
regardless of tlme factors, and slmply lmplles that an evaluatlon lS belng
asked for. If the predlcator lS a completlve verb or a modal verb, the
standard way to ask a questlon lS wlth /maJ/, unless a tlme-element lS In-
volved, In WhlCh case 'yet7
r
(4.5.2.1.) lS selected.
As a sentence partlcle /maJ/ contrasts most strongly
(4.5.2.1.)-see flrst, thlrd and fourth palrs examples below.
atlve word In a clause contalnlng /maJ/ automatlcally has ltS
meanlng - see second palr of examples.
/maJ/ has a cltatlon form /maJ/, WhlCh also turns up occaslonally
In formal styles of speech, but no other allolexes. In codaphrases lt lS
205
followed by these members of sub-class 2): 3. Inaal and 5. Ila/. It deter-
mlnes the selectlon of the questlon-form of sub-class 3) members In all coda-
phrases In whlch It occurs.
thaan kaa-fee ilg: maJ •
'Wlll you have some more
thaan kaa-fee ilg • ryy •
'You're havlng more coffee, are yoU?'
(adJectlve predlca-
tor)
or:
ora
khaw araJ: maJ .
'Do they want
khaw araJ •
'What do they ,
khun cho8b pen thahaan: maJ .
'Do you llke (the ldea of) belng a
'Would you llke to be a I
khun choab pen thahaan: ryy .
Do you llke belng a
khaw paJ-duu duaJ-kan maJ •
'Are they gOlng along (as a matter of cholce) to see the r
khaw paJ-duu duaJ-kan ryy .
'Dld they go along to see the
'Are they scheduled to go along to see the movle7 '
'Do they (as a matter of fact) go along to see the
mya-waan-n{l paJ-duu , sanug: maJ •
'Was It fun gOlng to the mOVle I
raw paJ-duu , dll. maJ •
'Shall we go see a mOVle (lS It a good (adJectlve
predlcator)
,
khun Jaag capaJ duaJ-kan: maJ •
'Do you want to go along? (modal verb predlcator)
(answer
requlred)
m8J-na •
thlnk) llke
chan syy nau-syy nll maa-faag khun-cid , khaw choob.
'I bought thlS book to glve Chlt - wlll he (do you
It? ' (oplnlon requested)
(See also Exchanges 7-1, 11-1, 11-3, and 12-5.)
raw paJ-duu , daJ' maJ •
'Can we go to see the mOVle?' (completlve verb predlcator).
chan syy nau-syy nll , khun choob maJ-la
'I bought thlS book to glve you - do you llke It?'
206
8. /the/ or /theed/ 'why not, let's, why don't you'
Thls partlcle lS tled to the predlcate and, llke 6. /maJ/, does
not occur In clauses whlch do not have predlcatlve elements. Also, It does
not occur In the same clause wlth the pre-predlcate preposltlon /ca-/ (4.2.6.
3.2.). The second varlant /theed/ lS largely a cltatlon form but occurs In
formal varletles of speech as well. In codaphrases It lS followed by these
members of sub-class 2): 2. /Sll/ and 3. /naa/, the latter belng far more
common. It determlnes the selectlon of the statement form of the sub-class 3)
member In all codaphrases In whlch It occurs.
The meanlng of /the/ lS always a mlld suggestlon, elther advocatlng
JOlnt actlon lncludlng the speaker (In whlch case the pronoun /kan/ often
occurs somewhere In the clause) or unllateral actlon by someone other than
the speaker. It lS not used In statements of fact, or In urglng people to
belleve assertlons, as lS the other 'command' partlcle /Sll/ (4.5.2.2.).
raw paJ: kan the •
'Let's go. '
khun kln: sa the •
'Go ahead and eat It (If you want It).'
kln: sa s{ t .
'Go ahead and eat It (whether you want It or not.)'
kln sa-the lSll t .
'Please go ahead and eat ltl'
khun haJ-chan thyy the .
'Why don't you let me carry some of ,
saaJ leEw , paJ kan: the-na •
'It's late, let's
(See also Exchanges 7-6, 8-1, 8-3, and 10-3.)
These sentence partlcles occur In the second relatlve posltlon of
the codaphrase, and are In complementary dlstrlbutlon. All members can
follow at least one member of the /r5g/-class (4.5.1.) All have varlant
forms, some of whlch are condltloned and some In free varlatlon. Each mem-
ber has an emphatlc form (occurrlng slmultaneously wlth /1/), and SOme of
the emphatlc forms are dlstlnct from all other allolexes of the partlcles
they represent.
The /ryy/-class members, except for 4. /le/ and 5. /la/, are true
sentence partlcles In the sense that they do not have reference to speclflc
207
syntactlc constructlons, but to the sentence as a whole. The sub-class mean-
lng lS 'expected reactlon from the hearer.' 1. /ryy/ ltself has four derlV-
atlves (lexemes contalnlng ltS allomorph /ry/) WhlCh actually belong to the
/r5g/ class, Slnce they can all be followed by /18/ and /naa/ from the pres-
ent class, but they are llsted under /ryy/ for convenlence of contrast.
1. /ryy/, freel, /ry/, /re/, or feel 'lS the assumptlon
correct" '
Emphatlc form: /Jryys/
Derlvatlves: / r Y J a ~ / or / J a ~ / 'or not yet; yet'l '
/ry-m8J/ 'or not'
/ryplaaw/ 'or otherwlse'
/ r y ~ a J / 'or what'
The varlants of the slmple partlcle are dlstrlbuted as follows:
/ryY/, freel, and feel occur In absolute phrase-or-clause-flnal posltlon and,
commonly, after members of the /r5g/-class; /ry/ and /re/ occur everywhere,
but most commonly wlth / t / or before members of the /khrab/-class (4.5.3.).
The emphatlc form /ryy/ occurs only wlth loud stress and extra duratlon, and
lS nearly always lronlC. The presence of any form of /ryy/, lncludlng ltS
derlvatlves, determlnes the selectlon of the questlon form of any sub-class
3) member.
The slmple partlcle occurs In clauses of any syntactlc composltlon
whatever, lncludlng substantlve expresslons, eq¥atlons, enumeratlons, and
even slngle substantlve lexemes. Its meanlng lS slmply 'conflrm ~ y assump-
tlon' or 'conflrm my understandlng of what you Just sald. I It lS mandatory
In questlons about past events bUllt around a transltlve verb predlcator,
and In negatlve questlons of any klnd (see 4.5.1.7. for comparlson wlth
/maJ/-questlons and examples of the contrast). It lS one of the posslbll-
ltles for questlonlng a non-predlcatlve element of a clause, another POSS1-
blllty belng the phrase /ch8J: maJ/ 'Is that so" I WhlCh can nearly always
replace It ln thlS use.
The four derlvatlve partlcles, on the other hand, are actually
members of the /r5g/-class and are much closer to /maJ/ ln use. / r Y J a ~ /
'or not yet' lS closely tled to predlcates and lS usually assoclated wlth
the ltem /18EW/ 'already.' /ry-m8J/ 'or not' can replace /maJ/ In any of lts
uses but lS sllghtly more formal. /rffplaaw/ 'or otherwlse' lS usually an
elegant Substltute for /ryy/ ltself, but can also replace /maJ/. The last
derlvatlve, / r y ~ a J / lS an lnformal Substltute for /ryy/ but also functlons
as a much more open questlon-word of the /maJ/ type. All four can be followed
by the sub-class 2) partlcles 3. /naa/ and 5. /18/. Only / r J ~ a J / can follow
a negatlve In the same clause.
208
No member of th1s group, 1nclud1ng /ryy/ 1tself, can follow /Jaa/
'don't.' As 1n the case of /maJ/, 1nterrogat1ve words have the1r 1ndef1n1te
mean1ngs before these part1cles.
In codaphrases, /ryY/ (but not 1tS der1vat1ves) can be followed not
only by sub-class 3) part1cles, but also by the two sub-class 4) part1cles
/n1.1/ and /nan/.
, '"
JalJan: ryy •
'I s tha t
'"
ree •
'Th1s coa t" '
SOOlJ thum: rykha .
'E1ght
khaw chyY cld. reha •
'H1s name 1S ,
C1lJ-C1lJ: ee t .
,
m11 Jryy t manud cab1n daJ •
'Is there such a th1ng as a man that can
khaw paJ-leEw: ree •
'Are they gone
khaw paJ-leEw: rYJalJ •
'Have they gone
khaw capaJ: rYJalJ •
'Are they g01ng
khaw capaJ: rYmaJ •
'Are they g01ng or ,
khaw paJI ryplaaw.
'D1d they
thee ruu: ryplaaw •
'Do you ,
khaw capaJ: rYlJaJ •
'Are they g01ng, or what" '
khun maJ-chSoba rYlJaJ , thYlJ maJ-kh5J-saJ: leeJ •
'Don't you l1ke 1t, or what - that you hardly ever wear
" , V N
khun maJ-paJ wad. rekha •
'Aren't you g01ng to the temple'"
209
khaw ma J-pa J renan t .
'You mean he's not gOlng to the
mod we-laa 18EW: renll t.
'Is the tlme up I
(For more examples, see /maJ/, 4.5.1.7., and Exchanges 1-4,
2-1, 4-2, 5-6, 9-1, 10-2, and 16-1.)
2. /Sll/, /s{l, /si/, or ISll 'thls lS the correct behavlor or bellef
(change yours If necessary)'
The flrst three forms occur only In phrase- or clause-flnal pOSl-
tlon, the form Is{/ usually wlth hlgh lntonatlon I t I, Isil wlth normal In-
tonatlon, and ISll/ wlth elther type. The form /Sl/ lS almost entlrely re-
strlcted to occurrence In codaphrases before sub-class 3) members, whlch may
have elther thelr statement or questlon forms, the latter belng more common
when / t / lS present. Sub-class 4) does not occur after any form of /Sll/.
The composltlon of clauses In whlch thls partlcle lS found lS lden-
tlcal wlth that descrlbed for Iryy/ (4.5.2.1.) - the co-constltuent may be
even a slngle non-predlcatlve lexeme (see flrst example below). ISll/ lS
used most commonly to urge actlon on the part of someone who lS not actlng,
or to change the course of actlon of someone who lS. When the actlon recom-
mended lS somethlng beneflclal to the hearer ('Please Slt down! I), the use
of /Slll In thlS sense lS not famlllar; otherwlse, It deflnltely lS. A
second use of /Sll/ lS In emphatlc statements, where It elther expresses or
urges agreement. Llke the sentence partlcle ImaJ/ (4.5.1.7.) It does not
occur In statements about past events whlch have a transltlve verb predlcator,
belng replaced In thls sltuatlon by the partlcle /nll/ - see contrastlve
examples below.
/Sll/ can follow any negatlve, and lS frequently found after IJaa/
'don't. I In codaphrases It lS followed only by sub-class 3) partlcles, never
by sub-class 4). Interrogatlve words have lndeflnlte meanlngs before /Sll/.
sawad-dll: sa Sll •
I Say hello! I (/sawad-dlll lS an lsolatlve.)
cheen nalJ: slha t .
'Please have a seat!'
, , t
paJ sa-nooJI Sl •
'Why don I t you .B2.! '
maa-duu araJ nil: Sll t
'Come look at somethlng here! '
210
, v
Jaa paJ-naJ: Sll •
'Don't go anywhere, now.'
thaa , chan ko maJ-daJ-paJ naJ: Sl •
'In that case I won't go anywhere. '
cf. pham maJ-daJ-paJ naJ: 188J nil t .
'Well, I dldn't go anywhere at all!'
nan: slkhrab .
'That's exactly It.'
capaJ , k5paJ; Sl •
'If you're gOlng, then go ahead.'
mll ! Sll t .
'Of course there are some!'
dlll slkha t thamaJ camaJ-dll t .
'It's good! Why wouldn't lt be
(See also examples under /th8/, 4.5.1.d., and Exchanges 1-1, 1-3,
5-2, 5-3, 5-7, 6-1, 6-2, 7-4, 7-8, 10-1, 12-4, 15-2, and 16-2.)
3. /naa/, /na/, or /na/ 'I thlnk, lsn't lt so, don't you agree'
Emphatlc forms: /ln50:/ and /!naa./
All three weak-stressed forms occur ln phrase-and clause-flnal POS1-
tlon, wlth sllghtly dlfferent meanlngs. /naa/ ltself urges acceptance of the
speaker's wlshes or lnstructlons, and lS very close to /Sll/ (4.5.2.2.) 1D
mean1ng and although lt lS weaker and somewhat more pollte. It occurs
frequently after the sub-class 1) partlcles 2. /na/ and 3. /nll/ (see 4.5.
1.). The second varlant /na/ lS more lnslstent, but not necessarlly rude,
and commonly follows the sub-class 1) partlcles 1. /rog/ and 8. /th8/. Both
/naa/ and /na/ are replaced by the emphatlc form /!naa:/.
The thlrd form /na/ ln flnal posltlon lmplles merely a weak questlon
or request for conflrmatlon. It frequently follows the sub-class 1) partl-
cles 6. /la/ and 7. /maJ/, mean1ng somethlng llke 'I wonder If.•• '. When
lnterrogatlve words occur ln lts sentence, the effect lS somethlng 11ke an
echo-questlon ('I am supposed to know thlS, but tell me agaln. ,) /na/ lS
replaced ln all lts uses by the emphat1c form /!noo:/. The form /na/ lS
also the only one Wh1Ch precedes other sentence partlcles ln codaphrases,
replac1ng both /naa/ and /na/. It occurs only before sub-class 3), never
before sub-class 4}, and always determlnes the selectlon of the quest10n
form of the /khrab/-class partlcle.
211
Except for the ObV10US relatlonshlp of the form /na/ to lnterrog-
atlve words, the partlcle /naa/ does not have close tles wlth any partlcular
type of clause constltuent, and resembles 1. /ryy/ and 2. /Sll/ In thlS re-
spect. Its forms occur after all types of negatlve /Jaa/ 'don't.'
,
Jaa paJI naa •
'Don't go,
Jaa paJ-naJ: na •
'Don't go anywhere, wlll
pham maJ-daJ-paJ naJ: leeJ na •
'I dldn't go anywhere at all, dld
paJ' thee Jnaa t .
'Aw, come on and go, wlll
boog leEwl nanaa , maJ chya •
'I already told you, dldn't I, but you dldn't belleve me. '
boog leEw: nll-naha , maJ chya •
'ThlS lS what I told you, wasn't lt, but you dldn't belleve me. '
paJ naJI nakhrab •
'WhlCh way lS lt that you are
thamaJa na .
'I wonder why that lS.'
thama J Jnoo t .
'But J '
khaw henl maJ-na .
'Do you thlnk he can see
laa: thll lana.
'Goodbye, now••. '
saaJ 18Ew . paJ: kan the-na .
'It's late. Let's get gOlng - O.K.?'
na .
'That's really clever, lsn't
(See also examples under sub-class 1) partlcles WhlCh precede
/naa/, 4.5.1., and Exchanges 1-2, 3-4, 7-6, and 15-1.)
4. /le/ or /la/ or /e/ 'here's the thlng we've been looklng fori
Emphatlc form: /!leE:/
All three forms are In free varlatlon. ThlS lS a statement partlc1e,
very slml1ar In meanlng to (4.5.1.4.), WhlCh has strong tles to the
212
'That's all, now.'
demonstratlve system but also occurs wlthout any demonstratlve element ln
the same sentence. It follows the 1) partlcles 2. /na/ and 3.
/nil/, and precedes only sub-class 3) partlcles, for WhlCh lt determlnes
the selectlon of the statement form.
Belng the most soclally acceptable of the statement partlcles, /le/
frequently replaces 2. /Sll/ where the latter would be rude. It lS rare
after negatlves, where lt lS usually replaced by /rog/ (4.5.1.1.), and after
/Jaa/ 'don't. '
nan !leE t chan boog-IEEwl maJ-la .
'That's Just It! Dldn't I tell you
khun: ni le-kha , choob tham nag •
'You (are the one who) really llke to make a lot of nOlse. '
pham maJ-daJ-paJ naJ leeJI la t .
'I dldn't go anywhere at all! r
nill e-ryy , cahaJ chan saJ: paJ •
'Is thls the one you want me to wear?'
thaw-nan: e •
'That's lt, now. r
nale-ha •
'That's rlght!'
(See also Exchanges 4-3.)
5. /la/ or /law/ or /la/ 'tell me!'
Emphatlc form: /!laa:/
The flrst two weak-stressed forms are ln free varlatlon ln phrase-
and clause-flnal posltlon. The form /la/ occurs only before other sentence
partlcles ln the codaphrase. ThlS lS baslcally a questlon-partlcle, occur-
lng frequently after lnterrogatlve words, wlth WhlCh lt has a speclal rels-
tlonshlp, and after the sub-class 1) partlcle 7. /maJ/. It also occurs
ln statements, however, and frequently follows the sub-class 1) partlcle
6. wlth a meanlng somethlng llke 'how about that!' In elther case lt
determlnes the questlon-form of any sub-class 3) member WhlCh follows. It
lS not followed by sub-class 4) members.
The partlcle /la/, ln both statements and questlons, lS at best
famlllar and at worst rude unless lt 1S followed by a sub-class 3) partlcle.
It has strong tles wlth lnterrogatlve elements of ltS clause, but occurs
wlthout them and even after /Jaa/ 'don't.'
213
thamaJ la t .
'Why are you so late}'
hena maJ-law .
'Do you see It",'
thamaJ la-khrab •
'Why are you so late",'
1m lEE1r1l t chaJ: maJ-la
'You must be full, aren't you", '
(The flrst lS /r5g/-class, 4.5.1.6.)
Jaa paJ-naJ: Ia .
rpon't go anywhere!'
paJ la-kha .
'WhlCh way shall I go",'
chan pen mya-raJ: law t.
'When would I ever be a rlch man! '
pham capa J da J J I kan Jlaa t.
'How the devll would I be able to get there",'
nan: , khuu-man khun-cid .
'There she lS - Chlt'S '
(See also contrastlve examples under /maJ/, 4.5.1.7., and Exchanges
3-2, 5-4, 7-3, 12-5, 13-1, and 16-3.)
6. or 'perhaps'
Emphatlc Form:
The form determlnes the questlon-form of any sub-class 3)
partlcle WhlCh follows, and the form determlnes the statement form.
Both are preceded by the sub-class 1) partlcle 6. and both are fol-
lowed by the sub-class 4) partlcle 1. /nll/ In the codaphrase. The dlffer-
ence In meanlng between the two varlants lS sllght: expects an con-
flrmlng answer more than does. A cltatlon form, 18 rarely
heard outslde of formal style.
ThlS partlcle has an ObV10US morpholog1cal relat10nshlp wlth
'some' (Wh1Ch has an allolex and also lS poss1bly related to the
quest1on-part1cle /maJ/ (4.5.1.7), but It has no t1es w1th any part1cular
type of clause const1tuent. It lS sllghtly fam1l1ar 1n sOC1al connotat1on,
but by no means rude.
hen camaagl paJ •
'Maybe 1t'S a Ilttle too much.'
214
kh{d-waa khaw cachooba .
'Do you thlnk she mlght llke lt7'
nil •
'Thls must be the rlght one, all rlght. r
thaa khaw camll •
'I guess he must be busy. !
(See also Exchanges 9-3, 14-1.)

These sentence partlcles occur In the thlrd relatlve posltlon of
the codaphrase, and are In complementary dlstrlbutlon. Each member has at
least two forms, morphologlcally related through a superflx (2.3.3.3.): the
questlon form, whlch antlclpates further dlscourse (elther by speaker or
hearer), and the statement form, whlch does not. Both forms occur In the
lnterlor of dlscourses, the questlon form usually before / , / or / t / and
the statement form before / . /, and both occur at the ends of dlscourses.
(Clauses endlng In / t / and phrases endlng In / , / are sald to have 'sus-
penslve lntonatlon, I requlrlng the questlon the form of any
partlcle.) Most members of the class are also morphologlcally related to
respons e s ( 3. 1. 2. ) .
No member of the class lS related to any partlcular klnd of clause
constltuent, and the normal pattern of occurrence lS one par-
tlcle per sentence (although exceptlons occur to thls In over-deferentlal
speech). The class meanlng lS 'relnforcement of the speaker's status wlth
the respect to the hearer,' and for the flrst four members, lnformatlon lS
also glven on the sex of the speaker. The flrst two members are clearly
deferentlal, the second two non-famlllar, the last two patronlzlng or rude.
Among lntlmates and establlshed equals, often no partlcle at all lS used.
Not Ilsted here are partlcles of extremely speclallzed use (e.g. those used
In addresslng royalty).
Full exempllflcatlon of the varlOUS uses of the
partlcles lS glven only for members 3. and 4., but slnce, glven the proper
soclal sltuatlon, the members are lnterchangeable, the same examples wlll
apply to the whole class wlth the proper substltutlon of the form called for.
Except for 4. /khs/, usage varles conslderably among speakers, however, the
extreme example belng 6. /wa/, where no two lnformants agreed upon the dls-
of
1. Statement form:
Questlon form:
Sltnatlon:
/khraphom/
/khraphom/
Male speaklng to hlghly superlor, reverend,
or noble personage.
215
2. Statement form:
Questlon form:
Sltuatlon:
3. Statement form:
Questlon form:
Sltuatlona
/caw-kha/
/caw-kha'/
Female speaklng to hlghly superlor, reverend,
or noble personage.
/khrab/ or /ha/
/khrab/ or /ha/
Male speaklng to superlor, elder, or
non-lntlmate equal person. (The
phonemlcally less complex forms /ha/
and /ha/ are decldedly less formal.)
c. khun saab: maJ-khrab phe En- thll
,
thll-na J , waa JUu .
pham haa leeJ khrab
D. nll:
lJa J
ha . JUU a nll hen: maJ-ha .
c. 'Do you know where the map I can't seem to
flnd It anywhere. '
D. 'Here It lS. It's on the table here - see r
4. Statement form.
Questlon forma
Sltuatlon:
/kha/ or /ha/
/kha/ or /ha/
Female speaklng to superlor, elder, or
non-lntlmate equal person. (The forms
/ha/ and /ha/ are less formal.)
A. khun saab: maJ-kha , waa pheEn-thll JUu thll-naJ • dlchan
haa maJ-phob: leeJ kha •
B. nll lJaJ ha • JUu nll hen: maJ-ha •
(Same translatlon as In 3. above.)
5. Statement forma
Questlon form:
/ca/ or / Ja/
/ca/ or /Ja/
Person speaklng to lnferlor or younger
person. Occaslonally used among equals.
(Forms wlth /c/ more common among female
speakers, those wlth /J/ among male
speakers. )
216
6. statement forma
Questlon form:
Sl tua tlon:
/wa/, /wa/, /w60
J
/, or /weeJ/
/wa/, /w60
J
/, or /weeJ/
Person speaklng rUdely or to lntlmate equal.
(Dlstrlbutlon of forms not clear.) For ex-
amples, see Exchange 5 (4.5.5.5.).
Two other partlcles probably are varlants of thlS member, but are
lnsufflclently attested: feel and /eeJ/' Examples (all taken from women's
speech) I
wan-nil raw cakln araJ dll: eeJ •
'I wonder what we should have to eat today.'
meE , suaJ: t capaJ naJ: eeJ t .
'Say, you're certalnly dressed beautlfullyJ Where are you gOlng?'
chan b;og haJ-tom thug-chaaw t thamaJ: na-ee , maJ ruu-cag
cam t .
'I told you to bOll water every mornlngJ Why lS lt you never
remember? '
A. khaw camaa haa khun wan-nil, chaJ: maJ •
B. Sl-ee t chan lyYm sa-sanid t .
A. They're comlng to see you today, aren't
B. Oh, that's rlghtJ I'd completely forgotten.'
4·5.4.
These two sentence partlcles occur In the fourth and last relatlve
posltlon of the codaphrase, and are In complementary dlstrlbutlon. The sub-
class meanlng lS slmllar to that of the vocatlve /nll/ (3.1.3.1.), In that
the effect lS to call the hearer to hlS senses. (The dlfference between the
vocatlve /nll/ and the homonYmous partlcle lS slmply a phrase-boundary). Both
members of the sub-class have many other homonYms, lncludlng partlcles of the
/rog/ class (4.5.1.2,3.), so that they are dlfflcult to ldentlfy unless they
occur after a sub-class 3) (/khrab/-class) partlcle. Nelther member affects
the selectlon of the form of the sub-class 3) partlcle, but both frequently
occur Wl th / t / lntona tlon In clauses lntroduced by the conJunctlon /k5/
'Well, '.
1. /nll/ or /nl/ 'here, now, you'
nil nil.
'ThlS must be the rlght one. '
(See also examples under /rog/ and /ryy/, and Exchanges 9-5.)
217
2. /nan/ or /na/ 'there, then, you'
khaw paJ-l€cWI rekha-nan t. chan maJ-than phuud
kakhawl 188J •
l(YoU mean) she's gone I hadn't had a chance
to talk to her at all. '
(See also examples under /r5g/ and /ryy/ and Exchanges 2-1.)
The flow pattern of codaphrases, In terms of lndlvldual members of
sub-classes 1) through 4), lS summarlzed below. It can be seen from the
chart that /nll/-class partlcles occur relatlvely lnfrequently, and that they
do not occur at all after /Sll/, /lE/, /la/, or after any partlcle contalnlng
the demonstratlve morpheme /n/.
The key to the chart lS as follows. Sub-class 1) partlcles are
arranged along the vertlcal aXls, and sUb-class 2) along the horlzontal.
The presence of any symbol at an lntersectlon means that the two partlcles
In questlon occur together. The symbol /S/ means that the statement form of
the sub-class 3) partlcle, If present, lS called for; the symbol /Q/ means
the questlon-form lS called for; the symbol /E/ means elther form lS posslble;
and the symbol /X/ means nelther lS posslble. The symbol /N/ means sub-class
4) may occur.
Flow Pattern of Codaphrases
O.Mlsslng l./Eix/ 2./Sll/ 3./naa/4./1E/ S./la/ 6./maD/
O. Mlsslng EN QN
1. /r5g/ SN QN
2. /na/ E Q
3. /nll/ E Q
4. /DaJ/ E
5. /ne/ S Q
6. /la/ S QN
7. /maJ/ Q
8. /the/ SN
E
E
E
E
E
E
218
Q
Q
x
x
Q
Q
Q
x
s
S
S
Q
Q
Q
EN
EN
4.5.5. Sample Exchanges
Follow1ng are some actual exchanges (2.5.1.6.) chosen spec1f1cally
to 111ustrate the use of sentence part1cles, but also hav1ng relevance to
the whole quest10n of pred1cate Subst1tut1on (see 2.5.2.2.). The reference
system 1S as follows, each exchange 1S ass1gned a number and each sentence
1n the exchange 1S numbered consecut1vely regardless of speaker; the speaker
of each d1scourse 1S 1dent1f1ed by a cap1tal letter, A. and B. for women,
C. and D. for men. The reference '1-1' means the f1rst sentence of the f1rst
exchange, and 'A' means 'f1rst woman speaker.' Translat10ns are glven only
for whole exchanges.
Exchange 1.
A. 1-1. duu: si khaw tham sya d1chan pyan: mod t .
B. 1-2. khaw khOlJ ma J- da J- kl EElJ:
' ,..
r8g-na .
1-3.
t
,
d1chan slkha n11' nE sa J sya pa J. .
1-4·
naree cahaJ d1chan
,
A. sya n11: , sa J: paJ
B. 1-5. chaJ: kha .
A. 1-1. Look how they got my blouse all d1rty.
B. 1-2. I'm sure they d1dn't mean to.
1-3. Here, wear my blouse, w1ll you"
A.
1-4·
Is th1S the blouse you want me to wear"
B. 1-5. Yes.
Exchange 2.
A. 2-1.
B. 2-2.
A. 2-1.
B. 2-2.
khun maJ-paJ thiaw kab-khaw:
kS maJ-m11 khraJ chuan d1chan:
Aren't you gOlng on the tr1p w1th them then"
Well, nobody 1nv1ted me.
219
c. 3-1.
D. 3-2.
3-3.
c. 3-4.
c. 3-1.
D. 3-2.
3-3.
c. 3-4.
A. 4-1.
B. 4-2.
A. 4-3.
Exchange 3.
man hua nanaa •
Don't throw stones that way.
Why not?
1
1
m throwlng so as not to hlt the wlndows.
You stlll mlght hlt yourself In the head, though.
Exchange 4.
chan syy phaa maa-faag ch{n: n8 •
ch{n nie-rekha •
chaJ , ch{n l£-kha •
A. 4-1. Here's a plece of cloth 1 bought to glve you.
B. 4-2. Thls yellow plece
c
,
A. 4-3. Yes, tha t' s the one.
Exchange 5.
c. 5-1.
D. 5-2.'
c. 5-3.
5-4.
D. 5-5.
c. 5- 6.
D. 5-7.
c. 5-1.
D. 5-2.
khraJ tham thuaJ-kE8w t88g: wa.
Jaa phuud t .
b;;:>g: maa s{ t
khraJ tham tE8ga la •
'" '"
maJ-ruu: wa .
rewa.
b;;:>g-waa , ko t .
Who broke the
Don't say 'wah'J
220
C. 5-3. Tell meJ
5-4. Who broke It'Z
D. 5-5. I don't know.
C. 5-6. You really don't know",
D.
5-7 ·
If say I don't know, then I don'tJ
Exchange 6.
C. 6-1. thaan khaaw dua J-kan: . slkhnl'b .
D. 6-2. pham
..
s8.'-l Eew:
..
lm Sl .
C. 6-1. Eat wlth us, wlll you",
D. 6-2. I'm already full.
Exchange 7.
A. 7-1.
B. 7-2.
A. 7-3.
B. 7-4.
7-5.
A. 7-6.
7-7.
B. 7-8.
..
maJ paJt r0g •
thama J: la •
chan maJ-Jaag paJ: naSl •
man •
pa J' thenaa t .
khun Jaag paJ , k5-paJ khon-dlaw:
..
Sl •
A. 7-1.
B. 7-2.
A. 7-3.
B. 7-4.
7-5.
A. 7-6.
7-7 ·
B. 7-8.
Shall we go see the mOVle
I'm not gOlng.
Why not",
I Just don't want to go.
It's terrlbly frlghtenlng.
Come on and goJ
It's not all that frlghtenlng.
If you want to go, go by yourself.
221
Exchange 8.
A. 8-1. maa-kln-khaawl kan the .
8-2. chan hlw-cataaJ: 188W .
B. 8-3. thaa-lJan khun klnl sa the .
8-4· ma J- t3lJ kh88J chan:
..
r8g .
A. 8-1. Come on and ea t.
8-2. I'm starvlng already.
B. 8-3. In that case you go ahead and ea t.
8-4. You don't have to walt for me.
Exchange 9.
A. 9-1.
B. 9-2.
A. 9-3.
9-4.
B. 9-5.
A. 9-1.
B. 9-2.
A. 9-3.
9-4·
B. 9-5.
C. 10.1
A. 10-2
C. 10-3
C. 10-1
mya-waan-n{l chan haJ-deg aw-cod-maaJ paJ-haJ khun
daJ-rab: ryplaaw •
maJ-hen mll: 188J nil •
thaa-JalJan khaw kholJ-faag khon-yyn waJ-haJ: malJ .
t00n-nan khun kholJ maJ-Juu baan .
mya-waan-n{l chan maJ-daJ-paJ naJ: 188J nll.
Dld you get the letter that I had the boy take over to
you yes terday"
I dldn't see any (letter) at all.
In that case he must have left lt wlth someone else to
glve you, I guess.
You must not have been home at the tlme.
But I dldn't go anywhere at all yesterday.
Exchange 10.
ch88n nalJ: slha t .
kaw-il nil kho0lJ-naaJ khun nalJ , maJ-chaJ: rekha.
nalJl the-ha , maJ pen-raJ .
Please have a seatJ
222
A. 10-2.
C. 10-3.
C. 11-1.
D. 11-2.
C. 11-3.
D. 11-4.
C. 11-1.
D. 11-2.
C. 11-3.
D. 11-4.
A. 12-1.
12-2.
B. 12-3.
A. 12-4·
B. 12-5.
12-6.
Thls chalr belongs to your boss, doesn't
Go anead and Slt down, It'S all rlght.
Exchange 11.
khun mll JaJ-JaJ maJ •
pham maJ-mll: 188J , sag baJ: •
t khun cid , khaw camll: maJ-na •
khaw ma J-mll: r5g t.
Do you have any large slIver
I don't even have a slngle one.
Say! I wonder If Chlt would have any.
No, he wouldn't have any.
Exchange 12.
chan syy sya: maa , tua: , myan thee.
v ,
maJ myan: rag •
naJ , paJ-aw maa-duu: Sl t .
hen: maJ-la t
maJ myan: kan leeJ •
A. 12-1. I bought a new blouse, Just llke yours.
12-2. Thls lS l t.
B. 12-3. It's not the same.
A. 12-4· Well, go and get yours and let's see!
B. 12-5. Do you
They're not a tall allke.
223
c. 13-1.
D. 13-2.
C. 13-1.
D. 13-2.
A. 14-1.
B. 14-2.
14-3.
A. 14-1.
B. 14-2.
14-3.
c. 15-1.
D. 15-2.
15-3.
C. 15-1.
D. 15-2.
15-3.
Exchange 13.
thamaJ khun maJ-tham-lJaan:' 1a •
ko pham kam-1alJ tham Juu-18EW: nll-lJaJ t .
Why aren't you
Well I am worklng here, don't you see7
Exchange 14.
dlchan casaJ sya Srl-dEElJ tua-n{l , kanulJ kaphroolJ
s11-khlaw nan, daJ: malJ •
maJ daJI rog-kha •
man paJ: kan , khon-1athaalJ •
Do you thlnk I can wear thlS red blouse wlth that
green
Not them.
They go In Opposlte dlrectlons (clash).
Exchange 15.
deg thaJ kadeg amee-rikaa , nisaJ maJ-myanl
kan-188J na •
ko n8E : lasit .
ab-rom: maa , khon-1aJaalJ •
Thal and Amerlcan chl1dren's characterlstlcs are not
the same at all, are
Tha t 's for sure J
They're brought up In dlfferent ways.
224
Exchange 16.
A. 16-1. khun Y1a J-pa J baalJ- s Ecn duaJ:
v
ree .
B. 16-2. paJ JSl.l t
.
16-3. thamaJ thYlJ- cama J-pa J: la t .
A. 16-1. You're not gOlng to Bangsaen el t h e r ~
B. 16-2. Of course I'm gOlngJ
16-3. Why wouldn't I be gOlngJ
225
TOPICAL INDEX
The follows the of
1) General terms: allophone
2) Terms for grammar:
word-classes by reference to a
member: baaD-class
3) terms and general reference (always
quotes): 'adverb'
Apart from words classes (baaD), no ST
are here-- see Index of Forms for the latter.
The reference on each of to the
the second to the page number. For example:
bases 2.4.3.1,8,11. 67, 70, 72
Reference to bases be found Chapter Two, uncer the
2.4.3. 1), 8), and 11), on three
separate pages: 67, 70, and 72. Hyphenated references, of
or page numbers, a of references to the same a
short stretch of text; e.g. 67-72. References to longer
passages are as follows: 67ff.
'abnormal 1.7.3. 26
4.4.2. 188,192


abstract 3.2.1.4. 90 adJectlve 2.5.2.2.
74
nouns 3.2.5. 105,108 3.3.2. 118-9
'actor' 3.3.3. 123-4
4.3.3.4.2. 178
3.3.4.
126
'adverb' 3.3.2.1. 121
2.3.2.3. 53
(used lnterchangeably

3.3.2. 118 ff before the latter
4.5.1.7. 205-6
term lntroduced)
adJectlve 2.3.3.4. 56
2.4.3. 67, 70-1
bases 2·4.3.1, 67, 70, 72

8,11 allo1ex 2.1.3.2. 37
3.3.2. 119 allomorph 2.1.2.2. 36
expreSSlon 2.5.2.1. 73 2.4.2.4. 65-6
2.4.1.10. 62-3
226
allophones, 1.3.1.
consonant
allophones, 1.5.2.
tone
allophones, 1.4.2.
vowel
Amerlcan 0.3.
Councll of
Learned Socletles
9
18
2.
classlfler
-as head
-bases
-phrase
classlfler
numeral
2.4.2.1.
3.2.5.1.
2.4.3.2.3.
2.5.2.3.
3.2.5.
3.2.6·4.
4.4.4.1.2.
64
105
68-9
75
104
133
197
'antonym , 4.1.1.
4.1.2.
4.2.1.
4.2.5.
4.3.1.
4.4.1.
135
138
147
158
171
184 ff
clause 1.2.1.
1.6.3.
1.8.4.
2.5.1.3.
close Juncture
(see Juncture)
4
22
32-4
73
bound lexeme Chapter IV
classes
3.2.2.1.
complementlve
bound lexeme 2.6.1.2.
3.2.6.3.
201 ff
207
89
188 ff
79
75
114
124
91 ff
121
193
118
125
154
205-6
69-70
63
59 ff
87
110
2.6.2.2.
3.2.1.3.
2.4.
3.1.3.5.
3.2.6.
2.4.2.
3.2.2.
3.3.2.1.
4·4.3.
3.3.1.2.14·
3· 3.4.
4.2.4.
4.5.1.7.
2·4.3.5-8.
'comparlson of 4.4.2.
adJectlves'
common noun
complement 2.5.2.3.
3.3.
3.3.3.
codaphrase 4.5.
'command' 4.5.1.8.
completlve
verb
complementlve
complex
sentence
complex re-
dupllcators
composltlon of
lexemes
compound
I}}
III
184
79
112
113
188
193
92
148
166-8
156
1-2
48 ff
66 ff
0.2.
4.4.1.
3.2.6.1.
'aspect of
verb'
3.2.6.3.
postposltlon
4·4·2.
4.4.3 ·
base lexeme
b
cardlnal
-phrases
base
cardlnal
numeral
Central Plalns
Dlalect

caag-class 4.2.2.
preposltlon 4.2.6.4.
classlfJ.er
45
104
227
contour (see lntonatlon)
consonants (see also 1.3.
'lnltla1' and 'flnal')
dlscourse 2 . 5 . 1 ~ 5 .
dlstrlbutlon of 1.7.
phonemes
103
163
168-71
172
180
73
24 ff
5
15
15
76-8
4.2.6.2.3.
4.3.1.
4.3.2.
4.3·4·
dlaw-c1ass
demonstratlve
dlaw-class
conJunctlon
dlphthongs 1.2.3.
1.4.1.
1.4.2.
dlscontlnuous 2.5.3.1,4.
constructlon
72 ff
78
133
168
73
89
105
108
128
8 ff
2.5.
2.5.3.6.
3.2.1.1.
3.2.5.1.
3.2.5.3.
3.3.4.2.
4.1.
4.3 •
2.5.2.
conJunctlon
constructlon types
concrete noun
consecutlve-order
constructlon
constructlons
'covert re1atlonshlps'
-complementlve- 3.2.6.3.
numeral
-noun-c1asslfler 3.2.1.1-3.
3.2.5.
-noun-pronoun 3.2.3.
-adJectlve-
postposltlon
-verb-comp1etlve
verb
cYlJ-class
conJunctlon
4·4·2.8.
end
3.3.3.
3.3.4.
4.1.
4.3.
4.3.4.
190
112
89
104 ff
98
125
128 ff
133
168,171
180
dooJ-class
preposltlon
duratlon of
syllables
eelJ-class
complementlve
4.2.3.
4.2.6.1.
4.2.6.2.
4.3.2.
1.6.4.
4.5.2.1.
3.2.2.2.
3.2.4.
3.2.6.3.
3.3.2.1.
4.2.3.
end
152
159-61
162
172
23
208
93
102
112-3
120
153-4
4.4.3. 193
d
demonstratlve
demonstratlve
postposltlon
dental consonants
derlvatlve
2.2.3.2.
2.3.3.2.
3.2.4.
4.4.4.
4·5.2.4.
4.4.4.2.
1.3.4.
2.4.1.
3.1.3.5.
3.2.6.
4.4.4.
4.5.2.
45
55
102
196
213
198
11
59
87
111-3
196
207
'emphatlc forms'
endocentrlc
constructlon
-compound
-phrase
enumeratlon
3.2.4.1.
4.5.2.
3.3.2.
4·4.
2.4.2.
2.5.2.1.
2.5.2.5.
3.2.4.
3.2.5.
3.2.6.
4.2.6.3.2.
4.4.4.
103
207
119
183
63
73
76
102
104-5
109 ff
165-6
196
228
enumeratlve
postposltlon
-general
equatlon
equatlonal
predJ.cate
equatlonal
sentence
4.4.4.
4.4·4.4.
2.5.2.4.
2.5.2.4.
3.2.1.8.
4.2.6.3.2.
2.6.2·4·
196
199
75
75
90
165-6
80
£.
Gedney, W.J.
general
adJectJ.ves
general
classJ.fJ.er
general
completlve verb
4.4.1.
4.5.1.7.
0.3.
3.3.2.2.
3.3.4.1.
185 ff
205
3
122
108
127
exchange
exchanges, sample
73
219 ff
general modal
verb
general pronoun
3.3.1.2.
3.2.3.2.
117-8
101
fJ.nal partJ.cle
(see 'sentence partlcle')
119-20
1
88
159- 60
167
171
188
108
4
9
123-4
3
4
53
105
63 ff
73
167
64
1.1.
1.3.1.
3.1.3.
2.1.1. 35
2.1.3. 37
2.5.2.2. 74
3.1. 81
4.4.2. end 192
3.3.2.
0.1.
0.3.
1.1.
2.3.2.3.
3.2.5.1.
2.4.2.
2.5.2.1.
4.2.6.4·2.
2.4.2.
4.2.6.1.
4·2.6.4.2.
4.3.1.
4.4.2.
Haas, Mary R.
'goal r
'homonym ,
glottal stop
lmmedla te
constltuent
lmJ. ta tJ.ve
lml ta tlve
classJ.fler
head
Hocke t t, C. F.
head-nouns,
common
head-noun
head types
h
J.
79
75
5
6
218
146
168
59
73
56
99-101
216-7
219
2
4
38
79
79
0.3.
1.1.
4.5.
end
1.2.1.
2.1.3.4.
2.6.1.
2.6.1.1.
2.3.3.4.
3.2.3.1.
4.5.3.
4.5.5.
2.6.2.1.
Chapter III 81 ff
4. 1.3 . 2. 139
4.2.6.3.2. 165
'future'
exclamatory
sentence
'female speaker I
exocentrJ.c
constructJ.on
-complement phrases 4.2.
-conJuncted clauses 4.3.
-derlvatlves 2.4.1.
expreSSlon 2.5.2.1.
flow pattern of
codaphrases
form-class
free lexeme
classes
Forelgn Servlce
Instltute (FSI)
free lexeme
fJ.nal contrasts
flnal
f
229
lndlrect obJect 2.5.2.2.
74
'lntransltlve 3.3.2. 119
3.3.3. 124
verb
' 3.3.2.2. 112
4.2.6.4.2. 167
lrregular
2·4·2.1-4 64-6
-pronoun 3.2.3. 98
compounds
lnflx 2.3.2. 50
lrregular 2.4.3.9-11 70-1
redupllcators
lnflXed 2.4.3. 67,69-70
lsolatlve 3.1. 81 ff
redupllcators
4.5.2.2. 210
lnflxed 3.1.4.2-3. 88
.J.
lml ta tlves Juncture 1.2.8. 8
Informants 0.3. 3
1.6.3. 22
5
1.8·4. 32-4
lnltlal 1.2.1.
,
khrab-class
4.5. 201
lnltlal contrasts 1.2.2.
5
sentence partlcle
4·5.2. 208
'lnnovatlons
'
1.7.3. 26 4.5.3. 215
4·4.2.
188
4.5. 218
4.4·3 •
193 k
end
lnterJectlon 2.2.1.4. 40
'klnshlp terms!
3.1.1. 81
-as vocatlves 3.1.3.3. 87
-In lexeme 3.1.3.5. 87
lnterlocklng 2.5.3.5. 78 composltlon
constructlon
3.2.3. 99
-In pronoun
'lnterrogatlve' 2.3.4.5,6. 57
suppletlon
3.2.2.3. 96 khyyn-class modal 4.1.1. 133
3.2.3.2. 102
4.2.6.3.2. 166
4.1.3. 138
4.3.4·1.
181
1
4.4.4. 196
lablal consonants 1.3.3.' 10
4.5.1.7. 205 length of vowels 1.1.
4
4.5.2. 209 ff 1.2.3. 5-6
lnterrogatlve 4.4·4.3. 198
1.4.1. 14
postposltlon 1.4.2. 15
lntona tlon 1.2.1.
4
1.8.1. 27
1.5.2. 18 lexeme 2.1.3.
37
1.8.4.
33-4 -categorles 2.6.1.
79
4.5.
201 -composltlon
2·4. 59
ff
4·5.3.
215
3.1.3.5. 87
lntona tlon 1.2.8. 7-8
3.2.6. 110
contrasts
2.2.4.3. 48 lexemlc morpheme 2.1.2.3. 36
lntonatlon morphemes 2.2.1. 38 lexlcal preflx 2.4.1. 59-62
lntonatlon phonemes 1.6.3. 21 lexlcal sufflX 2.4.1. 62-3
230
lexlcal unlt
loud stress
2.1.3. 37
1.6.2. 21
2.2.1. 38
4.5.2.1. 208
-of numerals
morphophonemlcs
Mosel, James N.
3.2.6. 109 ff
1.8. 27 ff
3.1.3.4. 87
(footnote)
mlnor sentence 2.6.2.5. 80
mlscellaneous modals 4.1.4. 143
mlscellaneous 4.2.6. 159
preposltlons
3.2.5.2. 106
4.2.2.11. 151
4.4.4.1.2. 197
21
28 ff
45
193
89
68,72
75
83-4
73
103
176,
196
217
218
76 ff
166
188
61
97
147
15
57
138
188
202
205
208
210
4·2.6.4.1.
4.4.2.
2.4.1.7.
3.2.2.3.8.
4.2.1.
1·4.2.6.
2.3.4.7,9.
4.1.3.
4·4·2.
4.5.1.1.
4·5.1.7.
4·5.2.1.
4·5.2.2.
2.5.2.3.
3.1.2.8-10.
3.2.4.1.
4.3.3.
4·4.4·
4.5.4.
4.5.end
-phrase
'negatlve I
naJ-class
preposltlon
non-consecutlve 2.5.3.
constructlon
noun expreSSlon 2.5.2.1.
normal stress 1.6.2.
1.8.2.
2.2.3.
4.4.3.
noun 3.2.1.
noun bases 2.4.3.2.11.
nil-class sentence
partlcle
-response
n ~ l - c l a s s
demonstratlve
nasallza tlon
E
nag-class
postposltlon
202
114
205-6
74
102
119-20
115
126
133 ff
122
136
156
165
138
205
80
99-101
215-6
219
89
107
3.3.1.
3.3.4.
4·1.
3.3.2.3.
3.3.1.
4.5.1.7.
2.5.2.1.
3.2.4.
3.3.2.
modal verb
modal
mass noun 3.2.1.2.
3.2.5.2.
maJor sentence 2.6.2.3.
'male speaker' 3.2.3.1.
4.5.3.1.3,5.
4.5.5.
metrlc classlfler
maJ-class modal 4.1.3.
4.5.1.1.
4.5.1.7.
modal adJectlve
!!!
mag-class modal 4.1.2.
4.2.5.6.
4.2.6.3.2.
3.2.3.end 102
morph
morpheme
morphology
2.1.2. 35
2.1.2. 36
2.1.1. 35
noun substltutlon
nuclear contrasts
nucleus
1.2.3.
1.2.1.
5-6
5
231
personal noun 3.2.1.7.
(see also 'proper names
r
)
personal-attrlbute 3.2.1.8.
noun c
3. 2 •.:;J.3.2,3.
numeral
-morphs
-phrase
-postposltlon
2.2.2.5,6.
2.2.3.1.
2.3.3.2.
3.2.6.
3.2.6.
4.1.2.
4.1.3.
4.2. 2 .11.
4·4.3.
4.4.4.1.
44
45
55
109 ff
109
136
138,40
151
193
197
'passlve'
'past'
3.3.3.
3.3·4.
4.1.3.2.
4.4.1.
4.5.1.7.
4.5.2.1.
124
126
139
185 ff
205
208
90
90
108
phonemes of ST Chapter I 1 ff
2.5.2.2.
3.3.1.
3.3.2.
3.3.3.
74
114
119
123-4
phonemes, 1.3.3-7
consonant
phonemes, prosodlc 1.6.
phonemes, syl1ablc 1.2.1.
10-14
20-24
5
open Juncture (see Juncture)
-In redupllcatlons phonemlc clause
phonemlc phrase
phonologlcal unlts
1 ff
22
24
4
18-20
15-17
4
24
73
169
31
1.5.3.
1.4.3.
1.6.3.
1.6·4·
1.2.1.
1.2.1.
1.6·4.
2.5.1.2.
4.3.1.
1.8.3.
Chapter I
phrase
morphophonemlcs
phrase boundary
phrase
phonemes, tone
phonology
phonemes, vowel
III
2
4
105
35
67
38
59
2.1.1.
3.2.5.1.
2.1.3.3.
2.4·1.
3.2.6.2.
0.3.
1.1.
'overt relatlon-
ShlPS'
Outllne of Slamese
Grammar
ordlnal numeral
orders of lexemes
order
partltlve numeral
palatal consonants
parallel
constructlon
parenthetlcal
constructlon
1.3.5.
2.5.3.3,4.
4.1.4.3.4.
4.3.4.1.
4.4.2.end
4.4.3.12.
2.5.3.2.
3.2.6.3.
4.2.5.3,4.
4.4.3.
12
77-8
144
181
192-3
196
77
112
157
193
pltch
'place
expresslon'
place noun
'plural'
1.2.8.
3.2.2.3.7.
3.2.1.5.
3.2.5.3.12.
3.2.3.2.
3.2.4.1.
4.2.6.1.3.
4.4.3.4.
4.4.4.3.2.
7-8
97
90
108
101-2
103
160
194
198
232
prosodlc phonemes 1.2.1.
1.6.
dlstrlbutlon of 1.7.4.
'proper names' 2.2.4.3.
(see also 3.1.3.5.
personal nouns)
prosodlc contrasts 2.2.4.
prosodlc morphemes 2.1.2.3.
2.2.
quasl redupl1cators 2.3.3.
2
12
14
101-2
4
18
23
67
7
46
41
72
66 ff
67, 70-2
176
67
55
82
215
65
95
172
67,70-1
55
202
204-6
208,11,
13,14
215
218
1.2.1.
1.5.2.
4.5.3.
4.5. end
2.4.3.
2.4·3.
3.2.3.2.
4·3.3.
2.3.3.3.
3.1.2.
4.5.3.
2.4.2.2.
3.2.2.3.
4.3.2.
2.4.3.
2.3.3.3.
4.5.1.1.
4.5.1.4,5,7.
4.5.2.1,3,5,6.
'reverse-order
compound'
'relatlve pronoun'
'reverslble
constltuents'
'reflexlve '
rhythmlc contrasts 1.2.7.
2.2.4.1.
'questlon' (see
'lnterrogatlve'
and 'yes-no
questlon' )
rhythm phonemes 1.6.4.
-In redupl1catlons 2.4.3.
rhythm
rhymlng
redupl1cators
response
rhythmlc morphemes 2.2.2.
2.5.1.
/r/-/l/ dlstlnctlon 0.2.
1.3·4·
1.3.7.
redupl1cators
questlon form
(of sentence
partlcle)
redupl1catlon
4
20 ff
26
74
219
46 ff
36
38 ff
146
75
138,40
159 ff
183-4
139
185 ff
159
45
98
99 ff
48
87
183
159
74
114 ff
165
74
205
48
59-62
111
166
2.5.2.2.
4.5.5.
2.2.3.2.
3.2.3.
3.2.3.1.
2.5·2.2.
3.3.
4.2.6.3.2.
2.5.2.2.
4·5.1.7.
2.3.1.
2.4.1.
3.2.6.2.
4.2.
2.5.2.3.
4.1.3.
4.2.6.1.
4.4.1.
4.1.3. 2.
4.4.1.
4.2.6.1.2.
4.4.
4.2.6.1.1.
preposltlonal
phrase
pronoun
pre-verbal
phrases
lexlcal
'present'
-expresslon
pronoun sets
post-verbal
phrases
preposltlon
predlcatlve
predlcator
preflX
predlcatlon
predlcate
post-adJectlval
phrases
postposltlon
233
'soclal usage' 3.1.1.
3.2.3.
4.5.3.
speclflC adJectlve 3.3.2.1.
speclflc
completlve verb 3.3.4.2.
r5g-class sentence
partlcle
r50b-class
preposltlon
'royal language'
ryy-class sentence
partlcle
4.5.1.
4·5.2.
4.5. end
4.2·4·
4·5.3.
4.5.1.
4.5.2.
4.5.end
201
207,8
218
154
215
202
207
218
Smalley, W.A.
speclflc modal
verb
Spoken Thal
0.1.
3.3.1.1.
0.3.
1.1.
1.
81
99-102
215
120
128
115
3
4
'semantlc contrast'
'semantlc Opposlte'
2.5.1.4. 73
4.5.3. 215
(see r antonym')
(see 'antonym')
1-2
55
202
205
207
212-3,
214
215
218
4.5.3.
4.5.end
2.3.3.3.
4.5.1.1.
4.5.1.6.
4.5.1.8.
4.5.2.4,6.
Standard Spoken Thal 0.2.
statement form
(of sentence
partlcle)
219 ff
113
156
193
3.2.6.3.
4.2.5.
4·4.3.
4.5.5.
sag-class
preposltlon
sample exchanges
sentence
sentence types 2.6.2.
slmple-redupllca- 3.1.4.1.
tlon lml ta tlves
short vowel 1.2.3.
1·4.1.
4
18
21
28,30
21
202
123-4
3
74
118-20
7
47
167
40
45
4.1.1.1.
3.3.3.
-reference
stress 1.2.1.
1.5.2.
1.6.2.
1.8.2.
subJect-verb
constructlon
stress phonemes 1.6.2.
stress contrasts 1.2.6.
2.2.4·2.
4.2.6.4.2.
stress morphemes 2.2.1.4,5.
2.2.3.
Subhanka, Heng R. 0.3.
subJect 2.5.2.2.
3.3.2.
72
101-2
55
183
196
200
79-80
5-6
14
67-9
120
146
88
1.5.1.
'slngular-plural
dlstlnctlon'
slmultaneous
constructlon
slmple redupllcators 2.4.3.
3.3.2.
4.1·4·7.
sentence partlcle 2.3.3.3.
( 'flnal partlcle') 4.4.
4·4.4.
4·5.
'slang' (see 'lnnova tlons ' )
Sltachltta, Kanda 3.2.6. III sub-lexemlc
morpheme
2.1.2.3.
2.3.
36
48
234
substantlve 3.2.
substantlve modlflers 4.4.3.
'subordlnate 4.3.2.
c,')nJunctlon'
111
2
4
17 ff
29
75
91
114
124
123
205-6
208,10
120
219
95
147
152
172
92
96-7
90
87
6
35
99
105
128
197
4 ff
73
8
2.1.1.
1.2.1.
2.5.1.5.
1.2.8.
3.2.2.3.
4.2.1.
4.2.3.
4.3.2.
3.2.5.1.
3.3.4.2.
4.4.4.1.2.
numeral
pronoun
'varlant I
transltlve verb 3.3.3.
4.5.1.7.
4.5.2.1,2.
'tlme expresslon' 3.2.2.1.
3.2.2.3.
tOPlC 2.5.2.4.
3.2.2.
3.3.
3.3.3.
'tltles' 3.1.3.4,5.
tonal contrasts 1.2.5.
tone 0.2.
1.1.
1.5.
1.8.2.
tlme noun 3.2.1.6.
utterance-portlon
two-part
predlcatlon
thamaJ-class
complementlve
utterance
u
unlt classlfler
67,70
215
4
23
208
28
172
99
112
5
24 ff
35
73
38
72 ff
73
72
169
176
161
54
88 ff
193
56
58
62-3
113
1.6.4·
4.5.2.1.
1.8.2.
1.2.1.
3.2.3.
3.2.6.3.
4.5.3.
2.3·4·
2.3.5.
2·4.1.
3.2.6.3.
2.3.3.
2.4.3.
1.2.1.
1.7.
2.1.1.
2.5.1.3.
2.1.3.4.
2.5.
2.5.1.2.
2.5.1.1.
4.3.
4.3.3.
4.2.6.1.4.
t
-dlstrlbutlon of
'suppletlon'
syllable
morphophonemlcs
'suspenslve
Intona t lon'
sufflX, lexlcal
syntactlc unlt
sYlJ- cla s.s
conJunctlon
superflX
syntactlc clause
syntactlc
constructlon
syntax
syllable
superflXed
redupllcators
syntactlc phrase
sub-syllablc
morphemes
syllablc phonemes
syllable duratlon
sentence partlcle 4.5.
(see also al101ex)
thaa-class
conJunctlon
4.3.
4.3.2.
4.2.6.1.4.
4.2.6.2.3.
168
172
161
163
velar consonants 1.3.6.
201,207
13
235
verb (see also 3.3. 114 weak stress 1.6.2. 21
(completlve, modal,
1.8.2. 28 ff
and transltlve verb)3.3.3. 123
3.2.3. 98
verb bases 2.4.3.4. 69
3.2.5. 104
verb expreSSlon 2.5.2.1. 73 4.4. 183
4.4.1. 183
]l
verb mod1.f1.er 4·4.1. 183 Yale UnlVerS1.ty 0.3. 2-3
verb-obJect 3.3.3. 123-4
'yes-no quest1.on' 2.5.2.2.
74
construct1.on
3.3.1. 114
verb pred1.cat1.on 2..5.2.2.
74
3.3.2. 118
4.5.1.7. 205
vocatlve 3.1.3. 86
1.4. 14
~
vowels ff
'zero duratlon' 1.2.7. 7
(see also 'nucleus' )
'zero flnal' 1.2.4. 6
w
waJ-class
'zero lnlt1.al
1
1.2.2.
5
4·4.1. 183
postposltlon 4.2.6.1.3,5.
160,161
'zero lntonatlon' 1.2.8. 8
4.4.2. 188
2)6
INDEX OF FORMS
ThlS lndex contalns ST forms quoted In the grammar WhlCh are of c1assl-
flcatory lnterest In themselves. (It does not contaln, for example, forms
WhlCh occur only as context.) For the most part, the forms quoted are lexl-
cal unltS (2.1.3.), but some sub-lexlcal ltems have also been lncluded, In-
sofar as cltatlon of such forms lS feaslble. An effort has been made to
lnclude all the bound lexemes classlfled In Chapter 3 and thelr lmportant
varlants, and such free lexemes as present partlcular problems of classlfl-
catlon or occur frequently In all types of dlscourse.
For convenlence In dlstlngulshlng homonyms, an lndlcatlon of form-class
membershlp or morphologlcal category has been made after each entry. Items
In parentheses are varlants of an adJacent form; references to the maln
entry apply equally well to the varlant. All numbers are page references;
for organlzatlonal references, consult the toplcal lndex.
Alphabetlzatlon In thls lndex lS phonemlc rather than llteral. The
consonant sequence beg1ns wlth zero (l.e. all 1tems startlng, 1n wrlt1ng,
w1th a vowel wlll be found at the beglnnlng of the lndex), and consonants
wrltten wlth a dlgraph follow thelr slmple counterparts (l.e. all 1tems
beglnn1ng w1th /ph/ come at the end of the /p/'s, not In the mlddle of them).
/ ~ / follows /n/. The sequence of vowels 1S as follows, /a e eel 0 0 u y/ •
aa 1nflX
.53 SJ
1nterrog.
57
morph 196
aaC1an vb. 129
aad
sJ
1nterrog.
57
modal 115,13 6 , morph 196
138
"
aad
sJ
preflX
57
modal vb. 115,117,
165
"
179 SJ conJ.
aad-tamaphaab noun 98 aJ-th1.1 conJ. 179
aahan
see
1nf1X 36, 51
d1chan
amn
aa J prone 100 an 58
aa J conJ. 179 an clf. 108
,
vb. 129 179 aan an conJ.
'"
modal vb. 118
'"
demo 58,196 aasaJ an-na J
Jaawl 81,142
,
196 1nter J. an-nan demo
237
an-p11 demo 58,196
an-waa conJ. 179 od ••• maJ-daJ modal 76,143
ara J 57,58 01;) elf. 106
araJ prone 101,196,198-9
(see also phra-01;))
..
ad J. 122
00 response 83
arvvJ
159- 60
Joo-h60: 1nter J. 82
aw prep.
aw postp. 160
aw conJ. 161
vm-vvm prep.
155
aw vb. 161-2
v
,
vv response
83
aw-waJ postp. 185

Jvv:
1nter J • 82
..
vvg compo vb. 129
..
184,187,
vvg postp.
J a 1nter J. 81
189
-ed num. ;vg- ca taa J postp. 189
allomorph 109
J3v J: 1nter J. 82
eel;) camp.
93
vvm prep.
1.55
eel;) postp. 198
el;) prone 100,101
eeb modal 135 1nflX
.53
..
s.pcl. Ie
,
e see ua prone 100
88 52 (U8)
s.pcl. 217
,
82
88 JUJ: lnter J.
82
..
126,140
88 response un camp. vb.
v v
88 see ryy
ee J s.pcl. 217
Jyy-hyy:
lnter J • 82
..
yyn demo
.57,104
ian, lchan see dlchan
b
11 pref1x .56
bead clf.
112-3,107
lilian see dlchan
baan
98,102, noun
..
93,182
120
llg camp.
..
156,158,193-6
baa1;) num.
5.5,109,
llg prep.
112
238
baalJ compo 55,112 caw-kha s.pcl. 216
baa:t;J postp. 102,193, caw-kha s. pcl. 216
198,214
num. 109
baalJ-th1.1. see balJ-th1.1.
C88 compo vb. 130
ba J clf. 65,105,106,
107 (ce)
balJ-88n compo 92 C1.lJ adJ. 121
balJ-th1.1. compo 92 C1.lJ- pref1.x
49
bon prep. 147 C1.lJ-C1.lJ postp. 119
b;J adJ. 118-20,121 compo vb. 128
b; J- b; J compo 120 con prep. 149,162ff
b;ag modal vb. 118 con conJ 163,170,
buri1.
173,174
noun 104,107
bya
con-krathalJ prep. 152
ad J. 121
con- kra thalJ conJ. 174
byalJ- pref1.X 61,147-8
con-kwaa con,l.
174
E-
ca-
'part1.cle I
117
con-thYlJ prep. 152
(ca)
(con- thYlJ) conJ. 174
ca- modal 118,146
,
co vb. 129
ca- prep. 123,133,136,
138,156, cuan modal 137
163ff, 174-5
207 cuan prep.
157
ca s.pcl. 55,216
CYlJ
conJ. 58,163,
182
ca s.pcl. 55,216
ca resp. 85
ch
v
55,85 caa resp.
ad J. 125,166
,
149 caag prep.
noun 105
caan clf. 107
chaalJ see chslJ
caan noun 122
chabab clf. 106
, ,
cag see caag
ad J. 126
-ca J
suff1.X 62,122-3
modal 138
calJ postp. 191,192
cha J resp. 57,208
caw prone 100
clf. 57,108,
(caw)
111,112-3
239
chan prone 100 da J-kan see duaJ-
chana J
kan
camp.
57
dSJ-klin
chanan
camp. vb. 130
camp.
57

dSJ-rab modal vb. 118
c1f. 108,112

dSJ-rab camp. vb. 124
camp.
57
camp. vb. 130
chslJ modal 13
6
,144-5
daw vb. 130,160
prep. 57,153,4
deem demo 104
chen prep.
57
dian see
(ch;n)
153,4 dIchan
chen conJ. 180 dlaw demo 59,103
chen-dIaW- camp.
154
dlaw-kan
demo
103
kan
dlaw
conJ.
169,171
che8n modal vb. 118,124
camp.
97,197,
198
chlaw see thll- dIChan prone 99,100,
dlaw 102
sufflX 63
(dIChan)
chIm vb. 130 dIl adJ. 119.139,
141,166
chon vb. 131
dIl postp. 188
ch5ab modal vb. 115,118,162
din vb. 131
chuaJ modal vb. 118
dom vb. 130
chua J I kan modal
135

dooJ prep.
153
clf. 108
(do J) 160·
chyag clf. 105
chyy
dooJ conJ. 175
noun 57,58,141
camp.
92,154
d dooJ-maag camp. 92
da J demo 57,103
dog s.pcl. see r5g
daJ see duaJ and doag clf. 65,105
da J
drog
daJ
s.pcl. see r5g
57
...
duaJ comp •
94,154
daJ vb. 161
daJ
duaJ prep. 153,160,
comp.vb. 120,124,127, 164
139,162
dua J conJ. 175
ds J- JIn comp.vb. 125-6,130
dua J-kan comp.
93,154
240
duu vb. 130 hE ElJ elf. 90,108
duu-my-an modal 137 hE ElJ prep. 166-8
duu-thuug vb. 143 (hElJ)
dyan noun, elf. 90 hE ElJ noun 167
dYlJ
vb. 129,131 hog num. 109
hSlJ elf. 112
f
h;8 elf. 107
faag modal vb. 118
h u a - r ~ vb. 129
faa J prep. 153
hyy resp. 82
faJ noun 119
falJ vb. 125- 6,130
..J
f ~ d elf. 107 Ja s.pcl. 55,216
fyyn vb. 131
,.,
s.pcl. 55,216
camp.
Ja
fyyn modal 134,13 6
v
55
Jaa resp •
..
133,142-3, Jaa modal
h
202,209.
210,12,
ha s.pcl. 55,216
13
..
modal 116,141,
ha s.pcl. 55,216
Jaag vb.
165
ha s.pcl. 216
..
59,108 JaalJ elf.
haa num. 109
..
153,164, JaalJ prep.
haa vb. 130,162
..
175,180 JaalJ conJ.
haag conJ. 172
..
JaalJ- see
JalJ-
haaJ camp. vb. 131,141
JaalJ- chen 153,180 prep.
haJ prep. 57,159- 60
..
ka- 175 JaalJ conJ.
(ha J) 164
Jad vb. 129
haJ postp. 160
..
98,102, Ja J adJ.
haJ conJ. 161
120,166
.. ..
(ha J) 177
Ja J- Ja J
camp. 122
haJ vb. 161-2
JalJ
resp. 81,84
hen camp. vb. 125-6,130
JalJ
prep. 148,152
hen modal 137
JalJ conJ. 81,
(see also rna J-hen) 142
modal
93
241
,
182-3,59 JYym
vb. 160
JalJ
JalJa J
compo 59
96,196
k
( JalJraJ)
ka- preflX 50
JalJaJ-k5dll compo 92
163ff
92
ka- prep.
(see kab
JalJa J-k5taam
compo
and ked
,
59
preflx 60
JalJan
camp.
kaan-
( JalJ- nan) 96
-kaan sufflX 63
demo 196,198
kaan-thll conJ. 179
,
59
kaaw vb. 129
JalJll
camp.
( Jan-nil) 96,19
6
kab prep. 150
, ,
Jf:
postp. see Je
(ka-) 164
J€€ adJ. 121
kamlalJ modal 137-8,165
,
postp. 195
101,102,
Je
kan prone
124,154,

160,164,
129,159,184
207
Jib vb.
kan postp. 198
J 11- num.
allomorph 109
kaw num. 109
Jln-dll ad J. 123
keb vb. 160
JllJ
vb. 130
kEE prone 100,101
JllJ· • •
JllJ
modal 77,144
keE prep. 151
J llJ· • • J llJ
conJ. 169
(ke, ka-) 164,167
,
vb. 129
keE adJ. 119
Jog
-Jon
sufflX 63
kef: vb. 130,131
Joon vb. 130
••. khyn modal 76,lu3
J88m
modal vb. 116
keen prep. 157,158
J88m
modal 136
keen-kwaa prep. 157
JUd
modal vb. 118
keen-kwaa
postp. 190
'"
adJ. 121,122
keen-pa J postp. 189
JUlJ
JUU
prone 100
kiaw adJ. 164
,
vb. 131
k1.J. 109,112
JUu
num. ,
postp. 182,186- 8
194
JUU
JUu- dll compo 56,94
kil-man88 J camp. 112
JUu- dlJ.- dll camp. 92
242
Klloo
klaa!J
k l ~ b
kla J
kl €E!J
(kl€!J)
klua
klyyn
k5-khyy
k5-18 EW : kan
postp.
elf.
vb.
prep.
modal
modal
vb.
vb.
conJ.
compo
conJ.
194
107
129,162,187
148
134
164
134
135,13 6,140
142
129
170
95
170,171,180,
181,183
kwa-phyan
kyab
kyab
kh
kha
khaa-phacaw
khaam
postp.
postp.
modal
prep.
s.pcl.
s.pcl.
resp.
resp.
prone
vb.
vb.
noun
prep.
113,197
190
137,138
157,158-9
195
55,216
55,216
85
55,85
100,101
131
142
101
154
(comp. vb.)
-koon
k50n
sufflx
prep.
conJ.
elf.
63
121,122
152,153
173
106
khaa!J
khaa!J
khaa!J-na J
kham
preflX
elf.
prep.
compo
elf.
61,97,
147-8,
10e
148
97,147
106
100,101,
102
184,187,
189,192
130
130
151,153
197
197
97
98 prone
compo
postp.
compo vb. 1,29
compo
compo
camp. vb.
vb.
prep.
khaw-caJ
khen
khee
khee-naJ
khee-niJ.
khaw
119,190,192,
197
157
166,8
174
112-3
100
100,101
153
108
49
214
suf'f1..X
prep.
conJ.
prone
elf.
camp.
pref1.x
prone
postp.
s.pcl.
kwaa
kuu
-kwa
krama!J
kraphom
(kwa)
kra-
243
kh88J modal vb. 115,138, khraJ prone 57,58,101
139,165 102,196
khlalJ adJ. 164 khralJ elf. 108
kh{d modal vb. 118,129,13 0 khraphom s.pel. 215
khll- preflx 60,123 khr6b eomp. vb. 128
khil noun 61 khr6b prep.
155
khll-k1.ad adJ. 123 khruu noun 91
khlaa J ad J. 164 khryalJ- preflX 61
khlyan vb. 130 khryalJ noun 126
-khom sufflX 63 khrYlJ num. 109-111,
58,90,106,
114,196
khon elf.
111,112, khuan modal vb. 117
156
khun prone
98,99,100
kh6n vb. 130 102
khon-la prep. 156-7 khun voe. 87
khon-naJ demo 196 khuu elf. 108
khon-nan demo 196 khwaa vb. 130
,
196,198 khon-nll demo khwaam- preflX 60
kholJ modal 75,136-7, khwaalJ vb. 130,161,
165 162
kh5J modal 138 khyn eomp. vb. 129
(kh5 J) see also khyn postp.
92 ,184,
ma J-kh5 J 187,189,
kh5 J-kh5 J 145-6
192-3
modal
kh5n- khaalJ
khy-waa eonJ. 170
modal 137-8
khoo 95,118
khyy
58
modal vb.
kh50 106
khyy eonJ. 170,171
elf.
khyyn modal
133,134,
khoolJ prep. 46
135,143,
(kh51J) 75,166-8
165
khoolJ noun 167 1
khraab resp. 55,85 la s.pel. see la
khrab s.pel. 55,216 Ie s.pel. see IE
khrab s.pel. 55,216 1a postp. 200
khrab resp. 85 (la)
kh
244
1 ~
la
laa
Jlaa:
l ~ a n
lakeen
lam
1amalJ
1alJ
1alJ
lalJ
1alJ- caag
(lalJ- cag)
lalJ-caag
law
s.pcl.
postp.
s.pcl.
postp.
s.pcl.
vb.
s.pcl.
vb.
num.
num.
prep.
comp.vb.
vb.
postp.
clf.
demo
clf.
prep.
prep.
conJ.
postp.
s.pcl.
demo
demo
comp.
204
214
218
1.56,197
see la
199
see la
204,206,207,
208,213,218,
see also la
131
213
130
109,112,194,
19.5
109,114
147
131,141
131,132
191
10.5
92
see also malJ
104
120
148
1.52
1.52
174
199
213
103
103
113
24.5
len
lee
lew-k5o
18eg
leeJ
leeJ
lee J
lulJ
luug
luug
postp.
clf.
comp.
postp.
s.pcl.
conJ.
conJ.
vb.
s.pcl.
adJ.
comp.
conJ.
compo
conJ.
modal vb.
comp.
postp.
conJ.
vb.
vb.
comp.vb.
postp.
modal
modal vb.
comp.vb.
comp.vb.
voc.
noun
clf.
194
10.5
141
198
203,207,
212,211:3
169
169
130
212
121,122
200,204,
208
169,171
122
169
118
94,202
191,202
170,171
181,183
131
131
129,132
184,187- 8,
189,193
134
118
131
131
87
100
106
lyag
,
142 vb. 123 maJ-Jag modal
lya-k88n postp. 191 maJ-kil num. 109,112-3
lyy
193,196
prone 100,101
ma J-khv J modal 141
~
(ma J-kh5 J)
ma- preflx 50 ma J-maag postp.
194
maa vb. 125,142 ma J-naan postp. 196
maa modal 135,161-2 maJ-than modal 141-2
maa postp. 161-2,185, ma J- thaw-ra J compo 113
187-8
v
maJ-thaw-raJ postp.
194
maa noun 89
man prone 98,101,102
maag ad J. 119-20
malJ see malJ
maag postp. 191,192,194
, malJ postp. 193,207
mag modal 136
malJ s.pcl. 205
mag-maag compo 112
mag-maag
(malJ) 214,218
postp. 194
JmalJ:
s.pcl. 214
maJ clf. 113
med unlt clf. 106
v
Ipartlcle I
57 mSJ
med
metrlc
clf.
107
(ma J) 57,74
ImEE: : lnter J. 81,145
m8.J
s .pcl. 138
v
men- kan see myan-
(ma J) 205,208,218 kan
,.
83-4 meraJ maJ resp. see mya-
raJ
maJ
Jnega tlve·
f
57
rola noun 101
(ma J) 57
mi-chanan compo 92
maJ modal 94,126,129,
139-40,165 mll vb. 124,162
maJ-chaa postp. 196 mod compo vb. 128
ma J-cha J modal 136 rood postp.
195
(rna J- cha J) 140 mod prep.
155
maJ-ehe8lJ modal 142,144 moolJ clf. 107
roa J-da J modal 126 m88lJ vb. 125- 6, 130
(ma J-daJ) 133,139-40 mua modal
134
maJ-hen modal 142 muan elf. 107
(ma J-hen)
246
152
,
89 mya prep. naam noun
(mya) naan postp. 195
mya eonJ. 173 naanaa- preflx 61
adJ. 162
,
188 myaJ nag postp.
mya-k;;)n eonJ. 173 na J prep.
75,147
,
v
55,57 mya-nan eomp. 197 naJ
v
153 103 myan prep. na J demo
(myan) 164
v
199 naJ eomp.
v
(ka-) 175 83,204 myan eonJ. naJ resp.
myan-kan eomp. 9
2
,94 Jna J-m3: J: lnter J. 82
mya-ra J eomp. 91,96,197 naJ-mya eonJ • 173
101
..
mYlJ
prone naJ-rawaalJ eonJ. 173
myy noun 90 naJ-welaa eonJ • 173
..
109,114
,
55-57
myyn num. nan
,
103 nan demo
n
,
(nan) 154,176,
na 'partlele' 56 198
(na)
55
,
nan postp. see na
,
148 55,57 na prep. nan
na postp. 199 nan demo 103
na s.pel. 211 nan s.pel. 209,218
na postp. 200 nan postp. see na
na s.pel. 55,203,211, nalJ vb. 125
218,
v v
105 nalJ-syy noun
naa s.pel. 55,202-7,208,
nE: postp. 198
211,218
ne s.pel. 204,218
naa demo 104
Jnc: lnter J. 82, 2
"
naa noun 112
nl see nll
naa prep. 148
postp. 195
naa- preflX 60,123
'naa.
211
postp. 191,192
s.pel.
naa J noun
100
J postp. 195
naaJ voe. 87
nl8 postp. 199
naa-klua
ad J.
123 nl8 s.pe1. 204
247
.nl 1 vb. 131
!J
'"
55,56
,
nll
nYlJ
demo 58
nll demo 103,198 (nYlJ) 103
nll s.pcl. 170
,
nYlJ
num. 109,111,
(ni) 203,209,211,
lJa J
'partlcle' 57
113
217,218
nll 86,217
13a J
postp. 198,204
vOC.
nll postp.
13a J
resp. 83
see nl8
, 13a J
s.pcl. 203,213,
nll
55 218
(nll) 56
v
13a J
lsola tlve
57
,
nll demo 102,154,176
v
198,199
13a J
resp. 83,204
,
, 13an compo 57,196
nll postp. see nl8
,
nlmon modal vb. 118
131.1. compo 56,57,196
,
noon
55-57
,
.E
noon demo 103,198
pa J modal 135,136,
Jn5a: s.pcl. 211
161-2
naag prep. 147
paJ postp. 161-2,185,
'" ,
187-8,
naag-caag prep. 153
189,192
(n3ag- cag)
paJ vb. 114,118,
" ,
139,141,
naag-caag conJ. 174
143,164,
,
165,185
naaJ num. 55,109,112-3,
141,194
pen comp.vb. 127
,
naaJ compo
55
pen prep.
153
( n ~ J) 95,162
pen-ton compo 153,180
,
pEEd
naa J postp. 191,192,195
num. 109
naan vb. 131
pe8d vb. 129
,
pid
n;)a13 voc. 87
vb. 124,129
nuu prone 100
pl1. clf. 111
v
plaaw
84
nya prep. 148
resp.
'" ,
plEE: vb.
nya13-caag prep. 153
129
(nyalJ- cag) COUJ. 175
p l ~ g vb. 131
,
nyg vb. 118,129
pra- pref1.x
48
248
praa d- sa caag prep.
155 prep. 152,154
pracam- preflx 62
pracam prep. 151 conJ. 174
pradlaw conJ. 169 postp. 190
pramaan prep. 157 ca J adJ. 123
ph postp. 190
phaa noun
89 phra-olJ prone 101
-phaab sufflx
62-3
phr6
phaaJ- preflx
prep.
153,4
61,147-8
phaal kan modal
135,135- 6
(phr5)
pha-een see balJ-een conJ. 175
phaJaJaam modal vb. 117 compo 92,154
phan num. 109,114 adJ 0 164
phecn elf. 106 phr5-waa conJo 175
ph8lJ modal
134,145 phua noun 101
ph8lJ prep. 157-8 phuag elf. 108
phlalJ prep. 157-8,159, phuud vb. 118,129
194

phya prep.
153,4
adJ. 164, 90
phil
phya conJ. 175
noun 98,100
phya compo
154
phil voc. 86
phya conJ. 172
phlaalJ· •• postp. 77,196
phyan
phlaalJ
prone
57
phleen ad J. 121
phYlJ see ph8lJ
modal 135
phyyn elf. 106
comp.vb. 130 r
phom prone
99
raaJ- preflx 62
raaJ elf. 108
(pham) 102
,
155
raaJ prep.
phon 65,106
,
elf. raan noun
90
,
106
comp.vb. 131
raan elf.
prep.
155
raaw prep. 157
demo
57
modal vb. 118
,
118
compo 97,154
rag modal vb.
249
,
rag-saa vb. 131 ry see rYJ
and ree
ra J demo 57,103
, ,
rya J ad J. 121
ra J prep. see raaJ
A "
ralJ-kl.ad
rya J-rya J compo 122
modal vb. 118
ryalJ prep. 153
raw prone 100,101,
102
rYJalJ
s.pcl. 205,208
~ "
s.pcl. 208
raw-raaw prep. 157
rymaJ
rawaalJ prep. 153
rYlJa J
s.pcl. 208
rawaalJ conJ. 173
ryplaaw s.pcl. 208
rew adJ. 120,143
ry-waa conJ. 169
v
57,58
rEEg demo 103
ryy
v
169
r EElJ adJ. 161
ryy conJ.
(re)
(ry) 202-6
v
208
v
ryy s.pcl.
ree
s. pel.
see ryy
v
83
(ree) 218
ree resp.
reem modal vb. 118
(ry)
,
118
Jryy: s.pcl. 208
rl modal vb.
rlan clf. 107
rllb modal 118
~
vb.
sa postp. 96,184,
rllb-rllb modal 146 186-8
rlm modal 137 -saad sufflx 63
r3b-rGob prep. 154
saam num. 109,111
r5g s.pcl.
57
saamaad modal vb. 117
(r;g) 202,203,218 s a d ~ a g ad J. 139,166
rGob prep. 154
sag prep. 158
rGob comp.vb. 127 (sag) 159,162,
,
194,195
rooJ num. 109,114 ,
,
saJ vb. 129
roon adJ. 166
,
,
sa J prep. 151
roolJ vb. 129
,
, ,
samag modal vb. 117
ruu-cag modal vb. 116
( samag- ca J)
,
ruu-ryalJ compo vb. 130
v
samee
adJ. 121
r{lU- than vb. 132
sam-rab 153 prep.
250
tem prep.
155 tua clf. 106,112
(comp.vb.) tuu clf. 112
tem-thll postp. 191 tyyn comp.vb. 131
tem-thll postp. 189
th
tEE prep.
93
thaa
modal 137
(te)
149, 162ff
thaa
conJ. 172
thaa-haag
conJ. 172
tEE conJ. 170,171 (-waa)
teeg ad J. 122
thaa-phya conJ.
172
te-koa COllJ. 170
(-waa)
tE-waa conJ. 170
thaa J vb. 130
te-1a prep. 156-7
thaan vb. 129
tid comp.vb. 131
thaalJ- preflx 147-8
tid prep.
155
thaalJ prep. 150
tll vb. 124,126,130,
thab vb. 131
131,161
tham vb. 58
tog comp.vb. 130, 132, 161
thamadaa compo 92
tog-lolJ vb. 132
thamaJ 57,58
ton prone 101,102
ton
tnamaJ compo 96,196,
clf. 64,106
198,9
tOlJ modal vb. 74,114-5,116
(thamma J)
13 6,138,165 than comp.vb. 125,128,
toa prep. 151,156,164
131,132
(to)
than prep. 155
see
maJ-
toa-maa compo
97
than
toa-mya conJ. 173
than prone 99,101
toa-paJ compo
91
than voc. 87
taan- preflx 147-8
thanon noun 112
taan prep. 152
than-thll compo
94
(tan)
thalJ prep. 156,158,
195
trolJ prep. 149-50
than-1aa J compo 101,112
trolJ vb. 164
thalJ-1aaJ postp. 194
trolJ-khaam prep. 152,154,164
thalJ-mOd postp. 195
tua prone 100,101,102
252
176
185
176
130
129
129
127,162
58
59,119
189
58,197
57,58,197
155
127
107
97,197
190
96,197,
199
97,197
97,197,
198
127
149,164
9S, 173
109,112-3
195
157
124,126,
130
164,168
58
conJ.
vb.
comp.vb.
vb.
conJ.
comp.
compo
vb.
compo
postp.
prep.
postp.

thua
thll- sud
thll-noon
thon

thll-dlaw postp.
thua prep.
thua-thYlJ comp.vb.
thuaJ elf.
nurn.
thll-dlaw pomp.
prep.
thuug comp.vb.
thuug adJ.
thYlJ
thYlJ comp.vb.
,
thll-nll compo
thll conJ.
thll-raJ compo
thll-naJ compo
( thl)
(thl-sud)
th{lJ-waJ
thl-waa
(thl- dlaw)

thll-dlaw
see
see thll-dlaw
see
149
see
112
106
165,207,218
100,101
113
195
195
191,192,
194,197
190
179
172,173
137
153
154
150
95
58,108
153
156,164
190
93
162,197,198
112
compo
elf.
elf.
elf.
prep.
s.pcl.
elf.
conJ.
conJ.
s.pcl.
compo
prep.
prone
prep.
postp.
postp.
comp.
compo
postp.
prep.
postp.
modal
nurn.preflX III
thlal:l
thl-
thll
thll

thlaw
theew
thee
thaw-kan
thaw-nan
thaw-thaw: kan postp.
theen
thaw-raJ
thalJ-thalJ-
thll
thaw
thalJ-nan
thalJ-nan
thalJ- s In
(then)
(thaw)
(thaw-nan)
( thaw-ra J)
(thEw)
th8lJ

( thaw-thll)
thEb
253
thYlJ thYlJ and
,
57,185, see waJ postp.
thalJ 187-8
thYlJ-haag 173
v
vb. 127,130 conJ. waJ compo
thYlJ- kab prep. 152 wan elf. 107,112
thYlJ-khEE prep. 152 weelaa-min compo
97
thYlJ- mEE- wa a conJ. 172,173 we-laa noun, elf. 146
thYlJ- nan compo 92 welaa prep. 147,152
welaa conJ. 173
w
,
153
wen prep.
wa s.pcl. 55,217

153 prep.
wa conJ. see waa
WEE:b elf. 109
,
55,217 wa s.pcl.
,
55
W88J 'resp.
'"
s.pcl. 55,217 wa
,
W88J s.pcl. 217
waa conJ. 177
90 noun
waa postp. 200
vb. 115,120 WllJ
, ,
waaJ see waJ
,
55
wOOJ resp.
waan modal vb. 118
,
217 wooJ s.pcl.
,
118-9 wad noun
Flnal copy typed by Mrs. Irma C. Ponce
254
February 3, 1964
-(I; u. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1964 0 - 702-217(136)

T H AI

REFERENCE GRAMMAR

\ ~~lIIl11t~ID
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This work was compiled and pub. lished with the support of the Office of Education, Department of Health, Education and Welfare, United States of America.

* ., **** /~ *** 1',,**** ~ * ~f(j'~ 't\'1~- q?r:"~ \~,(b\AN~ j

RICHARD B. NOSS

FOREIGN SERVItE INSTITUTE
WASHINGTON, D.C.

1964

D EPA

R T MEN

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For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price $1.25

PREFACE

Standard Thai, the subject of this reference grammar, is the national spoken language of Thailand and at the same time an educated variety of the diP-lect of Bangkok, to some extent also of the entire Central Plains region of the country. As such it is the most widely known representative of the Tai language family, which extends from southern China to the Malay peninsula and includes present-day speakers in all the countries of Mainland Southeast Asia. Standard Thai, along with its written counterpart, is known to some extent to nearly all the people of Thailand, and it enjoys some status as secondary language in neighboring countries as well. As is the case with many national languages, it is difficult to state the actual nbmber of native speakers. The usual estimate of 18,000,000 is probably accurate. The linguist responsible for all phases of the reference grammar project has been Richard B. Noss. The present work is a greatly revised and expanded version of his dissertation, 'An Outline of Siamese Grammar,' Yale, 1954. The original research was made possible by concurrent grants from the Yale Southeast Asia Program and the American Council of Learned Societies. The revision and publication was supported by the U.S. Office of Education through a grant to the Foreign Service Institute. Some of the additional research on which this revision is based was done in Thailand iT. 1.961, when Dr. Noss was serving as a Regional Language Supervisor in Southeast AsiP- for the F oreign Service Institute. Names of principal informants consulted for the study will be found in the Introduction (p.3). They include two other FSI staff members: Mr. Prasert Crupiti and Miss Chotchoi Kambhu.

/R~ ~
Howanl E. Solieabe'IIn,
School of Language and Area Studies Foreign Service Institute Department of State

1.1.1.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

O.
I.

Introductlon Phonology Background 1. 2. Summary 3. Consonants 4. Vowels 5. Tones 6. ProsodlC Phonemes 7. Dlstrlbutlon 8. Morphophonemlcs Morphology and Syntax 1. Summary 2. Prosodlc Morphemes 3. Sub-lexemlc Morphemes 4· Lexeme Composltlon 5. Syntactlc Constructlons 6. Classlflcatlon Free Lexeme Classes 1. Isolatlves 1. InterJectlons 2. Responses 3. Vocatlves 4. Imlta tlves

1 4 4 4 8
14 17

IV.

Bound Lexeme Classes 1. Modals 1. /khyyn/ Class 2. /m~g/ Class 3. /maJ/ Class 4. Mlscellaneous

133 133 133 136 138 143 146 147 148 152 154 156 160 168 168 172 176 180 183 183 188 193 196 200 201 207 215 217 219 226 237

20 24 27 35 35 38 48 59 72 79 81 81 81 82 86 88 88 89 91 98 102 104 109 114 114 118 123 125

2.

II.

Preposltlons Ina J/ CIa ss 2. /caag/ Class 3. /dooJ/ Class 4· /rSab/ Class 5. /sag/ Class 6. Mlscellaneous
1.

3.

III.

ConJunctlons 1. /diaw/ Class 2. /thaa/ Class 3. /sYlJ/ Class 4. /cYlJ/ Class Postposltlons
1.
2.

4.

2.

Substantlves 1. Nouns 2. Complementlves

3. 4. 5.

/w~ J/ Class /n~g/ Class /baalJ/ Class Enumeratlve

3.

4.
5. 6. 3.

Pronouns Demonstratlves Classlflers Numerals

Predlcatlves 1. Modal Verbs 2. AdJectlves 3. Transltlve Verbs 4. Completlve Verbs

Sentence Partlcles /r5g/ Class 2. /ryy/ Class 3. /khr~b/ Class 4· /nll/ Class Sample 5. Exchanges
1.

Toplcal Index Index of Forms

lV

0. Scope Standard spoken Thal. etc. In ract. tradltlonal. or surrer the consequences.) consls~lng In thls latter cat'runctlonal egory are the numerous mlnor rorm-clas~es or Thal ('slgn-words. but the results are presented In terms or morphemes and order.2. The approach to classlrlcatlon or grammatlcal reatures attempts to rollow current technlques or Amerlcan descrlptlve Ilngulstlcs or the 'ltem-andarrangement' school. Smalley's 'Outllne or Khmu? Structure.' Jr lexlcal ltems whose arrangement and condltlons or occurrence are not easlly descrlbed In terms or qUlcklyunderstood grammatlcal labels. representlng the speech hablts or the maJorlty or educated speakers. words. As an oral manlBut It lS the language or communlcatlons medla.) have been explolted. It would be lmposslble to mentlon all or them. It lS what rorelgners learn: standard spoken Thal enJoys conslderable status as a second language In Laos. or Vlew or general method and SpeClrlC categorles the most userul hlnts have been gleaned rrom descrlptlons or languages wlth structures slmllar to Thal. lS not slmply the audlble verSlon or a natIonally accepted wrltten language.TfAI REFERENCE GRAMMAR O. Hockett on Chlnese (Pelplng) and Wllllam I A.' 'empty morphs. but two were outstandlng InthlS respects The work or Charles F. the subJect or thls grammar. Perhaps even more lmportant. The reglonal dlalect most closely resembllng the standard language lS that spoken In the geographlcal area or Thalland called the Central Plaln. the deslred If not actual medlum of lnstructlon In publlc schools throughout Thalland. or translatable only In terms so broad as to be almost meanlngless. and whose largely non-rererentlal meanlngs are not easlly translated. and also to elaborate by sub-classlrlcatlon and example those structural reatures whlch are least covered by eXlstlng grammars and dlctlonarles. An lndex or these mlnor rorm-class members lS provlded at the end or the grammar. INTRODUCTION 0. Those who are not born to It adapt to It. It has no orrlclal sanctlon or any klnd. regardless or orlgln. the orrlclal language or Thalland. festatlon.' etc. and some status even 1n parts or Cambodla and Burma.1 Purpose and Method The purpose or the present work lS to outllne the maln structural rea- tures or standard spoken Thal. and the prestlge dlalect. Certaln lnslghts dlrectly attrlbutable to other gramFrom the pOlnt matlcal technlques (transrormatlonal. 1 .

In the Most speakers of the standard language make the dlstlnctlon a phonemlc one. present work the cholce between the two phonemes lS made arbltrarlly. the eastern Ilmlt lS the Cambodlan border. the prlnclpal dlfference between the standard language and the Central Plalns dlalect eXlst above the Malay penlnsula. The flrst work was undertaken wlth the help of concurrent grants from the Southeast ASla Program of Yale Unlverslty and the Amerlcan Councll of Learned Socletles. soclal status. varles wlth the extent of formal educatlon. but lesser role. lS probably safe to say that no natlve speaker of Thal wlthln the borders of Thal. research 1950-52 and the summer of 1961. and to the southwest at least as far as Ratchaburl. lmportant. the capltal. the d~alects Consonant and vowel correspondences play an At thlS date It There are also conslderable dlfferences among ln lexlcon. and contacts wlth other groups through work or travel. lncludlng the whole sectlon of Thalland WhlCh lS east of the Gulf of Slam. The prlnclpal lsoglosses separatlng the Central Plalns dlalect from ltS nelghbors to the south. but apparently very few In syntax.' The second perlod of research came durlng a tour of duty by the author as FSI Reglonal Language Supervlsor for Southeast ASla. On the phonetlc level. Except for some lslands of non-Thal speakers. but can be found as far away as Pltsanuloke. but ln 0.land proper has much dlfflculty In understandlng elther the Central Plalns dlalect or the standard spoken language. In all areas. and the results we~e submltted ln 1954 as a Yale dlssertatlon entltled 'An Outllne of Slamese Grammar.ThlS dlalect centers around Bangkok. As a legltlmate phoneme of a colloqulal Thal dlalect. It extends to the west as far as the Burmese border. and northeast lnvolve the phonetlc shapes and phonemlc dlstrlbutlon of tones. [rJ eXlsts only as an unpredlctable varlant of the /1/ phoneme.3. to the north and northeast lt lS generally bounded by mountalns. 18 the /r/ - /1/ dlstlnctlon. It was declded to take the orlglnal dlssertatlon as a basls for the grammar and expand lt. glven a short perlod of adJustment. Ablllty to speak standard Thal. Sources Two separate perlods of fleld research In Thalland were lnvolved ln the preparatlon of thlS grammar. and 2 . the central and most populous portlon of the country lS thus entlrely blanketed by natlve speakers of a dlalect close to the standard spoken language. accordance wlth dlctlonary spelllngs wherever posslble. north. but vary as to the lexlcal ltems to WhlCh /r/ and /1/ are asslgned. /r/ probably does not In the Central Plalns dlalect. wlth a contract between FSI and the Offlce of Educatlon for the productlon of a Thal reference grammar as a stlmulus. alone and ln clusters.

1961 (ST) Mr. Ayuthya Provlnce) Mrs. lncludlng the broad outllne of phonemlc analysls ltself. 1. lnstructor. shorlng up the weak spots. 1951-52. Bangkok. of necesSlty recur In the present work. student at Royal Mllltary Academy. The same could be sald of the unpubllshed but equally valuable suggestlons of Dr. Bangkok. the most frequently consulted publlcatlons have been those of Mary R. Prasert Crupltl. Washlngton. lnstructor. prlnclpal lnformants follows wlth thelr backgrounds and tlme and place of 1951-52 (CP. CP lnformants were lnteTvlewed entlrely In A llst of the Thal. wlfe of Amerlcan Ilngulst. Wllllam J. Gedney. 1962-63 (CP. 6. 1953-54 (ST) 4. Henry Holt and Co. (CP. Mr. FSI Language School. and collectlng further examples. 1951-52 (ST) 3. Chantaburl Provlnce. 5. Bangkok. Yale Unlverslty. FSI Language School. In the present work. A number of descrlptlve studles of Thal by llngulstlcally-orlented Thal speakers. lntervlews lndlcated. Han Dltkum. Gedney. and It lS lmposslble to determlne WhlCh parts of the analysls are orlglnal here and whlch are merely loglcal extenslons of concluslons lmpllclt In her pedagoglcal work. The speclflc lnformants consulted for thlS study lncluded speakers of the Central Plalns (CP) dlalect as well as standard (ST) speakers. graduate student. 1945). Chulalongkorn Unlverslty. Mlss Chaluay Kanchanagama. and ST lnformants partly In Thal and partly In Engllsh. expllcltly or lmpllcltly. 1962-63 (ST) Of modern descrlptlve work on Thal. New Haven. Bangkok. Many orlglnal concluslons of Dr. employee of AUA Language Center. Churee Indanlyom. Faculty of Arts.the summer of 1961 was devoted to testlng the analysls. Washlngton. whose gUldance In the orlglnal research proJect and later has conslderable relevance to whatever appears on these pages. Mr. have been done recently. Haas. but thelr flndlngs have not been lncorporated. 1954. Wllllam J. especlally her Spoken Thal (wlth Heng R. 3 . and New Haven. and ST) 7. Subhanka. both In Thalland and the Unlted states.. Ayuthya Provlnce) 2. Haas. some of them graduate students at Amerlcan unlversltles. Mrs. Mlss Chotchol Kambhu. Chote Raktlprakara.

have been reta1ned to correspond w1th f1ve of the SlX tones. the four Haas tone sym- bols. rhythm. and 2) as a transcrlptlon system for ST. 1nvolv1ng relSyllables are character1zed Phonemes of all the above at1ve syllable-duratlons of SlX dlstlnct klnds. I-I. lt has already achleved a wlde acceptance. 1. The symbols used here for stress.1. then. are all new and correlate w1th spec1flC phases of the complete phonemlc analys1s Wh1Ch follows. plus the unmarked tone. and lntonat1on phenomena. the Spoken Thal system has no symbol1zat1on. categorles are prosod1c phonemes. The only departures. from any more economlcal alternatlve Solutlon (such as the one proposed In Outllne of Slamese Grammar). 4 . th~ absence of a symbol for glottal stop (wrltten /9/ 1n Spoken Tha1. stress.CHAPTER I PHONOLOGY 1. Phonologlcal Unlts Summary Wlthln the ST utterance. the phonemlc analysls of the segmental features of standard spoken Thal \ST) follows the Solutlon proposed by Haas and Subhanka ln Spoken Thal (1945). and the syllable. as In Spoken Tha1. except perhaps the amb1guous 1mpl1cat1ons of space or lack of space between syllables. as far as symbollzat1on 1S concerned. by stress contours. But even here. and In mutually convertlble fashlon.2. the followlng phonologlcally slgnlflcant subdlvlslons occur: types each. ThlS chOlce was made for two reasons: 1) the Solutlon lS baslcally sound. The 1mportant departures from the Haas analys1s 1nvolve prosod1c features: ~ones. the clause. of WhlCh there are two Phrases are characterlzed by rhythmlc patterns. 1. Background In general. the phrase. deter- mlned by the presence of stress 1n the present analys1s) and the wrlt1ng of short dlphthongs w1th /-e/ lnstead of /_a 9 / . and 1ntonat1on. Clauses are characterlzed by lntonat1on contours and Junctures. has been added.2. only one new tone symbol. The present analys1s pro- poses SlX ST tones. 1nstead of f1ve.1. and dlffers only mlnlmally. For the re- malnlng prosod1c categor1es. rhythm. are the wr1t1ng of long vowels w1th double vowel symbols 1nstead of vowels plus ra1sed dot. of WhlCh there are SlX types. and occurs ln a number of other publlcatlons on Thal (lnclud1ng the FSI Bas1c Course). and undeflned punctuat10n marks.

syllablc contrasts are presented flrst.3. Nuclear Contrasts There are nlne contrastlng nuclel of one segment each (short vowels). nucleus. for a total of 23 contrasts. followed by prosodlc contrasts.Wlthln the syllable.2. 1. /baa/ /paa/ /praab/ /plaa/ /phaa/ /phraan/ /phlaad/ /faa/ /maa/ /daa/ /taa/ /traa/ /thaa/ /saam/ /naa/ 'crazy' 'forest' 'subdue' 'flSh' 'cloth' 'hunter 'Sllp ' sky' 'come' 'curse' 'eye I I /laa/ /raab/ /caan/ /chaam/ /Jaa/ r 'donkey' 'flat' 'pIa te' 'bowl' 'medlclne' rteapot r 'prostra te' 'bold' 'more' 'occaSlon' 'slmllar' 'rlght slde' 'flve' rtusk r 'open the Jaws' /kaa/ /kraab/ /klaa/ /kwaa/ /khraaw/ /khlaaJ/ /khwaa/ /haa/ /lJaa/ /aa/ 'stamp' 'daub' 'three r 'fleld' 1. there are four types of component. and tone phonemes from tonal components. maklng a total of 32 contrasts. 5 . In the summary and the lndlvldual phoneme llstlngs. vowel phonemes from nuclear components. lnltlal and flnal components. Consonant phonemes result from the analysls of These are all syllablc phonemes. plus zero lnltlal. Three d1phthongs are long (those end1ng 1n /a/). flnal. and tone. and two are short (end1ng 1n /8/). and flve nucle1 conslst1ng of d1fferent segments (d1phthongs).2.2 Inltlal Contrasts There are twenty contrastlng lnltlals of one segment each. lnltlal. eleven common lnltlals of two segments each. \ n1ne gemlnate two-segment nucle1 (long vowels). There 1S no zero nucleus.

/li1.4. maklng a total of 9 contrasts.2.ngu1.sh' 'black' ' guess" /dad/ /dan/ /da/ 'stralghten' 'push' 'plunge ahead' /dag/ /dalJ/ /daJ/ 'net' 'loud' 'any' 1.Long Nucle1./ ~. /dab/ /dam/ /daw/ 'ext1.5 Tonal Contrasts There are SlX contrastlng tones. four of them relatlvely level In contour. Obllque /khaw/ 'enter' /kh~w/ /khaw-r~b/ /khaw/ /khaw/ 'hlll' 6 . Flnal Contrasts There are elght common contrastlng flnals of one segment each.rd' 'lsland' /l~g/ /l~g/ /c~eg/ /n6 g / /k. /phl{g/ /k{e/ 'turn over' 'wooden shoes' ' small' 'sharp sound' 'deep I /l~g/ /keg/ /lyg/ /lJen/ 'SlIver' 'steal' 'get up' 'pure-wh1.2.1d' 'parboll' 'world' 'peel' Short Nucle1.g/ /riag/ /leeg/ /lEcg/ /lyYm/ /lyag/ /18eg/ /laag/ /luug/ /luag/ /loog/ /lSag/ 'bypass' 'call' 'number' 'exchange' 'forget' 'choose' 'qU1. plus zero flnal. te ' 'b1. one falllng. Level /khaw/ 'he' 'feature' 'respect' 'knee' There lS no zero tone. and one rlslng.t' 'haul' 'ch1.

Rhythmlc Contrasts There are SlX dlstlngulshable degrees of relatlve syllable-length wlthln an utterance. there are. Mah.' 1. and lS relatlvely hlgh. three of whlch are determlned by stress and lntonatlon features. dylng out rapldly). you know.1./ 'Untll March. . 7 . .. stress Contrasts There are SlX contrastlng stress contours occurrlng on lndlvldual syllables. In whlch the absolute pltch-range of each 2) falllng pltch-llne.' a functlonal word that follows verbs. 'There are./ . /'mll: The flrst flve relatlve duratlons are lllustrated wlth a syllable /'mll/ taken from large~ contexts. plus the shortest length whlch lS lnterpreted as zero duratlon. Dlmlnlshlng /1maa/ /'maa/ /maa/ 'C 'mere 1 ' I (It) came. ' 'Mah. (but) .' a man's name (The last two examples. duratlon occurs In the syllable /ml/ In the followlng: /'thY~-mllnaa./ /'mll 'naa.2. three of them sustalned (level of loudness peaklng toward mlddle.'naa. and absolute pltch-range drops steadlly. ./ 'Yes. Sustalned /1maa:/ /'maa:/ /maa:/ 'Of course (It) came 1 ' ' (I t) came. In whlch the The effect lS most easlly audlble klnd of tone remalns roughly the same from one end of the clause to the other.. wlth the translatlons not occur In lsolatlon as do the flrst four examples. do 1. In descendlng order T. of length.6. ' 'The month of March. ' 'There are.7. and 'up to now./ / 'mll. two of whlch are In contrast.) used vocatlvely./ /'mll: naa.2. ' Zero The last two examples lllustrate dlrect rhythmlc contrast.2.8 Intonatlonal Contrasts Portlons of utterances have two contrastlng uypes of lntonatlon contour: 1) hlgh pltch-llne. then dylng out slowly) and three dlmlnlshlng (level of loudness greatest at beglnnlng of syllable. ' 'up to now. /'mll. ' 'There are flelds.

coat~ You wore 1t last n1ght.'naa kam-la~ 'J1~ 'plaa naJ. and the separatlon may be by elther of the two Junctures.f khun 'saJ 'mya-khyyn. and the contrast lS 1n the Juncture alone. ' Slnce both port1ons may have e1ther of the two 1ntonat1on contours. there are e1ght poss1ble lntonat1on-sequences for th1S part1cular palr of utterance port1ons (see 1.f/. 'The farmer lS shoot1ng the f1Sh 1n the pondJ' 2) 'chaaw-'naa kam-la~ 'moo~ 'plaa naJ-'khuu. there must be pause /.'n{l: re8.3. and Example 2) lS khun 'saJ 'mYa-khyyn-'n{l.' wr1tten /. 'The farmer lS 100k1ng at the f1Sh 1n the pond.6. 1. the utterance-port1ons are 1dent1cal (all have fall1ng 1ntonat1on).'n{l./. I The second contour lS analyzed as zero 1ntonat1on./~ otherw1se a slngle 1ntonatlon contour results. In the follow1ng pa1r of utterances. wr1tten 1) /. level. 1) by resumpt10n of 2) by resumpt10n of the p1tch-l1ne at a h1gher When the f1rst port1on has fall1ng p1tch-llne.3).1. Example 1) lS I 'close Juncture. and the resumpt10n lS The same lS true of a h1gh-P1tch-l1ne port1on w1th resumptlon at a low level. 'sya tua. Utterance-port1ons are separated 1n two ways.3. n1ght~' 'open Juncture. p1tch-l1ne at a lower level. at a h1gh level. 1. 'Is th1S the coat you wore last 2) 'sya tua-'n{l: re8 'Is th1S the .'khuu t.when all syllables 1n the utterance-port1on have the same tone (In th1S case m1d tone): 'chaaw. General The 21 consonant phonemes of ST are def1ned schemat1cally as follow: Lab1al Unasp1ra ted Len1s stops Asp1rated Lenls stops Fortls stops Nasal Cont1nuants Oral Contlnuants Sp1rants /ph/ /p/ /th/ /t/ /n/ /1/ /s/ /J/ /ch/ /c/ /kh/ /k/ /b/ /d/ /g/ Dental Pala tal Velar Other Consonants /m/ /w/ /f/ /~/ /r/ /h/ 8 .

/'phlee/ 'wound' (vo lcele s s 11/). are vOlced after unasplrated stops but v01celess (at least at the beglnnlng) after asplrated stops: /'plee/ 'translate' (volced 11/). d. All the 'unasplred lenls stops /b d g/. Other consonants occur Infrequently as second members of clusters and In flnal pos1t10n. but lS not a phoneme. the nasals /m n ~/.2.3. ' 4) 5) All flnal consonants Ilsted as 'volced' approach v01celessness at the end of a syllable wlth loud d1m1nuendo stress: /JI ln /JpaJ. and the vowel lS short). All 1nlt1al consonants Ilsted as 'volceless' may be part1ally vOlced 1n rapld speech when they follow a vOlced sound and precede an unstressed vowel: e. when no other ln1tlal consonant lS present). these occurrences are noted as 'rare' under the lndlvldual phoneme headlngs. and the splrants /f s h/ are Sllghtly velar1zed before the h1gh vowels /1 y u/. /w/ and /J/. they are completely unreleased before /. 1.All consonant phonemes except /g/ are In contrast ln lnltlal pOS1tlon. have weak. Its lnltlal occurrence lS determlned by the onset of elther stress phoneme. short allophones after long vowels and strong. and /r/ are ln multlple contrast as ~econd members of lnltlal clusters. are slowly released and may partly overlap w1th a follow1ng sound.' /b. ' 6) The consonants Wh1Ch occur as second members of clusters.e. /ph/ ln I'faa-pha'na~/ 'wall' and /t/ ln /'aw-ta'puul 'take a na 11. on any vowel nucleus (l. long allophones after short vowels. Iw 9 .. and two of the oral contlnuants. other lnltlal consonants partly asslmllate to these vowels. are ln multlple contrast ln flnal posltlon. 1 r/. Fort1s glottal stop [9] occurs ln both lnltlal and flnal posltlons. /1/. / ' / or /J/. g/./.g. 2) The other flnal consonants. ~ll the nasal contlnuants /m n ~/. /m n ~ w J/. Allophon1c Sets Certaln allophonlc general1zatlons are appllcable to whole sets of consonants ln certaln enV1ronments: 1) The flnal consonants Ilsted as 'unreleased.e. 3) The fort1s stops /p t k/ (but not /c/). when no other flnai consonant 1S present. The oral contlnuants /w/. ltS flnal occurrence 1S determ1ned by the cessatlon of elther stress phoneme on any short vowel nucleus (l./ 'Let's go.

w1th V01ce beg1nn1ng well before closure 1S releasedl Under heavy stress. normally v01celess: 'hurry. Lab1al Consonants /b/ Unasplrated len1S stop.' nasal1zed.unreleased. As 1n1t1al .' Second ~ cluster . As 1n1t1al .' weakly: /aJ !dam/ (call1ng a dog /W/ Oral cont1nuant. 'aunt.fully v01ced.len1s.' /'rl1b/ /'bryy/ 'extremely Occas1onally v01ced. ' 10 .sames /m/ Nasal cont1nuant.same. always b1lab1al.fully /'plaa/ 'flSh. Always b1lab1al. w1th full closure.' /'waa/ Often has aud1ble fr1ct1on. wlth IlPS aga1nst teeth (percuss1on from release somet1mes aud1ble). overlapp1ng f1rst member of cluster. clean release: /'paa/ F1rst 1n cluster . espec1ally before h1gh vowels: /'Wl1/ 'comb. but w1thout dorsal hump1ng.same.' fast. w1th at least some aperture.' vOlced.' partly v01celess. ) As f1nal .' Var1ant. Always bllab1al. fort1s. ' /ph/ Asp1rated len1s stop. w1th complete or nearcomplete but loose closure: /'phaa/ 'cloth.1. for some speakers: B1lab1al. v01ced strongly: /'chaam/ 'bowl. Normally b1lab1al. IlPS held t1ghtly aga1nst teeth for sharp.' As f1nal . and occas1onally under /!baal/. v01ced: /'kwaa/ 'more. w1th full closure. some fr1ctlon: /'khwaa/ 'r1ght slde.') /'dam/ 'black. w1th less asp1ratlon: cloth. /'baa/ 'crazy. sllghtly 1mpos1ve: /p/ Fortls stop. As 1n1t1al-vo1celess. h1gh vowel: As 1n1t1al . (Var1antl prenormal stress. w1th closed lab1o-dental stop. w1th narrow aperture anq slmultaneous dorsal hump1ng (but no'protrus1on of IlPS as In /uu/): 'say. /'maa/ 'come. unasp1rated. As 1n1t1al-vo1celess.vOlced: /'rab/ 'take.3. espec1ally after long.' partly v01celess: named 'Black1e.3. F1rst 1n cluste~ (rare) -. len1s.fully v01ced.' /'phrEE/ 'sllk F1rst ~ cluster .

I 11 . As lnltlal . flrst two posltlons only: vOlced lablodental splrant. It's good! I (Varlanta pre-nasallzed. tlP may also touch gums. wlth complete but loose contact: /'thaa/ 'landlng-place. less 1. I frlctlon: /'frll/ 'wlthout cost. wlth very narrow aperture. for some speakers~ /Itaa/ 'eye. As lnltlal . VOlceless. normally lablo-dental. sllghtly lmploslve: /'dll:/ 'Sure. less dorsal humplng. wlth VOlce beglnnlng well before tongue-tlp lS wlthdrawna /'daa/ 'curse. clean release: Varlant. ' Flrst ~ cluster (rare) .) /rr6d/ 'car. some protruslon. hlgh-frlctlon.lenls.4. tlal . no frlctlon.lenls: bllablal. vOlced strongly.vOlceless. I weakly: /Iraaw/ 'approxlmately. always apJco-dental.' Under heavy stress. I partly vOlceless: /f/ Splrant.wlth wlder aperture. I As flnal . As flnal .fortlsl /'f~a/ 'sky. I lnterdental stop. normally vOlceless: 'dark.' As~­ /law/ 'Take ltl' Varlant for a few speakers: As flnal (rare) .' Flrst ~ cluster (rare) . Broad tongue-tlp contact wlth backs of upper teeth. Flrst In clustera-aplco-alveolara /Itraa/ 'stamp.fully vOlced.same.unreleased. wlth less asplratlon: /lthruu-'mEEn/ 'Truman. wlth tlP held tensely agalnst teeth for sharp. unasplrated. As lnltlal . /'cheef/ 'Chevrolet. and occaslonally under normal stress. I /t/ Fortls stop. VOlceless.3.aplco-dental. especlally after long hlgh vowel: /'myyd/ Flrst In cluster (rare) vOlced: /'dr~J/ 'drlve (golf 9 r automatlc transmlSSlon) I /th/ Asplrated lenls stop. /Iraw/ 'we. Dental Consonants /d/ Unasplrated lenls stop.Varlant for some speakers.' Occaslonally vOlced.

normally aplco-dental groove. Inltlal posltlon only.fortlS: /'saam/ 'three.fully vOlced. no dorsal humplng: /'laa/ 'donkey. hlgh-frlctlon. flrst two posltlons only: aplco-alveolar lateral. fortls. Always aplco-dental.nasallzed aplco-alveolar flap: ners. lenls. As lnltlal .same. wlth broad contact. wlth flrm contact agalnst teeth: /'kan/ 'to ward off.3./n/ Nasal contlnuant.lenls. vOlceless. L'bll/ 'Blll.aplco-dental lateral.' /1/ Oral contlnuant.lenls. some frlctlon: /'phlee~/ 'song.' /'man-ra'Jaad/ 'man- Allophone In close Juncture wlth lnltlal /r/ In followlng syllable . VOlceless. ' Flrst In cluster (rare) . wlth aperture on both sldes of tongue.' . 'face. no audlble frlctlon. Palatal Consonants /ch/ Asplrated lenls stop (or vOlceless splrant). As lnltlal . palatallzed aplco-alveolar stop. normally wlth loose contact of tongue-blade wlth forward portlon of hard palate: /'chaam/ 'bowl. Varlant.' /s/ Splrant. overlapplng flrst member of cluster. weakly: /'kaan/ 'affalrs. I As flnal (rare) . few speakers) . ' Allophone In close Juncture wlth lnltlal syllable .' Varlant for some speakers.5. ' As flnal . Normally aplco-dental lateral.' Varlant: sIlt splrant In same posltlon. less frlctlon: /'staa~/ 1.' Second In cluster .nasallzed lateral. As flnal (rare. vOlced: /'plaa/ 'flSh.lenls: 'money.' partly vOlce]ess: /!dan/ 'Push!' Allophone In close Juncture wlth lnltlal syllable . /1/ In followlng /'phon-la'maaJ/ 'frult.' partly vOlceless. vOlced strongly: As lnltlal /'naa/ fully vOlced.' /'n{s-'saJ/ 'characterlstlcs.palatal nasal: /J/ In followlng /'pan-'Jaa/ 'bralns. 12 .

As lnltlal . Second ~ cluster (rare) . wlth narrow aperture extendlng over wlde area: /'Jaa/ 'medlclne. unreleased. wlth flrm contact of tongue-blade and hard palate: /'caan/ 'dlSh. clean Flrst ~ cluster . As lnltlal .same: /~/ /'klaa~/ 'mlddle. wlth complete or near-complete but loose closure In mld-velar area: /'khaa/ 'klll. /J/ Oral contlnuant.' Nasal contlnuant. especlally before blgh vowels: /'J11. Velar Consonants /g/ Unasplrated lenls stop. unasplrated.' weakly: /'baaJ/ 'afternoon.' Varlant: palatallzed aplco-alveolap stop. ' Varlant (both posltlons): vOlceless velar affrlcate. unasplrated. especlally after long hlgh vowel: /'luug/ 'Chlld. wlth less asplratlon: /'khruu/ 'teacher./c/ Fortls stop Inltlal posltlon only. overlapplng flrst member of cluster. Flnal posltlon only.' Occaslonally vOlced. Normally hlgh-front semlvowel. lenls. release: /'kaa/ 'crow. I Mld-velar. wlth dorsal contact.wlth wlder aperture.6. Dorsal contact In mld-velar area. As flnal .fully vOlced.' /kh/ Asplrated lenls stop (or vOlceless splrant). Varlant (both posltlons): vOlceless velar splrant. VOlceless. Always mld-velar.vOlceless. vOlced strongly: /'paJ/ 'go.same.' partly vOlceless: /JpaJ/ 'Let's goJ' 1. vOlced or vOlceless: /'phJaa/ (tltle). no frlctlon.' Varlant for some speakers: vOlced palatal splrant.same. /k/ Fortls stop. As Inltlal . normally vOlceless: /'rag/ 'love.' Flrst ~ cluster .'sib/ 'twenty.' Often has audlble frlctlon.3. 13 . wlth back of tongue held flrmly In contact untll sharp.vOlceless.

wlth flrm contact over broad area: /'~aa/ 'tusk.3.' partly vOlced: /!lo~/ 'Get down! I 1. Normally aplco-alveolar flap.fortls. more I vo~ced. ' Second In clustel . As lnltlal . vOlced s~rongly: /'lo~/ 'go down. 1. Ilttle or no frlctlon: /'raaJ/ frlctlon: /'phrEE/ 'sllk cloth. Normally a vOlceless~ Varlant(both posltlons): vOlced retroflex splrant wlth low-frlctlon splrant. 14 . As lnltlal .' weakly. Other Consonants /r/ Alveolar oral contlnuant. feel.4 General Vowels The 9 vowel phonemes of ST are deflned schematlcally as follows: Front Hlgh Mld Low /l/ Back Unrounded Back Rounded /u/ /0/ /0/ pos~tlon lei /E/ All vowel phonemes are In contrast In the nuclear syllable (between consonants). /h/ Glottal splrant.lenls: /nah/ (flnal partlcle).lenls. /'haa/ 'flve.fully vOlced.fully 'case.' As flnal . lenls. fortls. the long nuclel belng lnterpreted here as two lnstances of the correspondlng Ill/.' As flnal (rare) . low frlctlon. wlth groovlng of tongue. etc. vOlced: /'traa/ 'stamp. short vowel phoneme: of the All types occur both long and short.7. overlapplng flrst member of cluster.same. Varlant (both posltlons): vOlceless vowel of same posltlon as contlguous vOlced vowel.As lnltlal . /'klaa~/ 'mlddle.' partly vOlceless.

but less than tWlce as long.' ( 1 Slngle . 4) 5) 6) The hlgh double vowels Ill. nasal con/'h88/ 'parade. Certaln allophonlc generallzatlons are appllcable to whole sets of vowels In certaln envlronments: 1) All vowel nuclel conslstlng of two lnstances of the same phoneme (called 'double' In the Ilstlng of allophones by phoneme below) average longer In duratlon than the vowel phoneme by ltself (called 'slngle' below). y. ue/ average sllghtly longer than slngle vowels. ' 15 . but shorter than double vowels. the short ones as hlgh-vowel phonemes plus /e/.' /Itl/ 'crltlclze.~g/ allophones In short nuclel.g.long lax (no gllde after fortls consonants): /Isla/ Ilose.g. generally speak- lng. /l. Long: Short: Allophonlc Sets /ya/ /ua/ /ue/ The long ones are analyzed as lnstances of slngle hlgh-vowel phonemes plus /a/. u/. ' Before /a/ . ua/ average sllghtly longer than double vowels (e. ya. Double . In long nuclel. 2) The long dlphthongs /la.' but lax and sllghtly lower before other flnals: /'tld/ Iget stuck. sonants. yy. u/). 3) y. All low vowels have laxer allophones In long nuclel.' and /'.There are flve nuclear dlphthongs. uu/). and zero lnltlals: 'exlt. 1 1. Ill. unrounded: /'dll/ 'good.tense upper hlgh front. three long and two short. The short dlphthongs /le.3. and over tWlce as long as slngle vowels (e.' Before /e/ . and tenser They are also nasallzed after /h/.4.' /'maa/ 'come. uu/ start Wlth a gllde from mld The effect central posltlon after all fortls lnltlal consonants except /c/.short tense: /'k{e/ 'wooden shoes. All hlgh and mld vowels have tenser allophones.same quarlty as double before /w/ and zero flnal: /'n{w/ 'flnger. and laxer allophones In short nuclel. after fortls consonant (except /c/) gllde from central to front: /ISll/ 'four. Vowel Phonemes /l/ Hlgh front vowel. lS less notlceable wlth the correspondlng short vowels /l. yy.

lax and somewhat lower before other flnals: centrallzed before /w/: /'rew/ 'fast.tense upper mld front. between central and back: /'dyy/ Istubborn. Double . I after fortls consonant. sllghtly centerlng. or zero lnltlal. or zero lnltlal. upward gllde: 'hand.' lax and less central before other flnals: 'hard.lax and sllghtly lower: /'dy~/ 'pull.lax lower low central: /Itaa/ 'eye. /a/ Low back unrounded vowel. /'~en/ 'slIver. I /E/ Low front vowel. nasallzed: /'haa/ 'flve. unrounded: /'thee/ 'pour. ' r /'khE~/ /'myy/ Iwalk. Double . I lax and sllghtly hlgher before other flnals. nasal./e/ Mld front vowel. between central and backs /Ioeen/ /'leeJ/ 'to pass. I /'J~/ /Ik{e/ Double . I After /~/. slow gllde to low central posltlon: /Itua/ 'body. I After /~/ and /~/ . /'c~eg/ lpure-whlte. I after /h/. I all the way back before /J/s Slngle . I Slngle . /'kEE/ 'old.same quallty before zero flnal.tense mld-hlgh. /'kan/ 'ward off. I further front before /J/: /'paJ/ Igo.same quallty as double. I /e/ Mld back unrounded vowel. Double tense lower mld. /'ke/ 'sheep. faster 16 . Double . but tenses /'ka/ 'estlmate. I further back before /w/: /'raw/ 'we.same quallty before zero flnal. I Before /~/ . I Slngle . 'a lot. I before other flnals. lxi. I /Ipen/ 'allve.' Slngle . unrounded.same quallty before zero flnal. I /Ite/ 'klck. nasal.' after /h/. sllghtly /'meE/ 'mother. but tense. I /y/ Hlgh back unrounded \owel. and /~/ -before zero flnal. I nasallzed: Slngle .long lax (no gllde after fortls consonants): /'sya/ Itlger.fast mld central gllde: 'wooden shoes.lax upper low front.

but tense. /lt6/ 'table. I after fort1s consonant. /J 1/. I 101 Low back rounded vowel.1 General Tones The 6 tone phonelrles of ST are def1ned as follows: Level Tones PIa 1n H1gh 1'''/ Constr1cted H1gh M1d (unmarked) Low / ' / As far as 1solated syllables are concerned.' after /h/. In the env1ronment I. I Slngle . I Slngle . nasal1zed: I'h.tense upper h1gh. .same qual1ty before zero f1nal.ol 11nst1gate.ol 'package. Double . Double . far backs I'tool 'b1g. I lax and somewhat lower before other f1nals: I'ton/ Itrunk of plant. I lax and less central before other f1nals: l'h5~1 Iroom./ '1sland. all SlX tones are 1n contrast only on syllables w1th susta1ned loud stress. or' zero 1n1t1al.' Before /~I I'tua/ 'body. I H1gh back rounded vowel. I /lr1an/ Istudy.' - 10/ M1d back rounded vowel.tense upper m1d back.lei).lax upper low. /'k. gllde from central to backs I'tuul 'chest. I Slngle . far backs I'duu/ 'look at.1. /'lyagl 'choose. lui gllde through h1gher central pos1t1on (but not as h1gh as /'duaJ/ lalso. there 1S no contrast between m1d and low Obl1que Tones Fall1ng I "I /'1 Rls1ng I vI 17 . I 1 . . for example. I /Idu/ 'savage. between back and central. I . nasal.5 1 •.same qual1ty as double before IJ/ and zero f1nals l'khuJ/ 'converse.' Before /~I - long lax (no gllde after fort1s consonants): short tense: I'c~egl 'pure-wh1te. I but lax and Sllghtly lower before other f1nals /khun/ 'yoU.5.same qual1ty before zero f1nal. Double . I'k. I central1zed before IJ/: /doJ/ 'by means of.

short h1gh level contour /'d11: nag/ 'too good. then falllng off gently: stead11y. In unstressed syllables of short duratJon. No allophones are 11sted for tone phonemes 1n d1fferent pos1t10ns of the clause.8).3.tones. wh1ch 1S the level of m1d tone at that part1cular place on the p1tch-llne. 3) The actual length of a g1ven tone contour 1S determ1ned by the rhythm of 1tS phrase (1.5.5.2.contour beg1nn1ng Just above med1an p1tch.level contour.2. ' 18 . as well as the type of stress) no allophones are 11sted for tone phonemes 1n d1fferent pos1t1ons of the phrase.' Loud susta1ned stress . r1s1ng s11ghtly.) other susta1ned stress-. beg1nn1ng and end1ng above med1an p1tch. than they are under normal stress cond1t1ons 1n the 1nter10r of a phrase. no constr1Ct1oni /Ichan/ II. all lnd1cat10ns of pltch contour are glven 1n reference to a relat1ve med1an p1tch. Normal stress . Weak stress . w111 you~ . 1.contour beg1nn1ng at a very h1gh p1tch and r1s1ng st111 h1gherl /J taaJI/ (exclamat1on. there 1S no contrast between the two h1gh tones (pla1n h1gh tone hav1ng a very low funct10nal Y1eld. Tone Phonemes /-/ Pla1n h1gh tone. 2) The actual p1tch-range of a g1ven tone 1S determ1ned by 1tS place on the 'pltch-11ne' of the 1ntonat10n contour of 1tS clause (1. Unless a part1cular allophone of a tone has other pecu11ar1t1es under these c1rcumstances. or before pause. however.7). Wh1Ch are d1st1ngu1shable to most speakers only w1th reference to tones of surround1ng syllables. I /'fon 'tog 'suu:/ 'ra1n1ng /lpaJ naa:/ 'Come on and gO. the absence of a tonA symbol actually means zero 1.) No tone 1S determ1ned. me. In many other env1ronments. tonel /caphuud/ 'w111 speak' (f1rst syllable). and the absence of any' sYmbol for m1d tone 1n a stressed syllable 1S merely a graph1c conven1ence. no separate 11st1ng of the allophone 1S made.2 Allophon1c Sets CertaJ_n genera11zat10ns are app11cable to all tones 1nsofar as the1r allophones are concerned: 1) Tone contours are longer under any type of susta1ned stress.

' Loud sustalned stress . but cut off by glottal stop or shortenlng of nucleusl waJI 'had gotten. then. Normal stress ./ 'It's hot. /'maa. then falllng rather 19 .1 '1 Constrlcted hlgh tone.level contour.level or sllghtly rlslng contour. slldlng upward toward end (dlstlngulshable from mld tone allophone of thls type): I!Jaa:1 'Don't do It!' Weak stress .level contour.contour low level at flrst. l!paJI 'Let's go!' Ii lsola tlon) Low tone. ' I~I med~an or lower pltch.1 'It spllt./ 'Came.' droPPlng sllghtly toward end before pause /'r~0n. no constrlctlon (lndlstlngulshable from mld tone In I /'phaa/ 'spIlt.contour beglnnlng at medlan pltch. beglnnlng and endlng near medlan pltch.contour beglnnlng Just below pltch-level for the two hlgh tones. ' I'dll: IEEwl 'O.contour same as for normal stress.' dropplng very sllghtly toward end before pause. contrlcted throughout: l!r~0nl/ I I (unmarked) Mld tone. beglnnlng and endlng above medlan pltch. beglnnlng and endlng sllghtly below medlan pltch. l'phaa. rlslng qUlckly above that level.contour beglnnlng at medlan or lower pltch.' Loud stress . Normal stress . no constrlctlOnt I'maa/ 'come. but cut off by vOlcelessness before end. glottallzed toward end If no stop present: /'chanl 'shelf'. VOlce dylng out rapldly: l'daJ: maal 'got. constrlcted throughout vOlced portlon of syllable.' dropplng very sllghtly toward end before pause. ' Loud sustalned stress .' Loud sustalned stress 'It's hot!' Weak stress .' l'dsJ I contour beglnnlng at a hlgher pltch. rlslng sharply and falllng off gradually. VOlce /'maa 'nil: k00n/ 'Come here a Falllng tone Normal stress .K. rlslng and falllng gradually: /!maa:/ 'Of course (he) came!' Weak stress .contour beglnnlng at dylng our rapldly (same as mld tone): moment. Normal stress .contour same as for normal stress. I'chad/ 'clear.

all the way to low-tone level or below: IJdaaJ:/ 'Of course lt'S posslbleJ' Weak stress . fact. then rhythm. Just as lnltlal and flnal syllable-contrasts are comblned lnto consonant phonemes.3 end).contour startlng hlgher than hlgh-tone level.' dropplng less sharply all the way to low-tone pltch-level before pause: l.6./ 'Of course lt's thlCkJ' Weak stress . WhlCh has posltlonal varlants (see 1. and the latter have some relatlonshlp wlth each other (see 1.4. Normal stress contour beglnnlng Just above pltch-level for low tone. V/ / IJaawl 'For heaven's sake!' / R1Slng tone.' rlslng less sharply to a pOlnt Just above medlan pltch before pause: /rnaa.3).contour falls from hlgh-tone level very Sllghtly.6. 1. /maJ Loud stress 'mll/ 'There aren't any. /rnaa/ 'front. no constrlctlon: /'naa/ 'thlCk. rlslng.1. dlpplng qUlckly below that level./ 'It's thlCk. In the same way that syllablc phonemes are. stress phonemes have to do wlth the (already-deflned) syllable. ' contour more rapld than for normal stress. 20 . wlth Sllght constrlctlon throughout.sharply to medlan pltch or below. and lntonatlon phonemes wlth the clause (deflned In 1. then rlslng rather sharply almost to hlgh-tone level.1 'It's In front. rhythm pho~emes wlth the phrase (deflned In 1. no constrlctlonl /Jnaa. General ProsodlC Phonemes To some extent prosodlc phonemes are dlstrlbutlonally lnterrelated. lntonatlon.' 1. lntonatlon phoneme The order of presentatlon.naa. Iii. wlth Ilttle constrlctlon. lS stress.4).6. ' Loud sustalned stress . end). One exceptlon is the Prosodlc phonemes do not usually have allophones In the sense that syllablc phonemes do. then dropplng wlth lncreaslng speed and constrlctlon. to comblne stress and rhythm contrasts lnto a slngle type of phoneme.6. stress phonemes have a speclal It lS nearly feaslble.' Loud sustalned stress .contour startlng lower than low-tone level. but cut off by vOlcelessness toward end.contour beglns at medlan pltch or above and rlses only Sllghtly: /phom 'mll/ 'I have It. however. In relatlonshlp wlth both rhythm and lntonatlon phonemes.6.7.

21 . absence of any symbol here 1nd1cates weak onset (not a phoneme)..3. 1 1S used to replace 1.. Intonatlon Phonemes The elght posslble 1ntonatlon-sequences for a slngle palr of utter- ance-portlons are analyzed In terms of only two phonemes and thelr Clons: Pause comb~_na­ I. ' I'oog paJ: khrab/ ' (He) went out. The SlX posslble stress-contours are 111ustrated as follows.. t /. wrltten by ltself ItI of after pause I.. The symbol symbol 1. lntonat1on contour beglnnlng on a hlgh pltch-llne. absence of a symbol here 1nd1cates d1m1n1shlng stress (not a phoneme). 1.1. / Upper pltch-l1ne It/ The symbol for means a new The symbol for the pause phoneme 1S wr1tten wherever 1t occurs. Slr. ' /'oogl paJI ' (He) went out. The symbol for the susta1ned contour phoneme 1S w~ltten at the end of the syllable. uSlng the syllable IpaJI for contrastlve purposes: 1) 2) 3) Loud D1mlnlshlng Stress Loud Sustalned Stress: IJpaJI 'Let's go!' 11paJII 'Sur~ (he) went!' /'paJ/ 'Yes (he) went.2. mean1ng h1gh 1ntonatlon contour followed after The comblna t10n Iff I pause by new lntonatlon contour beg1nn1ng at or1g1nal pltch-l1ne (Wh1ch the same or h1gher than the end of the f1rst contour). 1tS absence 1n th1s pos1t1on 1mplles falllng p1tch-l1ne lntonat1on contour. I Normal Dlm1nlshlng Stress: Normal Sustalned Stress: Weak Dlmlnlshlng Stress: Weak Sustalned Stress: 4) 5) 6) 1. does not occur.t/ occurs.1 means h1gh p1tch-l1ne 1ntonat1on contour.' / 'pa J: kanl 'They went. 1ts absence lmplles cont1nuous phonatlon throughout a sequence. stress Phonemes The SlX stress-contours of ST syllables are analyzed 1n terms of three phonemes and the1r comb1nat1onsl Loud Onset Normal Onset IJI I V Susta1ned Contour 1:1 The symbols for onset phonemes are wr1tten at the beg1nn1ng of the syllable 1n quest1on.6.1 has no phonem1c status. upper pltch-llne. wr1tten before pause comb1nat1on tl after The same symbol The 18 I t.6.1 whenever an utterance 1S The ObV1ously broken off short of completlon of the port1on 1n questlon. It . absence of / pause 1mplles resumptlon of the pltch-llne at a low level.

'Is thlS the coat you wore last nlght~J More common would be the slngle-clause transform: 6) Falllng and h1gh contours In open Juncture: 'sya tua-'n{ll re8 . 'Is thlS the coat1 You wore It last nlght. I 3) Hlgh and falllng contours In close Juncture: 'sya tua. The follow1ng utterances cons1st of slngle clauses: 22 . khun IsaJ Imya7khyyn-ln{1: t. those separated by 1. 8) Two hlgh contours In open Juncture: Isya tua.'n{ll t You wore 1t last nlghtJ' 7) Two hlgh contours In close Juncture: 'sya tua.'n{l: re8 t.'n{l lIs thlS the coat you wore last nlght~J' t.' 5) Falllng and hlgh contours In close Juncture: (rare): Isya tua-In{l: re8 .The elght lntonatlon sequences are lllustrated as follows. 1) Two falllng contours In close Juncture: Isya tua. t khun IsaJ lmya-khyyn-In{ll t • 'Is th1S the coat~J You wore 1t last n1ghtJ' A phonem1c clause 1S any port1on of an utterance Wh1Ch has 1tS own 1ntonat1on contour or 1S separated from the rest of the utterance by one of the clause Junctures. khun 'saJ 'mya-khyyn. All the utterances above conslst of two clauses.In{l: re8 • khun IsaJ 'mya-khyyn.In{l: re8t. khun IsaJ 'mya-khyyn.In{l • 'Is thls the coat you wore last plght?' 2) Two falllng contours In open Juncture: 'sya tua-'n{l: re8 .'n{l 'Is thlS the coat you wore last n1ght~ I 4) Hlgh and falllng contours In open Juncture: Isya tua.'n{l lIs thls the coat~J You wore It last nlght. 'Is th1S the coat1 t khun 'saJ 'mya-khyyn. uSlng ldentlcal constltuents for contrastlve purposes.1 are sa1d to be In close clause Juncture.In{l: re8 t .In{l: re8 t . t khun IsaJ Imya-khyyn-'n{l . t khun IsaJ 'mya-khyyn. tl or / tl are sald to be In open clause Juncture. Portlons separated by I.

It lS never / / / . / . of course. such as /nag/ 'too' may have greater duratlon wlthln a glven sequence than a loud sustalned-stressed syllable wlth vOlclng from beglnnlng to end. / determlnes extra-long duratlon for the syllable whlch precedes. / (pause) and the .'sya tua-ln~l: reG 'khun 'saJ 'mya-khyyn-'n~l nlght~' 'Is thls the coat you wore last 'sya tua.'n{l: . they correspond respectlvely to the two-clause utterances 1) and 7) above. lnternal.4.) 1. Rhythm Phonemes The rhythmlc patterns of ST sequences are analyzed In terms of two phonemes already mentloned. / (sustalned stress). a weak-stressed syllable wlth a short vowel and a vOlceless flnal stop. determlnes long-duratlon. regardless of whether any phonatlon lS gOlng on or any sound belng produced. as follows. has lnflnlte duratlon.'n{l: reG 'khun 'saJ 'mya-khyyn. The other phonemes and comblnatlons are Ilsted In descendlng order of duratlon.. plus two new phonemes whlch have to Syllable-duratlon lS deflned as the do wlth the relatlve duratlon of syllables not lmmedlately followed by / ./ (hyphen after syllable) lS a phoneme meanlng medlum-short lnternal-syllable duratlon. ~ nlght~J' 'Is thls the coat you wore (In meanlng. Thus./ / / determlnes medlum-long lnternal-syllable duratlon. such syllables are lnternal. never internal (space after syllable) lS a phoneme meanJng medlum lnternal-syllable duratlon. /.6. l~plles 23 . the lntonatlon phoneme / stress phoneme / or / : / . such as /Jr~on:/ 'It's hotJ' The last syllable In an utterance. The comblnatlon / : . The absence of a hyphen or space after an lnternal syllable short duratlon (not a phoneme). tlme elapsed between the beglnnlng of the syllable In questlon and the beglnnlng of the next syllable In the utterance.

I .3 • ) 1.' 'daJ-'ka we-'laa • 'Has est1mated the t1me.'thaa calmed • 'The water w1ll be used up. Two phrases: 'paJ 'naJ: . Dee'" 'paJ 'naJ 'd11: t. lS not a phoneme). r rnaam. Maxlmum and Mlnlmum Syllables The maXlmum structure of the ST syllable lS sYmbollzed In the followlng for:mln.The four 1nternal-syllable durat10ns are contrasted 1n the follow1ng pa1rs of examples: 'paJ 'naJ: 'd11 t.1 'Of course 24 . I. (The sYmbol for phrase boundary.' A phonem1c phrase 1S that port1on of a clause Wh1Ch conta1ns only one susta1ned stress In a clause cons1st1ng of two or more phrases the cut 1S made 1mmed1ately before the next syllable after the / : / Wh1Ch has normal / ' / or loud I J I stress. 1. 'Where are you gOlng. I : I. t. khun r sa J 'mya.'laa • 'Has to do w1th t1me. 'dlll t . except the flrst. All the examples above.7. the syllable IJplaaw:1 lD the utterance I!plaaw: not!' contalDs one phoneme from each of these categorles. 'Where shall I go" r 2) rnaam 'thaa-ca'med • 'The water seems to be all gone. 6. conslst of a slngle phrase.khyyn.1. WhlCh also summarlzes the posltlons In WhlCh phonemlc sYmbols havlng to do wlth syllablc components are wrltten: T Sl Cl C2 VI V2 C3 S2 For example. ' 3) 'da J kawe.'n{ 1 • (The second example 1S the pauseless verSlon of the flrst lntonatlon examp le.

same as VI or lS m1sslng. but normally only any vowel phoneme any vowel phoneme one of the consonant phonemes IbdgmnlJ w J (f s 1)1 the stress phoneme °2 VI V2 - °3 82 - I : I 1. e. e. 0. e/. el If VI -V2 1S If VI 18 °3 lS not /lJ/. or mlsslng. e/. 11. e. the syllable d01ng~' lal 1n the utterance Irtham-a'raJ . lS 11. Iy/. t. el. 11) 12) 13 ) If VI 1S If VI lS If VI lS Ill. °3 lS not /g. V2 18 one of thlS set: V2 lS one of thlS set: V2 lS /y. °1 lS /k/ or Ikh/· /p. ln1tlal consonant clusters such as Istl and flnal consonants such as /f/) .7. 4) 5) 6) 7) B) 9) 10) Ir/. 0.1 'What are you cons1sts of a s1ngle vowel phoneme. . The mean1ngs of the symbols 1n the formulae are as follows: T -- any tone phoneme the stress phoneme 81 °1 - I . /11/. 0/" then V2 lS the a. y/. lu. lui.The m1n1mum syllable 1S symbo11zed as follows: VI For example.g. a. lS Iw/. VI 1S one of thlS set: 11. the normal Ilmlta- tlons on dlstrlbutlon of phonemes wlth1n the syllable are as follows: 1) 2) 3) If °2 lS /w/.2. one of thlS set: e. kh/. If 02 lS /1/. lJ/. k. ph. lS lu. a. ph. °3 1S not Iw/.I or I I Iw 1 r/ any consonant phoneme any consonant phoneme. e. Ie. 01· mlsslng. lS Iyl and 03 lS IJI. °1 lS one of thlS set: Ip. 0. °3 lS not IJ/. 02 lS la/· -V 2 1S Iyy/. Normal Syllablc Dlstrlbutlon Excludlng rare lnstances of dlstr1but1on (e. °1 lS one of th1s set I If °2 lS If 02 If VI If VI If VI If VI khl k. al 25 or mlsslng. a.

Ithu'lawl Ikl'laal 2) 3) 4) I~ llmprove' sports' Sl lS R lS I . and double ~lnal consonant clusters. c3 lS one d. Sl-S2 are absent. If S2 lS flrst If I lS I •I In phrase. or IJI Iwl as ~lrst member. or mlsslng and C lS mlsslng. T lS one o~ the 3 same set (15). g/. 15) 16) I~ C3 lS I~ V2 lS Ib. d.3. and V2 lS mlsslng.) I~ R lS absent. 1. I (R = rhythm phoneme. and last syllable has Sl . An example lncludlng both lnnovatlon ~ollows: I (labor) strlke l Such patterns. then T lS not I vI. 1. V2 and C3 are absent.14) I~ VI-V2 lS IU8. Sl lS I ! I or I fl. VI lS 18/. 18) I~ Sl lS present and C3 lS Ib. 181 g/.7. are not consldered normal ST dlstrlbutlon patterns In the present analysls. Such lnnovatlons lnclude trlple lnltlal consonant clusters. gl or mlsslng.I. s. 17) I~ Sl lS present. = lntonatlon 1) phoneme. Abnormal Syllablc Dlstrlbutlons Certaln speakers o~ ST. Other Dlstrlbutlon The normal Ilmltatlons on dlstrlbutlon of prosodlc phonemes wlth relatlon to each other and to syllablc phonemes ~ollow. I r I or absent and S2 lS absent. have recently lntroduced lnnovatlons lnto the syllablc component dlstrlbutlon whlch are not as yet accepted by the maJorlty o~ ST speakers. then It also 26 . o~ thls set: Ib. T lS I NI or / / (toneless). 5) If I lS I t has S2 I I .1. some syllable In clause has S2 1:1. most o~ them also speakers o~ one or more scheme o~ Western languages. It. T lS not I NI. d. l8/. usually lnvolvlng usually lnvolvlng types o~ lsi as ~lrst member. I. along wlth the use of unusual flnals such as If.4. I.7. T lS one o~ thls set: IN" 7. 1/.

JU:t. t I. under certaln lntonatlonal condltlons. If I tl lS absent at the end of the flrst clause and at the beglnnlng of the second clause.1.1. act' 'as a group' 'hllt' 'to ward off' condltlons (medlum -short or short lnternal syllable duramorphsi may show up as /kan-/: 'stop (the buslness of) studylng' 'they all (as a group) went' 'grasp the knlfe-hllt' 'medlclne for (wardlng off) mo SqUl toe s ' tlon). I tl I lS 7) If. It. conslder the followlng four normally dlstlnct morphs: 1) I'khawl /'kh~wl 'he.'mlldl 4) I' Jaa-kan. however. for the second syllable Sl-S2 lS mlsslng and for the thlrd syllable R wlll be at least normal I I. 'kan . all four 1) 2) I'leeg kan-'rlanl I 'pa J: kan. Summary Palrs of morphs exhlbltlng mlnlmal contrasts of syllablc phonemes generally show a hlgh degree of reslstance to homonYmlty under the lnfluence of prosodlc factors such as rhythm and lntonatlon. they I 'feature.6) If In the flrst two of three succeSSlve syllables.]1 and Also. 8) In two succeSSlve clauses. I lS I · I. trace' 2) 27 .. she. 1.8. such as between pauses. the second lS no longer than the flrst. Under normal rhythm condltlons (medlum or longer syllable duratlon). Morphophonemlcs The areas where amblgul2) stl'ess.5. and 3) tone. the followlng morphs are dlstlnct from each other: I'kaanl 2) Ikanl 3) I'kanl 4) I'kanl 1) Under fast-rhythm 'buslness.1 (see 1. and Sl wlll be at least I ' I. flrst clause ends wlth I and second clause beglns Wl th I I f I. 1. In two succeSSlve clauses.8. 3) I'kanl 4) I'kanl both show up as I.) For another example of tones falllng together. tles arlse are malnly conflned to 1) vowel length.modi 3) I' cab kan.

3)

4)
1)
2)

I'khawl I'khawl

'enter I 'hlll '

Under weak stress, however, all can show up as I'rag khaw- Imaagl I'duu khaw- Inaal

Ikhaw-I:

'llke her a lot' 'look at the faclal features I 'put It In there' 'reached Khao-Dln (mountaln) I

3)

I Isa J:

khaw-paJI

4)

l'thYlJ khaw- Idlnl

It lS deslrable, therefore, for the easy ldentlflcatlon of morphs, to wrlte them In a conslstent morphopl1onemlc shape, lnsofar as posslble. Thls requlres the postulatlon of rules for the reconstructlon of actual phonemlc shapes, under varYlng condltlons, from Imorphophonemlc formulae. In the case of long vowels and tones, thls lS easlly done. In the case of morphs dlfferlng by stress and morphs composed of prosodlc phonemes, It lS more compllcated.

1.8.2.

Syllable Morphophonemlcs

Morphs whlch occur under condltlons of normal stress and medlum lnternal-syllable length more often than not are always wrltten In the phonemlc shape whlch they have under those condltlons, except that the stress lS omltted: Phonemlc l'chaalJI
/ I

Morphopbonemlc 'artlsan' 'to welgh l 'shelf,
cla~s
I

IchaalJ/

chalJI

IchalJI
/chanl /chan/

Ichanl
II chan/
1)

'to eat (sald of \monks)

The rules for determlnlng thelr actual phonemlc shape are as follows: Morphs wlth long vowels occur wlth the correspondlng short vowel when they have medlum-short duratlon I - I, provlded the precedlng syllable has medlum duratlon or better. 'look for a carpenter.'

Phonemlc:

Phonemlc: MorphophonemlC:

I'leeg kan-'rlan/ /leeg kaan-rlanl

I

stop s tUdylng ,

28

2)

Morphs wlth short vowels occur wlth the correspondlng long vowel under condltlons of loud sustalned stress.

Phonemlc: Morphophonemlc:

I! chaazp t. I I! chalJ t.1

'I welghed It!

3)

Morphs wlth long dlphthongs are sometlmes replaced by shortvowel morphs under condltlons of weak stress and medlum-short or less duratlon. Such allomorphs must be llsted separately.

I' sla- 'daaJI
I'lya-'keenl l'duaJ- 'm~aJI

'regret' 'excesslvely' 'wlth wood'

becomes becomes becomes

Isa'daaJI 118'keenl Ida J- I m~ a JI

4)

Morphs wlth mld I I and low I 'I tone are replaced by toneless morphs under condltlons of weak stress and medlum-short or less duratlon. l'rOOlJ-'rlanl 'school, , 'a t school' 'don't go'

Phonemlca Morphophonemlc: Phonemlc: Morphophonemlc, Phonemlc: MorphophonemlcI Phonemlc: Morphophonemlc:

I'thil rOlJ-'rlanl Ithil roolJ-rlanl I'phil Ja- 'paJI Iphil Jaa-paJI

'Brother shouldn't go. '

I' Jaa-kan- , JUlJI
I Jaa-kan- Ju~1
I'cab kan- 'mildl Icab kan-mildl

'mosqulto repellent'

'grasp the knlfe-hllt'

5)

Morphs wlth constrlcted hlgh ~/, falllng I and rlslng I vI tone are replaced by morphs wlth plaln hlgh tone I -I under condltlons of weak stress and medlum-short or less dura tlon.

I

AI,

l'n~m-'phYlJI
l'nalJ-' syyl Phonemlc: Morphophonemlc: Phonemlc: Morphophonemlc:

'honey' 'book' l'haJ nam- 'phYlJI IhaJ n~m-phYlJI I'haa thi'-'nalJI Ihaa thil-nalJl 'honey- Jar' r

'seat'

'look for seats'

29

Phonemlc: Morphophonemlc:

/ ' duu nalJ-' sy-y/ /duu na::lJ- syy/

'look at books'

On the other hand, morphs WhlCh occur under condltlons of weak stress and less than medlum duratlon more often than not are also wrltten wlthout stress lndlcatlon: /kan/ /chalJ/ /chan/ 'as a group' 'certalnly does'

'I, me'

There are several reasons why no confuslon results from thlS: 1) Some morphemes, llke /kan/, are never stressed unless accompanled by rhythmlc eVldence that they are stressed: Phonemlc: Morphophonemlca 2) /thYlJ-'kan l€-'kan/ /thYlJ-kan lE-kan/ 'toward each other'

Other morphemes, llke /chalJ/, have dlfferent shapes when they are stressed. Wrltlng the alternate shape, WhlCh lS usually larger, lS sufflclent lndlcatlon of stress.

PhOnelJ1lc: Morphophonemlc: Phonemlci Morphophonemlc: Phonemlc I Morphophonemlcl

/chalJ-'phuud/ /chalJ-phuud/ / ' chaalJ- 'phuud/ /chaalJ-phuud/ / ' chaalJ 'phuud/ /chaalJ phuud/

'really talks'

'clever talker'

'the artlsan speaks'

(The last example lnvolves a dlfferent morpheme, the usuallystressed morpheme /'chaalJ/.)

3)

Stlll other morphemes, llke /chan/, are ldentlfled as normally weak-stressed by the fact that they have plaln hlgh tone In thelr prlnclpal allomorph. All morphs wrltten morphophcne! /

mlcally wlth plaln hlgh tone belong elther to thlS category, or to a category WhlCh has loud stress / allomorph. lin the prlnclpal

4)

The functlonal load of the contrast weak stress/normal stress lS extremely low In any case. followlng: 'cut halr' There are a few cases llke the

30

'cut me' (Even here, /phom/ 'I' has an alternate form speakers.)

Iphoml

for some

5)

All morphemes Wh1Ch character1st1cally have weak stress are 11sted along w1th the1r allomorphs elsewhere 1n th1S grammar. members. From th1S p01nt on, normal stress / ' They are the pronouns, the class1f1ers, and other m1nor form-class

I

1S no longer wr1tten.

1.8.3.

Phrase Morphophonem1cs Phonem1c phrases are wr1tten wlthout 1nd1cat1on of stress-onset

except for loud stress phonem1c symbol /,

I

!

I.

Phrase-boundar1es are marked by the morpho-

I,

Wh1Ch means 'no syllables w1th normal or loud stress

occur after the syllable w1th susta1ned stress Clauses w1thout any 1nternal phonem1cally.

I : I.'

(See 1.6.4., end.). Rhythm pat-

I, /

cons1st of a slngle phrase.

terns are reta1ned 1ntact, and 1nternal-syllable durat10ns are wr1tten The rules for pred1ct1on of stress-onset 1n morphophonem1cally wr1tten phrases are re-stated as follows: 1) If the phrase has no susta1ned stress, the last syllable 1n the phrase has at Phonem1c: Morphophonem1c: 2)
lea~t

normal stress.

I'klab 'baan /klab baan . /

.1

fWent home. '

If the phrase conta1ns a susta1ned stress, the same syllable that has the susta1ned stress also has at least normal stress and the syllables after 1t have no more than weak stress.

Phonem1c: Morphophonem1c: 3)

I'klab 'baan: kan-the Iklab baan: kan-the

.1

fLet's go home.

I

.1

Syllables w1th med1um-short durat10n Wh1Ch occur after syllables of the same or greater durat10n and before syllables of greater durat10n have weak stress (See 1.7.4.6.):

Phonem1C: Morphophonem1c: Phonem1c:

I'klab paJ- 'baan Iklab p~J-baan . /

.1

'Went back home. '

l'saJ khaw-paJ-naJ-kra'paw

.1

'Put 1t 1nto h1S pocket. ' Morphophonem1cI IsaJ khaw-paJ-naJ-krapaw . / 31

4)

All syllables wlth short duratlon have weak stress. /kra'paw/ /krapaw/ 'pocket'

Phonemlc: Morphophonemlc:

5)

Other syllables have elther weak or normal stress, (wlthln the llmltatlons of predlctablllty set forth In the second part of 1.8.2.):

Phonemlc: Phonemlc: Morphophonemlc, for both.

/'tad 'pham/ /'tad pham/ /tad pham/

'Cut halr. ' 'Cut me.

,

The constltuent phrases of the example 'Is thls the coat you wore last nlght~'

(1.6.4., end) are now re-wrltten morphophonemlcally.

Flrst Phrase: Second Phrase:

1.8.4

Clause Morphophonemlcs Deslrable modlflcatlons In the notatlon of clause lntonatlons and

Junctures, and also certaln slmpllflcatlons of predlctable features In the clause context, requlre the statement of the followlng rules.
1)

Slnce / t / a t the end of a clause lS always preceded by / slmpllfy / : t/ to /

: /

If the last syllable In the clause lS stressed (See 1.7.4.5),

t /.

Phonemlc: Morphophonemlc: 2)

/'klab 'bian: /klab bian

t./ t ./

'He went homel'

Slnce, In a phrase wlth no prlor /

: /, a syllable before

phrase-boundary / , / havlng normal stress must by deflnltlon have sustalned stress for the phrase-boundary to occur at all (see 1.8.3, beglnnlng), replace the comblnatlon / loud stress /
1 /, where

: , / by

/,/ (provlded the last syllable In the phrase does not have the dlstlnctlon lS meanlngful - see flrst two examples under 1.6.2.). Phonemlc: /'klab 'bian: , 'kln 'khiw . /

'Went home, and ate. ' Morphophonemlc:

32

replace the comb1nat1on t . ! represents the clause or phrase /sya tua-n{ll reel. k1n khaaw . I .3) Slnce the mean1ng of two succeSS1ve clauses w1th fall1ng 1ntonat10n and close Juncture.3. I I . Phonem1c: Morphophonem1c: Iphom 'maa.' maa: nl1-khrab t thamaJ camaJ-maa .1.why wouldn't I have come. IA BI. B • I 'Is th1S the coat you wore last nlght?' 'Is th1S the coat" You wore 1t last n1ght. ni-k. I 1n effect becomes the symbol for open clause Juncture and utterance-f1nal pause. 'I came! Why wouldn't I have come"! I maa: nl1-khrab t thamaJ camaJ-maa t tl Iphom ·1 The e1ght examples of dlfferent 1ntonat1on sequences glven 1n 1. lIs th1S the coat" I and B represents the clause Ikhun S8. I'klab 'baan • t 'k1n 'khaaw 'Went home. replace all 1nternal slmple pauses by phrase boundarles IA .1 (Same as example 1n 2) above. Phonem1c: Morphophonem1C: I'klab 'baan • 'k1n 'khaaw Iklab baan . Thus I . B .I Phonem1c: .' I. 4) Replace all 1nstances of t by the symbol (WhlCh has no other morphophonemlc slgnlf1cance followlng the appllcat10n of rule 3) above).I IA . t by the comb1nat1on t . (Wh1Ch has no other morphophonemlc slgn1f1cance followlng the appl1catlon of rule 5) above) • IA BI IA BI Phonem1c: Morphophonem1cI Iphom 'maa: ni. tha'maJ camaJ.1 I. by t Wh1Ch In effect slgn1f1es close clause Juncture or ltS equ1valent. I. IA BI. are now symbol1zed morphophonem1cally.~rab t.J mya-khyyn-n{ll IYou 1Iwre (1 t) last n1ght.1 6) As a corollary of rule 4). separated by pause.1 Iphom .'maa 'I came!.). I IA B. ' 33 . Ate.1 1S no dlfferent from the mean1ng of two succeSS1ve phrases 1n a slngle clause w1th fall1ng 1ntonatlon B . .6. where a clause w1th hlgh 1ntonat1on 1S followed 1n close Juncture by another clause.khrab t t tha'maJ camaJ-'maa.1 Morphophonem1cs 5) Replace all 1nstances of t . I IA .

B B 'Is thls the coat you wore last nlght7J 'Is thls the coat" You wore lt last nlght! ' /A . t ./ 'Is thls the coat you wore last nlght7J' 'Is thls the coa t7 J You wore lt last nlght.j t .3) /A t /A t jA B ./ You wore 1 t la s t nlgh t J' 34 . ' 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) .j B 'Is thls the coat you wore last nlght7J 'Is thlS the coa t7 J /A t .j .B B jA t t .j t .

the latter term flrst. occurrlng In varlOUS orders: Lexemes and syntactlc constructlons share the characterlstlc of lmmedlate constltuents consecutlve. dlscontlnuous.5.) and order (2. ~re actually sets of varlant forms called morphs. but roughly speaklng morphemes correspond to the smallest meanlu3ful unlts. 2.the analYSlS of constructlons wlth regard to substltutablllty (2. slmultaneous.2. lexemes to words (such as one mlght flnd In the dlctlonary). Morphemes and Lexeme Constructlon Morphemes.5.4.1. and syntactlc constructlons. 2. deflned here) have no varlants. and exchanges (2.) as well as the sub-syllablc ones whlch do (2.).2. repMorphemes have no lmmedlate constltuetetlve.). sentences. It lncludes such thlngs as the llstlng of morphemes whlch do not partlclpate In lexeme constructlon (2. parallel. meanlngful unlts: morphemes.1.CHAPTER II MORPHOLOGY 2.). Just as the syllable lS the plvotal unlt In phonology.syntactlc unlts.5. and syntactlc constructlonR (as Hence lexemes are the plvotal unlt at thls level.3.6. These terms are deflned In detall In the sectlons whlch follow. 35 . dlscourses. AND SYNTAX Summary Termlnology ST has three categorles of bas~c. Morphemes and lexemes share the characterlstlc that they may have varlants .) Syntax lS here deflned as the analysls of structure between the lexemlc level and the level of the hlghest order of syntactlc constructlon. Morphology lS here deflned as the analysJ_s of structure between the morphophonemlc and lexemlc levels. and syntactlc constructlons to phrases. It lncludes such thlngs as the hlerarchy of constltuents .1.2. clauses.) . and sentences.1. and lnterlocklng. phrases.3. clauses. and lllustratlon of ways and orders In whlch morphemes comblne to form lexemes (2.1. ents (except on the morphophonemlc level). lexemes. ultlmately leadlng up to the classlflcatlon of lexemes and sentences ~lth regard to functlon (2.dlfferent forms under dlfferent clrcumstances. 1) It lS therefore necessary to deflne A morph lS any morphophonemlc sequence (from one phoneme upwards The utterance In length) whlch has meanlng assoclated wlth It by ST speakers. belng the smallest meanlngful unlts of ST.

2.IJdeen: t .2. to functlon properly.' 2) A morpheme lS any set of morphs WhlCh have the same meanlng and WhlCh elther do not contrast In any slngle envlronment.• een/ does not contrast wlth the contlnuous allomorph /deen/ In any envlronment.2.). or lt lS any slngle morph WhlCh does not belong to such a set. enter lnto composltlon of lexemes WhlCh are larger than themselves (2. / 'end of clause constructlon. SUb-categorles lnclude lntonatlon and loud-stress morphemes (2. 1) the morph Ideenl 'to walk.) Sub-lexemlc morphemes (2.). 36 .).2.1.).4.•.4. and other fractlonal constltuents (2.1.3. the same applles to lam-n/ and other allomorphs or /amn/ (see 2.).3.3.4. and normal-stress morphemes (2.3.).' 2) the morph IJ :1 'contradlctory assertlon. ' Two-syllable morphemes are also qUlte common: /kaw-ll/ 'chalr' Morphemes of more than four syllables In length are hard to flnd. and 2.) have morphs whose constltuents are prosodlc phonemes. therefore.1 'Sure. The maJorlty or ST morphemes are.' and 4) the morph I .2.2. The morphophonemlc sequence /dam-neenl 'to conduct.4. Sub-categorles lncluue preflxes (2. Sub-lexemlc morphemes./). superflxes (2. lS an allomorph of a morpheme /amn/ 'formal or technlcal connotatlon. ' 3) the morph / t/ 'emotlonal lnvolvement.2. In fact. ProsodlC morphemes are also lnvolved In lexeme composltlon.3.). I 4) LexemlC morphemes. 3) Morphemes are classlfled accordlng to form and functlon as follows. Indlvldual members or a set of morphs belonglng to the same morpheme are ltS allomorphs. do not occur by themselves as lexemes. to proceed' con~alns a morph /d . to some extent. compounds (2.). or contrast In a manner not regarded as SlgnlrlCant by ST speakers. In form they range from one syllable upwards.4. all other morphs clted so far are members of allomorphlc sets.) are morphemes some or all of whose morphs have syllablc phoneme constltuents totalllng less than a syllable.2.3.) and redupllcatlons (2. Lexemlc morphemes are those morphemes WhlCh occur lndependently at the lexemlc level.1. Prosodlc morphemes \2. lnflxes (2. An example of a morpheme lncludlng only a slngle morph lS / • / 'end of clause constructlon' (morph 4) above).3. but enter lnto lexeme composltlon.). the other morph /am-n/. een/.' The dlscontlnuous allomorph Id •. monosyllablc lexemlc morphemes: /maa/ 'to come. but the rollowlng flve-syllable sequence lS probably a slngle morpheme: 'monument. WhlCh lS an allomorph of the morpheme /deen/ (we have seen another of ltS allomorphs In the sequence Ildeen: t . Such composltlon lS of three general types: derlvatlves (2.3. lt worksJ' contalns rour morphs. WhlCh lS lnflxed to Id .1.). llke sub-lexemlc ones.3.2. or a sy~­ lable plus a fractlon.•• Ben/. rhythmlc morphemes (2.4-5.

To put It another way. such that It IS a mlnlmum Immedlate constltuent of the constructlon In WhlCh It occurs. For example.' The lexeme /Chll-W{d/ has an allolex /ChlW{d/. or syllables plus resldual fractlons). not a fractlon of a syllable. as In /chuaJ ChlW{d: waJ/ 'to save someone's Ilfe. Lexlcal unlts are not grammatlcally Important except Insofar as they are the Indlvldual unlts of whlch sets called lexemes conslst. Of the morphs clted so far. because they fall to meet the requlrement of syllablclty. therefore. On the other hand. or contrast In a manner not regarded as slgnlflcant by ST speakers./ and /damneen Chll-W{d/ respectlvely. chllwld/. /. / t /.It 37 . For example. the more lexemes It IlstS. as In the sequence /ch58b damneen ~aan/ 'llkes to conduct the work. and /am-n/ are not lexlcal unlts.' are lexlcal unlts.1. they can only be analyzed after everythlng else In the context has been cleared away /dam-neen/ 'to conduct' IS a lexlcal unlt In the context /dam-neen Chllw{d! 'to conduct ones Ilfe. the examples /1 :/. It IS necessary. the thlrd and fourth. In other words.2.' 3) LeXlcal unlts. lexlcal unlt. the lexeme /dam-neen/ has an allolex of that shape and also an allolex /damneen/. the better the dlctlonary. lexemes are what one flnds In a dIctlonary. In order to deflne a lexeme. 2) A lexeme IS any set of lexlcal unlts WhlCh have the same meanlng and WhlCh elther do not contrast In any slngle envlronment. 1) A lexlcal unlt IS any morph or comblnatlon of morphs correspondIng morphophonemlcally to a slngle syllable or to an Integral number of syllables (l. and It never IlStS anythlng but lexemes. If lexlcal unlts are analyzable. The proportlon IS as follows: morphs: morphemes:: lexlcal unlts: lexemes The flrst and thlrd Items are Isolated forms.e. or It IS any slngle lexlcal unlt WhlCh does not belong to such a set. to functlon properly' and !Chll-W{d/ 'llfe.' because there lS no constructlon !dam•. but It never IlStS them all. In the contexts /1deen: t . /neen Chll-W{d/ or the llke. /raaddamneen/ 'royal processlon' meets all the crlterla of a lexlcal unlt . and therefore lexemes. are actually sets of varlant forms. Alternate lexlcal unlts belonglng to the same lexeme are Its allolexes. to deflne a prlor term.3 Lexemes and Syntactlc Constructlons Lexemes. sets of forms. can Include comblnatlons of morphs WhlCh are lexlcal unlts In thelr own rlght.. Only two examples. /deen/ 'to walk. llke morphemes.' where It IS merely one of the constltuent morphs. / . /deen/ IS not a lexlcal unlt In /dam-neen/ or In an expresslon such as /deen thEEW/ 'to march.

Flrst-order lexemes are slngle morphemes consldered on the lexlcal level. /damneen/ ltself lS a lexlcal Lexemes are therefore classlfled In terms of orders. /deen/ 'to walk. consldered syntactlc (rather than morphologlcal)..1. or three morphemes: 'royal processlon l and /wan-JaD-kham/ 'all day long 'to. A form-class lS a class of lexemes whlch flll.1. because larger syntactlc constructlons comprlslng many lexemes also occur In slmultaneous order wlth prosodlc morphemes (see 2.2. to functlon properly. whlch are both morphemes: /dam-neen/ 'to proceed. / 'end of clause constructlon. I) l /raad-damneen/ l (/wan/ 'day. Prosodlc Morphemes Intonatlon and Loud-Stress Morphemes 1) /.1.' 38 . 'It belongs to Chlt. all tJpes of order except the slmultaneous (2.5. dependlng on the number of lmmedlate constltuents that can be dlstlngulshed. accordlng to the types of syntactlc constructlon In whlch they characterlstlcally partlclpate (2. and has to be analyzed last In whatever constructlon It lS a part of.' kho0D khun-cid .' /kham/ 'evenlng. /.6.). to conduct.conslsts of three whole syllables. wlth prosodlc morphemes In slmultaneous order. But. ' Second-order lexemes conslst of two constltuents.l.' Thlrd-order lexemes conslst of two constltuents. /JaD/ Lexemes of hlgher orders also eXlst.5.1.1.a glven posltlon In a glven syntactlc constructlon. or whlch 2. kh00D khun-cid • khaw f~ag w~J . end). khaw f~ag w~J • 'It's sumethlng of Chlt's that he left here. share a number of such posltlons. unlt.2-3. Besldes thelr classlflcatlon based on lnternal structure (Iflrstorder. He left It here. To dlstlngulsh thlS type of classlflcatlon from the other.). I Example of contrast wlth / . one of whlch lS analyzable (usually a lexeme ltself).2.e. the term form-class lS used.).). lexemes are also classlfled on the basls of external structure . as we know. 4) The comblnatlon of lexemes lnto hlgher-order constructlons has Lexemes comblne wlth each other In Lexemes also comblne Thls type of constructlon lS been deflned as syntax (2. 2.' etc.

Example of contrast wlth zero: le8w khun-samag . (see last example under morpheme 1).. . 1 or the context I t . 'Otherwlse. ' Example of contrast wlth morpheme 1).) Example of contrast In both contexts wlth !mll ryys I t . In the context I t .. t . wlth maJor lmmedlate constltuent cut here.' maJ-paJ: r5g t . ' Example of contrast wlth zero (In answer to the questlon 'Is he gOlng~ .1. where 'emotlonal lnvolvement' applles to both clauses. end.1. 'emotlonal lnvolvement. t...1: fly~' t man~d cabln daJ • 'Is there such a thlng as a human belng able to !mll ryy: t .! 39 . Allomorph: Samag~' or I t I In the context It .. pham maJ-chya • 'Is there such a thlng~! I don't be1leve It. dlaw Iud 'Not that way! It'll come loose!' maJ Jaa~-nan t dlaw Iud t . It'll come 100seJ' 2) I t I. capaJ naJ • 'And Samag. 'Not hlm! ' Allomorph: I t I In the context It .): maJ-paJ: \ r~g • 'No. I 'clause constructlon contlnues.1 (where It lS a portmanteau morpheme .1 wlth I t .Example of contrast of maJ Jaa~-nan I t . Is see second example under lE8w khun-samag capaJ naJ • 'And where lS Samag gOlng~1 'Where are you gOlng.) 3) I. where lS he gOlng~ I I . t I by ltself: t .see morpheme 2). he's not..

'All rlght (I'll accept It.)' 40 . s:l.. my gosh! ' 5) / ! / by ltself 'exhortatlon to actlon.g. slgnal to conclude a conversatlon or pass to a new tOPlC.' aw .1.' (see /Jmll ryy:/ In last three examples under morpheme 3) above. I . :1 'contrastlve emphasls' (always followed by t) Example of contrast wlth normal stress (In answer to the questlon 'Is he gOlng~')~ !pa J: khr~b t . /JtaaJ'/ 'Oh.8.see I . I.4.. ' Example In contrast wlth JpaJ . 'Let's go J ' Jpa J I J t /' t . J soo~ chaam t .. when two or more syllables are covered by 'contrastlve emphasls. 'Not one bowl! 1li£ bowlsJ ' Note: / J : / and the other varlants Ilsted above are not members of the morpheme 'contrastlve emphasls' In all cases of thelr occurrence. e. he l s.. I t I when syllable lS last In clause before lS the morphophonemlc verSlon of I : t I .) Allomorph: /J S ••• tl. when two or more syllables are covered by 'contrastlve emphasls' and last syllable comes before Example In second clause: maJ-chaJ chaam J dlaw t . Jaw • 'All rlght now (let's see). 'Of course he lsI' pa J: khr~b • . IJ . I. Example~ Jpa J t . Certaln lnterJectlons (3. 'Of course he's gOlngJ' Example In contr~st wlth normal stress.).1.1. ' Allomorph: (In thls posltlon.. 1.) have these morphophonemlc sequences as part of thelr morphemlc composltlon. t/.Ye s. 'Of course he's gOlng!' Allomorph: IJ S ••.

' In both cases represents a sub-lexem1c cut. w1th maJor 1mmed1ate const1tuent cut here. ' tham r6d: sla-duaJ • 'Makes cars. ' Example of contrast w1th v I . maa • 'Where are you gOlng. Wh1Ch 1n the f1rst 1nstance f1l1s a maJor syntact1c slot as a 41 . bes1des (In add1t1on to d01ng other th1ngs). lS a compound verb lexeme mean1ng 'beg1n.' khaw phuud khrab samee • 'He always says Ikhrabl ('slr'). I: pa J na J: maa • 'Where have you been~' (/maal lS an adverb) pa J na J .' I I: In the f1rst example. Slr.' Double example of contrast w1th ta1J ton.ton sag • 'Beg1n to tattoo.2. 'Made the car break down too.' and lS a verb lexeme mean1ng 'tattoo.2.' In the second example.' The d1fference lS 1n the th1rd lexeme.2. stand up (trans1t1ve).' and lS a compound noun lexeme meanlng 'teak-tree.' v I I: 2) I . Example of contrast w1th I : I: Isagl Ita1JI Iton-sagl Ita1J-tonl I-I tham r6d sla duaJ . sub-lexem1c or low-order syntact1c d1v1s1on. ' In both examples. Rhythm1C Morphemes 1) I: I 'phrase construct1on cont1nues.I 'm1nor or no 1mmed1ate const1tuent cut here. ' ta1J.sag • 'Stand a teak-tree upr1ght. the f1rst two lexemes are a verb 'make' and a noun 'car. lS a verb lexeme mean1ng 'set up. Mah~' (/maal lS a name) Example of contrast w1th khaw phuud: khrab • 'He's talk1ng.' and the las t lexerne lS an adverb 'also.

.. an allomorph of occurrlng only In thlS comblnatlon. phon-lamaaJ • 'It's frul t. when the precedes or follows). When morpheme . Example of mlnor syntactlc cut: phil capa J • 'Older brother lntends to go.' Last cut lS between them. The sequence rhythmlc morpho I-I. destroyed. No contrastlve examples occur.verb meanlng 'to be lost. IABI I-I occurs In the contexts IAB-cl and IX-ABI (l. 'Where lS 1 t'Z ' Last The lexeme IthinaJI 'where. IA-B c/. 3) I I (medlum syllable duratlon) In the context lAB c/.' lS analyzable lnto two morphemes represented by the morphs Ithil 'at' and InaJI 'where.' and In the second lnstance lS a mlnor lexeme meanlng somethlng llke 'unlt verbal actlon.' the ImaaJI 'wood. The compound 'frult. trees' Ilam~aJI contalns no lexlcal ltem 'frult' conslsts of three morphsl Iphonl rhythmlc morph and IlamaaJ/. I-I.' cut lS between Ical and IpaJ/.e. WhlCh lS made after the maJor cut represented I-I by I : I· Example of I-I representlng no cut: talJ kaw-il . or IA B-Cl (l. . lAB cl Allomorph of 2): IABI (short syllable duratlon) In the contexts and Ix ABI only.' Ikaw-ill 'chalr' lS an unanalyzable lexeme. Example of no cut: syy mamualJ • 'Buy mangoes. All such lexemes In ST contaln the morph or ltS allomorph WhlCh follows below. lt lS not an allomorph of I-I. IA Bel. ' The lexeme Ical lS preposltlon meanlng 'hypothetlcal actlon.' In thlS case represents a mlnor syntactlc cut. result.e. ' The lexeme ImamualJI 'mango' lS unanalyzable. In at least some contexts. 'Set up chalrs. Example of sub-Iexemlc cut: JUu thina J . when morpheme 2) above elther .

to be made before any cut represented by usually syntactlc but may be sublexemlc. to be made after the cut represented by / . I Example of sub-IeyemLc cut: mahaa w{d-JaalaJ • 'The unlversltv.e. (A-B C) (A BC) (AB C) I-I. ' ThlS lS a slngle lexeme conslstlng of four morphemes: /mahaa/ 'blg. Both cuts are sub-lexemlc. WhlCh also occurs: Jaa kan. ThlS morpheme lS best lllustrated ln multlple contrast wlth the rhythmlc morphemes already descrlbed. Examples: chua J lya kan • /A B C/ 'Help Leua to prevent It. ~ut (medlum syllable-duratlon) ln the context /A B: C/ (l. and wlth zero rhythmlc morpheme. Slnce the entlre sequence lS a slngle lexeme. /A-B/ In the sequence /A-B-C/. the second cut between Ikan/ and /JUlJ/. / but before any cut represented by always syntactlc.' I-I. Examples of syntactlc cuts (from 2) above): talJ-ton sag • IBegln to tattoo. when morpheme 1) above lmmedlately follows): 'hlgherorder lmmedlate constltuent cut here.lmmedlately precedes or follows): 'hlgher-order lmmedlate constltuent cut here. /w{d-JaalaJ/ 'college' and the rhythmlc morphemes / / and The only cut to be made lS between /mahaa/ and the remalnder. ' mamualJ dll • 'Good mangoes.' phil capa J • 'Older brother lntends to go. unless tne sequence /w{dJaalaJ/ proves to be analyzable. ' I-I.' fhe flrst In both cases lS between /Jaa/ and /kan-JulJ/.' 43 . Example: Jaa-kan-JulJ • 'MOSqUlto repellent' Immedlate constltuent analysls lS no dlfferent from the followlng.JUlJ • 'Medlclne /Jaa/ for wardlng off /kan/ mosqultoes /JUlJ/. Allomorph of 3).

1/ /saam/ 6) / 'flve' 'four' 'three' Isibl /r~oJI 'ten' 'hundred' 'thousand' /haa-sl. maJor cut after IB/. IA B: el - MaJor cut after IBI. The lntonatlon morpheme I . The lmmedlate constltuent cut can be made tagmemlcally. hence the space between /AI and IBI lS an lnstance of morpheme 4).Immedlate constltuent cut not lndlcated.Sub-lexemlC or low-order syntactlc cut between /A/ and /B/.400 ' 44 . In thlS phrase the flrst two lexemes are as before.' /haal /S:1. /A-B e/ . As before. and ~nother verb (e). hence the space between IB/ and /e/ lS an allomorph of morpheme 3) above.chua J lya: kan • 'Help Leua. /A-B/ lS the compound verb. actlng as a group. /A-BI el - 5) Examples: /-1 In the context of a compound lexeme composed of numeral constltuents only: 'multlpllcatlon.' 'flfty-flye' Examples: I saam-phan v " sll-rooJ / '3. The flrst two morphemes /A-B/ are constltuents of a compound verb lexeme of somewhat more formal meanlng than IA/ by ltself. In thlS phrase. but not on morphemlc eVldence. the constltuent lexemes are a verb (A). The rhythmlc morpheme 1-/ lS present. a noun WhlCh lS a nlckname (B). ' chuaJ-Iya kan • 'ASS1St ln preventlng It. I makes It a clause. but /e/ lS now the pronoun. ' /A B: e/ IA-B e/ IA-B: e/ /A B e/ .000' /phan/ /saam-phan/ I ln the context of a compound lexeme composed of numeral constltuents only: 'addltlon. hence flrst cut after IBI. The rhythmlc morpheme / : / lS present. and the thlrd lS a pronoun (C). hence last cut between IA/ and IB/. Sub-lexemlc or low-order syntactlc cut between /A/ and /B/. but there are no rhythmlc morphemes.' chuaJ-Iya: kan • 'AsslSt each other.l-r~oJ/ 'flfty' '400' '3.b/ /Sl.

therefore.3.3. Occurrence ln such a context. lt lS not part of the lexlcal unlt but lS a morph ln ltS own rlght.' 2) I' I (normal stress) lS an allomorph of the demonstratlve morpheme In 'I (2.). morphs whose phonemlc shape lS normal stress) than as rhythmlc morphs.). but a few classes characterlstlcally lack stress ln all thelr forms .e.2. ' rooJ haa-sib • 'One hundred and flfty. chaaJ i1g-soo~ khon • 'Two more men. Normal-stress Morphs Normal stress lS not morphophonemlcally dlstlngulshed from weak stress (see 1. but a few prosodlc morphs eXlst WhlCh are more properly characterlzed as normal-stress morphs (l.3.' 'two. chaaJ ilg-khon • 'One more man' Here the stress on Ikhonl 1S an lnstance of the morph I '/ 'one.e.8. slngle' WhlCh occurs ln slmultaneous order wlth classlflers and certa1n numerals.' WhlCh usually has normal stress.2. In the rhythmlc context /A-BI. and the actual stress 1S aga1n an allomorph of /dlawl 'one.1. Most classes of lexemes conslst of members WhlCh lnclude normal stress ln at least one syllable of soma ailolex (see 2. and certaln klnds of classlflers. pronouns. syllable IBI has normal stress unless I : I precedes ln the same phrase.' and Ikhonl 1S a class1fler for people. When normal stress occurs ln connectlon wlth such lexemes. Followlng are the two most easl1y recogn1zed members of thls class of morphs: 1) I' / (normal stress): an allomorph of Idlaw/ 'one. ' Here the numeral IrooJI 'hundred.g. 2 . ' /soo~1 1S a numeral In thlS phrase IchaaJI lS a noun 'man. occurs ln a stressless allomorph.1. I soo~-rooJ haa-sib • 'Two hundred and f1fty.4. lS eVldence of phonemlc normal stress.' lilg1 a preposlt1on 'further. therefore. 45 . preposltlons.3.) WhlCh occurs In slmultaneous order wlth pronouns.

me' has lts usual weak stress and modlfles the noun. 'the enemy lS gone' 'I have left the monastery' 'the water sources wlll dry up' 'If the water drled up' 'try to shout loudly' 'weeps loudly' Iseek pleasure' 46 . regardless of thelr lnternal analyses. other Examples of Prosodlc Contrast 1) The palrs of rhythmlc contrasts presented below are glven wlthout addltlonal context. 2. as sentence-fractlons whlch mlght occur In a number of slmllar envlronments. tua JaalJ-n{l tua-JaalJ n{l faJ maJ-mll faJ-maJ mll naaJ-r~oJ khon-nan 'a body llke thlS' Ithls example I 'therefs no electrlclty' 'flres occur I 'that offlcer of company grade' 'those hundred offlcers' 'whlch person lS 'whlch should be good~' mlxed~ naaJ r~oJ-khonl nan khon-naJ dll khon naJ' dll khaa-syg paJ-le€w khaa syg: paJ-IE€w thaa-naam CahE€lJ thaa naam CahE€lJ roolJ haJ-dalJ r. I In the phrase Ikha0D pham/. and the pronoun Iphoml 'I. the noun Ikha0DI Ithlngs l has normal stress.4. 'Mlne lS (are) In the chest. I Thls tlme Ikha0DI lS the prepositlon 'of' and has weak stress.2. whlle the pronoun Iphaml has normal stress ~Dd lS ltS obJect. and the rhythmlc eVldence lS of no help. I where the demonstratlve occurs In ltS allomorph I ' I. The translatlon 'mlne' corresponds to elther 'that of me' or 'those of me. kha0D-phom JUu naJ-tuu .0lJ-haJ dalJ haa khwaam-sanug .kha0D pham JUU naJ-tuu • 'My thlngs are In the chest. Note that the lmmedlate constltuent analysls for both sentences lS the same: IkhaoD phaml and IkhaoD-phoml both flll the same slot In the sentence.

The example contaln1ng the normal stressed syllable ln contrast 1S placed flrst and the stressed syllable 1S underllned. talJ naan talJ naan thaa beeb-nan tha. a class1fler. . . mya-waan paJ-syy r~b-thaan khaaw r~b thaan khaaw 2) 'when asked to buy It' 'went to buy lt yesterday' 'ea t rlce' 'recelve a glft of rlce' The palrs of stress contrasts presented below do not dlffer ln the morphophonem1c representatlon adopted for thlS grammar. In the examples.a bEeb-Mn 'has been set up a long tlme' 'for a very long t1me' . 'came to get lt at 10 o'clock' 'chose to come at 10 o'clock' 'thlS fork' 'flX thlS one (car)' . but d1ffer phonem1cally. the weak-stressed syllables 1n contrast are respect1vely a prepo31tlon. a modal.ca-aw "" "" caw-naa ca-aw maa-aw Sll moolJ maa aW-Sll moolJ . and a pronoun. a conJunctlon. 'that type of landlng-place' ' 1f 1t 's tha t type' 47 .haa-khwaam san~g 'have fun plcklng arguments' 'agreed to come' 'fell down towards us' 'hasn't reached Loel' 'hasn't reached there at all' 'has good strength' 'has Just the rlght amount' 'you ought to take It' 'the broker wlll get It' 'cure poor people' 'was able to treat people successfully' 'come to get lt too late' 'came to answer the phone' tog-lolJ maa tog: lOlJ-maa maJ-thYlJ 188J maJ-thYlJ: 188J mll kam-lalJ dll mll kamlalJ-dll caw naa. mya waan paJ-syy .

The last allomorph /p/ lS sub-syllablc. khun kholJ capaJ duaJ: la t . lr lt ends In a stop. ' 'You're certalnly gOlng along!' 2. occurrlng only berore bases beglnnlng wlth /r/ and /1/. In most other cases. The rollowlng are the most lmportant members or the category. / and no phrase boundary. khun . . Arter /p/. ' 'tell the vlrtues or' 'tell you' 3) The palrs or lntonatlon contrasts below all lnvolve the dlrrerence between / . the base-morpheme occurs as a sub-syllablc allomorph. capa J: ma J • 'Are you gOlng. and /balJ/. capa J dua J I la t .' The rlrst two allomorphs always occur wlth short syllable-duratlon. 2. Wl th example s • 1) /pra/.' go~' 'It would be good to get lt done rlrst' 'I guess Khong lS gOlng along. 48 . and /p/ 'causatlve. the tone changes to (or remalns) low. In all cases.3 • 1.3. Dee. and all eXlstlng ones are non-productlve. 'Are you volunteerlng to 'Get lt done rlrst. Pre rlxe s Sub-lexemlc Morphemes Sub-lexemlc prerlxes are qUlte rare In ST. ' 'He unexpectedly went to RaJaburl. the tone remalns the same.samag . The thlrd allomorph /balJ/ usually has short-syllable duratlon (never more than medlum-short) and lS restrlcted to bases beglnnlng wlth /k/ and /kh/. Samag~ khun samag capaJ' maJ • tham haJ-sed koon . dll • tham haJ-sed koon dll • khun kholJ . /balJ/. and are In rree varlatlon berore most bases. a proper name lS lnvolved. there are a rew exceptlons. /pa/. lncludlng the base-allomorphs WhlCh rollow /pra/. /pa/.khan-lalJ khan-lalJ khaw klab paJ raad-burll khaw klab paJ raad-burll boog khun boog khun '(my) back ltches' 'the one (car) behlnd' 'He went back to RaJab~l.

) 2) /kra/. The mean1ng of the pref1x lS hard to p1n down.Examples I Base /churn! /som/ 'to swarm' 'harmon10us' 'to be on top of' 't1ght' 'to be born' 'to go down' 'flat' 'to rece1ve. and fourth allomorphs of morpheme 1) /pra/. hear' 'to wake up' 'to float' W1th Pref1x /prachum/ /pasom/ /prathab/ /baIJkhab/ /baIJkeed/ /plo:o/ /praab/ /prab/ /plug/ /pl~oJ/ 'to assemble' 'to blend~ /th~b/ /khab/ /keed/ /10:0/ /raab/ /rab/ /l~g/ 'to aff1x' 'to regulate' 'to or1glnate' 'to bury' 'to subdue' 'to 1nfl1ct. There 1S no change 1n the form of any base. w1th med1umshort syllable durat1on. 1nclud1ng the change to low tone for bases end1ng 1n stops. after the allomorph /k/ (Wh1Ch occurs before bases beg1nn1ng w1th /w/ as well). espec1ally mammals. ' Examples: Base /tham/ /dood/ /waa:o/ /raab/ /l~b/ Wlth Pref1x /kratham/ /kradood/ /kwaa:o/ /kraab/ /klab/ 'to act' 'to Jump' 'spac1ous' 'to prostrate oneself' 'to turn around' 'to do' 'to Jump' 'un1mpeded' 'level' 'h1dden' 3) /c1:O-/ 'pref1x for anlmals. a few of Wh1Ch occur by themselvas. /ka/. second. and large 1nsects' Precedes many bases. and /k/ 'reflex1ve' The relat1onsh1p among the allomorphs 1S exactly the same as among the f1rst. but seems to be vaguely 'self-affect1ng act10n or condl t1on. tell' 'to waken' 'to release' /looJ/ (The last example has 1rregular tone. 49 . llzards.

'b1rd' or /plaa/ 'f1Sh' precede.g/ /Cl. stork' 'parrot' 'sea.Examples I /C1. Examples: /kasaa/ or /nog-kasaa/ /kaI1lJ/ or /nog-kal1lJ/ /kapholJ/ or /plaa-kapholJl . they have med1um-short durat1on.lJ. w1th short durat1on. Inf1xe s Sub-Iexem1c 1nf1xes are so~ewhat more wldely dlstrlbuted In ST than preflxes.3. espec1ally b1rds and f1Sh' If the morphs /nog/ 4) /ka/ or /kra/ Precedes ~any bases. w1th short syllable-durat1on.2. very few of Wh1Ch occur by themselves.lJ-cQag/ /cllJ-ri1d/ 'small 11zard' 'fox' 'cr1cket' 'pref1x for an1mals. 50 . /maphraaw/ /makhya/ /mamualJ/ 'coconut' 'eggplant' 'mango' Allomorph /malJ/ occurs before a few bases: 'mangosteen' Allomorphs /m~ag-/ and /m~g-/ occur w1th med1um-short durat10n before many bases: /m~g-muan/ /m~ag-I1lJ/ 'peach' 'small palm tree' 2. There are only four common lnflxes.c . espec1ally vegetables and fru1ts' Precedes many bases. and one of them (the second llsted) can actually be sa1d to be productlve. and the Iwhole comblnau1on lS a slngle lexeme. Examples.bass' 5) /ma/ 'pref1x for plants.

/ab/. the second syllable has the same tone as the base. the second syllable of the derlvatlve has low Regular examples: Base /deen/ /sialJ/ /caa J/ /uaJ/ /traa/ /thalaaJ/ /keed/ /riab/ /ram/ /ralyg/ 'to walk' 'volce' 'to pay' 'to glve' I Wlth Inflx /damneen/ /samnlalJ/ /camnaa J/ /amnuaJ/ /tamraa/ /thamlaaJ/ /kamneed/ 'to conduct. meanlng of base. WhlCh may have any duratlon except (When the base has zero lnltlal consonant. rlslng tone. lng lexeme 1S In all cases two syllables long. the flrst syllable of the der1vatlve lexeme has If the base morpheme has If the any other tone. and the second syllable has mld tone. the allomorph /ab/ lS selected. If the base morpheme has rlslng tone. Regular tone changes accompany the flrst two allomorphs. base morpheme ends ln a stop. The lnltlal consonant of the base plus /am/ becomes a syllable /n/ plus the remalnder wlth short (or no more than medlum-short) duratlon. unpredlctable forms of the base morpheme or the lnflx. the flrst syllable of the derlvatlve has mld tone. and unusual orders: /aad/ /nag/ /trolJ/ 'to be capable' 'heavy' 'to go stralght' /amnaad/ /namnag/ /damrolJ/ 'power' 'welght' 'to contlnue' 51 . beglnnlng wlth /r/. ' 'formallty or technlcallty added to The allomorph /amn/ lS selected for most bases beglnnlng wlth a slngle consonant. the /amn/ lS 1n effect a For bases beglnnlng wlth a consonant cluster. short. the allomorph /am/ For monosyllablc bases For d1syllablc bases. The result- 1S 1nserted between the members of the cluster. the allomorph /m/ lS lnserted at the and of the flrst syllable. tone. seal' 'to destroy' 'to be born' 'llned up' 'to dance' 'to be remlnded of' /rab~ab/ /rabam/ /ramlyg/ other examples lnvolve lrregularltles of tone. preflx. /am/.) of the base becomes a second syllable.1) /amn/. and /m/. proceed' 'accent' 'to dlsburse' 'to admlnlster' 'textbook' 'to rUln' 'blrth' 'order' 'to perform a dance' 'to remlnlsce' stamp. otherwlse.

lnflX allomorph plus base allomorph lS always preceded somewhere In the same clause by the base morpheme In ltS most common form. second' 'f1.s h1. money' /theew/ /thiaw/ 'row. the only certaln rule be1.th orlg1. For bases w1. /e/. rhythmlc morph. If the base (or ltS last syllable) has a long vowel or d1.shed' /thamnoolJ/ /amlaa/ /rabyy/ /samroolJ/ /samred/ 'method' 'to res1. sectlon' /faJ feJ/ /lJen 13en/ 'electrlcal system' /kln ken! 'money and that sort of thlng' /theew theew/ 'general V1Cln1.S as follows.nexactness added to mean1. Examples: Base Morpheme /kln/ 'to eat' or /kln ken/ 'flre. base allomorph plus lnflX allomorph. The result. a long-vowel allomorph. If the base morpheme comes dlrectly before the lnflxed morph.tles. the allomorph /ee/ or /e/ lS selected.al allomorph of the base morpheme.) wlth four constltuent morphs: base morpheme.nf1.e/ or /ee. For bases w1.g1. ST speakers do not agree on the dlstrlbutlon of the l.th an orlglnal vowel nucleus of /ee/ or /e/.phthong nucleus. lf the base has a short vowel.d1. and for all bases endlng In /J/. /eJ/ are syllablc lmpoSSlbll1. Slnce the vowel nucleus represented by the 1.4. lS selected. /ee/.n1.ghly product1.gn' 'rumor' 'reserves' 'successful' /ee/. lf the base lS polysyllablc).4.nf1. go out for pleasure' 52 .ng the one whlch concerns length of nucleus.e/.) For bases other than the types roentloned. and of base morpheme. the allomorph feel or /e/ lS selected. and the whole cornblnatlon lS a complex redupllcated lexeme (2.ty' /thiaw th£ew/ 'fool around' 'go around.x allomorphs. the selectlon can be elther /88.nf1.X always l. ' /e/ 'r1.ng Th1. /ee/ or /ee/.nal nucleus (or the nucleus of the last syllable.cule or l.x replaces the or1. but a common pattern 1. and for most bases endlng ln /w/.nvolves a spec1./thaalJ/ /laa/ /lyy/ /SOO13/ /sed/ 2) 'way' 'to take leave' 'to spread hearsay' 'two. electrlclty' 'SlIver. (Bases endlng In /eeJ/ or /eJ/ cannot take thlS lnflX.nal /ee/ or /e/. /e/ or /e/ lS selected. the former has roedlurn syllable duratlon. as /e8J/.ve l. VlSlt.

etc. however.3. at least.4) and 5).' malnly wlth redupllcated adJectlves. 3) An extremely common but non-productlve lnflX wlth prlnclpal allomorphs/aa/ and /a/ has the same condltlons of occurrence as lnflx 2) feel. 53 . etc. a separate dlctlonary 11Stlng of all redupllcated lexemes contalnlng the lnflx lS the slmplest Solutlon.4.3./chuaJ/ 'to help' 'pot' 'counterfelt' 'ear' /chuaJ cheeJ/ 'help out and that sort of thlng' 'pots and pans' 'counterfelt. wlth prlnclpal allomorphs /U-l/ and /UU-ll/. slncere' 'to whlsper' /weew-waaw/ /cl~-ca~/ 'brllllantly' . whethep thlS lS a whole morph or not: /na~-sYy/ 'books. the lnflx allomorph occurs In the last syllable.7. * See M. the ~esult but also comblnes wlth other redupllcated forms as well. Base /weew/ /Cl~/ Derlvatlve 'brllllant' 'true. has 'lmpresslonlstlc vlsual or onomatopoetlc aUdltory It occurs malnly In adverbs and lsolatlves. but a very dlfferent meanlng: 'emphaS1S or lntenslIt occurs belng an adverb.' Word 2.' few adJectlve lexemes lncorporate It. are productlve. s lncere ly .. but a There lS some eVldence that the meanlng descrlptlon. that the morphologlcal analYS1S of the relatlonshlp between most lexemes In WhlCh lt occurs. 'In whlspers' /kras{b/ /kras{b-krasaab/ ThlS lnflX has so many allomorphs. 'Technlques of Intenslflcatlon In Thal. For most cases. occurrlng dlscontlnuously In redupllcated lexemes (see 2. ' 'ears and stuff' /maD/ /pIDDm/ /huu/ /maD mee/ /plDDm pIe em/ /huu heel If the base lS a polysyllablc morpheme or a compound lexeme. base and lnflx lS extremely compllcated for * 4) A double lnflx. flcatlon of the concept denoted by the base morpheme.5. Haas.R.).127-30. letters' ttwo-syllable morpheme) 'llterature and that sort of thlng' 'sympathlze and all that stuff' /hen-caJ/ 'sympathlze' tcompound lexeme) All lnflxed forms also occur In dlscontlnuous orders (see 2. the prlnclpal allomorphs.

normal stress. me' /'khon/ 'one person' 'that of me. 'trlfllng (of thlngs) .3 . Superf1xes 1) Two superflxes whlch have the phonem1c shape / ' I. found In at least one redupllcatlon. but do not show up morphophonem1cally except by lnference from rhythm1c patterns.2 • ) Examples. In the way' le-al le-al /8-E/ I~ -al 'numerous' 'bumpy' /J8-J8/ Ikhru-khral lu-al allomorph of thls morpheme: Inflx A quadruple lnflx. 'In whlspers' IcAI Ic'g/ /s 'b/ ( 'whlsper') Is~b-s{bl Other common allomorphsof the double lnflx are lllustrated In the followlng examples: Inflx Derlvatlve 'cluttered. m1ne' Ipham/ I'pham/ 54 . /khon/ 'clasS1f1er for people' 'I. 3) and 4).Examples: Ikrad'g/ ('to fldget') ('concerned wlth detall') (Idetalls l ) /kradug-kradig/ ICUU-Cll/ /cug-cig/ 'fldgety' 'petty. 1. however. nagglng (of persons) . overlap. of such lexemes 1S requ1red. 2.3..3. a separate d1ct1onary llst1ng There are many cases where the two 1nf1x types. lS probably an Derlvatlve /C~g-c8g As In the case of caa-cEEI 'sound of many people talklng' 3) /aa/ etc. have already been mentloned ( 2 • 2 .

and means 'statement or command. Wh1Ch cons1sts of the or1g1nal 1n1t1al consonant plus a short vowel.' I A I. pla1n hlgh tone. The f1rst has the shape has the shape I N I. constr1cted h1gh 'quest1on or suggestlon. the other' 'Wh1Ch' /nl1/ /nanl 'here' 'there' 'yonder' 'where' Iminl In~onl InaJ/ Inoonl InaJ/ (zero allomorph of superf1x) 'some' 'few' 'to some extent' 'a 11ttle' 3) Two superf1xes occur wlth certa1n responses and f1nal part1cles. and means The second ' /.' Both of these superf1x morphs requ1re a spec1al toneless allomorph of the base. fall1ng tone. I A I falllng tone.2) A superf1x w1th allomorphs and two numerals. or / tone. I 'I low tone. and zero (no change 1n tone) makes adverbs from four demonstratlves Examples: Base Lexeme Der1vat1ve In{l/ 'th1S' 'that' 'yon.nt1mate's call 'man answerlng a call pol1tely' 'you see' 'not otherW1se' r lal but 1n one case I 1 /.l IweeJ/ Ikhraab/ /naa/ 'woman answer1ng a call pol1tely' 'answer1ng a Ch1ld's or equal's call' 'man answer1ng a call rudely' 'answer1ng an l.£!: Inaal IS111 55 . usually Examples: Base Lexeme /khaa/ /caa/ / Jaa. Questlon Statement Ikhal /cal IJal Iwal Ihal Ist/ ££ Ikhrabl Ikhal Ical /Ja/ Iwal Ihal or Ina/ Isi/ or Iwal Ikhrabl Ina/ . reply or assent expected. no reply expected.

and thelr derlvatlves.1.' Occurs In /n{l/ IthlS.4. lnterrogatlves. 1) /n #/ (lnltlal /n/ plus constrlcted hlgh tone) 'demonstratlve. /nll/ 'here' (see 2. together wlth the 11St of morphemes havlng at least one sub-syllablc allomorph glven In the next sectlon (2. 2) /11/ 'close at hand.3.2. of adJectlves on all flve tones (other than / superflx / by / J N /) The adJectlve base occurs In a toneless allomorph to WhlCh the N : / lS added.' /ll-meew/ 'the (blasted) cat.see 2.' Occurs Ln /n{l/ 'thlS. lnflxes.' and the flnal partlcle /n~/ 'you see.3. and so the complex lexeme WhlCh results Derlvatlve /Jdil: dll/ /Jkaw: kaw/ /Jmaag: maag/ /Jr5Qn: r~Qn/ /Jnaawl naaw/ 'excellentJ ' 'anclentJ ' 'a tremendous amount' 'blazlngJ' 'freezlng' /r~Qn/ /naaw/ 2. has three constltuent morphs. wlth falllng-tone superflx.3. present.' Allomorph /n/ occurs In /naJ/ 'WhlChl' Allomorph / ' / occurs wlth pronouns (see 2. ' It lS the only truly productlve superflx In the language. ST has a few other morph- emes WhlCh have no allomorphs equlvalent to a whole syllable In form and hence do not correspond to lexemes. none other than.2. ltS superflxed forms occur All klnds occur wlth It. and 11ke forms lnflxed wlth /e.2).4.e/ (2. and lS lmmedlately followed by the The extra duratl0n represented base morpheme In lts usual form. The followlng 11St of sub-syllablc morphemes.4) A superflx wlth the shape / J N : / lS used by women on adJectlve bases wlth the meanlng 'emotlonal lntenslflcatlon of base meanlng.).' /n~on/ 'yon.2. and superflxes.5.).' (ThlS /11/ lS a lexlcal preflx .3. lexemes are lnvolved as well. only In close assoclatl0n wlth the base morpheme Itself.2. but other classes of 56 . lS lntended to glve a complete Vlew of the lnternal constructl0n of demonstratlves.) The lmportant cases result from the analysls of certaln demonstratlve and lnterrogatlve lexemes.3.). also posslbly In the flnal partlcle /Sll/ 'not otherwlse. SUb-syllablc Morphemes Besldes preflxes.' and the derogatory lexeme /11/ ltself: /11 wan-n~n/ 'that very day.' lts derlvatlves /~{1/ 'so' and.' /n~n/ 'that. Examples I Base Morpheme /dll/ /kaw/ /maag/ 'good' 'old' 'much' 'hot' 'cold' : / lS not a morph.1 the adverb IJuu-dll/ 'all the same.3.

' and /thaw-daJ/ 'to any extent. absolutely far. r /d8J/ 'get. Allomorphs of thlS morpheme posslbly occur In the demonstratlve noun /yyn/ 'others' and the pronoun /phyan/ 'other ones.see 2.3) /an/ 'farther away. other than. that's the one.' ltS allolex /daJ/. some.' /chyy/ 'name.' /mya-daJ/ 'any tlme. /Ja~an/. the correct one of 11mlted posslbllltles' Occurs In /ch8J/ 'to be the one lntended.' ltS derlvatlves /naJ/ 'where' and the lsolatlve /~aJ/ 'what do you mean~' and In the questlon partlcle /maJ/ 'yes or no.' and thelr der~vatlves /Ja~{l/. thlS sort. that sort.' /~an/ 'thus. what. I 57 .' /~aJ/ 'how. other than' and the questlon-word /maJ/ 'yes or no. /chanaJ/ 'WhlCh sort.' the negatlve /m8J/ 'not.' /oon/ 'other.' /thaw-raJ/ 'how much. but also In the conJunctlon /ryy/ 'or. the other of two.' The whole comblnatlon /raJ/ occurs as a sUb-syllablc constltuent ln /khraJ/ /aJ/ 'the one lntended.' /phuu-daJ/ 'anyone.' and the derogatory lexeme /aJI ltself: /aJ-m~a/ 'the (blasted) dog' (a lexlcal preflx .' /chanan/ 'that way. and thelr many derlvatlves.' /aJ/ 'WhlCh of unllmlted posslbllltles' Occurs chlefly In the free lexeme /raJ/ 'lndeflnlte demonstra~lve.' The morph /aJ/ occurs by ltself as a sub-syllablc constltuent In /thamaJ/ 'why' and /Ja~aJ/ 'how.' and posslbly In /waJ/ 'for future purposes.' the questlon-partlcle /ryy/ and ltS allolex /ree/ 'or what.' /chen/ 'to be an example of.' Ie) Allomorph /cha/ occurs as syllablc morpheme constltuent In such lexemes as /chanil/ 'thlS way. /Ja~aJ/.' posslbly also In /than/ 'to catch up. comparatlvely far.' and /chaph~/ 'especlally.4. two removes 'from the present' Occurs In /noon/ 'yon.' and posslbly such other lexemes as /h8J/ 'lntended for.' and posslbly an allomorph occurs ln /chil/ 'to pOlnt out' and /chan/ 'class. any' and ltS derlvatlves (see 6) above).' /mya-raJ/ 'when. such as /araJ/ 'what. get there. .' and posslbly In the sentence-partlcle /rog/ 'or anythlng.' /aJ/ 'WhlCh of llmlted posslbllltles' Occurs In the demonstratlve /naJ/ 'WhlCh.' 11) /r/ 'lndeflnlte member of class' (Opposlte of 1) /n '/) Occurs chlefly In /raJ/ 'what. ' /ch A/ 'deslgnator' Occurs ln /chaJ/ 'to be the one lntended. any.) Allomorph /aJ/ occurs In the flnal partlcle /~aJ/ 'that's the one. removed from the present' Occurs In /nan/ 'that' and lts derlvatlves /nan/ 'there' and /~an/ 'thus. ' 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) /~/ 'manner' Occurs ln /~{l/ 'so.' /thll-raJ/ 'WhlCh lnstance. and /~aJ/ 'what do you mean7' 9) /m/ 'negatlve' Occurs In /maJ/ 'not.1. ' 'who. rand /phoon/ (a reglonal varlant).' ltS derlvatlve /noon/ 'yonder. succeed. some.

Allomorph /n/ posslbly occurs In /ny~/ and /ny~/ lone, a certaln member of the class of. I 12) /yy/ lequlvalent' Occurs In /chyy/ 'name,' both lexemes /ryy/

above, and In /khyy/ lthat lS to say.' Allomorph /y~/ probably occurs In /ny~/ and /ny~/ lone, a certaln member of the class of, I and In the conJunctlons /sy~/ lsuch that,' /thy~/ and /cy~/ IWlth the result that. '

2.3.5.

Morphemes wlth Sub-syllablc Allomorphs Many morphemes of ST, other than those mentloned In the precedlng

sectlons, have at least one allomorph whose sllape lS less than a syllable. A Ilst of the most lmportant ones follows.

1)

/thll/

'classlfler for lnstances' I /

Occurs as a free lexeme wlth
r

the prosodlc-superflx morpheme / /thll-n{l/ 'thls tlme,

lone' In /~lg-thll/ 'once more,' and In

the followlng demonstratlve phrases (among others): /thll-raJ/ 'WhlCh tlme,
I

and /thll-dlaw/ 'once.'

Allomorph /thl/ occurs In /thldlaw/ 'qulte, completely.' Allomorphs /th/ and /ch/ occur as sub-syllablc constltuents In allolexes of the above: 2) /an/ /thlaw/ and /chlaw/ 'qulte, completely.' Occurs as a free lexeme wlth the /an-naJ/ 'WhlCh

'classlfler for thlngs' ' /

prosodlc-superflx morpheme / one' and /an-n{l/ 'thlS one.'

'one' In /pen ani 'lS one thlng, as a unlt,'

and In the followlng demonstratlve phrases (among others):

Allomorph /a/ occurs as a sub-syllablc constltuent In /araJ/ 'what.

I

3)

/khon/

prosodlc morpheme /

lclasslfler for people I Occurs as a free lexeme wlth the ' / lone l In /~lg-khon/ 'one more person,' and In the /khon-naJ/ 'WhlCh person'

followlng demonstratlve phrases (among others): and /khon-n~n/ 'that person. '

Allomorph /kh/ occurs as a sub-syllablc constltuent In /khraJ/ 'who.

I

4)

/tham/

'to make, do'

Occurs as a free verb lexeme In /tham

khrua/ Ito do cooklng. I Allomorphs /tha-m/ and /thamm/ occur as a sub-syllablc constltuents (syllable plus a fractlon) In /thamaJ/ 'why,
f

and lts allolex /thammaJ/.

58

5)

/Jaa~/

'classlfler for klnds of thlngs, adverb of manner' ' / In /ilg-Jaa~/ 'one

Occurs as a free lexeme wlth the prosodlc morpheme /

more klnd' and In the followlng demonstratlve phrases (among others): /Jaa~­ n{l/ 'thls klnd,' /Jaa~-naJ/ 'whlch klnd,' and /JaaD-raJ/ 'how.' Allomorph /JaD/ occurs In varlant forms of the same demonstratlve phrases: /JaD-n{l/, /JaD-naJ/, /JaD-raJ/. Allomorphs /Ja-D/ and /JaDD/ occur as sub-syllablc constltuents In the followlng lexlcal unlts (whlch are all allolexes of forms flrst llsted In 2.3.4.8.): /JaD{l/ and /JaDD{l/ 'so, thls way,' /JaD~n/ and /JaDD~n/ 'numeral one'
I

'thus, that way,' /JaDaJ/ and /JaDDaJ/ 'how, what way; that's the one.'

6)

/dlaw/

Occurs after classlflers:

/khon-dlaw/

'one person, alone. Allomorph /

' / occurs In slmultaneous order wlth classlflers and

numerals (see 2.2.3.1.) Allomorph /law/ occurs as sub-syllablc constltuent In /thlaw/ and /chlaw/ 'qulte, completely' (see 1) /thll/ above).

2.4. Lexeme Composltlon 2.4.1.
Derlvatlves In the precedlng sectlon we have seen second-order lexemes derlved from base plus preflx (llke /prachum/, 2.3.1.1.), base plus lnflx (llke /damneen/, 2.3.2.1.), base plus superflx (llke /kha/, 2.3.3.3.), or from a comblnatlon of two sub-syllablc morphemes (llke /n{l/, 2.3.4.1.), and thlrdorder lexemes derlved from superflxed base plus repetltlon of orlglnal base (llke /!dll: dll/, 2.3.3.4.), from orlglnal base plus repetltlon wlth lnflx (llke /kln ken/, 2.3.2.2.), or from addltlon of a superflx to a comblnatlon of sub-syllablc morphemes (llke /nll/, 2.3.3.2.). derlvatlve, sub-syllablc morphemes were lnvolved. ST has stlll other derlvatlves, however, In whlch one of the constltuents, whlle a free lexeme In ltS own rlght, lS nelther a modlfler nor a head. Such derlvatlves are therefore not compounds or redupllcatlons of free lexemes (see 2.4.3.), and must be treated separately. In most derlvatlves lncorporatlng two or more constltuents whlch are themselves lexemes, It lS the flrst constltuent that recurs In many comblnatlons and lS productlve of new formatlons. Such common
prlo~

In all these types of

constltuents All

are lexlcal preflxes. The lmportant lexlcal preflxes are llsted below. ely long and complex, In whlch case they have medlum duratlon.

have medlum-short syllable duratlon, unless the second constltuent lS extrem-

59

1)

/kaan-/ 'the act of, affalrs of'

Makes abstract nouns from verbs and verb expresslons, and from speclflc nouns and noun expresslons. Base / w1 lJ/ /tad sya/ /baan/ /taalJ-pratheed/ 2) /khwaam-/ 'to run' 'to cut clothes' 'house, home' 'forelgn' Derlvatlve /kaan-wllJ/ /kaan- ta d- sya/ /kaan-baan/ /kaan-taalJ-pratheed/ 'runnlng , 'tallorlng' 'homework' Iforelgn affalrs'

'the condltlon of, the result of'

Makes abstract nouns from adJectlves and adJectlve expresslons, and nouns descrlblng the result or obJect of actlon lmplled by verbs and verb expresslons. Base /lJOo/ 'stupld' 'to know' 'to do homage to a flag' Derlvatlve /khwaam-lJ Oo / /khwaam-ruu/ 'stupldl ty' 'knowledge'

/r~u/
/khaw-r~b tholJ/

/khwaam khaw-r~b tholJ/ 'respect for the flag'

3)

/naa-/

'worthy of'

Makes adJectlves from verbal bases.
/r~g/

'to love' 'to look at' 'to 11sten 1

/naa-r~g/

'lovable, cute' llnterestlng to look at' 'lnterestlng to llsten to'

/duu/ /falJ/

/naa-duu/ /mia-falJ/

Thlrd-order derlvatlves contalnlng both 2) /khwaam-/ and 3) /naa-/ are qUlte common: 'vlsual lnterestlngness 1 /khwaam-naa-duu/

4)

/khl1-/

'havlng a conslstent characterlstlc of'

Makes adJectlves from adJectlve and verb bases whose/meanlngs lmply slngle lnstances of behavlor rather than characterlstlc behavlor •• Base /aaJ/ /koolJ/ 'to be ashamed' 'to defraud' Derlvatlve /khl1-aaJ/ /khl1- koo lJ/ 'bashful' 'deceltful'

60

/kiad/ /maw/ (Note:

'act slothfully' 'l.ntoxl.ca ted'

/khll.-kiad/ /khll.-maw/

'lazy' 'alcoholl.c'

/khll./ 'excrement' l.S a dl.fferent lexeme whl.ch heads many compounds, all of whl.ch are also nouns - e.g. /khil.-taa/ 'eye secretl.on.' Such compounds cannot be confused wl.th the above derl.vatl.ves.)

5)

/taa~/ 'other' and /naa-naa/ 'varl.ous, plural'

These two lexl.cal prefl.xes are grouped together because they share many co-constl.tuents. Both make noun derl.vatl.ves of plural meanl.ng from noun bases. Base /pratheed/ 'country, natl.on' 'provl.nce' 'type, kl.nd' 'race, na tl.on' Derl.va tl.ves
/taa~-pratheed/

/naa-naa pratheed/ /caD-wad/ /chanid/ /chaad/
/taa~-ca~wad/

/naa-naa chanid/
/taa~-chaad/

'forel.gn countrl.es' 'countrl.es' 'the provl.nces (outsl.de Bangkok) , 'varlous kl.nds' 'forel.gn orl.gl.n' 'races, natl.ons'

/naa-naa chaad/

6)

/khrya~-/

'collectl.on, equl.pment, mechanl.sm'

Makes collectl.ve nouns and nouns denotl.ng klnds of machl.nery from all klnds of bases - nouns, verbs, adJectlves, and expresslons. Base /dyym/ /bl.n/ /phl.m-dil.d/ /karil./ 'to drl.nk' 'to fly' 'to type' 'curry' Derl.vatl.ve /khryalJ-dyym/
/khrYa~-bl.n/

'beverages' 'al.rplane' 'typewrl.ter' 'curry l.ngredl.ents'

/khrYalJ-phl.m-dll.d/ /khrYalJ-karll./

(Examples of the type 'alrplane' and typewrl.ter' are compounds rather than derl.vatl.ves, because /khryalJ/ can substl.tute for the whole.) /khaalJ-/ and /byalJ-/ 'slde, aspect, ' and /phaaJ-/ 'tl.me, place.' All three of these lexl.cal preflxes make abstract nouns from preposltl.OnS havl.ng to do wlth place and tl.me relatl.onshl.ps. Examples of all three wl.th the base /la~/ 'after, behl.nd':
/khaa~-lalJ/

7)

'behl.nd, the rear sl.de' 'behl.nd, the hldden sl.de, the past' 'after, the future'

/byalJ-lalJ/
/phaaJ-l~~/

(For further examples, see /naJ/-class preposl.tl.ons, 4.2.1.)

6]

8)

/raaJ-/

'case, Instance,' and /pracam-/ 'assoclated wlth'

These are allomorphs o:f a lexlcal pre:flx WhlCh makes nouns re:ferr1ng to :frequency o:f occurrence :from nouns deslgnatlng tlme-perlods. The allomorph /raaJ-/ IS used only wlth the smaller unlts. Base /wan/ / sa b- pa daa/ /dyan/ /pll/ 'day' 'week' 'month' 'year' Derlvatlves /raa J-v.ran/ /pracam-wan/ /raaJ-sabpadaa/ /raaJ-dyan/ /pracam-pll/ 'dally' !dally' 'weekly' 'monthly' 'annual'

In a :few klnds o:f derlvatlves Incorporatlng two or more const1tuents WhlCh are themselves lexemes, the last constltuent IS the one that recurs and produces new comblnatlons. Such lat~er constltuents are lexlcal su:f:f1xes. rwo of the most 1mportant ones are exempll:fled below (9-10). Slnce they termlnate thelr lexemes, they can have any syllable-duratlon :from med1um up, but the precedlng constltuent usually has medlum-short duratlon.

Makes verbs and adJectlves havlng to do wlth feellngs and thought processes from verb and adJectlve bases. Base /dll/ /khaw/ /ch5;)b/ /ph;);)/ 'good! 'enter I 'to llke' 'enough' 'form, shape' /dll-caJ/ /khaw-caJ/ /ch5;)b-caJ/ /ph;);)-caJ/ Derlvatlve 'glad' 'understand' 'be pleased' 'be satlsfled.
I

10)

/-phaab/

Makes abstract nouns from noun, verb, and adJectlve bases. ThlS sufflX IS nearly In complementary dlstrlbutlon wlth 2) the preflx /khwaam-/, as far as selectlon of bases IS concerned, and the meanIng of the two afflxes 1S about the same: 'the quallty o:f.' The sufflX sometlmes requlres a speclal allomorph o:f the base: some bases endlng In consonants are extended by a syllable o:f short duratlon, WhlCh conslsts of a fortls consonant of the same posltlon as the flnal of the base, plus the short vowel /a/; other bases have no extenslon, or unpredlctable extenslons.

62

Compounds Compounds In ST. peaceful' /khwaam-sug/ Derlvatlve /seerll-phaab/ /idsara-phaab/ /khun-naphaab/ /sug-kaphaab/ /san. the form-class of the compound lexeme lS the same as that of the head constltuent when It occurs as an lndependent lexeme. further constltuent cuts can be made on the basls of rhythmlc patterns.the ew/ 'hall' 'to study' ' school' 'to walk' 'row' 'to march' (noun) (verb) (noun) (verb) (noun) (verb) 63 .4.2. other form-classes belng relatlvely lnfrequent. Examples: /roolJ/ /rlan/ /rOOlJ-rlan/ /d88n/ /theew/ / d88n. then verbs. then numerals. In nearly all cases. Compounds are constructed from all types of head constltuent'lnouns belng the most frequent. peace' 'happlness ' also eXlsts.tlphaab/ ! freedom' 'freedom' 'quallty' 'happlness' 'securlty. then adJectlves. SClence' 'work' 'worker' 'member' 'month wlth 31 days' 'month wlth 30 days' 2.) 11) Other lexlcal sufflxes worthy of mentlon: /-saad/ /-kaan/ /-k00n/ /-ch{g/ or /{g/ /-khom/ /. as deflned here.Base /see-rll/ /id-sara/ /khun/ /sug/ /san/ (Notes 'free' 'free' 'vlrtue' 'happlness' 'secure.Jon/ 'dlsclpllne. are characterlstlcally endocentrlc: the flrst constltuent lS the head and all other constltuents are modlflers. moreover.

w1th second const1tuent /maaJ/ 'wood. sec t10n of' /mee-/ /thl1-/ /roo:t. pl&nts': /ton/ 'class1f1er for trees and plants' 'tree' /ton-maaJ S08:t.]-/ /caw-/ /r88:t.]-/ /baan-/ /mya:t.5) (numeral) A few of the lexemes Wh1Ch occur most frequently as head-morphemes are 11sted below. c1t1zen of' 'woman who does' 'place where someth1ng lS done' 'publ1C bU1ld1ng. but the compound lS a noun.2./kee/ /faJ/ /kee-faJ/ 'dark' 'f1re' 'scorched' 'f1ve' 'ten' 'f1fty' (adJect1ve) (noun) (adJect1ve) (numeral) (numeral) plus rhythm1c morpheme /-/ (see 2. 2) the f1rst const1tuent lS not the head.command.]-/ /t88n-/ /phaag-/ The except10ns to th1s pattern are of four types: 1) the head const1tuent lS a class1f1er. 1) Class1f1er as head const1tuent of a noun compound lexeme. the one who does' 'craftsman' 'the one who f11ls a command or C1V11 serV1ce funct10n' 'second-1n. and 4) const1tuents have 1rregular allomorphs. 3) one const1tuent or another has a mean1ng 1n the compound unrelated to 1tS normal free-mean1ng.]-/ /h5:t. V1ce-' 'nat1ve of.] toni Examples /ton-maa J/ 'two trees' 64 . /khon-/ and /phuu-/ /chaa:t. hall' 'room' 'v111age of' 'town or country of' 't1me or port10n of' . and hence the compound lS 1rregular.]-/ /chaaw-/ 'agent.2. trees.

ceremony.og/ 'class1f1er for flowers and small-patterned obJects' 'flower' /d.og/ 'two flowers' /d.og-maaJ/ Examples 1nvolv1ng (4) 1rregular allomorph of const1tuent: /phon/ 'class1fer for fru1ts' 2) F1rst const1tuent not head of compound: Examples w1th /mahaa/ 'b1g'. Examples repeated from above: /lamaaJ/ /karaad/ 1n /phon-lamaaJ/ 1n /eeg-karaad/ 'fru1t' .og-maaJ S00~ d. lS up to' 4) Irregular allomorphs of const1tuents./baJ/ 'class1f1er f~r leaves. SllPS of paper. only' /tEE~-~aan/ /tog/ /tog-Io~/ /lEEW/ /IEEw-t8E/ 'already.autonomous ' 65 . and receptacles' 'leaf' /baJ-maaJ S00~ baJ/ 'two leaves' /baJ-maaJ/ /d. great': /mahaa-w{dthaJalaJ/ /mahaa-samud/ 'un1vers1ty' 'ocean' /w{d-thaJalaJ/ 'college' /samud/ 'salt water body' 'f1rst': Examples w1th /eeg/ /ag-kharaad-cathuud/ /eeg ag-kharaad-cathuud/ 'h1gh-rank1ng d1plomat' 'ambassador' W1th (4) 1rregular allomorph /karaad/: /raad/ 're1gn' /eeg-karaad/ 'autonomous' Same morpheme /eeg/ 1n normal compound lexeme: /naa~/ 'woman' /naaJJ-eeg/ 'hero1ne' 3) Mean1ng of lexeme not deduc1ble from mean1ngs of const1tuents as free lexemes: /tEE~/ to adorn' 'to be marr1ed' 'to fall' 'to agree' /l:Jaan/ /lo~/ 'work. over w1th' /tEE/ 'depends on. fa1r' 'down' 'but.

.2.3 end). and /phon-lamyaD/ 'populat1on' (w1th /myaD/ 'town') /agsoon/ 'letters. one of the complex redupl1cat1ons 11sted below (5-8) occurs.3.2. lS found only 1n assoc1at1on w1th 1t. 66 .) Allomorph /phon-Ia/ 1n /phon-Iaryan/ 'c1v1l1an' (w1th ryan 'household'). pr1vate.3. The border-I1ne between the two types lS not eas1ly drawn (see 2. although the formclass may be d1fferent. If the comb1n1ng element lS an 1nf1xed or superf1xed form of the base. w1th or w1thout change 1n the shape of the base. the 'phonet1cs l (w1th /with11/ If the comb1n1ng element lS the unchanged form of the base plus some rhythm1c morpheme. and the comb1nlng element lS an 1nflXed redupl1cator or a superflXeq redupl1cator. Redupl1cat1ons All redupl1cat1ons 1nvolve e1ther a repet1t1on of a base lexeme. but 1n all cases the construct1on lS endocentr1c and the mean1ng of the redupl1cated lexeme lS substant1ally the same as. or a construct1on of the base lexeme w1th an element Wh1Ch.): Const1tuent /t.Other examples: /phon/ 'lnd1v1dual' 1n /phon-thahaan/ 'lnd1v1dual m1l1tary man. etc.o-suu/ /chab-waJ/ Ito f1ght' 'alert' If the comb1n1ng element 1tself occurs as a free lexeme w1th a slm1lar mean1ng. comb1nat1on lS called a compound (2. one of the slmple redupl1cat1ons 11sted below (1-4) occurs.4. 11terature' 1n /agsoon tam/ 'low class of letters' (w1th /tam/ 'low') Allomorph /agsoon-ra/ 1n /agsoon-rasaad/ 'the study of 11terature' (w1th /saad/ 'd1sc1pl1ne') Allomorph /agkhara/ 1n /agkhara-w{th11/' 'method') The last two examples also 1nvolve reverse order of const1tuents (2).' (w1th /thahaan/ 'm1l1tary. 2.4.the mean1ng of the base lexeme. Nearly all common lexemes of one or two syllables belong1ng to the maJor form-classes have spec1al comb1n1ng elements assoc1ated w1th them Wh1Ch y1eld more compl1cated lexemes of roughly the same mean1ng.o/ /chab/ 'to confront' 'qu1ck' Const1tuent /suu/ /waJ/ 'to compete' 'sens1t1ve' Compound /t. wh1le 1t may not resemble the base morphophonem1cally.

a quasl-redupllcatlon occurs.' It occurs 67 . and also does not occur as a free lexeme In a meanlng assoclated wlth the meanlng of the redupllcatlon. For the last type of quasl-redupllcatlon (11). the order of constltuents lS lrrelevant. BlBsBrBaQ- R- 1) /B-B/ 'softenlng or approxlmlzlng of base meanlng' The constructlon conslsts of a slmple redupllcatlon. Examples of rhymlng. The comblnlng element may be a rhymlng redupllcator. For lrregular and quasl redupllcatlons. 'to ba the') /chuaJ/ /klaalJ/ ( 'to be left over' ) (no meanlng) For slmple redupllcatlons. but the rhythmlc pattern lS automatlc (9-10). the order of constltuents lS varlable and slgnlflcant. or an alllteratlve redupllcator. For complex redupllcatlons. no meanlng1 (alllteratlve. plus the morpheme /-/ 'sub-lexemlc lmmedlate constltuent cut. but the rhythmlc pattern does not play an lmportant role (5-8). Ba. In whlch some portlon of the redupllcator matches the latter portlon of the base. In whlch the beglnnlng of the redupllcator matches the beglnnlng of the base. the order of constltuents IS flxed. both order and rhythm are flxed.If the comblnlng element has some other morphophonemlc resemblance to the base. alllteratlve. but the rhythmlc morpheme lS lmportant (1-4). If the comblnlng element has no appreclable resemblance to the base. Quasl-redupllcatlons are llsted along wlth lrregular redupllcatlons (In 9-11 below). B- base or slmple redupllcator lnflxed redupllcator or base superflxed redupllcator rhymlng redupllcator alllteratlve redupllcator quasl redupllcator any of the last three redupllcators (Br. one of the lrregular redupllcatlons llsted below (9-10) occurs. and quasl redupllcators: Base /churn/ /ph188n/ /san1~g/ Redupllcator 'to swarm' 'to be absorbed' 'to have fun' 'to help' 'mlddle' /nurn/ /phle8d/ /sanaan/ /lya/ /thaam/ (rhymlng. Q). no meanlng) (alll tera tlve. The symbols used In the formulae for redupllcatlons are as follows.

rather well' 'really' 'sllppery' 'old1Sh' 'elderly' 'approx1ma tely' 'lnclud1ng all o~.) 2) /B-B/ Th~s 'plural1ty' lS a homonymous redupllcatlng constructlon Wh1Ch occurs w1th and class1f1er bases only. but also w1th a ~rom m1nor ~orm-class bases. The noun bases WhlCh redupl1cate noun ~n th1S way are rather few 1n number.w-k8. the base adJect1ve lS Ilm1t1ng.J/ Other examples: Base /d~~/ 'b1g b1rds' (an 1mpl1ed slze-class1~lcat1on) (lnc1dental 1n~ormat1on about slze) Redupl1cat1on /d~l-d~l/ 'good. 'almost' 'the whole of' /c~lJ/ /C1lJ-C1lJ/ /lyyn-lyyn/ /k8. Base /deg/ /talJ/ /wan/ /koon/ 'Ch1ld' 'class1f1er for stacks' 'day' 'class1fler for lumps' Alternate form of redupl~cat1on: /pen talJ talJ/ 'In stacks' 3) /B B/ 'succeSS1on o~ aud1tory or v1sual 1mpress1ons' Th1S h1ghly product1ve construct1on cons1sts of a slmple redupl1cat~on w1th med1um durat10n (In pract1ce. and cannot In the mod1fy1ng pOS1- ~111 the pred1cate pos1t1on (among others). ~nct1on mod1~lers and adverbs.w/ /kEE-kEE/ /kYab-kyab/ /thalJ-thalJ/ 'rather good.w/ /kEE/ /kYab/ /thalJ/ (The last two examples are not adJect1ve bases. and a real contrast results: /nog J8. The redupl1cated lexemes adJect1ve bases t~on. never represent1ng the 68 . wh1le the redupl1cated lexeme lS non-l1m1t1ng.ma~nly w~th adJect~ve ~ew spec1~lc bases. but the construct1on lS proExamples: Redupllcatlon /deg-deg/ /pen talJ-talJ/ /pen wan-wan: paJ/ /pen koon-koon/ /B B/ 'ch1ldren' 'In stacks' 'from day to day' 'In lumps' ductlve for class1fler bases. where only as ~t ~s product~ve.J-J8.J/ /nog J8. well' 'true' 'sllpp1ng' 'old (o~ th1ngs)' lold (of people) . /ly-yn/ /k8.

Although the occurrence of /. the correct analysls for /B .•. they work exactly llke 2) 'plurallty' above. wlth the flrst lnstance of the base comlng at the end of one phrase and the second at the beglnnlng of the next.4) on the Nearly all bases that redupllcate In thlS way also ' / or after numerals. Base /deen/ 'to walk' Redupllca tlon /khaw deen . / 'There were people comlng and gOlng. B/ lS a redupllcated lexeme WhlCh belongs to both phrases. and do not partlclpate In normal syntactlc Redupllcatlon 'wlth rapplng sounds' 'wlth creaklng sounns' 'breathlng weakly' 'In flashes' Alternate form /B-B/: Base In numeral phrase: /S08~ keg/ 'two raps' Except for the dlfference In form-class of redupllcatlons of thlS type.3. occur.2.morpheme / / 'hlgh-order lmmedlate constltuent cut' 2. paJ ph6b/ 'He walked along untll he met . / suggests a maJor lmmedlate constltuent cut (rather than a sub-lexemlc cut). deen: paJ naan/ 'He walked and walked for a long tlme.). lnflxed base followlng r base (wlth medlum duratlon). as classlflers The redupllcated flrst syllable. ' Alternate form of redupllcatlonl /B B/ ? Only verb bases occur In thlS con- /mll khon paJ paJ maa maa . structlon.' constructlons. 4) /B.2. ' /paJ/ 'to go' /khaw deen: paJ .2. B/ 'repetltlve actlon' The constructlon conslsts of a slmple redupllcatlon. wlth the superflx / meanlng 'one lnstance of such a nOlse or slght. lexemes are lsolatlves. 69 . a flash' /keg keg/ /{ed {ed/ /khameb khameb/ /weeb weeb/ /weeb-weeb/ 'In flashes' Examples. ' 5) /B Bl/ 'rldlcule or lnexactness added to base meanlng' ThlS complex redupllcatlon. occurs only In connectlon wlth the lnflx /ee//ee/(see 2.2. Base /k€g/ /{ed/ /khameb/ /weeb/ 'one rap' 'one creak' 'a labored breath' .

2. see 2.3.) 'slncerely' 7) /Bl-Bl/ 'lmpresslonlstlc descrlptlon' Thls complex redupllcatlon. and hence only In women's speech. for example.4. adJectlves redupllcated In thls way. Example: 'true' (For addltlonal examples. conslstlng of two lnflxed bases (the flrst of whlch has the least posslble duratlon) occurs only In connectlon wlth the double lnflx /U-l/ and ltS allomorphs. but not less than medlum-short) plus an lr~egular or quasl redupllcator.2.3. Example: /krad~g-kradig/ Alternate form: /Bl-Bl Bl-Bl/. 'fldgety' Example: 'sound of many vOlces' (For addltlonal examples.) 8) /Bs B/ 'emotlonal lntenslflcatlon of base meanlng' Thls complex redupllcatlon.) 'excellentJ' . It occurs wlth all types of maJor form-class bases.3. see 2.: /. occurs only In connectlon wlth the lnflx /aa/-/a/ and lts allomorphs./B-B/ above). /B-Ba/. see 2.3.Examples: 'to eat' /kln ken/ 'wlnlng and dlnlng' (For addltlonal examples. l.3. and /B-Q/. 70 .3.2. occurs only In connectlon wlth the superflx / Example: 'good' (For addltlonal examples. (see 2.) 6) /B-Bl/ 'lntenslflcatlon of base meanlng' ThlS complex redupllcatlon. Some varlants are /B R/. can flll the predlcate POSl(cf.4.3.) 9) /B-R/ 'generallty or formallty' The constructlon conslsts of the base (whlch has the least posslble duratlon. lnflxed base followlng base (wlth medlum-short duratlon). see 2. superflxed base (wlth medlum-long duratlon) precedlng base. The class of the base does not change. rarelywlth mlnor form-class bases.3.4. tlon. /B-Br/.2.

Examples: Base 'ra1se up' 'to be absorbed' /nyaJ/ /khaw/ /klaalJ/ /khaalJ/ 'to be t1red' 'h1ll. etc.ch5a lJ/ 10) /R-B/ 'prec1s1on. the reverse of 7) /B-R/ 1n form and nearly 1n meanlng. In the latter case. 1n Wh1Ch /B-Ba/ and /Q/ are const1tuents) . mounta1n. am1dst' 's 1de.Q) 'hearth and home' (B-Q) f1Sh-hook' . It occurs ma1nly w1th maJor formclass bases.Examples: Base /churn/ 'to swarm' I Redupl1cat1on /chum-num/ 'to assemble' (B-Br) 'odds and ends 1 (B-Br) . ' 'm1ddle.Br ) /sanug-sanaan/ 'to be amused' (B-Ba) /w~d-waa/ 'temples~ etc.' (B-Ba) /w~d-waa aaraam/ 'rel1g1ous 1nstallat1ons' (a th1rd-order lexeme. Occ1dentals and such' ( B. but also w1th some 1mportant m1nor form-class bases"too. etc. on the slde of' (Ba-B) 71 .' /w~d-waa/ 'to help' 'home.klaalJ/ Redupl1cat1on 'proud' (Br-B) 'completely engrossed! (Ba-B) 'exhaus ted' (Ba-B) 'mounta1n' (R-B) 'exact center' (R-B) 'rather.spec1f1cness' Th1S construct1on. /Ba-B/. to ass 1s t' ( B. /B-Ba Q/. the class membersh1p of the base lexeme lS often d1fferent from that of the redupl1cated lexeme. espec1ally. house' /chuaJ-lya/ /baan. /Br-B/. be s 1de ' /coalJ-haalJ/ /phleed-phleen/ /ned-nya J/ /phuu-khaw/ /thaam. and /Q-B/. conslsts of the lrregular or quasl redupllcator (WhlCh has least durat10n poss1ble) followed by the base. Some var1ants are /R B/. Occ1dental' /san~g/ /w~d/ 'to have fun' 'temple' 'temples.

plus the rhythm1c morpheme or morphemes Wh1Ch so mark 1t by occurr1ng slmultaneously w1th 1t. The m1n1mum syntact1c un1t lS a slngle lexeme. ' 72 .5.2.2.): paJI khrab • 'Yes.2.1 lS also a syntact1c un1t. corresponds to three syntact1c un1ts. The class membersh1p of the redupl1cat1on lS the same as that of the base. (he's) gOlng. w1th maJor 1mmed1ate const1tuent cut here' (2. The follow1ng example conta1ns two m1n1mum syntact1c un1ts. Wh1Ch lS not a loud-stress morpheme but a part of the redupl1cat1ng lexeme 1tself.) as an 1mmed1ate const1tuent of some larger construct1on.1.g Ikhrab t . the lexemes IpaJI 'go' and Ikhrabl 'pol1te word for men. Examples: Base Ikhaawl IdE: E:lJI 'Wh1 te' 'red' 'fast' Redupl1ca t10n Ikhaaw Jcueg:1 IdE:E:lJ Jpred:1 Irew Jpryy:1 'pure Wh1 te ' 'V1V1d red' 'llghtn1ng fast' Irewl 2. the negat1ve rhythm1c eV1dence makes any other d1V1S1on 1mposs1ble: ch3nb k1n plaa . 2. slr.' Wh1Ch share the slmultaneous occurrence of I : I 'phrase construct10n cont1nues.1. the f1rst two of Wh1Ch have med1um syllable-durat1on I I. utterly ('Woman lone-that not-actually-be teacher The sequence end1ng Ikhruu. I I slrJ') A sequence of three lexemes.' Syntact1c un1ts are always smaller than morphophonem1c phrases. because of the requ1rement that 1mmed1ate const1tuent cuts be establ1shed rhythm1cally. The redupl1cator 1n nearly all cases has the stress pattern I J I I. w1th or wlthou~ rhythm1c morpheme. Syntact1c Construct1ons Slmultaneous Construct1ons 1) A syntact1c un1t lS any lexeme or 1ntegral number of lexemes marked by rhythm1c eV1dence (see 2.11) IB QI 'ult1mate degree' The construct1on cons1sts of an adJect1ve or noun base plus a quas1redupllcator (Wh1Ch may have only a m1n1mal lndependent eX1stence outs1de of th1S construct1on). The follow1ng sequence lS marked off 1nto syntact1c un1ts w1th slant llnes for 111ustrat1ve purposes: phuu-JllJ khon-nan maJ-daJ-pen 'That woman lsn't a teacherJ' I I I I khruu: I I r.2. but ~hey may be of any length. 'L1kes to eat flsh.5.

Sub-types of sentences are llsted In 2. R.6. All syntactlc phrases contaln at least one syntactlc unlt of two or more lexeme constltuents.5. me.). lS any consecutlve-order syntactlc constructlon such that the flrst lexeme.A syntactlc phrase lS any lntegral number of ordered syntactlc unlts comprlslng an lmmedlate constltuent of a hlgher order plus whatever loud-stress morphemes may occur slmultaneously wlth the sequence (but not lncludlng lntonatlon morphemes whlch may also occur slmultaneously). 2) 3) A syntactlc clause lS any lntegral number of lower-order syntactlc constltuents (lexemes. can substltute for the whole constructlon. as noun expreSSlon.). etc.5..) 6) 2. Hence syntactlc clauses are always co-extenslve wlth phonemlc clauses (see 1. Consecu~lve-order Constructlons 1) An endocentrlc phrase. plus the lntonatlon morpheme ltself.2.5.2.3. verb expresslon. Syntactlc phrases In consecutlve order are never longer than phonemlc phrases (see examples In 2. Sentences quoted from the same dlscourse and used as grammar are not ldentlfled In any speclal way.' (verb expresslon) /dll lakeen/ 'very good. B.' from /kln/ 'eat' and /khaaw/ 'rlce. or head.' (noun expresslon) /kln khaaw/ 'to eat.8. although those In non-consecutlve orders may conslst of two or more phonemlc phrases (see examples In 2. Q. Examples: /baan pham/ 'my home. 5) consecutlvely on the phonemlc examples In thls consecutlvely An exchange lS any sequence of dlscourses uttered consecutlvely by dlfferent speakers In dlrect communlcatlon wlth each other. but If quoted are always separated by / . or phrases) occurrlng slmultaneously wlth a slngle lntonatlon morpheme. 4) A sentence lS any syntactlc clause consldered from the pOlnt of Vlew of ltS constltuents and thelr classlflcatlon.). or at least two syntactlc unlts wlth a slngle lexeme constltuent. / In the text. unlts. below. A dlscourse lS any sequence of sentences uttered by the same person. etc. 73 .4.' from /dll/ 'good' and /lakeen/ 'very' (adJectlve expresslon). and corresponds roughly to the utterance level.2. Sentences quoted In the context of an exchange are ldentlfled by the prefaclng of a capltal letter to represent each speaker lnvolved (A. Endocentrlc phrases wlll later be characterlzed by reference to the form-class of the head (whlch lS also the form-class of the whole phrase). or expresslon.' from /baan/ 'house' and /pham/ 'I.

one 1ncluded 1h the other. Some pred1cates appear to have two obJects. ' /khaw/ /k1n/ 'eat! 1S a verb. predlcate. Examplee 'He bored a hole 1n the box. /hi1b/ 'box. and /d11/ are heads. and /khaw k1n/ 1S a verb pred1cat1on.' The un1t /co-ruu/ conslsts of /eo/. khaaw d11: maJ • 'Is the r1ce good~ d11 • 'Yes. ' 'Yes' /tSD/ 'has to' lS a modal verb.LS the subJect. and /lakeen! are mod1f1ers. but 1mmedlate const1tuent analys1s 1n such cases always shows two pred1cates. - 74 . The test of Subst1tut1on lS 9as1ly made 1n the context of a yes-no quest10n and 1tS answer.m-class of the pred1cator. ' ! /dl1/ 'good' lS an adJect1ve. khaw tSD k1n: maJ . The res1dual const1tuents of pred1cates. obJects such as /hi~bl are called lndlrect ob. Wh1Ch has 1tS own oonstltuents. are objects. 1S the subJect. /k1n/. Any slngle lexeme Wh1Ch Subst1tutes 1n th1S way lS a pred1cator. /baan/.]ects.The other const~tuent of an endocentr~c phrase (the const~tuent follow~ng the head) ~s the mod1f1er.' a secondary predlcate. and /khaaw d11/ lS an adJect1ve predlcat1on. Quest10n khaw k1n: ma J • 'Wlll he eat Yes-Answer lt~' 'Yes. 'Does he have to eat 1t~' tSD. after the pred1cator has been 1dent1fled. For conven~ence. a more complex const1tuent f1ll1ng the same role lS called a predlcate.' /k1n/ lS the obJect. /pham/. Predlcat10ns w1ll later be character1zed by reference to the for. WhlCh lS hence a modal verb pred1cat10n. and /ruu/. /khaaw/. and 1ts obJect. 1t Subst1tutes for the endocentr1c pred1cate /tS~ k1n/ 'has to eat. etc. adJect1ve pred1cat1on. /co-ruu/ 'bore a hole. In the pred1cate /tSD k1n! 'has to eat. In the examples above.' and also for the ent1re pred1cat1on /khaw tOD k1n/. The f1rst const1tuent 1n a pred1cat1on . /khaaw/ lS the subJect. ' The subject lS /khaw/ and th€ ma1n pr€dlcate lS /co-ruu h~lb/. as verb pred1cat1on. 2) A pred1cat1on lS any consecut1ve-order syntact1c construct1on such that some lexeme or const1tuent other than the f1rst lexeme or const1tuent can Subst1tute for the whole construct1on. Examples. obJect.

etc. end).0~ pham/ 'mlne. If a more complex constructlon.3) An exocentrlc constructlon IS any consecutlve-order syntactlc Exocentrlc constructlons have no constructlon such that no slngle lexeme or constltuent can satlsfactorlly Substltute for the whole constructlon.' (negatlve phrase) If a resldual constltuent of any klnd IS In an exocentrlc construct1on. and /pham/ are tOPICS.' (modal phrase) /maJ-dll/ 'not good.' 'It's hot today' (predlcatlon) syntactlcally parallel to a predlcatlon. v wan-nll wan-saw. Example: /khaaw JUu naJ-tuu ..' IS an equatlonal wan-n{l aakaad dll . as preposltlonal phrase. Example: 'The weather IS nIce today. /naJ-tuu/ IS a preposltlonal phrase meanlng 'ln the cablnet. pham khaa-hag . the second constltuent IS the equatlonal predlcator. In the above examples. whose second constltuent can be Substltuted for by a predlcator: .' The subJect IS /khaaw/ 'r1ce. that IS. but wlll later be characte. conslstlng of a predlcatlon wlth subJect /aakaad/ 'weather' and predlcator /dll/ 'good. /wan-n{l/ IS the tOPIC. from /kho~/ 'lS sure to' and /kln/ 'eat.' (predlcatlon) The flrst constltuent of an equatlon IS the tOPIC.' (preposltlonal phrase) I /kho~ kln/ 'IS sure to eat. wan-nll r00n .' and the resldue. 4) An equatlon IS any exocentrlc constructlon WhlCh as a whole IS Examples: 'Today IS Saturday. /wan-n{l/ l ). me. and /aakaad dll/ IS the equatlonal predlcate. Here. although the constructlon does not belong to any such form-class. / (see 2. heads.' 75 .2.' from /maJ/ 'not' and /dll/ 'good. . 'The rlce IS In the cab1net.0~/ 'belonglng to' and /pham/ 'I. It IS called a complement rather than an obJect. pham maJ-sabaaJ .2.l'lZed by reference to the form-class of the flrst lexeme. Predlcatlons WhICh appear to have two subJects are shown by Immedlate constItuent analysIs to conslst of a tOPIC plus an equatlonal predlcate WhICh 1S Itself a predlcatlon. classlfler phrase.' from /kh. Examples: /kh. 'I have a broken leg! 'I'm not well. If a slngle lexeme. WhlCh IS Itself a noun expressIon ('broken leg predlca te.' the predlcator IS /Juu/ 'to be located.5.' /tuu/ IS a complement. and /khaa-hag/. or the equatlonal predlcate. /wan-saw/ 'Saturday' IS an equatlonal predlCator. .

d ••• maJ-daJ/ 'not able to keep from.' rod-faJ krabuan soo~ moo~ .' Second Constltuent In Larger Exocentr~c Phrase: con-thy~ soo~ moo~ • 'Untll two o'clock. subJect.).3.' Equatlonal Predlcate. SubJects soo~ moo~ kO-daJ. and nothlng can Substltute for elther constltuent so that the result lS a predlcatlon or expresslons occur. o'clock' can Substltute for the entlre phrase. everywhere that endocentrlc soo~ moo~1 leEw • 'It's two o'clock.' The verb expresslon /phuud khwaam-cl~/ 'to tell the truth' lS lncluded In the dlscontlnuous modal phrase /.' naltkaa khoo~-phom soo~ moo~ • 'My watch (says) two o'clock. ' The predlcatlon /Jaa~ teEg/ 'tlre bursts' lS lncluded In the dlscontlnuous modal phrase /keed ••• khyn/ 'It orlglnates. so that consecutlve lmmedlate constltuent cuts cannot valldly be made.5) An enumeratlon lS any exocentrlc constructlon WhlCh as a whole lS syntactlcally parallel to an endocentrlc expresslon. 'Two o'clock would be all rlght. that lS.' 76 . TOP1C: Examples. The phrase occurs as a constltuent. Example: 'two o'clock' /soo~ moo~/ Nelther /soo~/ 'two! nor Imoo~/ 'hours. a new thlng happens.5. 'The two o'clock traln. above to correspond to all the sub-types of consecutlve-order constructlon llsted (2.' khaw od phuud khwaan-cl~ maJ-daJ • 'He couldn't help telllng the truth.2. Non-consecutlve Constructlons 1) Dlscontlnuous constructlons occur when one lmmedlate constltuent Dlscontlnuous constructlons can be found lS SpIlt by the lnsertlon of another. tOP1C.' 2.5. Examples: keed Jaa~-teEgl khyn • 'It happened that a tlre blew out. WhlCh lS exocentrlc. endocentr~c expresslon. WhlCh can functlon In a larger constructlon as modlfler. or predlcate (but not as a head). however.

and nearly every type of redupllcatlon except the 77 . morpheme correspond to all the sub-types of consecut1ve constructlons. Examples: khoo syy . as does the postposltlon Iphlaa~ ••• phlaa~1 'do1ng one thlng lntermlttently wlth another. and may occur also after the last constltuent of the parallel constructlon.. The constltuent /ko-daJ/ 'can equally well' lS repeated In the same syntactlc relatlonshlp wlth /paJI 'go' and /Juu/ 'stay. da J: ma J-khrab 'May I buy thlS mouse. daJ: maJ-khrab.2.thls mouse. nuu tua-n{l. or stay. These construct1ons are extremely common In colloqulal speech. Slr~' also occur In consecutlve order In the followlng sentence: khoo syY nuu tua-n{l .3.' khaw maJ-daJ-aw ph8e .' The maJor lmmedlate constltuents /khoo syy nuu tua-n{ll 'I'd llke to buy thlS mouse' and IdaJ: maJ-khrabl 'may I.' Two common conJunctlons It~a~ .2) Parenthetlcal constructlons are a speclal case of dlscontlnuous conitructlons. .1. wlthout damage to the syntactlc relatlonshlp. t~a~1 'each In a separate way' and /Ji~ •. and are usually marked by prosodlc phenomena of one klnd or t.may I. In such a way that a consecutlve constructlon results.e.•• the more' occur only In parallel constructlons.3) usually separates the segments contalnlng the Examples: paJ kO-daJ . another.' The constltuent lawl 'to take' occurs tWlce. 3) Parallel constructlons occur when one lmmedlate constltuent lS Slmple parallel constructlons can be found to The 1ntonatlon repeated two or more tlmes In the same syntactlc relatlonshlp wlth a number of dlfferent co-const1tuents. before verbs meanlng respec- tlvely 'to lose' and 'to W1n.' 4) Dlscontlnuous parallel constructlons occur when the separate co-constltuents (l. Slr~ types occur. JUu kO-daJ • 'You can elther go.. I (see 2.4. I . a parallel consecutlve constructlon eXlstsJ the same lS not true of ordlnary dlscontlnuous constructlons. aw chana: kan • 'They don't pay any attentlon to (who) Wlns or loses.• Ji~/ 'the more . That lS. 'I'd llke to buy .). Slr~' t. for every parenthetlcal conParenthetlcal constructlons of all structlon. ' repeated constltuent. not the repeated constltuent) are the two halves of a redupllcated lexeme (see 2. In WhlCh the lnserted constltuent can be 'moved' to another locatlon.

'I guess I won't go.slmplest lS represented. 'See someone In person' r r Interlocklng constructlons occur when both constltuents of a parallel constructlon are spIlt redupllcatlons. etc. are extremely rare. shmo naa-taa 'face la .' hen naa . If redupllcatlon /AB/ lS In such a constructlon wlth redupllcatlon JCD/. paJ waa ./. the resultlng order lS /AC. 'Many faces (people)' 5) Flrst Redupllcatlon maag-laaJ 'many' Second Redupllcatlon naa. maJ peJ: Redupllca tlon clD-caD 'slncerely' wad-waa 'temple s. aw caD .2.5.BD.' paJ P8J 'go. unllke dlscontlnuous parallel constructlons. Examples: Dlscontlnuous Parallel Constructlon aw clD . laaJ taa . 6) Comblnatlons of unusual orders wlth the varlOUS types of syntactlc constructlons outllned In 2. hen taa . Example: Interlocklng Constructlon maag naa . yleld the followlng termlnology (terms In parentheses are for contrast only): Endocentrlc Expresslon (Consecutlve) Dlscontlnuous (Normal) Predlca tlon Parallel Exocentrlc Phrase Interlocklng Equatlon Enumeratlon 78 . as well as all sub-types of consecutlve constructlon. 'Act In dead earnest' paJ wad.taa 'faces' Interlocklng constructlons. 'go to the temples and such' maJ paJ .

sya tua-n{l rea khun saJ mya-khyyn-n{l 'Is thIS the coat you wore last nlght~ .2. free and bound.). ClaSSIfIcatIon 2. ST has only two broad categorIes of lexemes. are claSSIfIed In terms of the types of syntactIC constructIon In WhIch they partIcIpate. 1) An exclamatory sentence IS a clause occurrIng SImultaneously WIth the IntonatIon morpheme / t / lemot~onal Involvement. regardless of theIr Internal (morphologIcal) constructIon. substantIves and predlcatlves. They are descr. but each category has many subdIVIsIons.5.6. WIth the exclamatory mInor sentence probably comIng second. conJunctIons. I 'Is thIS the 2) coat~I' A complex sentence IS any syntactIC clause contaInIng the morpheme / . The total number of pOSSIble sentence-types IS twelve (as can be seen from the summary In 6) below). 2.1. and In dIrect constructIQn WIth them form mInor sentences (see 2. postposItlons.2. The maJor sub-categorIes are preposItIons. 2) Bound lexemes occur as constItuents of syntactIC unIts and hIgher-order constructIons only. but In general the dIstInctIon IS a clear and Important one for ST speakers.' provl'ded the occurrence of / .2. and sentence partIcles. 1) Free lexemes occur SImultaneously WIth IntonatIon and loud-stress morphemes.s WIth bound lexemes. 3) Some free lexemes have homonYmS WhICh are bound. Sentence Types Sentences are claSSIfIed WIth respect to the morphologIcal and syntactIC constructIons WhIch are theIr prImary constItuents. they occur 'In IsolatIon.' The maJor subcategorIes of free lexemes are lsolatlves. Lexeme CategorIes All lexemes.6. but by fa~ the most co~mon type IS the maJor sentence. 79 . modals. Chapter 4 dea.6.lbed In Chapter 3. / COInCIdes WIth a syntactIC phrase boundary. / 'clause constructIon contInues. and WIthIn each category there are homonYmOus lexemes belongIng to dIfferent sub-classes.6. In SImpler terms. There are also border-lIne cases between free and bound.

The flrst example In (2) lS not a maJor sentence.' although a predlcatlon. 'thlS coat". the predlcatlon /dlchan cadaJ paJ wad-waa/ 'I'll be able to go to the temples. ' 'For heaven's sake!' soo~ khon. lS not a complex sentence because of the occurrence of a dlscontlnuous parallel constructlon: dlchan cadaJ paJ wad. ' wan-nll wan-saw. (non-complex) equatlonal sentences: 'Today lS Saturday. Slnce the second phrase 'you wore last nlght.' 'I have a broken leg. Endocentrlc Constructlon: Exocentrlc Phrases Enumeratlon: Slngle Lexemet sya tua-n{l • naJ tuu k~b-na~-syy • . pham chyy Clm • pham khaa-hag • 5) A mlnor sentence has any other constructlon or a slngle lexeme as ltS prlmary constltuent.) MaJor Complex Equa tlonal Mlnor Sentence nology corresponds.The followlng clause. thaw-nan • 6) Comblnatlons of the above sentence-types occur. lS In an equatlonal relatlonshlp wlth the flrst phrase. The example 'Is thlS the coat you wore last nlght'" tlonal sentence.' belng merely modlfled by the remalnder. and the terml(Terms In parentheses are for contrast only. The second example glven above (2) lS a maJor sentence. An equatlonal sentence has an equatlon as ltS prlmary constltulS hence an equaExamples of slmple . /. (Normal) Exclamatory 80 . v 4) ent. ' 'In the bookcase. WhlCh lS an enumeratlon. th 1 s c oa t. Examples are ldentlfled by reference to the classlflcatlon of the prlnclpal constltuent.' 3) A maJor sentence has a predlcatlon as ltS prlmary constltuent. paJ waa: kakhaw duaJ • 'I'll be able to go to the temples and so on along wlth the others. etc.' 'My name lS Jlm.' 'Only two people. WhlCh also contalns / .

or as sole lexem1c const1tuent of a whole clause. InterJect10ns An 1nterJect1on lS any lsolat1ve all of whose allolexes 1nclude the element / Wh1Ch 1 : /. /Ja~1 always means 'not yet. of ent1re clauses. but some typ1cally so occur. (Th1S lS meant to exclude all syntact1c construct1ons 1n InterJect10ns typ1cally occur as sole lexem1c II :/ lS a superf1x. but not The pr1nc1pal respectable members of the class are closed .1) InterJect1ons. Isolat1ves An lsola t1ve lS any free lexeme Wh1Ch typ1cally OCCU1"3 as an 1mmed1ate const1tuent of construct1ons no smaller than an ent1re sJntact1c clause (except 1n hypostas1s). adm1rat1on) rWhat~ (surprlse. 81 .lS based on typ1cal occurrence w1th respect to co-con- st1tuents. gested. follow.) 1) 2) 3) 11aaw:/ 'WeIll (ch1d1ng or d1sappo1ntment) r 1 11mEE::I 11e. whereas the modal IJaD/ means now. 4) Im1tat1ves . lack of understand1ng) .1 'Sayl My my 1 (surpr1se. A few lsolat1ves seem also belong to For example. Only as quotat1ons (e.new 1nterJect1ons enter ST rather frequently.CHAPTER III FREE LEXE:ME CLASSES 3. lat1ves 1nto four sub-groups . The class of 1nterJect1ons lS rather small. precede. and even here there lS often a phrase-boundary to set them apart.1. 3) Vocat1ves. and a few surV1ve for long per10ds of t1me.1. .) const1tuent of the f1rst phrase 1n a clause. mean1ngs are only roughly sug(Some extremely common members w1th obscene or profane connotat1ons have been purposely om1tted. and Isolat1ves I lla tare typ1cally occur as sole lexem1c const1tuents of ent1re phonem1c rrrases Wh1Ch All lsolat1ves may occur as sole lexem1c Cl1llst1tuents The class1f1cat1on of lSO2) Responses. or 1n construct1on w1th other lsolat1ves. the response 'st1ll. but mean1ng relat1onsh1p lS so tenuous that the more reasonable analys1s lS two homonYmous lexemes. Isolat1ves occur only 1n the loosest k1nd of construct1on w1th the rema1nders of the1r clauses.g.1. ' 3. or 1nterrupt the larger syntact1c cons truct10ns the1r co-const1tuents. 11sted below 1n the1r most common allolexes. even other lexeme classes. 'He sa1d ouchl I) do they enter 1nto normal syntact1c relat1onsh1ps.

where lnnovatlons are posslble. the response lS the sole lexemlc constltuent of the flrst phrase of the flrst Responses. Most responses have Examples are glven Where meanlngs para-llngulstlc behavlor accompanylng them (gestures.' 10) 3. Responses A response lS any lsolatlve (other than an lnterJectlon) WhlCh typlcally occurs as the sole lexemlc constltuent of the envlronment /B. In other words. and closed except ln the semantlc area of 'yes' answers. there. where 'B' represents the beglnnlng of an utterance by some later speaker ~n an exchange (l.) 2) I (ThlS ltem lS /88/ A. shock)' 8) 9) /JooJ:/ /JnaJ-m1J:/ /!n8:/ 'Wow! (amazement)' 'There. response.' 82 . llke many other classes of lexemes.' ko wan-n{l wan-saw: nll-khrab t . tha t 's true. 'Yes (concesslve). are vague.g./. the entlre exchange lS glven: 'Yes (famlllar. 'OuchJ ' (and many al101exes wlth the same tonal and consonantal pattern but dlfferent vowels-e. B. all speakers). ln the nearest morphophonemlc equlvalent of the most common allolex of each Where two allolexes are common. and unusual vocal effects) WhlCh lS not descrlbed here. 'Well today Sa turday! ' B. 'Yes. CllJ: Sll • ~ 88. 'Look! ' (soothlng). /!yy-hyy:/) 'How about that!' /JuJ=/ /Joo-h60:/ (and many compounds wlth /taaJ/ as flrst element) 'Good heavens! (horror.4) /Joo:/ 5) 6) 'Oh! (Now I understand) . can also occur as the sole lexemlc constltuent of whole clauses The class of responses lS small. nasallzed throughout.e. and even whole utterances.1.2. A. clause uttered by a respondlng speaker. not the person who opens the exchange). faclal expresslons. both are clted.

wan-n{l chan paJ-syy phaa: maa .aJ: Sl t . JalJ ma J-maa • 'In any case. as close as all that!' I 4) /00/ A. ' v 7) /ree/ I I s tha t sO'l' 'No (That cholce lS not taken). 'What7 What dld you say7' naJ . but. anyway. waa camaJ-maa: lJaJ t . A. 'Oh! (sense of loss) keb-w~J sag-saam baJ: na • B. B. wlll you~' na J . maa ch~a: nag-lao 'Well. naJ . I've peeled them all! ' 'Well~ What~ you~' (further explanatlon or actlon requlred). wlll 'Oh. 'I bought some cloth today.d-IfEw t . lt hasn't come yet. chuaJ SOlJ nalJ-syy n~n: maa-n. B. 0a. well. B. naJ. JUu thll-paag saa J suan-phluu.' lJaJ . 00. 'It's at the entrance to Suan-phluu Lane.ag: sa-m.'Oh~ (skeptlcal or mlldly surprlsed) . you're pretty late. A. 'Save about three (of the frults). ' 'We117 Let's see It!' A. JUu klaJ kh8E-n{1: eelJ t . B. but you sald you weren't comlng!' 6) /lJaJ/ or /lJaJ/ 'Why. wa a lJa J: na t . well but ' A.' Oh~ B. hand me that book. 'Say.aJ .' lJa J . 'Well. chan p.' Answers only questlons contalnlng the flnal partlcle /rYy/· 83 . A. aw-maa-duu kan-n.

A.
B.

wan-nll khun tOlJ pa J-wad: ry-kha ma J: kha
A

.

,

ma J- tOlJ paJ

.

A.
B. A.

'Do you have to go to the temple today'll 'No, I don't have to. ' khun maJ-paJ wad: ry-kha maJ: kha

.

B. A. B.

.

'Aren't you gOlng to the temple'2 ' 'No, I'm not. ' 'Not yet. ' Negatlvely answers all questlons 1n Wh1Ch an assumpt10n lS made that an event wlll occur, or a sltuat10n perta1n, sooner or later.

A. B.
A.

thaan khaaw: leew rY-JalJ • JalJ, JalJ ma J- ds J- thaan • 'Have you eaten yet'l' 'No, I haven't eaten yet. ' 'No (the assumptlon or 1nference 1S wrong).' Negatlvely answers yes-no quest10ns (other than those answered by 8) and 9), and p01nts out the 1nappllcablllty of quest10ns conta1n1ng lnterrogatlve words.

B.
10)

/plaaw/

A. B.

wan-nan khun paJ-wad , chSJ: maJ-kha • plaaw: kha , chan maJ-daJ-paJ • 'You went to the temple that day, d1dn't you'2 ' 'No, ma'am.
'" paJ naJI kha

A.
B.

I dldn't go there.'

A.
B.

.
maa-deen len

plaaw: kha

.

A.
B.

'Where are you gOlng'2 'Nowhere. I'm Just out for a walk. '

84

'Yes (man speaklng polltely).' Occurs In answer to all types of questlons, but merely lndlcates that the speaker has followed the Ilne of dlscourse, not that he speclflcally agrees to everythlng sald. Also occurs after non-questlons. After commands, lt nearly always lmplles 1ntent to obey.

12)

/khraab/ A.

'Yes~ (man answerlng a call polltely).'
khun cid: khrab t . khraab.
'Say, Ch1 t .•• '

B.
A. B.

'Yes" ' 'Yes (woman speaklng polltely).' Parallel to

13)

/kha/

11) /khrab/.

'Yes" (woman answerlng a call polltely).' Parallel to

12) /khraab/.

15)

/ca/

'Yes (among 1nt1mates, or to an lnferlor).' Parallel to

11).

16)

Icaal

'Yes" (among 1ntlmates, or to an lnferlor) , Parallel to

12).

Responses 5-10 above are frequently followed 1n the1r phrase or clause by sentence part1cles

(4.5.),

a class of unstressed bound lexemes

Some of WhlCh have a morphologlcal relatlonsh1p w1th responses 11-16 above. Because of the stress pattern, such cases are not examples of two responses In constructlon wlth each other; the flrst 1tem 1S always the response, the second the sentence part1cle. naJJ khrab kha ca
,..

Examples.

5
8

.

'What's that" ' 'No, ma 'am.'

maJ. JalJ·

9

.
khrab

'Not yet. '

plaaw&

10

.
85

'No, Slr .

,

All responses can be followed In the same clause by vocaClves (3.1.

3.), WhlCh are normally In a phrase by themselves.

3.1.3.

Vocatlves A vocatlve
l~

any lsolatlve WhlCh typlcally occurs as the sole lexemlc /, •/ (l. e. the flnal phra se of a clause).

cons tl tuent of the envlronment

Most vocatLves also occur as the only lexemlc constltuent of an entlre clause, or wlth a sentence partlcle as co-constltuent, the usual case belng the speaker's attempt to attract the attentlon of a partlcular llstener. The class of vocatlves lS extremely large and open. sub-categorles (semantl_cally classlfledJ a There are four
2)~,

1) general vocatlves,

3) klnshlp terms,
1)
/nll/

4)

tltles, and

5)

complex vocatlves.

Representatlve

examples for each sub-category are glven below. 'general vocatlve' Llke most general vocatlves, /nll/ has homonYms, the prlnclpal one belng a demonstratlve meanlng 'here.' The vocatlve /nll/ lS also easlly mlstaken for a homonYmous sentence partlcle, but ltS classlflcatlon as a vocatlve lS corroborated by the fact that It occurs In a separate phrase after flnal partlcles llke /khrab/ and /kha/. Examples: khun maJ-paJ baaD-seen: r;g r8-kha , nll t 'Then you're not gOlng to Bangsaen after
all~

(lS that what you mean")"'

pham maJ-daJ-paJ naJ: leeJ khrab , nll t

'I dldn't go anywhere at all, (you)!'
2)

/c~d/

'name of a man' Used wlthout tltle or klnshlp term, glven names or

nlcknames of people commonly occur In the typlcal vocatlve posltlons In famlllar speech. Examples: pham maJ-daJ-paJ nSJl leeJ ha , cld t . 'I dldn't go anywhere at all, Chlt!' cld: w~oJ t 'Hey, Chl t! '

86

3)

/phll/

'older brother, slster, or cousln; husband' Nearly all klnshlp terms occur as vocatlves, sometlmes wlth much broader meanlngs than they have as nouns. For example, /lu~/ technlcally means 'older brother of mother or father,' but as a vocatlve (and In other uses) can apply to any male stranger of a certaln age.

Examplest

waa Ja~aJ: na , phil 'What dld you say, (husband)~' phil t . 'SlsterJ' (calllng)

4)

/naaJ/

'Master.' Many tltles, llke /naaJ/, have homonyms WhlCh are vocatlves, but as In the case of klnshlp terms, the meanlng may be qUlte dlfferent. F~r example, /naaJ/ as a formal tltle meanlng 'Mlster' 1S low In the soclal scale, but as a vocatlve confers respect. Other tltles do not occur as vocatlves at all; e.g. /phaJaa! 'hlgh-ranklng C1Vll servant' lS replaced by /caw-khun/ In all forms of dlrect address. *

Examplest

pham maJ-daJ-paJ naJ: 198J khr~b , naaJ t . 'I dldn't go anywhere at all, master.'
naa J:

kha.
(woman servant call1ng)

'Master~'

5)

Apparent constructlons of two or more vocatlves always turn out to be morphologlcal rather than syntact1c constructlons. The cases In questlon are klnshlp term (3) or tltle (4) plus name (2), and tltle (4) plus klnshlp term (3). The result lS a slngle lexeme (always an lndlvlslble unlt, whether It lS a vocatlve or a noun, syntactlcally speak1ng), WhlCh lS an endocentrlc derlvatlve, rather than a compound, because the name Qr Klnshlp term Substltutes for the Whole. than samid
,

Examplest

4

'Mr.. S:I!I11.th.

1

2

n~o.o

3

lUaJ 2

'Younger slster Luay. '
'(Mr. ) Father.
1

khun ph30

4

3

* An as yet unpubllshed pamphlet

by James N. Mosel, entltled 'Tha1 Names, Ranks, and Tltles' contalns much lnformatlon on th1S subJect.

87

An 1m1tat1ve lS any lsolat1ve (other than an 1nterJect1on, 3.1.1.) Wh1Ch lS, morpholog1cally speak1ng, a redupl1cat1on (2.4.3.). Im1tat1ves typ1cally occur 1n the same env1ronment as vocat1ves, / , • /, but 1f a sentence part1cle occurs, 1t follows the 1m1tat1ve (whereas 1t precedes the vocat1ve phrase). Im1tat1ves also occur, somewhat rarely, as co-const1tuents of d1scont1nuous syntact1c construct1ons Wh1Ch bracket them; 1n such cases, the 1m1tat1ve usually occup1es a whole 1nternal morphophonem1c phrase of 1tS own (see example under 3) below.) The class of 1m1tat1ves lS large, and almost certa1nly open, although 1d1olectal var1at1ons make 1t d1ff1cult to determ1ne what k1nds of 1nnovat10ns are acceptable. The sub-categor1es of 1m1tat1ves are determ1ned by reference to structural type of redupl1cat1on, but th1S class1f1cat1on accords well w1th semant1c sub-categor1es as well. 1) Slmple-redupl1cat1on 1m1tat1ves are mostly onomatopoet1c, the 1m1tat1on presumably hav1ng to do w1th sound. 2) Double-1nf1xed 1m1tat1ves are largely concerned w1th manner of mot1on, and 3) Slngle-1nf1xed 1m1tat1ves w1th character1st1cs of people. One example lS glven for each sub-category below.

1)

khaw daJ-J1n siaD , {ed-{ed . tHe heard someth1ng go creak-creak.

I

2)

mya-k{l hen khun deen , kaphloog-.kaphleeg • 'A moment ago I saw you walk1ng w1th a 11mp.

I

3)

khaw chaaJ Den kh80D-khaw , suruJ-suraaJ , paJ mod: thaD-nan. 'He used up all h1S money, 1n spendthr1ft fash1on. r (The 1mmed1ate const1tuents are the 1m1tat1ve /suruJ-suraaJ/ and the d1scont1nuous rema1nder of the clause.)

3.2.

Substant1ves

A substant1ve lS any free lexeme Wh1Ch occurs as co-const1tuent of a pred1cat1on of Wh1Ch 1t lS not the pred1cator. Thus substant1ves typ1cally funct10n as tOP1CS, sUbJects, obJects, and complements. (Any substant1ve wlllch fulf11ls not only the def1n1 t10n above but also tha t of pred1cat1ve, 3.3., lS referred to 1n th1S grammar by the more spec1f1c des1gnat1on. In fact, nearly all pred1cat1ves qual1fy as substant1ves, but the reverse 1S not true. To put 1t another way, a non-1solat1ve free lexeme lS cons1dered to be a substant1ve unt11 1t can be shown to be a pred1cat1ve; once the

88

2. 'Two cups of water. (Other types of substant1ves. One example of each 1S g1ven below. 5) Class1f1ers. 1) Concrete nouns have a covert lex1cal relat10nsh1p w1th one or more of the un1t-class1f1ers (3. the class of nouns 1S by far the largest. beg1n as nouns. /phaa/ 'cloth' 'Two cloths (str1ps or p1eces of cloth) .) /mlam/ .).) necessary 1n count1ng opera t10ns. ' 2) Mass nouns are counted only by one or more of the metr1c class1f1ers (3. the 1tem 1S thenceforth a pred1cat1ve.4. ' 3) Common ~ are counted w1th both un1t class1f1ers and metr1c class1f1ers.5. 3) Pronouns.2.5.1. Nouns are class1f1ed on the bas1s of the1r relat10nsh1ps w1th other form-classes 1nto e1ght sub-categor1es. however. part1cularly numerals and class1f1ers. Substant1ves are class1f1ed. 1nto S1X sub-groups: 1) Nouns.) Some substant1ves also funct10n as equat10nal pred1cators.2.latter class1f1cat10n has been estab11shed. but are referred to by the more spec1f1c term once they have been shown to s8t1sfy further cr1ter1a. /maa/ maa SOOlJ tua • 'dog' 'T'wo dogs. 1nnovat10n. and nearly all occur 1n prepos1t10nal phrases. whether by borrow1ng. also sat1sfy th1s def1n1t10n. Of all the lexeme-classes of ST.) The characterlSt1C syntact1c pos1t10ns of nouns are those of substant1ves 1n general. on the bas1s of typ1cal and absolute occurrence. as nouns become pred1cat1ves by 1nnovat10n. Most ST nouns fall 1nto th1S category. 1S the1r frequent and typ1cal occurrence as heads of noun express10ns (see 2.nearly all new lex1cal 1tems enter1ng the language. 4) Numerals.2. and 6) Demonstrat1ves. or new-format10n. v naam SOOlJ thuaJ 'water' . Nouns A ~ 1S any substant1ve wh1ch occurs as the head of an endocentr1c express10n. the only d1st1nct1ve use of nouns.2. ' 89 .1. 3. compr1s1ng well over half of the ent1re vocabulary. as opposed to other substant1ves. 2) Complement1ves. At the same t1me there 1S cont1nuous loss from the 1nventory. The class lS also one of the most open .

dlsclpllne' 'Two dlsclpllnes. /w{chaa/ 'subJect of study.' etc. vatlves). husband' 'Two older slbllngs. WhlCh do not belong to th18 category). names. /dyan/ na J dyan r8Eg . characterlstlcs (such as 'name. soo~ . 'Wlthln two months. /raan/ raan 'shop. and comblnatlons (derlPersonal nouns occur as heads of endocentrlc expresWhen counted. ' 5) Place ~ are a speclal case of abstract nouns. and are of four sub-types. arm' IChl t has long arms. they usually take the classlfler /khon/ (as do many other nouns 'older slbllng or cousln.' /myy/ khun-cid myy Jaaw • 'age. phaaJ-naJ s. ' 4) Abstract nouns serve as thelr own counters.).o~ dyan • 'month' 'In the flrst month. tltles. raan • 'Two stores.'Two metres of cloth.' 'Two stores. klnshlp terms. occurrlng both before and after numerals. store' " .3. WhlCh typlcally occur ln preposltlonal phrases and are counted elther wlth themselves or wlth the general classlfler /heE~/. ' 90 . I 8) Personal-attrlbute ~ flll the subJect posltlon ln equatlonal predlcates of WhlCh a personal noun 18 the tOplC.). I 'hand.' 6) Tlme ~ are a speclal case of abstract nouns. Slons much less often than any other type of noun. ' I 7) Personal ~ occur also as vocatlves (3.1. WhlCh typlcally occur ln preposltlonal phrases and are used as classlflers themselves but do not occur tWlce ln the countlng-phrase.' ThlS subcategory lS largely Ilmlted to parts of the body and lndlvldual 'welght.

complementlves appear decept1vely llke nouns. The three sub-categorles of complement1ves are named. When the same predlcatlons are expanded to lnclude real nouns. and 3) the /thamaJ/ 91 . clause. The last category (and to some extent all complement1ves) have the common feature that pos1t1on before or after the pred1cator makes relat1vely 11ttle d1fference 1nsofar as the mean1ng of the ent1re clause 1S concerned. are referred to by the more speclf1c term. demonstrat1ves.2. unless the complementlves 1nvar1ably move e1ther to the front or the end of the there lS a speclf1c modlfylng relat10nshlp between them and the nouns (l. never as a head. 'The teacher w1II tell (them). Complement1ves do not occur between nouns and predlcators.~g .3.2. less often as subJects and obJects.) The categor1es of noun and complementlve are thus mutually excluslve. whereas the subJect-obJect d1st1nct1on lS a v1tal one where nouns are 1nvolved.~g • ca b. 1) the /ba~-een/ class. 2) the /ee~/ class. the complementlve lnvolved lS part of a noun express1on).e. Sub-class1f1cat1on 1S made. /khruu/ 'teacher' lS a noun.~g khruu . freely 1n both pos1t1ons.~g . cab. In the followlng examples. on the bas1s 1) those Wh1Ch are found most of typ1cal occurrence.~g mya-ra J . 1nto three categor1esl 2) those Wh1Ch are found most frequently at or near the ends of clauses. or as a mod1fler.g. Wh1Ch sat1sfy th1S defln1t1on. or predlcator and obJect). and /mya-raJ/ 'when' lS a complement1ve.' 'When w11I (you) tell (me)~' 'When would (you) tell (me)~' 'When w1Il the teacher tell (them)~' 'When would (you) tell the teacner~' mya-raJ cab. class. but also meet more spec1f1c cr1ter1a. In th1S sense.~g khruu mya-raJ • Complement1ves by themselves occur typ1cally as tOP1CS and complements. khruu cab. e.' '(Someone) w1II tell the teacher. wh1le the pos1t1on of nouns 1S f1xed. (Other substant1ves . mya-raJ khruu cab. complement1ves are 'moveable' 1n the clause context. after typ1cal members. In predlca tlons conS1S t1ng of only two cons tl tuents (sub Ject and preJlcator. Complementlves A complementlve 1S any substant1ve Wh1Ch occurs only as a whole pred1cate const1tuent 1n 1tself. cab. however. and thelr behavlor wlthln the clause framework lS qUlte dlfferent. and 3) those Wh1Ch occur frequently at or near the beg1nn1ngs of clauses.

or relatlve lmportance. 5.' Most members of the class are morphemlcally complex lexemes. especlally' 'after tha t' 'In splte of that' 'because of that' 'otherwlse. Some members have characterlstlc echoes later In the clause. unexpectedly' 4. frequency. sometlmes' When fol- lowed by /lama~/. comlng even before the subJect or tOplC. /ba~-een/ ltself belng one of the few members whlch conslst of a slngle morpheme.• the car broke down. 6. The class lS open and very large. /dooJ-maag/ and /suan-maag/ 'usually. for the most part' 'In partlcular. wlth reference to a slngle 'accldentally' Often followed by /khYn/. 9. these are lndlcated where posslble. /ba~-thll/ 'perhaps.1) /baD-een! Class The class conslsts of complementlves whlch occur at the beglnnlng of clauses. 92 ./ ' •.' 3. the meanlng lS nearly always 'perhaps. 8. /thYlJ-n~n/ /phr5-chamin/ /mi-chanan/ /Ja~aJ-k5taam/ and / Ja~a J-k5dll/ by /mYan-kan/. lncludlng many (but by no means ~ll) tlme expresslons. plus a large number of conJunctlon-llke transltlonal Only the most common and expresslons whlch are not themselves conJunctlons. /thamadaa/ /Juu dll-dll/ 'normally. 11. The class meanlng lS 'settlng of the subJect-predlcate sltuatlon wlth regard to tlmlng.' /ba~-een/ or /pha-een/ representatlve members are lllustrated below. frames / ••• r6d sla . 10. usually' 'out of a clear blue sky. except for that' 'nevertheless' Often followed /dooJ-chaph~/ /s~d-lEew/ 7.

' khaw aw tee-klnz thaw-nan. . 'May I walk along (wlth you)~' khaw samag calen kab-khaw: duaJ-kan • 'He offered to play along wlth them. daJ: maJ . members. paJ duaJ-kan . excluslveness. !duaJ-kan! or !daJ-kan! 'along wlth others. 'The only thlng he wants to do lS eat.)' 2. ' meew man-maa: sa eeD • 'The cat came all by ltself. no real palrs of semantlc Opposltes. elther. wlthout asslstance or outslde lnfluence. 'Younger brother was stlll a student. ln fact. In company.2) feeD! Class The class conslsts of complementlves WhlCh occur at the end of clauses.' the predlcate (thlS lnformatlon belng glven In the 11Stlng). that's all. The class mean1ng 18 Several somethlng llke 'relnforcement of prlor lnformatlon about quantlty. 1. khaw k5-maJ-maa: sa llg t . no more than that.' n~~D-chaaJ JaD pen nag-rlan: llg. khuan catham haJ-s~d: paJ . thaw-nan. ' pham kho~ deen. /thaw-nan/ or /thaw-nan/ 'only.' 4. pen thamadaaz JUu eeD • 'It's only natural. st111' Often follows /JaD/. however. /llg/ 'In addltlon. feeD! 'by ltself (themselves). further. leew . Com1ng after the obJect and some types of complements. are most commonly found after speclflc prlor elements In There are. 'And he dldn't come thlS tlme.) .' 93 . and lt lncludes stressed homonyms of several common bound lexemes. or lncluslveness of the subJect matter or manner of actlon. 'We Just ought to get lt flnlshed. (It wasn't brought here by somebody. The class lS open and moderately large. (It's nature by ltself. ' 3.' follows Often /tee/. !eeD!-class complementlves are among the most common of all clause constltuents.

/mYan-kan/.chaa J . but he went to work In sp1te of It.' 8. anyway.t all rl.) n~~lJ. pham maJ-daJ-chyy ph~on • chyy phon: talJ-haag • 'My name 1sn't Porn. Often preceded by a a /maJ/ -modal 1n the same clause.n spl.' (Compare w1th f1rst example under 3.' 7. /talJ-haag/ or /taalJ-haag/ 'on the contrary. 1n add1t1on to some other fact. I ll. pen nag-r1an: JUu dua J. 'And he hlmself d1dn't come.ght .dent (ll. f ' v khaw kS-talJcaJ waa . khaw k5-maJ-maa: sa duaJ./ 'l. ' 188w . /duaJ/ lalso.n the preV10US clause. khaw kS-klab baan: 188J • 'He slmply went home. /188J/ 'slmply. /than-th1l/ 'lmmedlately' klab baan than-thll1 si • 'go r1ght on home. pen nag-r1an: JUU myan-kan • 'Younger brother l. /i1g/. e1ther.n Engll.5. 'Younger brother 1S also a student (In add1t1on to be1ng someth1ng else). ' 9.sh. at that' n~~lJ-chaaJ .ded he would come anyway (even so).ke l. ' 10. ' khaw klab baan: sa talJ-haag • 'He went home (rather than dOl.. kS pham chS~b: men-kan t 'Well.ng somethl.ke some other person. /myan-kan/ or /men-kan/ '11kew1se. It's Pone.nstead.l. 'He reallzed that he was very slck.S also a stu.ng else). ' 94 . /Juu-dl. camaa myan-kan • 'He decl.' after negatlve 'at all'. khaw maJ-sabaaJ maag t khaw k5-JalJ paJ tham lJaan: JUU-dll. l.' Usually untranslatable l. 1n add1t1on to some other sUbJect. ) .) 6.• (but)' .te of everythlng. Often preceded by a /maJ/ -modal l. anyway' khaw r~u-tual waa .' (Compare w1th f1rst example under 6.

w1ll .]: no J.] nl:t. you~ 13) /k5-leew: kan/ 'and be done w1th 1t.' Common 1n suggestions and agreements.' Often follows general modal verbs llke /kh8a/ (3. or manner element d1st1nct1ve. place.]-nl:t. or manner-or1entat1on oJ the subJect-pred1cate sltuat1on. The class mean1ng 1S 't1me. and the clause-1n1t1al POS1t10n makes 1t 1nc1dental. ploaJ haJ-paJ .)' r 12) /noaJ/ or /noJ/ 'th1s Ilttle th1ng. the clause-f1nal pos1t1on makes the t1me.3. above) classes.nJ . pham Jaag capaJ: sa th11 • 'I'd llke to go th1S once. 'I'd llke to try gOlng.]/ (2. place.)' waan na:t. they occur at both the beg1pll1ng and end of clauses.2. for a wh1le' Often follows general modal verbs llke /kh8a/ 1n commands and requests. ' 3. above) and the /ee:t. that 1S. and 1S usually set off 1n a phrase of 1tS own. kwaad baan sa-noaJ: si t . ' paJ Sa-th111 Sl • 'Why don't you goJ (Now 1S the t1me. ' 11) /th11/ 'th1S one t1me.' The placement of the 1tems also makes a Sllght but cons1stent d1fference In the1r mean1ng. 'Can you Slt st1ll for a m1nute~ . 'There aren't any stamps here at all. /thamaJ/ Class These complement1ves belong to both the /ba:t. k5-leew: kan . The occurrence of bound elements llke /thy:t. phom Jaag capaJ: sa n.) 1n commands and requests. da J' rna J. 'Let h1m have a look at 1t. ' thl1-nl1 maJ-m11 satem: leeJ . 'Sweep up the house. for once.khaw maJ-daJ-klab baanr sa leeJ • 'He d1dn't go home at all. kh8a ha J khaw duu: th11 .1. 'Let 1t go and be done w1th 1t.]/ and 95 . (It's the th1ng to do.]-een/ (1.

mya-raJ . The class 1S probably closed.' and /Ja~{1/ 'th1s way' JaDan . mya-raJ • 'When are you g01ng to Amer1ca~ . such as rogat1ve lexemeso 1) 'yesterday. S1nce 1t 1ncludes a great many standard t1me express10ns. thl1 khaw cood rod • 'Where was 1t he parked the car~' 5) /Ja~~n/ 'that way. thl1-naJ • 'Where d1d he park the car?' thl1naJ . 'How d1d your face get l1ke that?' tham naa Ja~an . 'Is th1s the way you want 1t~' 96 .2' khun t3~-kaan Ja~{1: ryY . 'why?' /thamaJ/ thamaJ . thamaJ • 'What d1d he come ual11ng on you for?' 2) /Ja~aJ/ or /J~a~-raJ/ 'how?' Ja~aJ thy~-tham naa Ja~anl la t . but 1S qU1te large./sa/ around the pred1cate re1nforces th1s d1st1nct1on (see f1rst pa1r of examples below). khaw thy~-maa haa khun • 'Why d1d he (happen to) come call1ng on you?' khaw maa haa khun: sa . daJ Ja~aJ' lao 'How can you make your face l1ke that?' 3) /mya-raJ/ of /meraJ/ 'when? r khun capaJ amee-rikaa . khun capaJ amee-rikaa 0 'When would you ever go to Amer1ca? ' khun pen thahaan meraJ t 0 'When were you a sold1er?' 4) /thl1-naJ/ or /thinaJ/ 'where~' khaw cood rod: waJ .' and most 1nterThe examples g1ven below are representat1ve ones. khun maJ-t5~-kaan l1g: ryy • 'In that case you don't need 1t any more.

) belong In thls class of complementlves. khaw maa ph0-dll . 97 . I /t~0-paJ/ 'from now on. ' raw kamla~ phuud thy~ khun-samag: JUu thl-dlaw .6. I'm very busy.' thll-nan mll khE~-maa th~g-wan .1.' mll naam .' /thll-nan/ or /thrnan/ 'there.' /welaa-nan/ 'at that tlme. and then you came.' 8. /ph0-dll/ 'Just then. ph0-dll khun maa . thll-noon • 'There's water way over there (that's where It lS). ' 7. at the other place.' man taaJ kha-thll • 'It dled on the spot.' diaw-n{l . thll-nll . /thll-nll/ or /thrnll/ 'here.' and many other place expreSSlons. khaw Ja~-Juu naJ kru~-theeb • 'At that tlme he was stlll In Bangkok.' welaa-nan . raw kamla~ phuud thy~ khunl JUu thl-dlaw .' /kha-thll/ 'on the spot.2.' /diaw-n{l/ 'now. except when they functlon as preposltlons themselves.' pham mll thura maag . /khaa~-naJ/ 'lnslde' and all derlvatlves of /naJ/-class preposltlons (4.' /t~0-maa/ 'from then on. 'They have horse-raclng there dally (that's one of the thlngs they have). maJ-mll naam • 'There's no water here (lncldentally). 'We were Just talklng about you. 'We were Just talklng about Samak when he came.' and many other tlme expreSSlons. diaw-n{l 'I'm very busy now.' /thll-noon/ or /thrnoon/ 'over there. pham mll thura maag • 'Now.

however. a glven pronoun has normal stress only when lt lS the head of an endocentrlc expresslon (example above). claSSlflers (3. ' Pronouns. or modlfler. not as Slngle lexemes fllllng one of the maJor posltlons of a predlcatlon. that clas(It should also be pOlnted out that many semantlc 'equlvalents' of pronouns are structurally nouns . Pronouns A pronoun lS any substantlve WhlCh occurs wlth weak stress ln one or more of the typlcal substantlve posltlons complement. but only as constltuents of enumeratlons. and lS often set off ln a separate phrase.' or 'A blg house. as tOP1C. a noun meanlng 'I.2. tOP1C. one of thelr maJor functlons lS to slgnal that a glven sequence of noun-plus-predlcatlve lS a predlcatlon rather than a noun expreSSlon. obJect. subJect.' ln all the contexts where an ordlnary man mlght use a pronoun such as 'I ' . l.3.' and /man/ Substltutes for nouns llke /baan/ 'house' and /maa/ 'dog. but seldom functlon as heads. except when an enumeratlon lS the modlfler: /khun/ /khun tha~-soo~/ 'you' 'both of you' Slnce weak stress lS not always predlctable from the morphophonemlc transcrlptlon used here. ' Slnce pronouns typlcally do not head endocentrlc expresslons.for example. ' Ex- ThlS lS done by lnser- tlon of the pronoun In the subJect slot. The general rule lS that. posltlons. the orlglnal subJect then becomes In the followlng examples /baan/ 'house' lS a noun. Other substantlves.3. a prlest uses /aad-tamaphaab/. have covert relatlonshlps wlth nouns for example. e. and has weak stress everywhere else.). and /man/ (predlca tlon) (noun expresslon) (predlcatlon only) 'The house (It) lS blg. unless the rhythmlc pattern glves clear eVldence otherwlse. also Pronouns occur wlth weak stress. ample of weak-stressed pronouns ln subJect and lndlrect obJect posltlons: phil . also occur wlth normal and even loud stress. lt must sometlmes be lnferred for pronouns. he gave you the money already.2. 'It' lS a pronoun.5.g.e. llke classlflers.' and soclal connotatlons of pronouns ln ST slflcatlon on a semantlc basls lS extremely dlfflcult. khaw haJ sataa~ khun le€w • 'My brother. The meanlngs are so complex. ) /pham/ 98 . and commonly flll the maJor They are frequently modlflers. 'The house lS blg. /khaw/ Substltutes for nouns llke /phil/ 'older slbllng. /JaJ/ 'blg' lS a predlcatlve (adJectlve).

male speaker Deferentlal. the most common cltatlon form lS Ilsted flrst. 1) below). where soclal requlrements dlctate the cholce of flrst and second person pronouns. therefore. 99 . the same pronouns belng selected throughout the exchange. other sets are fllled out wlth ordlnary nouns. 1) members Some lndlcatlon of meanlng and soclal pronoun are fllled out wlth klnshlp The suppletlve ltems WhlCh are not connotatlons has been attempted. Certaln sets contalnlng only one real terms. 1) Pronoun sets Sltuatlon 1. wlth less careful varlants llsted below In descendlng order of formallty. but translatlons are of necesslty vague.). under the flrst occurrence. to some extent they do occur ln structural Such sets can be establlshed by analysls of slngle exchanges (lnvolvlng only two speakers). female speaker dlhan dian llchan khun ian aahan 3. General pollte. and 2) general pronouns. and hence no slmllar sets can be establlshed beyond the flrst and second person level. does not depend entlrely on the relatlonshlp between speaker and hearer.The class of pronouns lS small. of sets. but also on the status of persons referred to. General pollte. pronouns are glven ln parentheses.2. Whlle lt lS often dlfflcult to pln down the meanlngs of pronouns. but not closed (for a recent lnnovatlon. Pronouns are sub-classlfled.7. male speaker Flrst Person pham pham Second Person khun 2. see the 23rd set under sets. however. Deferentlal. WhlCh have normal stress and are personal nouns (3.1. Where there are several varlant forms of a pronoun lexeme. female speaker dlchan 4. lnto two groups. Thlrd person and other pronoun selectlon.

among young adult frlends of the same sex Intlma te. 7. 22.Sltuatlon Flrst Person kraphom dlChan chan (or klnshlp term) nuu khaa (or klnshlp term) khaa v Second Person ( ta J. 18. among older glrls Intlma te. To non-royal but extremely hlghranklng superlors.thaaw) nuu (klnshlp term) (luug) 5. Parent to Chlld Parent to Chlld Parent to daughter Parent to son Chlld to parent Chlld to older slbllng Intlmate. 14. among modern boys and glrls Intlma te. glrl to boy. 21. 12. among older glrls (less often. among older glrls. 10. 8. 9. 23. 6. or between man and wlfe Intlma te. 16. or among very young boys and glrls Intlma te. 15. JUU 24. 13. boy to glrl. female speaker Adult to Chlld Chlld to adult Parent to Chlld Parent to Chlld caw caw 11. among adolescent boys khaa khaa kuu kuu nuu nuu chan chan chan chan raw khaw v kee elJ elJ mYlJ (klnshlp term) (phil) thee khun kee (naa J) tua tua aaJ ua . lyy 100 . boys) Intlma te. 17. male speaker Same. 20. or among older glrls Intlma te.thaaw) ( ta J. 19. ue .

among men Crude. 101 . all of Wh1Ch can be translated 'he. outs 1der r (2) (2) (1) 3. 27. 8. someone. or obJect of a preposlt1on). 10. /phra-olJ/ /than/ 'royal or revered th1rd person' 'respected th1rd person' 'fam1l1ar th1rd person of our group' 'general th1rd person. and are also nearly ln complementary dls/raw/ occurs ch1efly before the pred1cator and 1n stressed POSlt10n (e. 9. mutually. 6. 1t' 7.e. an1mal. they' translated 'It').25. you (husband speak1ng)' . 12.2) (1) (2) The slngular-plural d1st1nct1on 1S lrrelevant for thlrd-person (1-6 above). you and I' 'each other. 28. 'respected but younger or female th1rd person' (2) /map/ 'lnfer1or th1rd person. I and my group. For those pronouns Wh1Ch also occur as members of sets. among boys and men kan kan khaa kuu lyy raw elJ mYlJ Rema1n1ng sets are elther rec1procal k1nsh1p terms . 2. /khaa-phacaw/ 'I (publ1C speaker)' and /than thalJ-laaJ/ 'you plural (aud1ence). Ch1ld.g.g. among boys and men Crude. 1. tr1butlon. anyone' 'what. /raw/ /kan/ /tua/ /ton/ /khraJ/ /araJ/ 'we. Int1ma te. 1tself' (Sllghtly Ilterary) 'who. 1nd1v1dually' 'oneself.or pa1red express10ns .g. and all can be used w1thout regard to the soc1al relat1onsh1p of speaker and Ilstener. 5. or th1ng. /kEE/ /khaw/ /thee/ 4. someth1ng. 11. (/man/ can also be The pronouns /raw/ and /kan/ (7-8) are always plural when they are used as general pronouns.' 2) General Pronouns The follow1ng pronouns have more general mean1ng.e. as head of a pronoun expresslon. /phua/ 'I (husband speak1ng). anyth1ng' (1. you (w1fe speak1ng)' and /m1a/ 'I (w1fe speak1ng). as a group' 'oneself. she. among boys and young men Int1mate. 26. the number 1n parentheses after the translat10n 1nd1cates whether the set member 1S a f1rst person (1) or second person (2) pronoun.

ne1ther slngula~ nor plural. /d1chan/. and the pronouns /man/ and /araJ/ for other types of nouns. ' 'we' or 'ourselves. complement .' It can follow any subJect (lnclud1ng 'they.2. ' ! . 'Th1S b1g house. do occur 1n most of the typ1cal substant1ve pos1t1ons . 'Th1S lS the b1g house. w1th /phom/./kan/ occurs after the pred1cator. 1S that of mod1f1er. you (plural). and /khun/ lead1ng the set category. 3. The occurrence of a demonstrat1ve 1S a sure slgn that an endocenIn the follow1ng examples. 'The house 1S b1g' or 'A b1g house.2. 1tS mean1ng 1S rrearly always etc. Ject. the same 1S not true of /ee~/-class complement1ves (3. but can be plural1zed by the add1t1on of a bound lexeme /baa~/ 'some': /khra J: baa~/ lara J: baa~/ 'who (plural)' 'wha t (plural)' The pronouns /khaw/ and /khraJ/ are the most common Subst1tutes for personal nouns. n11 baan Ja J .tOP1C. /n{l/ 'th1S' lS a demon- tr1c express10n has come to an end. /raw/) and has the effect of plural1z1ng that subJect - The pronouns /khraJ/ and /araJ/ (11-12) share an 1nterrogat1ve or 1ndef1n1te mean1ng. bcsan Ja J n11 . Demonstrat1ves A demonstrat1ve 1S any substant1ve Wh1Ch 1S 1nvar1ably the last free lexeme 1n any non-pred1cate construct10n 1n Wh1Ch 1t occurs (e.3.but of course are never heads. . sUbJect. obhowever.g. . enumerat10ns and endocentr1c substant1ve express10ns). hence they are a spec1al case of complement1ves (3.2. ' 102 . 'Th1S house 1S b1g. ' The general pronouns /tua/ and /ton/ (9-10) are normally slngular 1n mean1ng.). These four members of the general category are hence the most frequently used. strat1ve.4. Demonstrat1ves by themselves The1r ch1ef funct1on. and llke /kan/ are often reflex1ve: /khaa tue taa J/ /khaa kan taa J/ 'to k1ll oneself' 'to k1ll each other. and 1f there 1S no sUbJect.).2. ' . baan n11 Ja J .2.

g/ / sUd. /n{l/ /law-n{l/ /nll/ 'th1S. t1on. one or ones of llm1ted poss1b1l1t1es' 3. and There are two sub-categor1esl 1) /n{l/- 2) /d1aw/-class demonstrat1ves. The class mean1ng 1S 'spec1f1cat1on by relat1ve loca- 2. the others' 'that one yonder. those. class demonstrat1ves. The members of th1S class are morpholog1cally complex (see spec1al plural forms. 2.The class of demonstrat1ves lS small and closed. the other. a slngle one' 'the same one' 'a. 5. 'whatever. those there' 'yon. a certa1n one (not spec1f1ed) t 3. outs1de of enumerat10ns or endocentr1c express1ons) much less often than /n{l/-class demonstrat1ves. closer to you' 'those I 2. 'last' 103 . 6. d1stant from us. ' The members of th1S class occur 1ndependently (1. one of llm1tless poss1b1l1t1es' 'f1rst (h1stor1cally) . and the members seem to exclude each other semant1cally. /d1aw/ /d1aw-kan/ /nYlJ/ or /nYlJ/ /daJ/ or /raJ/ /rec.2.~. 4.3. ' 1. those yonder' 'Wh1Ch. /nan/ /law-nan/ /nan/ 'that one there. /noon/ /noon/ 4· /naJ/ 2) /d1aw/ Class The class mean1ng 1S 'spec1f1cat1on (or non-spec1f1cat1on) by reference to the ent1re range of poss1bll1t1es. these here' 'that. two have All but one have d1st1nct emphat1c forms alongs1de the1r base forms. they are nearly always mod1f1ers. these. closer to me' 'these' 'th1S one here.). 1.thaa J/ 'one.3.

1. tobacco' lS the head.2. 9. /S88IJ/ lS a class1f1er mean1ng 'pack.nan/ /haa SQ8IJ' nan/ 'that pack' 'those f1ve packs' The whole enumerat10n lS often a mod1f1er 1n a noun express10n of Wh1Ch the head noun mayor may not have a lex1cal relat10nsh1p w1th the classlf1er (In th1s case /bur11/ 'c1garette. demonstrat1ves (3.5.see 2.2. ' By far the most common use of class1f1ers.2. but are almost ent1rely restr1cted to occurre~c€ as complements. I khaw khaaJ pen-s88IJ • 'They are sold by the pack (as one pack). 10. however. lS 1n enumerat10ns. /d88m/ 'former.).2.6) and precedes demonstrat1vesl 'f1ve packs' /haa S88IJ/ / S88lJ. /bur11 haa S88IJI nan/ 'those f1ve packs of c1garettes' ClaSS1f1ers also serve as f1rst lexemes 1n class1f1er phrases enumerat10ns 1n Wh1Ch the second const1tuent lS not a demonstratlve but some other k1nd of speclfylng 1tem.2.' aw bur11 phra-can . L1ke pronouns (3. see 3. S88IJ • 'G1ve me a pack of Moon C1garettes. or ordlnal numeral (3. thelf do not by themselves f111 all the norrr~l pos1t10ns of substant1ves.3. and 1n construct1on w1th. claSS1f1ers also do occur w1th normal stress.2.s11/ 'the yellow pack' 'the b1g pack' 'the fourth pack' (noun) (adJect1ve) (ordlnal) 104 . /yYn/ /naa/ /laIJ/ A class1f1er lS any substant1ve Wh1Ch occurs w1th weak stress d1rectly before. (In such cases the normal stress lS a morpheme mean1ng 'one of th1S 1tem' .): /SQ'JIJ sll-1yaIJ/ / S8Q lJ-J8. others.2. usually a noun.J/ /SQQlJ thll. where the class1f1er follows numerals (3.6. ones 1n the future' 8.7. adJectlve.4. unspec1f1ed add1t1onal ones' 'next' 'later.3. or1g1nal' 'other. below) .).) In the examples below.2. unl1ke pronouns.

Slnce all such phrases are exocentr1c,./sOo~/ by 1tself cannot subst1tute for them, but whole class1f1er phrases are the syntact1c equlvalent of noun express1ons. In other words, classlfler phrases can f1ll all the Enumerasubstantlve pos1tlons, although classlflers by themselves cannot. (see examples 1n 2.5.2.5.) The sub-categorles of classlf1ers are determlned on the basls of the1r relat10nshJps w1th other lexeme categorles. slflers, They are 1) unlt clas-

t10ns lntroduced by numerals (numeral express1ons) behave In the same way

3) general classlflers, and 4) lmltatlve 3) have relatlvely large membersh1ps, only representat1ve ex~mples are glven. (Abstract nouns, 3.2. 2) metr1c classlflers,
claSSlf1ers. Slnce all the sub-categorles except

1.4.,

Wh1Ch also occur d1rectly after numerals, are not classlf1ers, Slnce

they do not occur wlth weak stress before demonstratlves.)

A ~ classlf1er lS any classlf1er Wh1Ch has a speclal relatlonShlP wlth one or more concrete nouns (3.2.1.1.). For example, If an ST 1)
speaker 13 gOlng to enumerate (l.e. count or speclfy) members of the class of /rya/ 'boats, Sh1pS,' he has Ilttle cho1~e but to select the unlt classlfler /lam/. If he uses a general claSSlfler (3.2.5.3) he lS not conslderMost unlt classlflers are used wlth lng 1nd1vldual boats but k1nds of boats. ed to a slngle noun.

a great many concrete nouns of very d1fferent meanlng, but a few are restrlctIn the latter case, for example, It lS posslble to say not only that /chyag/ lS the classlfler for /chaa~/ 'elephant,' but also that

/chaa~/ lS the noun for /chyag/.
The sub-category of unlt classlf1ers lS qUlte large, but probably closed. Most dlct1onar1es Ilst up to 200 ltems as class1f1ers, of WhlCh the An attempt lS often made to relate great maJor1ty are unlt classlflers.

classlf1ers semantlcally w1th the nouns they represent, but a far better lex1cograph1cal technlque, used by Mary R. Haas and others, lS to glve the unlt classlf1er ln parentheses after each concrete noun 11sted - V1Z. /rya/ 'boat, Shlpl (/lam/). The semant1c connectlon between classlf1er and noun may be burled so deep In h1story that 1t makes no sense descr1pt1vely - e.g. the classlf1er for /na~-syy/ 'book' lS /lem/, Wh1Ch lS also the classlfler for kn~ves and combs (a hlstor1cal explanat10n perhaps be1ng that anc1ent books were long, slender, and sharp-edged). There are, however, a number of semant1cally predlctable noun-classlfler relat1onshlps, and even some overt relat1onshlps, where the classlfler recurs as head of a compound concrete noun. Examples, Compound Noun /baJ-maaJ/ 'leaf' 'flower' ClaSS1f1er

/d~og-maaJ/

105

/ton-maaJ/ /khon-sag-phaa/ /raan-sag-phaa/

'tree' 'laundress' 'laundry'

/ton/ /khon/ /raan/

Not all such compounds have heads recurrlng as classlflers, however the classlfler for /kham-thaam/ 'questlon' lS not /kham/ but /kh5o/. Followlng lS a 11St of the most common unlt classlflers for WhlCh noun-reference lS relatlvely predlctable. Reference

1. 2.

/khon/ /oYJ/ /tua/

ordlnary people royal and revered personages, Buddha lmages non-human thlngs wlth anthropomorphlc characterlstlcs (arms, legs, etc.) - e.g. anlmals, coats, trousers, tables, chalrs

/phEEn/ /baJ/ /ton/ /phyyn/ /sen/

flat thlngs contalners plants strlps long tubular obJects - e.g. strlng, Wlre small round obJects large round obJects lrregular lumps stlcks coples ltems, pOlnts (of language)

5.
6.

7.
8. 9.
10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

/m~d/
/luug/ /k5on/ /thEYJ/

/chab~b/
/kh5o/

It frequently happens that there lS fluctuatlon ln the cholce of classlfler for a glven concrete noun, both from the pOlnt of Vlew of the whole speech communlty and for lndlvldual speakers. ln questlon.' In such cases, however, no matter WhlCh unlt classlfler lS chosen, the meanlng lS stlll 'one of the ltem For example, the compound noun /phon-lamaaj/ 'frult' lS clasI

slfled wlth /baJ/ 'contalner,' /luug/ 'large round obJect, of the compound). 2)

and jphon/ (head

A metrlc classlfler lS any classlf~er Wh1Ch occurs ln enumerat~ons Metrlc classlf1ers do not have

that modlfy predlcatlves, as well as nouns.

speclal relatlonshlps wlth nouns In the way that unlt classlflers do; each

106

metrlc classlfler occurs wlth a wlde range of heads, both mass nouns and predlc2tlves. The meanlng of the sub-category lS 'measure by flxed unlt or conIn the examples below, a metrlc classlventlonal contents of a contalner.'

fler, /caan/ 'dlsh (as a measure for food),' lS lllustrated In a slngle enumeratlon whlch occurs In lsolatlon, as a mass noun modlfler, and as a verb modlfler. /saam caan: n{l/
/kEE~ saam caan/

'These three dlshes (of food) , 'Three dlshes of curry' 'Eat three dlshes (of It).'

/kln saam caan/

The metrlc classlfler /caan/ has a homonym /caan/ whlch lS a concrete noun 'plate, dlsh' havlng ltS own unlt classlfler /baJ/: / caan saam ba J/ 'Three plates (utenslls).'

The same mass noun can occur wlth many dlfferent metrlc classlflers, dependlng on the type of measure used. tobacco' : /buril haa S;);)~/ /buril haa h;;)/ /buril haa klloo/ /buril haa baad/ or 'Flve baht worth of clgarettes.
I

Examples wlth /buril/ 'clgarettes,

'Flve packs of clgarettes.

I

'Flve cartons of clgarettes. 'Flve kllograms of tobacco. ' 'Flve-baht clgarettes. '

,

The same /buril/ lS also a concrete noun 'clgarette' whlch has a speclal relatlonshlp wlth the unlt classlfler /muan/: 'Flve clgarettes.' The sub-category of metrlc classlflers lS not large, but It lS open; a falrly recent lnnovatlon lS /fud/ 'foot, feet.' Two examples are glven below for each of the broad semantlc groups whlch make up the membershlp.
1.

Dlstance and Slze: Welght: Conta l_ner: Value: Tlme:

/m~d/ 'metre,' /fud/ 'foot.'
/klloo/ 'kllogram,' /p;);)n/ 'pound.' /caan/ 'dlsh,' /thuaJ/ 'cup'. /baad/ 'baht, tlcal,' /rian/ 'dollar.'
/moo~/ 'hour of the day,' /wan/ 'day'

2.

3.

4.
5.

The occurrence of value and tlme classlflers value' or 'tlme, duratlon.'

(4,5)

after noun heads 'prlce,

lS relatlvely rare, except when the head noun means somethlng llke

107

3) A general classlfler lS any classlfler WhlCh occurs In enumeratlons after an extremely wlde range of nouns. General classlflers do not have speclal relatlonshlps wlth elther concrete nouns or mass nouns; most of them occur even after abstract nouns, replaclng the second occurrence of the noun (see 3.2.1.4.). The class lS small and probably closed. Examples:
Reference
1.

/an/

'plece, ltem'

All concrete nouns except those referrlng to people and anlmals; most abstract nouns Potentlally all nouns, but especlally personal attrlbutes e.g. eyes, shoes.
I

2.

/khuu/

'palr'

3.

/khaalJ/ /chud/ /phuag/ /chan/ /koolJ/ /talJ/ /JaalJ/ /chan{d/ /khralJ/

'one of a palr
I

Same as 2. Most nouns. Nearly all nouns. Nearly all nouns. Most concrete nouns. Many concrete nouns. Nearly all nouns. Nearly all nouns. Many abstract nouns, especlally those wlth verbal constltuents - e.g. 'meetlng' Potentlally all nouns, but especlally place-nouns. Many abstract nouns. Nearly all nouns.


5.
6.

set, ma tChlng group'

'group' 'class, ca tegory' 'dlsorderly plle' 'stack' 'type, klnd' 'type, klnd' 'occa slon, lnstance'

7.
8.
9.
10. 11.

12. 13. 14.

/heElJ/ 'place, locatlon' and /thll/ /raaJ/ /thll/ 'case' 'repeated lnstance'

4) An lmltatlve classlfler lS any classlfler for WhlCh there lS a morphologlcally related redupllcated lexeme whlch lS an lmltatlve (see 3.1.4.). Most lmltatlve classlflers are of the onomatopoetlc varlety, and the sub-category meanlng lS 'lnstance of a nOlse, movement, or other sensory lmpresslon.' As such, the whole sub-category lS not merely a speclal case of general classlflers, because enumeratlons wlth lmltatlve classlflers In them rarely modlfy nouns (except nouns llke /sialJ/ 'sound') but enter lnto syntactlc constructlon W1. th predlca tes.
108

The membershlp lS very large, and also open, Slnce lmltatlves are frequently lnnovated, but occurrence of lmltatlve classlflers lS actually qUlte rare In comparlson wlth other types of·classlflers. Example: faa le8b , s;o~ we8b • 'The llghtnlng flashed tWlce (there was llghtnlng In two flashes) • '

3.2.6.

Numerals A numeral lS any substantlve whlch occurs as the flrst lexeme of a

two-lexeme enumeratlon havlng a Cla$Sl!ler as the second lexeme. lcally loglcal (see 2.2.2.5-6).

The lnter-

nal constructlon of compound numeral lexemes lS qUlte complex, but mathematBecause of the compoundlng posslbllltles, the class of numerals lS theoretlcally lnflnlte, but the actual numeral ~­ phemes lnvolved are only 24 In number (lncludlng the two prosodlc morphemes). The syllablc ltems, all of whlch also occur as numeral lexemes, are as follows:
l. /ny~/

'one'

10. /s~b/ 11. /r~oJ/ 12. /phan/ 13. /myyn/ 14· /sE8n/ 15. /laan/ 16.

'ten' 'hundred' 'thousand' 'ten thousand' 'hundred thousand' 'mllllon' 'half'

17. /laaJ/ 18. /baa~/ 19. /k~l/

2. /s;o~/ 'two'

' several 2-9' ' some r 'how many'

3. /saam/ 'three'


5.

/S~l/
/haa/

'four' 'flve' 'SlX' 'seven'

20. /maJ-k~l/ 'not many' 21. /n~oJ/ 22. /thug/ 'few' 'each, every'

6. /hog/

7. /c~d/
9· /kaw/

/khrYlJ/

8. /pe8d/ 'elght'
'nlne' Items 17-22 are not true substantlves, Slnce they have suppletlve forms In lsolatlon (see 3.2.6.3.), but qua1lfy as numerals otherwlse. Morphemes 17-19 also enter lnto compound lexeme constructlons wlth other numeral morphemes; ltems 2u-22 do not. slngle morphemes. Constructlon of compound numeral lexemes from morphemes 1-19, plus the prosodlc morphemes /-/ 'mu1tlply' and / / regular. In that 'add,' lS almost entlrely The morpheme 1. /ny~/ has an allomorph /~d/ after ~O. /sib/ In partlcular mu1tlp1lcatlon. Item 20. lS two morphemes, the remalnder are

addltlons, and the morpheme 2. /s;o~/ has an allomorph /Jll/ before 10. /sib/

109

). I or '250' 1f /haa/ equals /haa-sib/.345. /sEEn/ occurs only after 15.000' 'how many hundred thousand' 'one m1ll1on' myyn ced-phan '17. Add1t1on construct1ons take effect only after all mult1pl1cat1on lS complete. can be amb1guous. The amb1gu1ty recedes as the number of zeros 1nvolved 1ncreases. morphemes 1. but 10. /l~an/ 1S the second const1tuent. Morphemes 10-15. In add1t1ons. because there lS a second pattern whereby morphemes 3-9 and 16 can stand for the mult1ple of the next alternate pattern takes over. but only when 15. p€Ed-phan hog '8006.000 ' ki1-sEEn '9 1/2' sO:J~-l~an saam-sEEn si1-myyn haa-phan hog-r~:JJ c~d-sib pEEd khrYD '2. and fellow only a h1gher-rank1ng member of the1r own set or 1tS mult1pl1cat1on (e.600 ' saam-sib saam J ll. 1t never leads an add1t1on construcMorphemes 1-9 precede only 16. and the second const1tuent lS one of morphemes 3-9 or morpheme 16. /khry~/ 'and a half' follows all other morphemes and mult1pl1ed const1tuents. 110 . and follow all other morphemes and mult1pl1ed const1tuents. and 1tS mult1pl1cat1ons are always f1rst const1tuent 1n an add1t1on construct1on.900' S:J:J~ sib haa r:J:JJ Sll haa-sib ~d " Sll-r:J:JJ sil-sib . and 16. Examples of 1nternal construct1on of compound numeral lexemes. several thousand' '70. Morphemes 10-14 and the1r mult1pl1cat1ons precede 1-9 and 16 1n add1t1on processes. 678 1/2 1 Add1t10ns 1n Wh1Ch the f1rst const1tuent 1S one of morphemes 11-15 or 1tS mult1pl1cat1on. beS1des occurr1ng as second con- also occur as f1rst const1tuents 1n mult1pl1cat1ons.' or '8600' 1f /hog/ stands for /hog-r~:JJI.Morphemes 1-9 and 16-19 occur 1n mult1pl1cat1ons only as the f1rst const1tuent. 14.g. Morpheme 15. the others before 10-15.sib v v '33 ' '22 ' '51 ' '440 ' '6. /l~an/. morpheme 16. and the haa '" '205. ced-myyn '600' phan hog-r~:JJ hog-phan kaw-r~:JJ 'thousands of. lo~er order. etc. Mult1pl1cat1on saam-sib Jl1-sib haa-sib Add1t1on sib saam sib v S:J:J~ v '30' '20' '50' '13 ' '12 ' '15' '104' '1. hog-phan laaJ-phan " . /sib/ after any of the group 11-15. t1on. only before 11-15 as second const1tuent. Example s I s:J:J~-r:J:JJ v . s~ltuents. Morphemes 17-19 do not occur 1n add1t1on construct1ons.

Thus the membersh1p of the sub-category approaches that of numerals 1n general. 'number of 1 tems. but 1S used 1n construct1on w1th numerals (for example. but some also occur after class1f1ers and Because var1ant forms of lexemes are 1nvolved. but are not yet 1n general use. All numeral lexemes of course occur before class1f1ers. except those 1nvolv1ng morphemes 17-19.) are exocentr1c.laan khrYlJ myyn ced 'a m1ll1on and half' (almost certa1nly 1.* Numeral lexemes. Morphemes 1-3 have allomorphs w1th d1fferent tones 1n a spec1al lexeme of the lsolat1ve class used 1n ser1al count1ng (as when start1ng a race): 'One. Examples: 'the eleventh person' * From pr1vate conversat1on w1th M1SS Kanda Sltach1tta. whether 1t 1S slmple or compound. 2) ser1es. The lexeme /suun/ 'zero' 1S not a numeral. two. 1) Card1nal numerals occur 1n 1solat1on. are sub-class1f1ed on the bas1s of the1r behav10r w1th respect to class1f1ers. 'th1rd class' 'th1rd class' members of the category.000) 'ten thousand seven' (almost certa1nly 17.000) Numerals h1gher 1n value than /laan/ 'm1ll1on' eX1st.n saam/ 'Three classes' 'The th1rd class' (card1nal) (ord1nal) Ord1nal numerals occur 1mmed1ately after class1f1ers and 1n cqnThe mean~ng struct10n w1th them.500. has a der1vat1ve allolex beg1nn1ng w1th the pref1x /thl1-/ 'ordlnal number. three) . there lS some overlapp1ng of the sub-categor1es.' (Numerals conta1n1ng the morpheme 16. 1n glv1ng telephone numbers). III . 1n lso1at1on. 1963. and all the compound lexemes represented by the1r mult1pl1cat1ons and add1t1ons. of the sub-category 1S 'pos1t1on 1n a The membersh1p of the sub-category lS exactly the same as that of cardlnal numerals.' The mean1ng lS the same as 1t lS before class1f1ers I Card1nal numerals 1nclude the slmple lexemes represented by morphemes 1-15. both slmple and compound. /khrYlJ/ 'half' are marg1nal Whereas card1nalphrases (numeral plus classlf1er) ord1nal express10ns (classlf1er plus numeral) are endocentr1c. except that each ord1nal numeral. and may not 1n fact sat1sfy the def1n1t1on of 'numeral' 1f they become acceptable. as are other numeral Subst1tutes. ' /saam chan/ /cha.

.2.) WhlCh They are llsted below (rather than wlth the not occur In ls01atlon. ordlnal numerals also serve as modlflers of nouns. two to nlne' /eeD/ -class Complementlve /mag-maag/ /thalJ-laaJ/ 'some. ' Examples: baalJ khon plus the multlpllcatlons of 17-19. 'how many laaJ-s:i. Partltlve Numeral 'several. but are lncluded here because of thelr relatlonshlp wlth substantlve numerals. ally speaklng. are actually a bound lexeme class. In a slmllar constructlon: 'page 417' 3) Partltlve numerals occur only In the cardlnal posltlon.h0lJ saam-s:i. 'the slxth race' Besldes occurrlng after classlflers. never lD The sub-category lncludes ltems 17-22 lsolatlon or In ordlnal constructlons. part of' 'how many' /baalJ/ /thaw-raJ/ 'qUl te a few' 'the several' 'some' 'how much' fhow many' /kil-man~QJ/ 112 .2. /eelJ/ class) to pOlnt up thelr speclal relatlonshlp wlth partltlve numerals. members of the serve as numeral Substltutes.2. (see end of sectlon).b tuu laaJ tua classes~' 'tens of cablnets' 'several (anlmals)' 'how many hundred 'not many days' 'few people! 'every klnd' 'slxty-odd baht' baht~ kil-r~QJ baad maJ-kil wan nQQJ khan thug chan{d hog-sib kwabaad Partltlve nume~als . number of ltems. and e set of derlvatlves endlng In /kwa/ The meanlng lS 'proportlonal. syntactlc/eelJ/ class of complementlves (3.b kaw wan thll-p E Ed thlaw thll-hog 'room 39' 'the elghth (day of the month) . Slnce they do Thelr suppletlve lsolatlon-forms are. approxlmate or unknown '~people (not all) .

/rlY~/ 'a. not many' 'a few' 'all of them' /n~oJ/ /th~g/ 'few' 'each. every' /l~g-n~oJ/ /tha~-nan/ Both the partltlve numerals and thelr related /ee~/-class complementlves frequently occur after /sag/-class preposltlons postposltlons (4. The meanlng of each derlvatlve lS The derlvatlves are made from any slmple cardlnal numeral lexeme or any multlpllcatlon./maJ-thaw-raJ/ 'not much.2.4.). however. acdltlons. ·stress. and In dlrect constructlon wlth. demonstratlves of classlflers. and further examples of thelr use are glven under the headlng of /bAa~/-class (4.) numeral plus postposltlon (The dlfference lS that a classlfler can lntervene between the c~d baads kwakwaa sil-r~oJ maJ: kwakwaa 4) ClaSSlfler numerals occur before.' but others are found as well.5. the sufflX (for slmple lexemes) or 'that number plus an odd remalnder of lntegers of the next lower order' (for multlpllcatlons). wlth the demonstratlve WhlCh follows havlng weak The most common demonstratlve occurrlng In thlS constructlon lS one.2. ' sib: kwakwaa 'In the teens' 'Over seven baht. cardlnal /kwakwaa/.4. ' 'Four hundred plus. WhlCh attac~es ltself (unstressed and wlth mlnlmum syllable duratlon) to the classlfler WhlCh follows. /kwa/ 'plus' operates In exactly the same way as the morpheme /Ikhry~/ 'and a half' operates In addltlons. but the meanlng lS less preClse.3.). ' 'More than 400 mlles. are not derlvatlves but syntactlc constructlons. The numerals WhlCh flll thls posltlon are not classlflers. The usual pattern lS for the stressed numeral to have medlum-long duratlon. Examples: 'Seven and a fractlon. 113 . because they have normal stress (see deflnltlon 3. Examples: 'Seven baht and a fractlon' sil-r~oJ kwamaJ sib kwachan 'Four-hundred-odd mlles' 'Mdre than ten classes' The correspondlng lnexact cardlnal numerals. (3.). but not from 'that number plus a fractlon' In other words.) A speclal set of partltlves lS made from cardlnal numerals by derlva- tlon wlth a sufflX /kwa/.?5. ' numeral and the postposltlon. however.

he does. many members of thlS class also flll the typlcal posltlons of substantlves: tOP1CS. nYlJ h~an r8eg v ~ . objects and complements. or A. 'that thousand' .--- A modal verb lS any predlcatlve WhlCh occurs as the predlcator. khaw tOlJ paJ: maJ • tOlJ. he doesn't. 2) AdJectlves. Examples: Q.The membershlp of the sub-category of classlfler numerals lS conflned to the slmple lexemes 11-16 (mlddle column of chart at beglnnlng of 3.2.2. /tolJ/ 'muat' lS a modal verb. lnto four sub-groups.2. Slnce the more speclflc classlflcatlon lS that of predlcatlve (see statement ln flrst parsgraph of 3.' 'No. A.).6. but there are other modal verbs (sub-class 2) below) WhlCh also take substant1ve objects. 'the last ten thousand' 'a hundred thousand' 'the flrst mllllon' 'a half' 3. The test of pred1cate subst1tut1on lS made 1n the context of a yes-no quest10n and lts answer. ma J tOlJ 'Does he have to 'Yes. or as head of an endocentrlc predlcate. Predlcatlves are classlfled. Modal Verbs --.1. The thlrd sub-group lS also referred to slmply as 'verbs.' 3. 'a hundred' roo J' nYlJ ~ phan: nan myyn sud-thaaJ sE:en. Any lexeme WhlCh quallfles as a predlcatlve lS no longer consldered to be a substantlve. 114 . 3) Transltlve Verbs and 4) Completlve Verbs. BeSldes occurrlng as predlcators and heads of endocentrlc predlcates. ' go~' Slnce /paJI 'go' lS 1tself a predlcatlve.2. subjects.5.).3. 1) Modal Verbs. . see 2. on the basls of typlcal and absolute occurrence.3. w1th an object WhlCh lS also a pred1cat1ve or pred1cat1ve expreSSlon. Examples. Predlcatlves A predlcatlve lS any free lexeme WhlCh occurs as a predlcator (In a non-equatlonal predlcatlon.). One klnd of modal verb (sub-class 1) below) lS restrlcted to occu~­ ence ln th1S type of constructlon.

' I Modal verbs are paralleled by a class of bound lexemes. even In a predlcate conslstlng of a modal verb and an adJectlve (3. khaw ch5~b Sll-dEElJ: maJ ch5~b A. but except for sub-category (1) below. called slmply 'modals. or speclflc appllcablllty of sltuatlon descrlbed. A. verb substltutes for the whole. whlch flll the same posltlon In predlcatlons but do not substltute for them (4.' It follows: mSJ-aad capaJ aad camsJ-paJ 'Unable to go' 'Mlght not go. t5lJ dlll maJ • t5lJ. ever. The class lS small and closed. A. /kh88J/ 'to have experlenced. 'Does he llke to run'? ' 'Yes. meanlng lS The class 'mode of actlon. used to' Occurs before verbs and verb expresslons. . and before other modal verbs. to have done at least once. 1. /aad/ lS a modal verb meanlng 'capable of' and also a modal meanlng In the flrst case. 115 . They are also paralleled In the same way by a sub-class of adJectlves (3. It lS probably open. ' 'Does she llke red'? ' 'Yes. ' For example.3. she does. the modal verb /ch5~b/ 'to llke' occurs before both types of obJect. he does. the negatlve precedes /aad/. and /Sll-dEElJ/ 'red' lS a substantlve.2. as free lexeme classes go. the modal Q. probably belng conflned to the followlng members.). 1) Speclflc modal verbs occur only wlth obJects whlch are themselves predlcatlves. Slnce /WllJ/ 'run' lS a predlcatlve. Ye s . no matter what the membershlp of the other constltuents may be. on the basls of type of obJect occurrlng In thelr predlcatlons. Q. 'Must It be good'?' .2. 'apt to. Some true modal verbs have homonyms belonglng to other classes. khaw ch5~b WllJ: maJ ch5~b . ' The class of modal verbs lS not very large. A feature of one sub-class. l t mu st. .) whlch flll the modal verb posltlon but do not substltute. Example I For example.3.1.3.Examples: Q.). In the second case Two sub-classes of modal verbs are establlshed. speclflc modal verbs (below) lS that they act as predlcators In any klnd of predlcatlon In whlch they occur.

to wlsh for' Occurs malnly before verbs (but may follow other modal verbssee last example under 1. lS obllged to. khaw k5-to~ Joom phe8 • 'In the end they had to admlt defeat. 4.' 5. /ruu-cag/ 'to have been. ' pham Joom-rab waa dll • 'I'm wllllng to admlt that It'S good. accept' Occurs malnly before verbs (but may follow other modal ver. ' 3.' 2.) khun Jsag capaJ duaJ: maJ • 'Do you want to go too?' khaw maJ-Jsag car~b-kuan khun • 'He doesn't want to bother you. ' 116 . /kheeJ/. ' ma J khee J . /Jaag/ 'to want to. rY-Ja~. /Joom/ 'be wllllng to. has to ' Occurs before all types of predlcatlves. 'must. 'No.khun kheeJ loo~ rab-prathaan aahaan thaJ: 'Have you ever trled eatlng Thal food?' khee J . used to be' Occurs before adJectlves and adJectlve expresslons. man maJ-Joom klna sa sag-n~d . pham len k~b . 'I never get bored wlth playlng golf. 'The cat won't eat a blt of It. m88W . allow oneself to. khun maJ-t3~ paJ: rag t . 'Ye s. ' khaw kheeJ Jaag pen thahaan-rya • 'He once wanted to be a sallor.bs -see last example above). ever. lncludlng other modal verbs. maJ-ruu-cag bya . 'You don't have to goJ' t3~ rewa ma J • /t3~/ 'Must It be soon~' naJ thll-sud .

Modal verbs 5-9 occur e1ther w1th or w1thout /ca-/. /aad/ and /saa-maad/ 'to be capable of' Occurs ma1nly before verbs.' Modal verbs 1-4 normally precede the1r pred1cator-obJects d1rectly. anyway. adJect1ves. 2) obJects. and other modals. khaw samag capen thahaan: ryy . ' serV1ce~' 7. I wlthout the 1nterpos1t1on of the part1cle /ca-/ 'hypothet1cal pred1cate. 'He was try1ng to f1ght. khaw phaJaJaam cat~o-suu: myan-kan . make a phys1cal effort' Occurs ma1nly before verbs. General modal ~ occur w1th both pred1cat1ve and substant1ve The class 1S much larger than that of spec1f1c modal verbs. too-paJ-i1g . /samag/ and /samag-caJ/ 'to volunteer. /phaJaJaam/ 'to try.6.) an adJect1ve mean1ng 8. of these modal verbs 1S glven for 111ustrat1ve purposes. but may follow other modal verbs. 'You shouldn't talk llke that. 117 . ought to. ' (/khuan/ has a der1vat1ve /sam-khuan/. ' k~aw maJ-saamaad catoo-suu. and 1S One or two 1nstances of each general semant1c category almost certa1nly open.' man khuan cad11 kwa-n~l • 'It ought to be better than th1S. 'f1tt1ng. pham maJ-aad catoo-thla~: l88J 'I can't argue about 1t at all. ' khaw khuan caJoom-phe8 • 'He should be w1ll1ng to accept defeat. ' 9. khun maJ-khuan caphuud JaDan . /khuan/ 'should. properly does' Occurs before verbs. offer ones serV1ces. proper. more often wlth 1t (as In the examples above).' Occurs ma1nly before verbs. 'D1d he volunteer for m1l1tary pham khoo samag pen samaa-ch{g • 'I would llke to make appl1cat1on to be a member. . 'He was 1ncapable of f1ght1ng any further.

the dlrect Opposltes of modal verbs.) The test of substltutlon. khun paJ w~d b~ J: maJ 'Do you go to the temple often'Z ' b. Example: Q. 10. 3. ' A.J/ /ch88n/. ' Slnce /paJ/ 'gor lS a predlcatlve.2. and 5. . or A. One klnd of adJectlve typlcally occurs In thlS klnd of constructlon. 'No. /r{/ /rllb/ /r88m/. general modal verbs usually precede speclflc modal verbs when they occur In the same constructlon (see /kh. to experlment wlth ' 'to help' 'to ask a favor. ) 14· As a class.. /r~g/ /ralJ-k:i. 13. to start' 'to J /chS~b/. /talJ-ton/ /188g/.3. to beg' ' to depend on someone els6' 'to lnVl te 'to accept I /chuaJ/ /kh. 2. 5./b~ ~g/.~/ In last example under /samag/.3.1. often. /aas. I Many verbs descrlblng the act of speaklng. not often. above) and they are almost never lmmedlately followed by the partlcle /ca-/.~/. (Hence the sub-classlflcatlon of adJectlves In thlS respect parallels that of modal verbs.4. except sub-categorles 3. /tyan/ All completlve verbs (see 3. 9. so to speak. top. headlng a predlcatlve expreSSlon /paJ w~d/. then /b. to plan' 'to hurry' 'to beg1. 11. AdJectlves An adJectlve lS any predlcatlve WhlCh occurs as a predlcator wlth a subJect WhlCh also a predlcatlve or predlcatlve expresslon.9. 3. to mlnd. Verbs meanlng 'to llke' 'to hate.J/ 'often' 1S an adJectlve.J maJ b. as before. 6. lS made In the context of a yes-no questlon and lts answer. 'to tryout. /nimon/ /r~b/. /daJ-r~b/ 12.D.ad/ /kh{d/.) 118 . /waan/ /faag/. to obJect' 'to thlnk. 8.J rYes. to end' 7. but there are other adJectlves WhlCh also take substantlve subJects. /Jud/ /l~~lJ/ 4. (Thus adJectlves are.

1n the modal pos1t1on. dark' /k€8/ /f8J/ /k€8-fa J/ 'flre' (noun) 'dark from the flre) overcooked' The comb1nat1on 1S a compound adJect1ve lexeme.2. however.4. AdJect1ves do not 'have obJects' 1n the way that other pred1cat1ves dO. 1t was fun. adJect1ve express1ons. (sub-class 3) below) does occur. One k1nd of adJect1ve. 1t'S no fun. 1n Wh1Ch one adJect1ve lS mod1f1ed by another. BeSld~s fllllDg the predleator poslt10n. Another common type of adJectlve express10n has one of a spec1al class of bound mod1f1ers as the second const1tuent (see 4. ' Both /d11/ and /maag/ are adJectlves. A. The constructlon 18 exocentr1c. they are. Example: /d11 maag/ 'Very good. 1ntrans1t1ve verbs. Examples: 'Better.Q. khun paJ w~d sanug: maJ • 'D1d you have fun gOlng to the temple~' (llt.). Q. a complet1ve verb. In substantlve express10ns the head 13 usually a noun or a classlfler. however. There eX1st. 119 . 'Was your gOlng to the temple fun~ . adJect2ves of sub-classes 2) and 3) ~requently serve as modlf2ers of substantlve and predlcat~ve expresslons.) .' r A. 1n predlcatlve expresslons. Example: 'old. sanug • 'Yes. the adJect1ve /sanug/ 'fup' occurs after both types of subJect.' ~aan-ni1 sanug: maJ • 'Is th1S fa1r any fun~ '" . Slnce /paJ w~d/ lS a pred1cat1ve express1on. maJ sanug • 'No. ' Other endocentr1c construct1ons (for example an adJect1ve plus a substantlve) WhlCh appear at flrst glance to be adJectlve express10ns are usually best analyzed as slngle lexemes. 1n a sense. or another adJectlve. and /~aan/ 'fa1r' lS a substant1ve. because such adJ8ctlves do not Sub8t1tute for the ent1re pred1cat1on In the way that true modal verbs do. 1t lS a verb. I /d11 kwaa/ /sanug: th1d1aw/ I QU1 te amus 1ng.

I.9. A morphologlcal characterlstlc of adJectlves lS that nearly all lexemes belonglng to thls class have slmple redupllcatlons (2. By far the largest number of adJectlves belong to subThe total number of adJectlve lexemes lS Examples of 'gen~ral adJectlves. In a constructlon conslstlng of ordlnary verb plus adJectlve. or frequency of actlon.lce sub-classes follow.J/ (Forms llke 'often' 'not often' /b. except perhaps for sub-class class 2) 1). In other words. and are rarely found wlth The sub-cless lS small substantlve subJects and as substantlve modlflers. and predlcatlve expresslons.Examples I Noun Head: Classlfler Head.4. tlmlng. adJectlve derlvatlves cannot flll the predlcator posltlon.J/ /b.J: maJ/ 'often' These 'often~l ·/maJ b..3. A feature of the entlre class of adJectlves lS that they act as predlcators In every klnd of two-part predlcatlon except those lntroduced by modal verbs.4.2. and.). however. the tl.2.J/ and /b.' stlll smaller than that of nouns or transltlve verbs. It lS always the adJectlve rather than the verb whlch substltutes for the whole./ class of complementlves (3. open.J-b. blg houses' 'the blg one (speaklng of houses) . lts meanlng lS 'manner.) d~cato~s. Speclflc adJectlves typlcally occur wlth subjects whlch are prepredlcates. Speclflc adJectlves 120 . (a general adJectlve llke The class of adJectlves lS extremely large. 'run fast' (In a context 'Cannot run fast') 'successfully fast' (In a context 'Was unable to run fast enough') 'very fast' AdJectlves of sub-class 1) do not normally occur as modlflers.' Redupllcated lexemes from speclflc adJectlve bases almost lnvarlably belong to the /ef. Verb Head: such as Completlve Verb Head: such as AdJectlve Headl /baan Ja J/ /lalJ JaJ/ /WllJ rew/ /WllJ rew maJ-daJ/ /daJ rew/ /WllJ ma J-da J rew/ /rew maag/ 'a blg house.) /sanug/ 'fun' Some adJectlves also redupllcate In other ways: /sanug-sanug/ 'fun' /sanug-sanaan/ 'be amused' /sanug/ ltself . Example.J/ /maJ-b.for redupllcatlon type.J-b. see 2.J: maJ/ do not eXlst.J-b.).3.). however.2.1. -. /b. and probably closed.

I 121 . th£b JE:E: . 'You have to keep on soaklng your arm. 'It was almost lmposslble to flnd a parklng place. modlfled.themselves frequently occur at the ends of clauses In the complementlve posltlon (cut off from the maln predlcatlon by speclal bound lexemes or by rhythmlc patterns).)n/ rreally' 'prevlously' 'already I (Sentence: 'He has done the work. naan ch~g-cabya • 'I talked wlth hlm so long lt was startlng to be a bore. ' phuud kakhaw . r) 'borlngly' (Sentence: 'He was bored wlth the work.) 3. /J£E:/ /phleen/ 'bUSlly. ' pham hna thll-c~. maJ-b~J' n~g . 9. occurrlng In a typlcal complementlve constructlon. FolloWlng are some example of speclflc adJectlves negated. . 10. ' khun tOD prakh~b kh€E:n: ryaJ paJ . /samee/ /b~J/ 'always' 'often' 'wlth unbearable dlfflculty' 'wlth pleasurable absorptlon' (Sentence: 'He was absorbed In hlS work. I) 2. (The term 'adverb' refers to a member of some other form-class. 'contlnuously' • (Sentence1 'He keeps on worklng. /C1D/ Ik~. /khaw tham-Daan: sa .•. 'Adverbs' are not a free lexeme class In thelr own rlght. and In other non-predlcatlve constructlons. . / 'He works (or worked) •.) 8.. 4. and redupllcated: pham kheeJ paJ-thlaw thll-nan . wlth unpleasant absorptlon' (Sentence: 'He was busy worklng. such as speclflc adJectlves. members of the class behave exactly llke other adJectlves. II haven't been to V1Slt the place very often.)d: sa .) /leE:w/ In most respects.) The prlnclpal members of the sub-class are lllustrated wlth reference to a slngle frame. . 5.

except for those lnvolvlng 10. ' Internal order of the class lS apparently 1-8. but examples of two speclflc adJectlves In the same clause are hard to flnd.2.) The sub-class lS small but probably open. 10. ' or 'Tasteless food. 1 mll khon na~ Juu-k.8n: leEw 9 10 'There had been somebody Slttlng there prevlously. ThlS subdlV1Slon lS by far the largest In the class of adJectlves.' Members lnclude many derlvatlves endlng In the sufflX 122 . Semantlc categorles covered are too numerous to permlt any meanlngful breakdown.). but also have substantlves and substantlve expresslons as subjects. /leEw/ as second member: pham t~d thura JU~: leEw 6 10 '1 ' m already tled up In all klnds of buslness. 'He dld It Just so as to get lt over wlth. and the membershlp lS open. ' 'Broken dlshes. ' kh5w tham haJ leEw-leEw: paJ .Ja J • 'The larger dlshes. and occur as modlflers of nouns and classlflers (see examples at beglnnlng of 3. ' Redupllcated forms of general adJectlves (see last example) occur as modlflers and as complements. but In general the sub-class correlates well wlth form-classes such as ladJectlve l and Ilntransltlve verb' In other languages. 3) Modal adJectlves are general adJectlves WhlCh lntroduce exocentrlc predlcatlve phrases. ' 2) caan tEEg • or . ' . ' General adJectlves occur In all the posltlons of speclflc adJectlves. occurrlng In the modal posltlon (lnstead of the U'sual adJectlve posltlon toward the end of the predlcate. 'I was qUlte absorbed In talklng wlth hlm. ' luug-krataaJ nab-wan-tEE catoo khyn: ryaJ-ryaJ • 'In no tlme the baby rabblts wlll start gettlng blgger and blgger. The meanlng lS 'general personal characterlstlc applled to a glven sltuatlon.3. 'The dlshes broke. caan Ja J. thaw-nan.khuJ kakhaw Juu-phleen: thldlaw . 9. Examples: 'The food lS not good.

' but lS also used to apply to translt1ve verbs.) and /naa-/ (2.4. subJect TIlay refer e1ther to the actor or the goal (as 1t does w1th many Engl1sh verbs.4.3.' /ca-I.' khaw-ee~ pen khon-lyag .). 'I'll be glad to do 1t for you.the 12~ .' '(I'm) afra1d of not gett1ng there 1n t1me. 'Th1S bread sllces well' and 'Th1S kn1fe sllces well. Examples 1nvolv1ng trans1t1ve verb /lyag/ 'What color cloth d1d she choose7' phaa n{l lyag Jaag. and also occur.) 'She herself lS the one who chose 1t.) or beg1nn1ng w1th the pref1xes /khl1-1 (2.3. ' 'A lazy person.4.cf. and both w1th and w1thout subJects. p1ck out': khaw lyag phaa sll-araJ . (llt. Wh1Ch occurs as pred1cator 1n pred1cates that have substant1ve obJects.3.' 'St1ll not sat1sf1ed. 'chooses hard. ' 'st1ll not sat1sf1ed (W1ll1ng) to rece1ve 1t. The mean1ng of the verb-obJect construct1on. Examples: pham J1n-d11 . (The term 'verb' 1S used to apply to all three classes of verb.4. .1. pham J1n-d11 catham haJ • Ja~ The pred1cate lS nearly always 1ntroduced by 'I'm glad. other than a modal verb (3. 'to choose. Wh1Ch share the feature of 'hav1ng obJects.4. trans1t1ve verbs occur 1n pred1cat1ons Wh1Ch have substant1ve subJects.' All trans1t1ve verbs occur both w1th and w1thout obJects. the central and most numerous class of pred1cat1ves.3./-caJ/ (2.) L1ke all pred1cat1ves. Wh1Ch do not 'have obJects.1. . 'Th1S cloth 1S hard to choose from.1. ' maJ phDo-caJ • Ja~ maJ phoo-caJ cadaJ-rab khon khl1-kiad . ' 'He's (too) lazy to go.9. verb. lS that the referent of the obJect lS the goal of the act10n des1gnated by the The mean1ng of the subJect-verb-obJect construct1on 1S that the reBut ferent of the subJect lS the actor 1n1t1at1ng act10n toward that goal.) the mean1ng of the subJect-verb construct1on by 1tself lS amb1guous . llke adJect1ves.3.' as opposed to adJect1ves.). khaw khl1-kiad capaJ • naa-klua capaJ maJ-than • 3. 1n endocentr1c express10ns headed by nouns and class1f1ers.) or complet1ve verb (3.1. Trans1t1ve Verbs A trans1t1ve verb 1S any pred1cat1ve.

he shu t 'em all. there lS S' whlle constructlons llke '/mll/ 0' must be translated 'someone has O.' VOC. Examples of these constructlons follow. There are a few common lexemes (members of the class of completlve verbs. VOC: pid pratuu r6d . 'V' for transltlve verbs. or that both tOPlC and subJect refer to the actor. khaw pid: mod He shu t (l t) • ' pratuu pid pratuu 'The door lS shut. the transltlve verb always belng /pid/ 'to close. . ' (/kan/ refers to the actor. For example. 'Shut the door.' The amblgulty of the constructlon SV (actor-actlon or goal-actlon) can be avolded by the placement of speclal functlonal words wlth passlve meanlng between Sand V. .The meanlng of the toplc-subJect-verb constructlon lS that the referent of the tOplC lS the goal and the subJect deslgnates the actor.) 'The students.' on the other hand always means'S has 0.' (L1 t : ' The door s. 'Shut the car doors. (they) shut all the doors. -cf.3. 3. 'He shut the door. I The constructlon 's /mll/ 0. ' 'He shut all the doors. '0' for obJect. ' ) .) 'You (plural) shut the door. ' 'I was lnVl ted. pid pra tuu: kan • TSVOC(C) kan mod • The dlfflculty In lnterpretlng transltlve-verb predlcatlons lS often not so much one of ST structure as It lS of Engllsh translatlon. 'Perform door-shuttlng operatlon on car. /mll/ lS a typlcal transltlve verb. and 'C' for lndlrect obJect or complement.4.' Examples: khaw th~ug tll • 'He was beaten. but constructlons llke 's /mll/' have to be translated'S eXlsts.' khaw pid pratuu khaw pid . /ssJ kuncE:E: r6d/ 'lock the car.' (Symbols used In the formulae are 'T' for tOPlC.) VOl SVO: SV: SV: TSV(C) • pid pratuu . not the goal. .) that have thls effect: /th~ug/ 'suffer (a bad actlon)' and /daJ/ or /daJ-rab/ 'recelve the beneflt of (a good actlon). 'S' for subJect. ' 124 .' t . The meanlng of the verb-obJect-lndlrect obJect (or verb-abJect-complement) constructlon lS that the obJect represents the goal and the referent of the lndlrect obJect or complement may be elther actor or secondary goal. . ' (Llt.

.' 'Slt l ) na~ r~d-~aJ . has another lmportant thelr objects.) moo~ khaw-Ien don-trll • 'Watched them play mUSlC. ' 'Came late. the de~lnltlve o~ (transltlve and completlve) are lllustrated.3. and then separately wlth an ldentlcal predlcatlon as each.' contrasted wlth a transltlve verb and an 'Caught the traln.' 'Rode the traln.3. maa than (/na~/ lS a transltlve verb meanlng 'Came In tlme. o~ such verbs ~unctlon.) 'Can't hear anythln .' maa chaa (/chaa/ lS an adJectlve meanlng 'slow') maa than r~d-~aJ • The class o~ 'Came In tlme to catch the traln.4.The class o~ transltlve verbs lS very large (probably second only to the class o~ nouns) and lS open. be In tlme. but lS not attempted here. ~lrst together In context. ' 'Saw them playlng mUSlC. . 3. and certalnly by semantlc crlterla. Completlve Verbs A completlve verb lS any predlcatlve whlch occurs both as a predlcator wlth a substantlve obJect and as a predlcator wlth a predlcatlve subJect. sometlmes slmultaneously.J e c t l vel than r~d. but rarely a tOPlC) as The same thlng lS true o~ those transltlve verbs whlch have In the examples below two palrs 1exlca1 relatlonshlps wlth completlve verbs.3. Thus completlve verbs satls~y the de~lnltlons o~ both adJectlves transltlve verbs (3. There lS one group o~ transltlve verbs.~a J • Examples wlth the completlve verb /than/ 'to catch up.2. ad.' ~llllng completlve verbs.3.) and (3. ' (llt: 'look at somethlng not-seel the obJect t. besldes all the posltlons Its members o~ verbs and adJectlves. Sub-classl~lcatlon could posslbly be made on an lntrlcate structural basls. ' 9 (Llt. whlch are dlstlngulshed ~rom the others by the covert lexlcal relatlonshlp whlch they have wlth certaln specl~lc completlve verbs (see examples In next sectlon). 'llsten to somethlng nothear-l t.). 'Can't see anythlng. however. co~only occur wlth whole predlcatlons (lncludlng a subJect. ' 125 . and are commonly ~ound In typlcal constructlons o~ both types.

Ye s. Slnce any adJectlve or transltlve verb lS a potentlal candldate for membershlp. un IEEw • Ja~ 'Yes. "" . but there are only two groups.). ' In such predlcates. modals) precede the transltlve verb.5.g. and these two are not mutually excluslve. These same ltems can also have entlre predlcatlons as thelr obJects. A. ' The negatlve /maJ/ lS characterlstlc of adJectlve predlcates.3. 126 . In whlch case the subJect of the predlcatlon remalns the actor. I ha v en' t. The class meanlng lS 'successful completlon of attempted actlon. . ' Completlve verbs In the adJectlve posltlon can be followed only by other adJectlves. Q. maa~ hen chad: maJ • 'Can you see It 'Yes. It lS. ' Sub-classlflcatlon of completlve verbs parallels that of classlflers completlve verb. the form of negatlon clearly shows whether they are playlng the role of adJectlve or transltlve verb. end) as havlng a speclal paSSlve meanlng when they occur dlrectly before transltlve verbs..' and the class meanlng of the transitlve verbs occurrlng In the same predlcate wlth them lS 'attempted actlon. the negatlve precedes the Example: 'I stlll can't see anythlng. Example I 'I was hlt hard by It. ' 'Heard them playlng mUSlC.. chan th~ug man-tll aw rEE~-rEE~ . (3. . I ha ve. but other pre-verbal modlflers (e. Examples wlth the completlve verb /~n/ 'warm': 'Is the englne warm yet? ' Y. No. Q.2. ' 'Have you warmed up the englne yet~l maJ-un . but not closed. clearly. and /maJdaJ/ of transltlve verb predlcates. un khrya~ IEEw • rY-Ja~ • ~n IEEw Y. l t 's not.. N. ' daJ-Jln khaw-Ien don-trll • Three completlve verbs have already been mentloned (3.' clearly~' ch~d.3. whlch then become the predlcator: v .' 'No.fa~ khaw-Ien don-trll • 'Llstened to them play mUSlC. ' . A common feature of all completlve verbs lS that when they occur In a syntactlcally amblguous context (such as a response In whlch the completlve verb stands for an entlre predlcate or predlcatlon). The class of completlve verbs lS relatlvely small.

' 'to reach. ' 6.' k88n'(I) can't eat It .:.. accompllsh thoroughly' 'Sweep allover. /r5.:.:.. posslble. The prlnclpal members of the sub-class are the followlng (some of WhlCh recur as speclflc completlve verbs. ph~d pa J. 127 1 7. /thYlJ/ yam myy thYlJ : maJ • naa-klua capaJ maJ-thYlJ • Jib maJ-thYlJ • . na • 'to cover an entlre area. '(We) won't make It (not safe to go)..4. 'Can one go'" 'Can It be eaten'" 'It can be done easlly.) 'to be able.:. 4.d 'to accompllsh safely or freely' .:.d . ' 'to know how to.' 'Can't reach It.' pa J da J ' ma J • kln da J • rna J • tham da J lJaa J • 2.' 1(1) don't know how to. to succeed. /tal. go far enough' 'Can you reach It (wlth your hand)" ' 'Afrald we won't get that far. 'Sweep It all the way through.' /pen/ tham maJ-pen • suub pen: maJ • 'Do you smoke'" 'to be physlcally capable of' '(I) can't posslbly do It.wa J • kln maJ-waJ .' 3. wlll you" ' pham JalJ haa.d : maJ 5.It'S too peppery. ' 'Is It safe to smoke It' 'to follow through all the way' na suub r5.tal. /thua/ and /thua-thYlJ/ kwaad haJ-thua .duu ma J.1) General completlve verbs occur as predlcators after a wlde range of transltlve verbs.:.d/ paJ maJ-r5. 3. /wa J/ tham ma J. wlll you" ' khaw duu-lEE maJ-thua-thYlJ • 'He dldn't supervlse It thoroughly.d • 'I stlll haven't searched all the way through l t.3. to do from hablt.d/ kwaad haJ-tal.2.

Whereas the un1t class1.5. exhaust a set' JalJ haa maJ-khr~b 10. 'They're f1. /sed/ pham r1an nalJ-syy sed 188W • 'I'm f1n1shed study1ng (for now).' 'Not f1nlshed work1ng.8.). ' 'W111 we get home 1n t1me~' . 'Afra1d we won't get there 1n t1me. 'I've f1nlshed my stud1es (gradua ted) • ' 'They've f1n1shed slng1ng the song. v . accompl1sh a prescr1bed t~sk w1th def1n1te Ilm1ts' . The relat10nsh1p between a verb and 1.1. 2) Spec1f1c complet1ve verbs occur as pred1cators after certa1n translt1ve verbs or groups of trans1t1ve verbs w1th Wh1Ch they have a covert relat1onsh1p.c or general) are no more f1n1te than are concrete nouns w1thout the1. But .s lS a poss1ble Engl1sh translat10n for nearly all 1. . w111 you? ' 'St111 haven't found all of them. /than/ naa-klua capaJ maJ-than klab baan than : maJ v 'to be 1n t1me. 128 .' the spec1f1c complet1. ' 'to f1n1sh. /mod/ JalJ ch~aJ maJ-mod 'St111 haven't used them up.ve verb always means 'one 1nstance of ach1evement of the attempted act10n denoted by the verb.nstances of spec1f1.1.ve verbs (spec1. reach soon enough' . ' 'to use up.1. /khr~b/ 'to succeed 1n f1111ng up a set.ts complet1ve verb lS therefore very slm11ar to that between a concrete noun (3. 9. to complete' v syy nalJ-syy haJ-khr~b ch~d : na .' Verbal act10ns not pred1cated w1th complet1. ' 12.) and 1tS un1t claSS1f1er (3.r class1f1ers.f1. . 'Buy the rest of the books.n1Shed slng1ng songs .f1er always means 'one 1nstance of the part1cular class of th1ngS denoted by the noun. The sub-class mean1ng 1S 'to be able to. accompl1sh a temporary or 1ndef1n1te task' 11. I .c comp18t1ve verbs. .2. /cob/ pham r1an nalJ-syy cob 188W khaw rO~lJ-phleelJ cob 188W khaw rO~lJ-phleelJ sed le8w v v 'to f1n1sh. .2.' and th1.

etc.nable to V. etc. For each transltlve verb glven./ /Jad/ Used after: /pid/ /klyyn/ /peed/ 'to close (door. along wlth some of the transltlve verbs they are used wlth. 'cannot put In. etc.' wlth /maJ/ comlng between the two constltuents In the latter case. 129 . the flrst two such constructlons would be as follows: 'can put In. /khyn/ /J6 g / /Jib/ 'to rlse' Used after: /aaclan/ /peed/ 'to vomlt' 'to open (a cover. etc. at least two constructlon~ wlth ltS completlve verb (appearlng In the headlng) are posslble .Examples of the most lmportant members of thlS sub-class are glven below.' 1. /khaw/ 'to enter' /saJ/ /c.. 'to advance' and nearly all verbs of speaklng. 'to put In' 'to drlll' 'to stuff' 2. 'to ralse' 'to plck up' 4.g/ 'to emerge' Used after: /th. uSlng the vocal apparatus and deallng wlth language: /phuud/ /nyg/ 'to speak' 'to thlnk' 'to cry out' 'to laugh' /aan/ /plee/ /kh{d/ 'to read' 'to transla te ' 'to flgure out' /r~alJ/ /hua-r~/ 3. 'to swallow' 'to open (door.one meanlng 'able to V' and the other 'll. unable to be put In (won't go In). For example. under ltem 1.) . etc. ) . ) . /lolJ/ 'to descend' r Used after: to ea t' /syy/ 'to buy' /thaan/ and /kln/ /pid/ 'to close (cover.ad/ /dYlJ/ 'to take off Ito pull' I /thoan/ /peed/ /kaaw/ 'to wlthdraw' 'to open (door. /a. able to be put In (wlll go In) . ) . thlnklng.) .

/cee/.' and /r~u-rya1. f1X. /daJ-J1n/ 'to hear. ) I /khlyan/ /thon/ 'to Sh1ft' 'to endure' I 11. undo' /kh~d/ 'to thlnk out (come to a declslon)' 130 . /tog/ 'to fall' /kee/ Used after: 'to solve.]/ and /Joon/ /daw/.and the1r compounds /m881.' etc.5.]/ 'to know what someth1ng 1S about' All used after: /fa1. /th~ug/ /Jl1.]/ 'to h1t' 'to shoot' Used after: 'to beat' 'to throw' 'to guess' /khwaa1. and /khaad/ 10. and other verbs mean1ng 'to meet' Used after: /haa/ 'to look for. try to smell' Used after: /dom/ 8.]/ 6. /daJ-kl~n/ 'to 1dent1fy the odor of' 'to sn1ff. etc. 12.' /khaw-caJ/ 'to understand. /hen/ /duu/ 'to see' Used after verbs of look1ng: /lee/ 'to watch' 'to look at' 'to try to d1st1ngU1Sh' . /thaaJ/. /ph~b/. try to f1nd' /kh~n/ 'to rummage' /khwaa/ 'to grope' -and the1r compounds.]/ 'to Ilsten' 7. /waJ/ 'to mover Used after: /laag/ /khen/ 'to pull (cart.) 'to push ( cart. /daJ-r~d/ /chlm/ 'to ldentlfy the taste of' 'to taste' Used after: 9.

be stuck' 'to remaln' Used after: (/Juu maJ-tld/ means 'won't stay In place. sleep' Used after: /noon/ 'to lle down. Used after. ' 131 . wlth the meanlng 'to dea th'. cure' 'to re SUSCl ta te ' Used after 18. . /haaJ/ 'to recover' and /fiYn/ 'to regaln consclousness' expresslons relatlng to slckness and these verbs: /rag-saa/ 'to treat. /tld/ /Juu/ 'to stlck.and thelr compounds. /l~g/ 'get up' and /tyyn/ 'to awaken' 'wake up.and other verbs meanlng 'to pull.13.) 20. 'to be lylng down' /plug/ /noon/ (/noon maJ-l~g/ means 'unable to get up') 17. /tll/ /chon/ 'to beat' 'to colllde wlth' /thab/ /khaa/ 'to over-run' 'to klll' 19. /taam/ 'to follow' 'to chase' 'to hunt (anlmals)' 14. 15. /taa\J/ 'to dle' Used after verbs of vlolent actlon. /than/ /laJ/ /laa/ 'to catch' Used after. /lab/ 'to close the eyes. . /lud/ /dln/ /dy~/ 'to come loose' Used after: 'to wrlggle' . try to sleep' 16. /ph~n/ /nll/ /l~b/ 'to get clear of' 'to flee' 'to escape' Used after: /l~lg/ 'to avold' .

/r~u-than/ These comblnatlons do not pass the crltlcal test of lnsertlon of the negatlve between the flrst and second constltuents.ob. 132 .tog/ /tog-loI.Some constructlons WhlCh appear to be transltlve verb plus completlve verb are actually slngle compound lexemes.ob-IaJ/ /s. /s.J/ Examples: 'to pass an examlnatlon' 'to fall an examlnatlon' 'to COme to an agreement' 'to catch on (to a fact) .

4.6. but the modal ltself The class meanlng lS 'attltude of speaker toward the effect.).1. the prlnclpal members belng ImaJI the followlngl Ikhyynl 'to do somethlng one knows lS wrong' Jaa-khyyn pl. revolvlng around a central sub-class (4. Modals are sub-classlfled on the basls of more speclflc contexts.3. thee k5-t5~ s.) IJaa/. Ikhyyn/-class modals also occur frequently wlthout or settlng of the actlon. There are three deflnlte sub-classes of modals.) whlch occurs as text Ixl In the conThus Is x pI.) whose members have negatlve meanlng.3. and rather small. Ikhyynl Class These modals occur between IJaal 'don't' and a verb.).2.1. where lsi stands for a subJect and Ipi for a predlcate. a fourth group. Modals A modal lS any bound lexeme (2.' khyyn tham Ja~an .1. thelr classlflcatlon as conJunctlons lS consldered pre-emptlve. The general deflnltlon of modals also flts some klnds of conJunctlons.BOUND LEXEME CLASSES 4. (The verb. ' 133 .you'll certalnly fall the examlnatlon. 'Don't release that mouse. the dlfference belng that modals do not substltute for thelr predlcatlons and hence are not predlcators. The class meanlng lS the same: 'mode of actlon. and are negated In statements wlth ImaJ-daJI rather than (see The class lS closed. plus a resldue of dlscontlnuous lexemes and other mlscellaneous ltems whlch make up 4.' The whole class lS appar- ently closed.1. or speclflc appllcablllty of sltuatlon descrlbed.3.' IJaa/. modals flll the same posltlon as the free lexeme class of modal verbs (3. llke all verbs followlng may be. but Slnce these bound lexemes always precede other modals. agalnst your better Judgment. lS never preceded by Ica-I.1.ob tog • 'If you keep on dOlng that.oJ haJ-nuu tua-nan paJ .). 1. tlmlng. especlally the Icy~1 class (4. and the membershlp lS relatlvely small.1.1.3. 4.

'Don't make the mlstake of thlnklng thlS lS Frlday. th88 k5-t5~ fyyn tham: paJ • 'Lazy or not. 'The pllot unwlttlngly flew the plane lnto enemy terr~tory. chan caklE€~ tham so~-deed • 'If the teacher perslsts In glvlng such a lot of homework. /fyyn/ 'to force oneself to do somethlng dlstasteful' phed: nag.' 7. ' 134 .' 4.' 6. /mua/ 'to keep on.' khll-kiad ryy maJ khll-kiad .' khaw mua duu thll-Wll ph188n: paJ • 'He kept on watchlng televlslon In a state of trance. /ph8~/ or /phy~/ - 'to act prematurely' (after /Jaa/) 'to have acted recently' (otherwlse) Jaa-ph8~ paJI na.' khaw maJ-daJ-klE€~ chom • 'She wasn't Just pretendlng to admlre It. wan-n{l pen wan-sug . /lo~/ 'to act wrongly wlthout reallzlng It' Jaa-lo~ kh{d: paJ waa . ' 5. /klE€~/ or /klE~/ 'to pretend. to act so as to decelve' thaa khruu khyyn haJ kaan-baan maag-maag Ja~{l . th88 klab tham maa-krood • 'I was chldlng you gently. It'S ralnlng. you've got to go ahead wlth It.2.' khaw phy~ klab-maa . fan tog. but you got mad anyway. I 3. 'Don't go yet. don't force yourself to eat It. to act stubbornly or tardlly' Jaa-mua thla~1 kan Juu-188J • 'Let's stop thlS senseless argulng. mya-kil • 'He Just got back a moment ago. I'm Just gOlng to put on a show of dOlng It. /klab/ 'to act contrary to expectatlons or to reverse preVlOUS behaVlor' chan tyan dll-dll . k5-Jaa fyyn kln: khaw-paJ • 'If It'S too peppery. ' nag-bln khab khrya~-bln lo~ khaw-paJ naJ-mya~ khaa-syg .

/ESb/ 'to act surrept1t1ously or from concealment' chan Esb paJ-duu khaw tham • 'I sneaked 1n and watched them do 1t.8n chan chS8b Sll-dSS~. thl1-thES khaw kl~b chS8b C1~-C1~. or so as to affect the speaker and h1S group' J~a-maa khlan bon kradaan-dam . ' 3-4. 'Don't wr1te on th1S (or our) blackboard. 'May I go along w1th you~' 10. /phaaa kan/ and /chuaJ: kan/ 'to act as a group' d~g phaa-kan-wl~ khaam thanan: paJ . 'Formerly I was fond of red. 'Why come and blame me for 12. 11-12. ' Members 1-8 of th1S class apparently exclude each other semantlcally. ' 11. /maa/ 'to act toward the speaker. although the only ObV10US palrs of antonyms are order of the class 1S 1-8. 9-10. /ph188J/ 'to act as a follower.' maa thood pham thamaJ t . Example: khyyn phaa-kan-na~ ni~-nl~ camaJ-san~g: 188J • 10 1 'If [we] all Just keep sltt1ng st1ll 1t won't be any fun at all.8J .tEs-k. 'Watch out you don't go breaklng any glasses. daJ' maJ . tEs dlaw-n{l kl~b chS8b Sll-khlaw . to tag along' pham ph188J paJ-duaJ .' 8. khaw klE~ chom waa ar. or so as to affect 1nterests other than the speaker and hlS group' J~a-paJ khian bon kradaan-dam . but now I llke green' chan nyg waa . 'Don't wr1te on that (or the1r) blackboard. 5-6. but 1n fact she really d1d llke 1t. 'The ch1ldren all ran off across the street' maa chuaJ-kan-h~w • 'The dogs are all bark1ng at once. Internal 135 . and 11-12. 'I thought she was Just pretend1ng to llke the flavor of 1t.' dlaw capaJ tham thuaJ-kEsw tESg . ' 9. /paJ/ 1t~ r 'to act away from the speaker.

except wlth /maJ-chaJ/ In hypostasls.). The usual order has the /khyyn/-class modal In 'He certalnly llkes to fool around wrltlng on the blackboard.3.' and for those members whlch occur wlthout /ca-/ also 'frequency of actlon. characterlstlcally' /mag ca-/ /aad ca-/ /J5om ca-/ 'llkely to' 'apt to. must have' naJ ryduu-n{l fon mag tog nag: chlaw . ' khon thll-chyy prlldaa . second posltlon.1. and rather small. kholJ pen phuu-chaaJ • 'People named Prlda are ordlnarlly men. ' 4.2 /mag/ Class All members of These modals are deflned by the context /x camaJ-V/. and In nonnegated verb phrases they behave exactly llke the modal verbs (3.' are commonly found before numeral phrases as well.deg phaa-kan-paJ keb d. 'The drlvers are frequently forelgners. WhlCh all mean 'almost. 2. /mag/-class modals cannot be dlrectly negated. 'In thls season It frequently ralns qUlte hard. The class lS closed. ' khaw cha~1 kl€E~ khl. certalnly' /kholJ ca-/ 'must. ' khon-khab-r~d J50m pen chaaw-taa~-pratheed . 4· 'ordlnarlly. may' 'llkely to. ' aad capen paJ-daJ • 'It's qUlte posslble. th88 t5~-fyyn klnl khaw paJ • 'You Just have to make yourself eat It down. The class meanlng lS or lmmlnence of actlon.an bon kradaan-dam . ' Members of the class also occur freely In constructlon wlth modal verbs and other pre-verbal classes. /mag/ /aad/ /J5om/ /kho~/ 'frequently' 'characterlstlcally' 'frequently. ' 136 . apt to' 3. the class occur more frequently wlthout /maJ-/ than wlth It. group All members except th~ 'llkellhood 5-7 occur frequently wlthout /ca-/.og-maaJ len. 'Then agaln he mlght not go. the prlnclpal members belng the followlngl 1. ' 'It may happen.1. sometlmes enterlng lnto constructlon wlth them (below). 10 12 'The chlldren went off to plck flowers for fun.' Membe~s 8-11.' khaw aad camaJ-paJ k5-daJ.

10. apparently' 7. ' sil-d££~ kho~ camaJ-mll • 'There must not be any of the red. nearly' naam k:Yab camed • 'The water lS nearly all gone.' naam thaa-camed • 'The water lS apparently all gone. nearly' 'about to. /hen ca-/ /duu-myan ca-/ /thaa ca-/ 'seems to. somewha t' /kamla~ ca-/ 'about to' 13. ' chan khooJ: J~u . kyab saam chua-moo~ • 'I was waltlng for almost three hours. ' chan nyaJ theb-cataaJ • '1 1 m about to dle from fatlgue. ' r6d-faJ cuan capaJ: J~u-le£w • 'The traln lS already about to go. 6. apparently' ' seems to. ' khaw duu-myan caklab baanl le£w • 'I guess he has gone home already. /kyab/ /cuan/ /theb/ /rlm/ 'almost' 'almost' 'almost' 'almost' /k:Yab ca-/ /cuan ca-/ /theb ca-/ /rlm ca-/ 'about to. ' khun-cid thaa camaJ-maa • 'I guess Chlt lS not comlng. qUlte' /kh3n-khaa~ ca-/ 'beglnnlng to' 137 . ' thll-na~ theb camaJ-mll • 'There are almost no seats left.mya hen waa pham maJ-J~u . 11. ~ab con myyd • 'They played untll It was almost dark. apparently' 'seems to. ' khaw len: kan . /kh3n-khaa~/ 'rather. Sll-d££~ hen camaJ-mll • 'There doesn't seem to be any of the red. ' 5. nearly' 'about to. /kamla~/ 'In the process of. 9. khaw kho~ caklab baan • 'When he saw I was not there. ' 8. he must have gone home. ' 12. nearly' 'about to.

member has a spec1al relat1onsh1p w1th /ca-/ Wh1Ch has to be stated separately.' Daan chan{l . . 'The hall 1S rather pretty. ' pham kYab camaJ-kheeJ paJ len-n~am thalee . restr1ct1on on the appl1cab1l1ty of a propos1t1on. 1nternal order for the class. ' phuud kakhaw ch~g-cabya • 'It was rather bor1ng talk1ng to h1m. cons1stlng of only these n1ne members. small and closed. Each cypes of pred1cate elements. modal verb.' The members of the class not only exclude each other but also The class 1S exclude the 1nterrogat1ve part1cle /maJ/ from the same clause. w1th Wh1Ch they are 1n d1rect construct1on. 'The people are beg1nn1ng to go for th1S k1nd of fa1r 1n a b1g way. but the class as a whole occurs before all types of pred1cate: adJect1ve. /m~g/-class modals comb1ne freely w1th modal verbs and other pre-verbal There 1S consequently no classes. the way 1t'S decorated. The var10US members of the class 1nd1v1dually precede only certa1n verb. ' The members of th1S class apparently exclude each other semant1cally. ' 'beg1nn1ng to' n~~D kamlaD capaJ haa-syY naD-syy thl1-nan . 'I was about to go shopp1ng for books there. 'I have almost never been sW1mm1ng'ln the ocean. although there are no ObV10US pa1rs of antonYms.' tEED rooD JaD{l khon-khaaD suaJ. and prepos1t1onal or numeral phrase. noun. n~g-r1an aad camaJ-toD paJ kO-daJ • 'The students may not have to go. most of Wh1Ch are lexemes conta1n1ng the morph /maJ/ as f1rst const1tuent. The class mean1ng 1S 'negat1ve. complet1ve verb. at that.' Th1S class of modals cons1sts of the negat1ve /maJ/ and 1ts replacements.'rather.' Daan n11 ch~g cakhoJ-sanug khyn • 'Th1S celebrat10n 1S f1nally start1ng to get roll1ng (beg1nn1ng to be more fun). qU1te' phl1-chaaJ kamlaD r1an naD-syy thl1-nan • 'Older brother 1S study1ng there. prachaa-chon ch~g capaJ-kan-Ji J . They always precede such 1tems.

Flrst form nearly always occurs before preposltlonal and numeral phrases. It's not two o'clock yet.' or 'I'm not the one who lS gOlng. other than' Occurs unstressed and In close Juncture wlth ltS predlcator. 'I have never gone there. or /maJ/ 'not. 'I dldn't go. completlve verb adJectlve maJ s~~~ moo~: nll • 'Well.' A V khaw waa~ caan . t r6d-faJ Ja~ maJ-daJ-paJ .) Condltlons of occurrence are the same as for /maJ/. /sad~ag/.' Ja~ /kh88J/. /maJ/. modal verb /daJ/.1.' or 'Thls cloth lS not (as you seem to thlnk) good. ' (Commonest In past sltuatlons but also occurs In present and future sltuatlons regarded as not capable of change. Both forms follow /ca-/. ' verb phaa nll maJ-daJ-dll • adJectlve 'Thls cloth lS not the good cloth (some other cloth lS). but otherWlse /maJ/ lS more common. 'The traln hasn't gone yet. maJ naJ-tuu • 'She put the dlshes not (elsewhere than) In the cablnet. ' pham paJ maJ-sad~ag: 188J • 'It's not at all convenlent for me to go. ' D9 . except that /maJ-daJ/ lS rare before modal and completlve verbs and preposltlonal phrases.' pham paJ maJ-daJ' 188J • 'I can't go at all. pham maJ-daJ-paJ .' pham aad camaJ-paJ kS-daJ • 'I may not go. /maJ-daJ/ or /maJ-daJ/ 'In fact not.' pham maJ-paJ: 188J • 'I'm not gOlng at all. elther. and never precede It. adJectlve. subJect other than what lS assumed.' 2. whlch lS a verb. pham maJ-kh88J paJ: 188J . completlve or modal verb.

1t'S Just r1ght. nag-r1an naaJ-r88J: thaw-nan. 'It's not a (wood) house.. A.da J-un • (I haven't warmed lt up yet. 'Have you warmed up the eng1ne 'No. Ja~ ma J. not yet. ph88 sabaaJ. thaw-nan 'Not SlX people. for example before /khyyn/-class modalss chan maJ-daJ-kle8~ chom: r5g t . 'The weather lsn't hot. and (facultat1vely. ma J-un • yet~ . second form occurs elsewhere.' aakaad maJ-chaJ-r~8n . 'She puts the dlshes somewhere bes1des 1n the cupboard.' maJ-chaJ hog khon . ' nag-r1an tr1am maJ-chaJ-kh'8~ . pred1cate other than what 1S assumed' Occurs most commonly before noun pred1cates. fyg • ICompet1ng 1S not what the preparatory students do. not yet. Ja~ 'Is the englne warm '" . thll kh8~ • 'The preparatory students don't compete. haa khon.' khaw waa~ caan maJ-chaJ naJ-tuu . A. prepos1t1onal and numeral phrases. 'I d1dn't pretend to adm1re 1t!' 3. /maJ-daJ/ also occurs 1n places where /maJ/ does not. F1rst form occurs 1n 1solat1on and normally Both are preceded by /ca-/~ precedes nouns and non-pred1cates.)' yet~' Q. /maJ-d&J/ above) They prac- . but 1S also found before adJectlves. cand1da tes do. I (Compare w1th last example under 2. 1n hypostas1s.' The contrast between /maJ and /maJ-daJ/ 1S neatly p01nted up by the follow1ng pa1r of exchangess Only the off1cer Q. at least) before any lexeme of the language whatsoever. It's a stone bU1ld1ng. " " nag-r1an tr1am maJ-daJ-khe~ . verbs. tyg . t1ce. (It 1sn't warm yet. maJ-chaJ baan. /maJ-chaJ/ or /maJ-chaJ/ 'not a case of.)' In add1t1on to Subst1tut1ng for /maJ/. 'No. un khrya~ le8w rY-Ja~ . Only f1ve. unstressed and 1n close Juncture.

lt normally precedes /ca-/. ' khaw maJ-khoJ Jaag capaJ • 'She doesn't really want to go' duu maJ-khoJ casuaJ: 188J . phaa nil maJ-khoJ-dll • 'ThlS cloth lsn't very good.". Also. and ln such cases occurs ln ltS flrst form.' ThlS modal occurs also ln many flxed expresslons. Occurs commonly before verbs and completlve verbs. modal verb Ilab/. except that /maJ-khoJI lS rare before modal verbs and numeral phrases and ln lsolatlon. verb /Jaag/. not very. rather than followlng lt as ImsJI does. /maJ-than/ 'has not had tlme to. v . khon-nan maJ-daJ-chyy phoon • 'That person lsn't named Porn. much. conslderably' (llt.The contrast between /maJ-daJ/ and /maJ-chsJ/ lS also lllustrated by the followlng. one can hardly sleep. not a llttle. ' duu IE£w . 'not for fun') 4. rare elsewhere. had not (by that tlme) . ' phom-ee~ maJ-khoJ-paJ • 'I myself hardly ever go. completlve verb 5. ' ' " . It's Sanlt. noon maJ-khoJ-Iab • 'After havlng seen lt. /maJ-khoJ/ or ImaJ-khoJ/ 'hardly. v. for example: maJ-chaJ-n~oJ 'not a few. hardly ever.. sanid • 'That person's name lsn't Porn. ' /paJ/. 'It doesn't look at all pretty. not very much' Condltlons of occurrence are the same as for /msJ/. weelaa-nan kh££n Ja~ rag-saa maJ-than-haaJ 'At that tlme the arm had not yet been healed. ' chyY khon-nan maJ-chsJ phoon . Follows lea-I. many' maJ-chaJ-len 'ln earnest.

thll . . Iklua/. chan ch88n khaw 18EW . !ne t maa nan: l€EW. /maJ-J~g/ 'has not (In the long run). 'Well. I wasn't really exactly afrald at all. The correspondlng constructlon wlth /ca-/ lS /hen-camaJ/. tEE mla khaw maJ-Jag pa J 'Sanl t went. adJectlve 8. ' 'I don't thlnk Sanlt lS comlng.class and /maJ/ lS tbe only representatlve of the present class. 'Apparently Sanlt hasn't come.class modals. In my 0plnlon not' Occurs commonly before verbs and adJectlves. and In lsolatlon.. rare elsewhere.pham Ja~ maJ-than khaad: sa-il g . ' /suaJ/. ' 9. verb 'ThlS flower doesn't seem at all pretty to me. but he dldn't come. tEE khaw maJ-J~g maa. 'I hadn't even guessed lt yet. /maJ-hen/ or /maJ-hen/ 'apparently not.~g nil. chan maJ-hen suaJ: 188J . ' . /maJ-ch88~1 'not really. ' . Condltlons of occurrence are the same as for /maJ-than/. IJaa/ 'don't. or In the same constructlon wlth Ica-I. not (lD splte of expectatlons) . Does not occur wlth Ica-I. shouldn't' Occurs commonly before transltlve verbs and Ikhyyn/. Never occurs before preposltlonal or numeral phrases. ' 'There! There he comes. 7. ' /khaad/. less commonly before adJectlves and other verbs. ! aaw t maJ-Jag chaJ Oh! It's not hlm after all. verb pham k5-maJ-ch88~ klua: thldlaw rog . but hlS wlfe dldn' t. khun sanid ma J-hen-maa: sa. 'I lnvlted hlm. really not' Condltlons of occurrence are the same as for /maJ-hen/. verb 6. . ' d. khun sanid paJ . or /maa/. In WhlCh /hen/ lS a member of the /m~g/.

' Jaa-khyyn kln khaw-paJ: Sl ..' (/Jaal. modal / duu. nelther /keed/ nor /khyn/ Examples: same clause lS a tOP1C.)-tEcg/ lS a posslble predlcatlon: keed rod chon: kan khyn • 'It happened that there was an accldent.) Substltutes for the whole.thuug/. rod-pham keed Jaal.) (/r~d chon: kan/ lS a posslble predlcatlon: 'cars colllde. khaw ad phuUd khwaam. and hence lS not a modal verb by ltself. 2. /keed ••. a new thlng happens' Occurs dlscontlnuously around verbs.' (/J~m/ lS a verb.' chan ad J~m maJ-daJ • 'I couldn't repress a smlle. ' .5. the remalnlng modals thelr belng lncluded In one of the sub-classes.) 2. ' 'tlre bursts'. (In the last case any ltem precedlng /keed/ In the In all cases. 1. Jaa rew: nag • 'Not so fast1' /khyyn/. 'to smlle. maJ-daJ/ 'to be unable to keep from' Occurs dlscontlnuously (see expresslons. . verb you~' /rew/.Cll.) .3. 'He was unable to keep from telllng the truth. The dlscontlnuous satlsfy the gen- (1-4) satlsfy the class deflnltlon only lnsofar as some (5-8) eral deflnltlon perfectly but have functlonal pecullarltles WhlCh prevent /ad •. but are reSldue from the precedlng three clearly-deflned sub-classes. . wlll phil Jaa duu-thuug • 'Older brother shouldn't dlsparage It. adJectlve Mlscellaneous Modals The followlng do not comprlse a sub-class of modals.) around verbs and verb Examples: The morph /ad/ ltself does not Substltute for such predlcates. verb expresslons and whole predlcatlons. and parallel modals of thelr elements are concerned.1. .) ma J. 'Then don't (obstlnately) eat It. khyn/ 'It orlglnates.Jaa-pa J na J: lee J na t .da J . 'Don't go away anywhere.)-tEcg: khyn • 'My car developed a flat tlre.

) 3.5. Jl~ aw-paJ-kEE: . the element /Ji~/ precedes lt. . sure' Th1S modal probably belongs to the /mag/ class (4.' Jl~ Both predlcates. /taa~ . the ltem /Jl~ .3. 4.•. rew: khyn..3. In cases where a real subJect lS present. the faster lt runs.) but has several pecul1ar1t1es. the second /taa~/ lS the part of the redupllcated lexeme WhlCh fllls the modal posltlon. taa~ deen-thaa~ • 'Each person travels separately (goes hlS own way).). the negat1ve /maJ-chee~/ 'not really' (4. taa~/ 'each one In a dlfferent way' Occurs In parallel constructlon (see 2.• the more' Occurs In parallel constructlon. Example: taa~ khon ..•. mll khon maag . It has a lex1cal relat10nsh1p wlth 1t 1S never followed by /ca-/.2.1. /diaw/-class conJunct10n (4. ' (The tOP1C /naa-1Ykaa kho~~-chan/ 'my watch' lS the loglcal obJect of the flrst predlcate /aw-paJ-kEE:/ 'take to be repalred' and the loglcal subJect of /deen ••• thug thll/ 'runs faster and faster all the tlme. 5. and can be followed by any klnd of predlcate.3. how surpr1s1ngly so. however lack real sUbJects. The subJect fllls the slot between the two /taa~/'s.8. taa~/ lS also classlfled as a /diaw/-class conJunctlon (4.1. Jl~ deen rew: khyn.3.) w1th Wh1Ch 1t 1S 144 . Unl1ke all other members of the /mag/ class. ' Jl~/ 1S also classlfled as a On the basls of the posslble occurrence of elther element /Ji~/ before subJects. thug thll • 'The more I take my watch to be repalred. and only when a subJect lS lacklng does elther /Ji~/ fall lnto the modal posltlon. ' (/khE~-khanl kan/ls a verb expresslon: 'to compete. the merrler.1.) wlth whole predlcatlons. /Jl~ .).3.1.) '" .keed khE~-khan: kan khyn • 'Suddenly started competlng wlth each other.•• Ji~/ 'the more . how.' On the basls of ltS flrst element. /taa~ . Examples: naa-1Ykaa kho~~-chan . lntroduclng two predlcatlons WhlCh mayor may not have the same loglcal subJect. /cha~/ 'really.. Jl~ sanug • 'The more people there are.

' mya-waaD-n~l ph8~ roon khyn . (Only yesterday dld lt Jaa-phy~ hU~ khaaw dlaw-n~l • ilg haa naa-thll . where lt lS In dlrect contrast wlth /Jaa-pheu/ 'don't yet. thff~( khoJ hU~ • 'Don't cook the rlce now.4. khaaw mya pll thll-1EEW maJ-~oog ~aam 11tt1e better. ' ThlS modal resembles the /khyyn/-class modals (4. and In the form /chaU/ cannot be negated at all. and lS consldered to be a separate l€xeme.ln complementary dlstrlbutl0n. t /. tEE pll-n{l khoJ dll khyn • 'The rlce last year dldn't grow well. get hotter. The clauses In WhlCh lt occurs qUlte often have the 'emotl0nal lnvolvement' lntona tl0n morpheme / all true modals).1. but look! He's not a blt afraldl' cha~ phuud daJ t . lt sometlmes comes before the subject (lnstead of after lt.1. Walt flve mlnutes and then COOk~lt. because lt replaces /maJ/ everywhere.). not untl1 then. not untl1 now' lS ln The morphologlcally related fact a /khyyn/-class modal (4.3. In the examples below.4. after havlng walted a whl1e.) does not have an excluslvely temporal meanlng. Examples.) . ' 145 . ' Ja~: koon . Flnally. as do deg khon-n{l cha~-phuuds Cl~ t 'ThlS Chlld really knows how to talk!' !mEE . duu si t cha~ maJ-kluat sa-IeeJ t .1. 111ustratl0ns of /phe~/ are lncluded for contrast. and follows /ca-/ and the /mag/-class modals.1. 'How can you say such a thlngl' khun cha~ khab-r~d rews lakeen t 'You sure do drlve fast!' 6.) ln every respect except that lt does not occur ln the deflDltlve context (after /Jaa/ 'don't').' Its semantlc Opposlte /phe~/'Just now. /khoJ/ or /khoJ/ 'only then. Walt a 11ttle and then go. rather than a syntactlc constructl0n of /maJ/ plus /khoJ/. It lS frequently found ln commands. 'Say. dlaw khoJ-paJ . 'Not yet. It precedes malnly verbs and adJectlves.1. negatlve /maJ-khoJ/ 'not very' (4. but thlS year It's a 'It dldn't get hotter untl1 yesterday.

/kh5J-kh5J/ /rllb-rllb/ 'gradually. preposltlons normally have weak stress. lS also a preposltlon . wlthout pauslng' These and other redupl~cated lexemes of s~m~lar meanlng are sometlmes found In the modal posltlon as well as thelr normal complement posltlon.see 4. The functlon of preposltlons lS analogous to that of modals. /we-laa waa~/ /soo~ we-laa/ the stressed ltem /we-laa/ means 1tlme ' and lS an abstract noun: 'free tlme' 'two separate tlmes' 146 . for examples. but must be consldered open. /ca/ 'hypothetlcal sltuat~on. gently' 'hurrledly. 4. The class of preposltlons 1S not very large. 'Don't play excltedly (when you start to play). the second on a modal verb /rllb/ 'to hurry. Members 1nclude homonyms of both substantlve and predlcatlve lexemes For example.~aan n~~ chag-cakhoJ-sanug khyn • 'Thls celebratlon lS f~nally startlng to be fun.' the most common modal of all.6. whereas the In addlt~on. Wh1Ch. preposltlons and head-nouns lS the same as that between modals and modal verbs (whlch always head thelr predlcates). when stressed.' khaw rllb-rllb phuud • 'He started talklng In a blg rush. 'Play more qUletly (than you are now)J' kh5J-kh5J phuuda na • 'Speak softly. are heads of endocentr1c express1ons. The flrst lS based on the modal /kh5J/ above.2.3. The relatlonshlp between lS the dlfference belng that the co-constltuents of preposltlonal phrases are substantlve rather than predlcatlve expresslons.' The dlfference In meanlng seems to be that the modal posltlon refers more to the lncept~on of actlon and the complement poslt~on to the actlon as a '\. len kh5 J-kh5 J t .' 7. now. kh5 J-kh5 J len t . ' I 8.vhole.2. the larger constructlon head noun (or modal verb) can~ of the same type but the preposltlon (or modal) cannot replace It. Preposltlons A preposltlon lS any bound lexeme whlch lntroduces exocentrlc complement phrases.2.

2. upper portlon.1. numerlcal.1.2.g. It 1 s • •.6. r /thaa~-/ 'way.4.' The resultant derlvatlves are nouns. they are rare before verb-expresslons. or loglcal restrlctlon on a substantlve concept. /naJ/ 'In. temporal. etc.' Preposltlons are sub-classlfled lnto flve categorles.).e. Followlng are the lmportant members and thelr derlvatlves.' 'bottom.' 147 . /phaa J-na J/ 2. up In' /kha~-bon/ /bya~-bon/ 'top.3. lower portlon. 7.2.class complementlves (3. They also flll mos~ of the posltlons of thelr base preposltlons as well.2. .But weak-stressed /welaa/ lS a preposltlon 'at': 'at two o'clock' On the other hand.A few also make other derlvatlveswlth the prlor elements /bya~-/ 'slde.' /phaaJ-/ 'scope. /bon/ 'on. ' The class lS closed and small. and ltS members are grouped In palrs of semantlc OPPosltes.8. The context for all examples lS the same: man JUu ••. ' Preposltlon Derlvatlves /kha~-naJ/ . downstalrs' 'lower slde. /naJ/ Class ThlS class of preposltlons lS morphologlcally deflned by occurrence In derlvatlves wlth the lexlcal preflx /khaa~/ or /kha~/ 'slde' (see 2.). wlth an lmportant resldue of extremely common ltems (4. /naJ/-class preposltlons occur wlth weak stress before and In constructlon wlth all types of nouns and noun-expresslons. /no0g/ 'outslde of' /kha~-no0g/ 'lnslde' 'Wl thln' 'ou tSlde ' 3. many of the most common preposltlons do not have such homonYms . the re. The class meanlng lS 'locatlve reference.). By themselves.' /t00n-/ 'part. 4. r The class meanlng lS 'spatlal. and at the same tlme /thamaJ/. etc. upstalrs' 'upper slde. nan .

2. /caag/ Class The class conslsts of preposltlons WhlCh occur In the same constructlons as the /naJ/ class. however. phrases lntroduced by /naJ/-preposltlons. /klaalJ/ 'In the mldst of' /khalJ-klaalJ/ /toon-klaalJ/ As slmple preposltlons.2.5. /nya/ 'above' /khalJ-nya/ /phaa J-nya/ /thaalJ-nya/ /khalJ-taJ/ /phaa J.3.4. ' The class must be consldered open.6. underneath' 'In lnferlor posltlon' 'south' 'front' 'future' 'back! !future.ta J/ /thaalJ. to one slde' 'mlddle' 'mlddle part! 7. Wh1Ch are among the most frequent lexemes In the language.). toward. 4. they are llsted under the approprlate category (e.g. The prlnclpal colloqulal members of the /caag/ class follow. and /heClJ/ (see 4. but many comblnatlons lnvolvlng the derlvatlves occur. after' 'alongslde. standard members 1S small. but the number of frequent. 148 .). and In constructlon wlth.6.ta J/ 'up above' 'In superlor posltlon' 'north' 'down below. Therd lS no lnternal order for the class. The class meanlng lS 'dlrectlon and Ilmlts of motlon. Slnce weak-stressed verbs of motlon freel~ enter In (an example lS 13. /JalJ/ In 4. /khoolJ/. Most members have homonyms belonglng to other classes. the members of the /naJ/ class exclude each other. but also occur before.2. Also not Ilsted below are three preposltlons requlrlng speclal treatment: /kwaa/.2. In thlS latter category are members 1-4. /saJ/). /naa/ 'In front of' /khalJ-naa/ /phaaJ-naa/ /khalJ-lalJ/ /phaaJ-lalJ/ /khalJ-khaalJ/ 10. Besldes the members 11sted below. object slgn\ 'to! /suu/ Where these 1tems have colloqulal uses. the followlng ma1nly Ilterary preposltlons belong to the /caag/ classl /na/ 'at! 'toward' 'agalnst.

1. ' JUu thl1-nan con saam thum . ' da~ khyn te-Ia~ pratuu • !There was a nOlse from behlnd the door. to. .' 149 . rlght to' JUu tro~-klaa~ mEe-naam • 'It's rlght In the mlddle of the rlver.' JUu tht-chan . away from. In the possesslon of' khooJ Juu-thl1-naa roo~-rlan • 'He's waltlng (over) In front of the school.' 3.) 4. ' ('from the early mornlng. 'The pencll sllpped out of hlS hand. reachlng' ~og paJ thy~-klaa~ mEe-naam • 'Went out lnto the mlddle of the rlver. /tec/ or /te/ 'from.' paJ tht-baan phyan • 'Go over to a frlend's house. ' 2. all the way to. /tro~/ 'rlght at. 'Stayed there untll nlne p.m. from the dlrectlon of. /caag/ or /cag/ 'from.' ph~b kan tht-baan phyan • 'We met at a frlend's house. haa baad • 'I stlll have (or owe you) flve baht. from the tlme of' ~og d88n-thaa~ tec-chaaw myYd • 'Started travellng In the early mornlng. out of' . over at.' klab-maa thy~-baan welaa soo~ thum • 'Got back to the house at elght p.' ('There remalns to me flve baht.m.' dln-soo Iud paJ-caag-myy . ' 5. /thy~/ or /thy~/ and /con/ 'to. ' JUd tro~-nan: ee~ • 'stop rlght there.og maa caag tSJ ton-m~aJ • 'Came out from under a tree. /thl1/ or /tht/ 'at.

' 8. ' r~~~ taam caD-wa. followlng. by way of' JUu thaaD-n.' thEEw-baan pham mll J8 • 'There are a lot of them In my nelghborhood.thuug tro~ naa-og . ' l{aw thaD-s~aJ . /kab/ and /ka-/ 'wlth. near' len kan thEw-naa roo~-rlan • 'They play around the front of the school. /thaaD/ or /thaD/ 'In the dlrectlon of. ' 7.~g pratuu . /taam/ or /tam/ 'along. 'It's somewhere outslde the door. 'Came by way of the rlver.' 6.' paJ kab-pham dll kwaa • 'Better go wlth me. wlth respect to. /thEEw/ or /th€w/ 'to or In the general vlclnlty of. ' 9. 'Was hlt rlght In the chest. 'Slng accordlng to the rhythm. ' maa thaa~ mEE-n~am . from one to another of' wi~ paJ-tam-thanan • 'Run along the street. ' haa-syy tam-r~an • 'Shop for It from one store to the next. ' faag naD-syy kab-phyan • 'Leave books wlth a frlend. ' paJ thaaD rya-bln • 'Go by plane. to' JUu klaJ kab-baan pham • 'It's near (wlth respect to) my house.' phuud taam-pham • 'Say It after me. ' 150 . 'Turn to the left. accordlng to.

for' thy~ ke-kam lE8w • 'He ~s dead (has atta~ned to death)./ 'toward.' daJ kec-khoo~ th~g-Jaa~ or: daJ kakhoo~ th~g-Jaa~ • 'Appl~es to all klnds of th~ngs. to.2. ' 12. ' 11. /t. assoclated wlth' pen thuud pracam kru~-theeb • 'He's a dlplomat statl0ned ln Bangkok.' d~sh and broke It.o/ means 'per': haa-s~b klloo-m~d t. I 14. 'Flfty kllometers per hour. /pracam/ 'located at. 4. 'The l~ghter fell ~nto the J llJ sa J ton-m~a J • 'Shoot at a tree. /kec/ and under m~scellaneous preposltlons. at so as to hlt. /khE8/ 'StOpplng at. 10.o chua-moo~ .-taa .).' faJ-ch~g tog s3J-caan tecg . 'Stand eye to eye.o-naa khaw • 'Say ~t to h~s face. 'G~ve books to a fr~end.' . gOlng no further than' paJ khE8 wa~-lua~ • 'Goes only as far as the palace. ' (Also a member of the /dooJ/-class.' haJ na~-syy ke-phyan . ' Before metrlc classlflers and numeral phrases.6. /t.o/ or /t.3.' Jyyn taa t.3. /S3J/ 'lnto. 4. d~str~but~vely to' phuud t.) 13. ~n the presence of. ' (See also /ka-/ under 10. /ke8/ or /ke/ and /ka/ 'toward.16.haJ na~-syy kaphyan • 'G~ve books to a fr~end.2.

w1th the1r approx1mate mean1ngs. 1n fact. 'before' 'dur1ng the t1me of. to an end-po1nt of' 'after' 3. w1th1n the class and outs1de. and 1n constructlon wlth. / JalJ/ /lalJ-caag/ or /lalJ-cag/ 7.There lS no 1nternal order for the class. and qU1te large. the phrases are reverslble w1th respect to the head const1tuents. up to the t1me of. L1ke /thamaJ/-class complement1ves. r1ght across from' 'after' 'slnce' 'only to the p01nt of' 6 3 /trolJ. Wh1Ch are better cons1dered as slngle lexemesl /thYlJ. at or 1n (a part of the day)' 'as soon as the t1me of' 'unt1l. /mya/ or /mya/ /koon/ or /kon/ /welaa/ and /toon/ or /ton/ /phoo/ or /pho/ /con-thYlJ/ or /con-thYlJ/ and /con-krathalJ/ I a t the t 1me 0f ' 2. the only d1fference 1n mean1ng 1S a sllght change of emphas1s. 1.kab / 4 9 /taam-thl1/ 'to the p01nt of' 'accord1ng to' 'Oppos1te.3.). for Wh1Ch /dooJ/-1ntroduced prepos1t1onal phrases freely Subst1tute. up to the p01nt of' 'to. The class 1S open. spat1al or loglcal cond1t1on. both noun and verb express1ons.2. Most members. but spec1f1c comb1nat1ons of members occur. 152 . Follow1ng are the most 1mportant members. The class meanlng 1S 'temporal. conta1n1ng many nearly-synonymous members. occur before whole clauses as /thaa/-class conJunctlons (4.t Ee/ 2 /thYlJ-kh8e/ 4 12 The class cons1sts of prepos1tlons Wh1Ch occur before.' and the result1ng phrases funct10n syntact1cally as complements.khaam/ 5 /lalJ-caag/ 1 /talJ. 6.

/k. wlth the materlal of' 'because of' 'on account of' 'for the purpose of' 'for. durlng the tlme of' 'lncludlng.) 13. 14. wlth beglnnlng member as' 9. 2. such as. among. all the way from.'slnce.. 24. 19.on/ These are: But also. 22. only a few can substltute for thelr typlcal phrases. /noog-caag/ or /noog-cag/ 'besldes. 12. for example' (constructlon often closed wlth /pen-ton/) /myan/ or /myan/ /thaw/ or /thaw/ and /khec/ /dooJ/ or /doJ/ /duaJ/ or /daJ/ /phro/ or /phr5/ /nyalJ-caag/ or /nyalJ-cag/ /phya/ /sam-rab/ or /samrab/ and /suan/ /chapho/ /faaJ/ /pen/ /thccn/ or /then/ /ryalJ/ 'resembllng.on-nan/ 'before that' 'beforehand' 153 . 21. 27. /talJ-tec/. /w~n/ and /w~n-tec/ /rawaa lJ/ /tal..•• to . so as to replace' 'on the subJect of' Members of the /dooJ/-class normally exclude each other except lnsofar as they form slngle-lexeme compounds. llke' 'to the extent of' 'by means of. by the agency of' 'wlth. In the meanlng 'everythlng from .2. from the slde of' 'as. for example: 'such as' Of all the members of the class llsted above.2. and even these members occur by themselves only at the end of clauses.2. . 17. 20. In the manner of' 'llke. and hence are /eelJ/-class complementlves (3. 26. as for. 15. /k. so as to become' 'lnstead of. 11. 18. 23.). outslde of' 'except for' 'between. 25. wlth flnal member as' (Often follows 10. /JaalJ/ or /JalJ/ /chen/ 'llke. especlally for' 'on the part of. not at the beglnnlng. for the purpose of' 'dlrected toward.od-con/ 8. 16.

Opposlte' 'Opposlte the theatre~ tro~-khaam karoo~-na~ 3. /duaJ-kan/ 'wlth each /thEEn/ 'lnstead' All other members form complement phrases or derlve complementlves by addltlon of obJects llke /n~n/ (e. 7.g. In reserve' change of tone) 'especlally' (note /phr5-chan~n/ /phya/ 23. /haJ/ and /aw/. and 16 /khee/) wlth varlOUS meanlngs. 13.) whlch occur They do not normally The class meanlng. 16.g. 9. 2.18. 13. 3. 26. 1. completely clrcllng' 'seated around the table' na~ roob-t6 154 . are llsted wlth the mlscellaneous preposltlons (4. /roob/ and /rob-roob/ 'around. In addltlon' other.3. tlmlng of motlon or dlstrlbutlon'. 21. 8. lS 'route or The resultlng phrases can all be substl- tuted for by the correspondlng free form wlth normal stress. /duaJ/ 'wlth It.4. 15. 14.g. together' But also. especlally 5-10. over on the other slde. before nouns In the typlcal preposltlonal constructlon. 11. Slnce any completlve verb lS a candldate for membershlp.). 7.2.' 2. 9.6. 16) or /kan/ (e. 3.1. 'across. /tro~-khaam/ 'dlrectly across from. There are also a few hlghly lrregular derlved complementlves: 4· 14. 18) or /n{l/ (e. 11. of' deen khaam-thanon 'walk across the street' 'It's across the street. /pho-dll/ /chen-dlaw-kan/ 'Just now. /dooJ-chaph~/ Two addltlonal members of thls class whlch requlre speclal treatment. The class lS not large. Phrases lntroduced by /roob/-class prepOSltlons. but presumably open. occur before verbs or lntroduce clauses. Just then' 'In the same way' 'for that reason' 'for a purpose. are rnore frequently negated than any other type of Followlng are some lmportant members. These preposltlons belong to none of the precedlng classes but are weak-stressed forms of verbs (mostly completlve verbs. 19. preposltlonal phrase. 3.

/mod/ 9. free of' 'free of sorrow' 'In tlme for. /than/ than rOd-faJ 11. fllllng up' 'at full strength' 'allover the face' 'stlcklng to. as tlme or a road). /raJ/ or /raaJ/ and /praad-sacaag/ raJ h~ed-phon praad-sacaag khwaam-maaJ 'wlthout reason' 'wlthout meanlng' 'full of. from one end to the other' 'all through Ilfe' 5. /khrOb/ syy daJ khrob-ch~d • B.thaalJ 'the whole way' 'throughout (two or three dlmenslons). the last blt of' 'every last blt of strength' 7. pervadlng. /3om/ and /3m-3om/ deem 30m-to • 'around. catchlng up wlth' 'In tlme for the traln' 'wlthout.4. clear of. allover' 6. devold of' phon-th~g 10. detourlng. up agalnst' 'on the walls' 12. /thua/ thua-loog • 'allover the world' 'completlng a set. /tid/ 155 . the full amount of' 'able to buy the whole set' 'depletlng a set. /phon/ 'beyond. /tal~od/ tal~od. /tem/ tem kamlalJ tem-naa 13. past. half-clrcllng' 'walk around the table (as a detour)' 'all the way through (one dlmenslon.

dlstrlbutlon. a complete set of' aad-cat5lJ khooJ thYlJ-sib wan. /too/ too faa-phanalJ 'Jolned to.2. The class lS closed. equal to' 'as tall as hlS elder brother' (Also a member of /dooJ/ class..2.) The class conslsts of preposltlons WhlCh occur lmmedlately before. dlfferent. slze. lt 1S used to refer to all types of nouns. khon-la-thaalJ • 'They went off In dlfferent dlrectlons (each one way). an addltlonal number of' khaw daJ-rab cOd-maaJ ilg-SQOlJ chabab • 'He recelved two more letters. not merely people.' t5lJ khooJ ilg-sib wan. extendlng from.6. /te-la/ and /khon-la/ 'each. or lncluslveness of a numeral expresslon. and /la/ a dlstrlbutlve postposltlon.1. ' khaw capaJs kan .' 156 . 'another.) phrases.14. k5-daJ • 'We may even have to walt the full ten days. The class lncludes one set of members WhlCh are homonymous wlth /mag/-class modals (6. because. cardlnal numeral (3.' 3. descrlbed In 4. and In constructlon wlth. 4.4. and rather small.4. below) and these are the only members after WhlCh /ca-/ lntervenes before the numeral (~n tlme expresslons).16. In Ilne wlth' 'In Ilne wlth the wall' 'extendlng down from the fence'. It lS clear that /khon-Ia/ Examples: lS a compound preposltlon of the /sag/ class. llke /te-la/.' of /sag/-preposltlons lS 'attltude toward the accuracy. too-r~a lOlJ-paJ 15. ' 2. ••• at a tlme' (Although /khon/ lS also a classlfler for persons. all common members are represented here. thalJ-saam khon • 'All three of them are gOlng.3. and non-negatable. /thaw/ or /thaw/ 'to the extent or. The entlre constructlon In all cases lS The class meanlng stlll a cardlnal numeral constructlon. tWe have to walt another ten days. /thYlJ/ or /thalJ/ 'up to.) khaw paJs kan .

' pham 00g caag thil-nan raw-raaw Sil thum • 'I left there at about ten p. 'ln excess of' pham kh00JI JUU . ' cuan-casaam moo~ leEw • 'It's nearly three o'clock. I 4. ' (ThlS ltem. /cuan/ or /cuan ca-/ and /kyab/ or /kyab ca-/ 'almost' pham kh00JI JUU . /raaw/ or /raw-raaw/ and /pramaan/ 'approxlmately (tlme or quantlty)' and 'approxlmately (quantlty only) . /keen-kwaa/ and /kw~a/ 7. ' caag nil . ' khaaJ raakhaa keen haa-ro0J b~ad . keen-kw~a S00~ chua-moo~ • 'I was waltlng for over two hours.2. ' phid kan khon-la-J~a~ • 'Each klnd lS dlfferent. kYab-so0~ chua-moo~ • 'I was waltlng for almost two hours. and ltem closely resemble the partltlve numerals descrlbed ln 3. above 3. ' /phla~/ and /phe~/ or /phy~/ 'only' 8. khaaJ raakhaa pramaan haa-ro0J b~ad • 'It sells for approxlmately flve hundred baht.m. k5-raaw ny~-ro0J m~d 'It's about a hundred meters from here. khaaJ raakhaa phla~ haa-ro0J baadl thaw-nan 'It sells for only flve hundred baht. but dlffer ln that they occur before cardlnal numerals.3.' /keen/. 'It sells for more than flve hundred baht.) 5. at lntervals of' chaaJ thug-thug seam dyan • 'It lS shown every three months.6. ' 157 . whereas partltlve numerals do not. ' 6.aw te-la-so0~ an dll kw~a • 'It's better to take two of each. /thug-th~g/ 'every. WhlCh lS a redupllcatlon of /th~g/..

' The lmmedlate constltuents are keen ta~ haa-r~oJ baad • 'Even more than flve hundred baht. the surprlslngly hlgh number of' pham khoOJ: JUu . /keen/ lS followed only by /ta~/ and /phla~/ only by /sag/.4.' ph8~ saam moo~ • 'It's only three o'clock. ' thy~ kyab-sll chua-moo~ • 'Nearly four whole hours. the unreal quantlty of' pham capaJ-syy na~-syY sag-s00~ lem 'I'm gOlng to buy a couple of books.1. /sag/ or /sag/ 'the lnexact number of. and 9-10 exclude each other lnternally. .) 9. llg pramaan sib khon • 'Approxlmately ten more people.' pham capaJ-syY na~-syy sag-lem • 'I'm gOlng to buy a book (unspeclf+ed)' khaw maJ-daJ-syy na~-syy sag-lem dlaw • 'He dldn't buy (so much as) a slngle book. I . Examples of actual comblnatlons follow. members of groups 1-2. always A/BC.for example.' 10. and 4. Two /sag/-class preposltlons In sequence are not uncommon.1.pham SyY daJ phla~-haa chabab • 'I was able to buy only flve coples.•. ta~-s00~ chua-moo~ 'I was waltlng for all of two hours.' (See also the modal /ph8~/.' khaw mll luug phla~-s00~ khon • ora khaw phy~-mll luug S00~ khon • 'She has only two chlldren. phoo deen paJ-daJ sag-haa naathll .1. ' caag nil . I I The class conslsts of palrs of semantlc 0pposltes whlch Ilmlt the actual posslbllltles 3-4. as much as. In /ta~/ or /ta~/ 4. 'all of. 'After he had been walklng along for perhaps flve mlnutes . k5-ta~ haa-r6o J m~d • 'It's at least flve hundred meters from here. 5-8.

) 2) Pre-verbal phrase /haJ/ 'wlth the (human or anlmate) agency of' 'wlth the (lnanlmate) lnstrument of' lawl m88-khrua haJ-deg tad nya pen-ch{n • 'The cook has the chlld cut the meat lnto sllces. ' saa~ thamn~b haJ-n~am thuam • 'Bullt a dam for floodlng.' fon t~g aw-naam thuam • 'It ralned and floodlng resulted. phla~ sag-s~~~ med ._ v . each have homonYms belonglng to several other form-classes. Post-verbal phrase IhaJ/ 'to or for someone. ' Mlscellaneous Preposltlons These two preposltlons. . havlng an unlntentlonal effect on somethlng' Jyyn haJ phan~g-~aan • 'Hand It to the clerk. havlng an lntentlonal effect on somethlng' /aw/ 'to or at somethlng. The two are llsted here together because they share a number of constructlons and have a common meanlng: constructlons ares 'transfer of possesslon or lnstrumentallty.' m88W takhuJ aw-sya • 'The cat sharpened ltS claws on the mat. ' kyab ta~ so~~-r~~J m~d • 'Almost as much as two hundred meters. 'Only about two meters. whlch as preposltlons are members of the /dooJ/ class. ' ('Bullt a dam to make It flood. .' The 1.) lawl lS very common after verbs of holdlng and grasplng: J~b aw-pag-kaa • 'Plck up the pen. ' ('The raln made It flood.' 159 .

troduced by that member. 160 .mEE-khrua aw-ml1d tad nya pen-ch{n • 'The cook uses a kn1fe to cut the meat 1nto sllces. 'Plck flowers for them' keb d.og-maaJ: aw • 'P1ck flowers for themselves' khaw caJYYm haJ: i1g • 'He's gOlng to lend 1t (to others) as well. these construct1ons correlate w1th those of /dooJ/-class prepos1t10ns. 'Go by car. khaw maJ-daJ-b. /haJ/ never has the form /haJ/. keb aw-kan • keb: kan aw • 'They plck them for each other. tham dua J-maa J aw r6d-Jon paJ .) HomonYms of the two prepos1t10ns occur unstressed after verbal phrases wlthout any obJect. /haJ/ /aw/ 'to or for someone else' 'for oneself. 26). . the members of Wh1Ch they always precede. ' 'They p1ck them for others. . ' 'They p1ck them for the(mse 1 ve s (as a group) '. lt lS 1mportant to d1st1ngu1sh whether /haJ/ and /aw/ occur as preposlt10ns or postpos1tlons.og pham t pham dawl aw ee~ • 'He d1dn't tell me. pare the follow1ng: . th1S lS a case of Subst1tut10n for the typ1cal prepos1t1onal phrase InBut Slnce /haJ/ and /aw/ as postpos1tlons occur In m1xed order w1th members of the /waJ/-class. . keb haJ-kan . 'Make 1t w1th wood. for ltself l keb d. keb: kan ha J . they are asslgned to th1S class rather than to the /ee~/-class.1.4.' Apart from the order of the preposltlonal phrase (before the verb). ' 'Go by car . aw-maaJ tham Com- . ' 'Make 1t w1th wood. As /waJ/-class postpos1t1ons (4. paJ dooJ r~d-Jon . 'The p1ck them for themselves (as 1nd1v1duals) '. L1ke a few members of the /dooJ/-class (2. As a postpos1tlon. I guessed 1t for myself. ' I In assoclat10n w1th the plural pronoun /kan/.og-maaJ: haJ . 3.18.

' 5. 'to glve' 'to take. ' ('so that the lamp would fall. khwaa~ haJ khoom-taD tog. 'he threw wlth the ball. As conJunctlons Both /haJ/ and /aw/ o~cur before subJect-predlcate constructlons.). wlll you~' man tll chan aw-rcD-rccD • 'It hlt me hard. ' ('In such a way that the lamp fell. as conJunctlons of the /sy~/-class of subJect.3.1. In the examples below.3.) khaw aw luug-boon . wlth the common meanlng 'change In many cases thlS lS an extenslon of thelr preposltlonal use In post-verbal phrases. stressed.' (4. .3.6. 'so that. WhlCh accldentally' khaw aw luug-boon .4. llke the occurrences of /dooJ/-class preposltlons as /thaa/-class conJunctlons /haJ/ /aw/ (4.2. 'He took the ball and threw lt at the lamp to make lt fall. . to choose' haJ sataaD: paJ (daJ sataaD: maa 'to glve money away' 'to recelve money') Ito take the money away' 'to brlng the money' maa-haJ sataaD paJ-aw sataaD ~ maa-haJ 'to come and glve money' 'to go get money' 'to brlng for someone' 161 .). the maln verb lS underllned. WhlCh lS supposed to' 'so that. As Maln Verbs Llke IwaJ/-class postposltlons. khwaaD aw khoom-taD tog • 'He threw the ball and lt knocked down the lamp. A slmllar use.) In both examples. also common to /dooJ/-class preposltlons. the flrst /aw/ lS a preposltlon (see 4. as prlmary verbs. /haJ/ and /aw/ occur.2.' though /khwaaD/ lS also transltlve. above). 2 . lS occurrence before adJectlves: tll man haJ-rcD-rccD: na • 'Beat lt hard.

Besldes thelr baslc meanlngs. /te8/ 'startlng from' and /con/ 'up to' have quantlty-related meanlngs whlch are the exact equlvalents of two /sag/-class (4.5.3. Baslcally they are both members of the /caag/ class (4.8. respectlvely).2.5. 2) Between a verb and a completlve verb or adJectlve: /con/ 'flnally. lncludlng sUbstantlves. expresslons. and phrases. /sag/ 'as Ilttle as' and /ta~/ 'as much as. only one of the palr of preposltlons occurs. 1) Between a verb and ltS obJect: kln tEE /te8/ 'only' nya-muu 'eats only pork' 'wants only to eat' 'there are only a few' 'stays only In the nest' aw te. all the way to' haa con-da J haa con-thua 'flnally found' 'looked everywhere' 'swam untll exhausted' khwaa~ con. share some. tlons.10. the end of the clause. or at 'flnally hlt by throwlng' 162 .) preposltlons. /t£8/ or /te/ and /con/ These preposltlons. and the constructlons are mlrror lmages of each other. Followlng are some examples of these other construcIn the flrst two cases.' respectlvely. 2 • 2 .12) and In other compound lexemes.but not all constructlons wlth each other. but both occur In compound preposltlons of the /dooJ/ class (4.da J It lS characterlstlcally echoed wlth /thaw-nsn/ at the end of ltS phrase.2. of Opposlte meanlng.kln kln nya-muu te-nooJ ch50b tB-JUU naJ-ra~ 'eats only a llttle meat' 'llkes only to stay In the nest' In thls constructlon. /te8/ and /con/ replace them elsewhere. numbers 2 and 4. /te8/ occurs before all types of obJects. These occur only In numeral phrases. predlcatlves.haJ paJ-~ aw paJ-haJ haJ maa-aw haJ sataa~: aw-wsJ 'to have someone go get' 'to take to someone' 'to have someone COme get' 'to glve money for a future purpose' 'to keep money on hand for someone' ~ sataa~: wSJ-haJ 2.

3. 163 . ' con chan boag leEw: waa . but only 1n the hosp1tal.) chan boag leEw: waa . the f1rst constltuent lS a trans1t1ve verb and the second an adJect1ve or complet1ve verb. In slm1lar pred1cat10ns 1nvolv1ng a substant1ve as f1rst constltuent. ' 3) As conJunct1ons.In all such construct1ons. chan maJ-ch5ab sll-khlaw . khaw k5-JalJ khyyn syy maa-i1g con-daJ • 'Although I had told h1m I d1dn't 11ke green.3. /ka-/ and /ca-/ Each of these two preposlt1ons occurs 1n close Juncture w1th the other const1tuent of 1tS phrase (or w1th the f1rst syllable of the const1tuent 1f 1t lS pclysyllab1c). he st1ll ended up bUy1ng green aga1n anyway. the conJunct1on /cy~/ (4. ' khaw daJ-rab kaan-rag-saa Jaa~-d11 . con-phon kheed an-taraaJI leEw . ' khaw daJ-rab kaan-rag-saa J$alJ-d11 . 'He rece1ved excellent care. chan maJ-ch5ab sll-khiaw .2. but he st1ll ended up bUy1ng green aga1n anyway. ' 3. 4.3. 'He rece1ved excellent care unt1l he was past the dangerous stage.) 'unt11. t~E naJ roou-phaJaa-baan: thaw-nan.) lS used 1nstead of /con/: pham cYlJ-pa J • sll-khlaw thYlJ-cad11 . and /ca-/ by /ca/. 4.4. teE khaw JalJ-khyyn syy maa-i1 g con-daJ • 'I had told h1m that I d1dn't 11ke green. although each lS Subst1tuted for by stressed forms 1n c1tat1on and 1n formal style: /ka-/ lS replaced by /kab/ or /kEE/. although' (/thaa/ class.3.1. the two ltems st1ll contrast sharply: /tEE/ /con/ 'but'(/dlaw/ class. They are the only prepos1t1ons Wh1Ch have no stressed forms 1n conversat1onal style. 'I flnally went' 'Only green lS good.

10. JaalJ kakhaw myan kakhaw duaJ kaphom haJ kaphom trolJ-khaam kabaan klaJ kabaan khlalJ kabaan thaw kas80lJ thllug kakhaw phid kakhaw kiaw kalJaan 'go Wl th you' 'up to the fleld ' 'In extenslon of the row' 'rlght wlth the clock' 'llke hlm' 'llke hlm' 'wlth me' 'to me' 'Opposlte the house' 'near the house' 'next to the house' 'equlvalent to two' 'In harmony wlth them' 'dlfferent from them' 'concerned wlth work' 'at the same tlme as the teachers' lresembllng teachers' " myan: kan 4. as a group.o: kan trolJ: kan 'go together' 'meetlng' 'In Ilne' 'In agreement' 'llke each other' 'together I duaJ: kan haJI kan trolJ-khaam: klaJ: kan khlalJ: kan thaw: kan thllug: kan phid: kan kiaw: kan 'reclprocally' kan 'Opposlte each other' 'near together' 'next to each otm r' 'to the same degree 'In harmony' I 'rela ted' 'slInul taneous ' 'Slmllar' phr~om kakhruu phr~om: kan khl~aJ: kan khl~a J kakhruu 164 .o ka thEEW trolJ kana-likaa . As such. preposl tlons.2.9. . demonstratlves. numerals (but not classlflers). pa J: kan thYlJ: kan t. pronouns.' WhlCh can replace most /ka-/ phrases. nouns. and lt frequently follows other preposltlons and a few verbs It also has a covert relatlonshlp wlth the Slnce /ka-/ follows all other pronoun /kan/ 'In relatlon to each other. and Its meanlng lS 'In relatlon to.2.). 1 ts occurrence alone (Wl thout other pr'eposl tlons) lS lnterpreted as an lnstance of a /caag/-class preposltlon. lt can replace /k£E/ and /kab/ In all thelr uses (see examples under Examples: paJ kakhun thYlJ kasanaam t.1) /ka-/ occurs excluslvely before substantlve expreSSlons: phrases of all these types. and adJectlves.

) 'He'll have to go. /Jaag/.' 'He's about to go already.8. Its mean1ng 1S 'hypothet1cal sltuat10n or putat1ve Slnce the order of /ca-/ act1on.2.' 'He wants to go along. (/aad/. why not' (4. adJect1ves. 18 'He's gOlng to go along.1. Examples: khaw capaJ-duaJ • khaw capaJ-daJ Jaa~-raJ • diaw (/paJ/ khaw capaJ . and 1S also common before enumerat10ns and equat10nal pred1cates.1.) seem to exclude each other semant1cally.4.1. and /kamla~/ are /m~g/-class modals.' khaw cakhyyn paJ thamaJ . khaw kamla~ capaJ: 'He m1ght even go.) khaw camaJ-paJ: lama~ • 'Maybe he's not go~ng. /kho~/. espec1ally before verbs. ' 'He must have gone already.' J~U-18EW . the occurrence of /ca-/ w1thout modal elements present 1S best 1nterpreted as an 1nstance of a spec1al bound modal (belong1ng to a class of one).' 'How could he go (have gone)~' 'He's gOlng soon. (see 4.2) /ca-/ occurs before pred1cat1ve express1ons. and /kh88J/ are modal verbs. but 1t 1S 1nterest1ng to note that /ca-/ and the sentence part1cle Ithe/ 'Let's. w1th respect to modals and modal verbs 1S ent1rely f1xed. ' khaw cat5~ paJ . It 1S extremely common after /m~g/-class modals (4.3. although the1r pos1t1ons 1n the clause are qU1te d1fferent. rand 1t 1S used both for future states and for unreal or reconstructed present-past states.) khaw aad capaJ k5-d8J . 'Why would he be gOlng 1n sp1te of everyth1ng~' 165 .1. 1. 'When would he ever have gone~' (/t5~/.8. khaw kho~ capaJ: J~U-18EW .' a verb.) and some modal verbs (3.) Phrases 1ntroduced by /ca-/ cannot be replaced by any slngle lexeme (as can /ka-I-phrases). khaw cakh88J paJ mya-raJ t. modals (other than /m~g/-class) and some modal verbs and the1r phrases. khaw Jaag capaJ-duaJ .5.5-9). /ca-I.

substltutes for all /kwaa/-phrases.) whlch' Examples: roon kwa.2.oJ • 'Taklng the bus would be a Ilttle too slow.o~/. and /hEE~/ These three preposltlons are members of the /caag/ class (4.' (I t 's fl ve to two.2.na J.(/maJ/ and /khyyn/ represent thelr own classes of modals. /kwaa/.) il g haa-nathll casoa~ moo~ • 'In flve mlnutes It'll be two o'clock. Its homonym. . whlch commonly occur In rather speclal envlronments.). preposltlons.' (/sad~ag/ and /chaa/ are adJectlves.' lS a/nag/-class postposltlon (4.2. Ja J kwa-d88m . before /naJ/-class 1) /kwaa/ or /kwa/ 'more than' lS almost entlrely restrlcted to occurrence after adJectlves and adJectlve phrases.o~/ or /kh5~/ and /h2E~/ or /h2~/ 'of. 'How could he get a broken (/SOO~ moo~/ leg~ I lS an enumeratlon and /khaa-hag/ lS an equatlonal predlca te. khaw cakhaa-hag da J Jaa~-ra J '.ilg . ) 4. They occur excluslvely before substantlve expresslons and.) .4.baan roon kwaa Ja~ Ja~ 'hotter than In the house' 'hotter' 'even slower than me' 'even slower' 'blgger than before' 'blgger' 'better than the others' 'better' . In the deflnltlve /caag/-class context. /kh.' khyn rod-mee cachaa: paJ-n. chaa kwaa-phom: llg chaa kwa. belonglng to' as preposltlons are almost entlrely restrlcted to occurrence before substantlve expresslons.) na~ thll-nll casaduagl kwaa • 'Slttlng here would be more comfortable. Ja J kwaa dll kwa-phyan dll kwaa 2) /kh. although a few adJectlves can 166 . and also have homonyms whlch belong to speclal classes. . /kwaa/ 'more.

1f1er noun construct1on be1ng amb1guous 1n th1S case. place.' the preposltl0ns /khQa~/ and /h88~/ more often ~ean 'that of' than slmply 'of' 1. 'My book' khQa~-phom 'Mlne (that of me) . or complement posltlon. I 167 . . or small obJect as referent. but as normal-stressed head nouns wlth mod1f1ers both occur 1n d1rect semant1c contrast w1th the homonymous (weak-stressed) prepos1t1on plus 1tS complement.' /kh00DI 'th1ng' Nelther noun. Phrases lntroduced by /khQa~/ and /h88~/ commonly modlfy substantlves (usually nouns). whl1e that followlng /h88~/ has a large obJect.have a /kho0~/-phrase modlfylng them (see last examples In sectl0n). sUbJect. paJ 'They gave my money away. and caL fl11 the tOP1C.e. Compare the follow1ng: 'They gave my th1ngs away. for' and /khaa~/ 'of. Substltutes for the correspond1ng type of prepos1t1onal phrase. Slnce one of the meanlngs of the constructl0n 'head noun H plus modlfler nounM' 18 already 'the H of M. I the head no~n-mod­ Examples. they are more freoQent when the head noun lS mlsslng. khaw haJ D8n phom: paJ .' (Prepos1t1on /khaaD/) Where 1nd1rect obJects are 1nvolved. anlmal. 'Natlonal Stadlum (stad1um of nat1on) . 'They gavE" my money away. object. kE-phom: paJ 'They gave the money away to me. . or abstractl0n as referent. 'nat1onal anthem' 'the nat1on's' sanaam hE8~-chaad phlee~ chaad hE8~-chaad Both prepos1t1ons have homonyms Wh1Ch are nouns: and /hE8~/ 'place. ' (Noun /kha0D/) 'They gave m1ne away. there lS an 1mportant contrast between /k88/ 'to. but lf the head-noun lS mlsslng the phrase stl11 operates syntactlcally as a substantlve. khaw haJ khaw haJ ~8n ~8n kh5~-phom. In fact. 1 or I 'They gave the money away to me. The substantlve followlng /khQa~/ normally has person. by 1tself. Examplest 'My book (book of me) .

the class of conJunctlons lS small and closed. and preposltlons (4.2.2.e. and 2) are In open clause Juncture (1. 'He lS rlght. r 4.4. clally the /thaa/ sub-class (4. are among the most frequent lexemes In the language.1. end).2.' 'A frlend of a frlend of mlne. but thls lS a clear case of dlscontlnuous order.).) In clauses WhlCh 1) come flrst In a serles of clauses. 4. however.). Slnce the lmmedlate constltuent analysls lS the same as In the case of other conJunctlons. ' hEE~ pratheed-thaJ JaJ kwaa an-na J kh~o~ khaw • 'Thalland's lS larger. Many of lts members.2.3. ConJunctlons A conJunctlon lS any bound lexeme WhlCh occurs as a prlor constltuent In a syntactlc constructlon WhlCh has a whole predlcatlon as co-constltuent.3. Except for the open /thaa/ sub-class (4. ' koo~-thab hE~ prath8Ed-thaJ JaJ kwaa • 'The army of Thalland lS la~ger.8. the constructlon rconJunctlon plus predlcatlon' lS exocentrlc.2. otherwlse the three preposltlons exclude each other.) lntroduce predlcatlve expresslons.3. conJunctlons lntroduce entlre predlcatlons wlthout belng able to substltute for them . /kh~o~/ and /hEE~/ follow /kwaa/ when they lntroduce a non-modlfYlng phrase. There lS some overlap between the membershlps of the preposltlon and conJunctlon classes. lnvolvlng espeOne klnd of conJunctlon (/cy~/ class.1. Just as modals (4.l.3. r kh~o~ kh5~-khaw haaJ: paJ-mod • phyan kh~o~ phyan-phom • thuug kh~o~ khaw . /diaw/ Class The class conslsts of conJunctlons WhlCh occur In absolute lnltlal posltlon (comlng even before /ba~-een/ and /thamaJ/-class complementlves. The second stlpulatlon lS necessary 168 . kh~o~-phom JUu nll • kh~o JYym kh~o~-khun • 'Mlne lS here.' (Llt.' /thuug/ lS an adJectlve. 'rlght of hlm. 4. ' 'Lend me yours. dll kwaa kh~o~-khun • 'It's better than yours.) lntroduce substantlve expreSSlons. rather than preced- lng It. ' 'WhlCh one lS hlS7' 'Hls thlngs all dlsappeared.3.2.) actually follows the subJect of ltS predlcatlon.Addltlonal examples of all types. 3.

3. or you'll splll lt all. ' pham carlan na~-syy .' Jaa wlD rewa nag '. Ie faD phEEn-sia~: sag-n. or 'then.4. or what?' lew-kSD laa wi~ khaw-paJ paJ-paa • 'And then the donkey ran lnto the forest. 1.' pham carlan na~-syy . and 11sten to some records. occur as members of other classes.to dlstlngulsh /diaw/. may occur ln any part of an utterance. plus two dlscontlnuous lexemes WhlCh can also be classlfled as modals (4. too. 'Or perhaps we'd better let hlm go back flrst. /diaw/ and /pradiaw/ 'In a moment. frequently separated from the rest of ltS clause by phrase boundary.' /leEw/ and /l~w-kSD/ /le/ and /l~-kSD/ 2.' 3. pradiaw . 3. 2 . khun caklab baan: rY-DaJ . alternatlvelYJ lf not. or nonverbal behavlor). . then' leEW pham capaJ syy khOD~. then' rJ-waa . and' 'and.DJ k5-daJ 'I'm gOlng to study. Can you walt a Ilttle longer~' diaw . 'I'll go get lt for you ln a moment. ry fa~ pbEEn-sia~ sag-n. tv.4.1.conJunctlons from /thaa/.conJunctlons (4. chan capaJ-aw maa-haJ . All members..) other forms flttlng the deflnltlon but not recorded here are varlants of one of the mem~ers.and /sy~/. after that. In at least one of thelr forms. The class lS small and closed. whlch are otherwlse ldentlcal In syntactlc functlon.3. /ryy/ or /ry/ and /ry-waa/ 'or.' ryy haJ khaw klab paJ-k.).' Clauses lntroduced by /diaw/-class conJunctlons.. 'Then I'm gOlng shopplng. otherwlse' (be careful) or else. Are you gOlng to go home. tham Ja~{l dlll maJ • maJ-sia welaa maag • 'Or shall we do It thlS w~y? It won't take much tlme. sentence.Dn dll kwaa: ma~ . soon. conslstlng only of the followlng elght members. The class meanlng lS 'temporal or loglcal correlatlon wlth precedlng message (whlch may be a clause. 'Don't run so fast. or maybe llsten to some muslc. dlaw hog: mod .DJ duaJ • 'I'm gOlng to study. daJ: maJ • 'He's sure to be here soon.' 169 . utterance by another speaker. The conJunctlon ltself lS therefore. khaw khoD camaa • rDD ~lg-sag-khruu .

k5-ClD: JUu t tEE pen khon caJ-dll: myan-kan . /tr. he's a studentJ . you see.4. . I te-kSo pham t3D klab baan diaw-n{l: eeD • 'But I have to go home rlght away. that lS to say' khyy . khaw pen nag-rlan: nl khrab • khaw maJ-daJ-pen khruu • '(What I meant to say was) he's a student. ' .' khaw pen s~ed-thil . so' 188J khun t3D klab baan diaw-n{l: eeD ryy . khaw maJ-daJ-pen khruu • 'But he's a student. why. lItIs come to the pOlnt that I don't know what to do. well. 'In that case you have to go home rlght away. you see. /188J/ or /18J/ 'then. don't you know that' sentence partlcle /nil/.) (Often followed by k30 khaw pen nag-rlant ni khrab t 'Why. khaw pen khon ruaJ maag . khaw maJ-daJ-pen khruu t . /k3o/ or /k5/ 'Well. I don't mlnd a blt. Are you gOlng home.' khyy raw t3D-JUU naJ-h3D tal. that belng the case. /con/ 'by thls tlme.' tham JaDDll .od-welaa • He's not 'In other words. that's all. or wpat~' 8. we have to stay In the room the whole tlme. khaw pen nag-rlan: Pl khrab .8/ or /tE/ and /tE-waa/ and /tE-k3o/ 'but. 'If (you want to) do It thlS way. but on the other hand he's good-hearted.' 170 . /khyy/ and /khy-waa/ and /k3-khyy/ 'or In other words. khy-waa . he's very wealthy. 'He's a rlch man that lS to say. ' khaw pen s~ed-thil . 'It's true that he's a rlch man. Hefs not a teacher. I'm Just lazy. 'So I'm gOlng shopplng. a teacher. He's not a teacherJ' k30 pham khil-kiad: thaw-nan nil • 'Well. It'S come to the pOlnt that' con pham maJ-ruu catham-JaDaJ dll .' 5. khun caklab baan: rJ-DaJ . ' 6. ko phom maJ-waa araJ . on the other hand' tE-waa . 1"01 V A " 7. do you~ 188J pham capaJ syy kh~OD .

' 'That. you see. that would be f1ne. the /k3o/ 1S amb1guous. and 5-8 exclude each other semant1cally.' In the last two examples. leeJ k1ab baan • 2 'Then. too. In clauses Wh1Ch have no subJect. '30 1t all d1sappeared. 1-2. 4 1 'In other words.4.). w1th lS the comb1nat1on /k5-leeJ/ apparently occurr1ng only when both 6 and 7 are members of the /cy~/-class. as mlght be expected. The 1nternal order 5-6. 3-4. too. ' dlaw . dlaw fan tog • 6-7 follow1ng 1-2 or Examples: 3-4 belng 6 1 'Well.3. would be f1ne. 1t'S gOlng to ra1n 1n a moment. I'm a member.' khyy . he went home.Internal order of the class 1S compl1cated by the fact that the slxth and seventh members.' leJ haaJ paJ-mod . cases of lnterpreted as the1r /cy~/-class homonyms. 7-8 are not known to occur 1n comb1nat1on. /le~J/ and /k5-/ are members of the /cy~/­ class. k30 . k5-haaJ paJ-mod . dlaw hog: mod .' t~e . unless 1t 1S followed by /nl1/ and thus marked as belong1ng to the /dlaw/-class. 1 lIn a moment 1t wlll all d1sappear. /k3o/ and /leeJ/.' 18ew . 4. ' Members of sets ~-2. have homonyms Wh1Ch belong to the /cy~/-class (a class of conJunct1ons Wh1Ch follow the subJect. 'Well. 'But. khKY pham pen samaa-ch{g . 1t all d1sappeared. otherw1se 1t'11 sp1ll. ' Examples: (/dlaw/-class) (/cy~/-class) (/dlaw/-class) (/cy~/-class) lAs m1ght be expected. 3-4. k5-d11: myan-kan khr~b . 171 .

1. 1..class preposltlons. for WhlCh they freely substltute. 'But If . /tha~-tha~-thll/ and /thY~-meE-waa/. ' thaa-phya pham mll r~d . pham ko-capaJ daJ • 'If I have a car.2.g..).).' and Engllsh equlvalents of the members are often subordlnate conJunctlons.3. Llke /thamaJ/-class complementlves (3.The class conslsts of conJunctlons WhlCh occur In absolute lnltlal posltlon In clauses WhlCh 1) come flrst In a serles Df clauses.. complex varlants such as No member For exambelongs dlscretely to the /thaa/ class. clauses lntroduced by /thaa/-class conJunctlons are reverslble wlth respect to thelr head constltuents.). I'll be able to go.' 172 . /thaa/). and a few representatlve /dooJ/-preposltlon types have also been lncluded. /thaa/ ltself has a homonYm WhlCh lS a /mag/-class modal (4. the only dlfference In meanlng lS a sllght change In emphasls (see example under 1.3. When the clause lntroduced by the /thaa/-class conJunctlon precedes the head-clause. If only' /phya/ and /thaa-phya/ and /thaa-phya-waa/ 'If. ple.) conJunctlon (e. /teE thaa •. Slnce It lncludes many homonYmS of /dooJ/. If you don't go~' thaa-haag mll r~d . wlth the exceptlon of morphologlcally 2. If (unexpectedly) . /thaa/-class con- Junctlons always come flrst In thelr clauses (See flrst two examples under /thaa/ 'If ' /haag/ and /thaa-haag/ and /thaa-haag-waa/ 'If (on the contrary) . /thaa/ ltself). The ltems Ilsted below are the most common members. t~e conJunctlon ltself may follow a /diaw/-class (4. less often the one precedlng). In case' teE thaa khun maJ-paJ . 1. Otherwlse. pham capaJ-daJ Jaa~-raJ • 'But If you don't go. and 3) functlon syntactlcally as complementlves (not l nouns). I). The class lS falrly large and probably open.3. The class meanlng lS 'temporal or loglcal condltlon on another clause (WhlCh lS usually the one lmmedlately followlng.2. pham ko-capaJ daJ 'If only I had a car.2. an open class (4. 2) are In close clause Juncture. how can I go~' tEE pham capaJ-daJ Jaa~-raJ t thaa khun maJ-paJ • 'But how can I go.2.1. I could go. / 1.

il g • 'Although It was ralnlng. naJ-mya fan kamla~ tog: JUU • 'Why are you gOlng out (at a tlme) when lt'S ralnlng~' 4. I say nlce thlngs thy~-m~E-waa V phom camll rod . mya pham mll r~d • 'I went often when I had a car.' pham kheeJ paJ bOJ-bOJ . /wee-1aa/ and /naJ-we1aa/ 'when.2. khaw kO-Ja~ 00g paJ-thiaw. khaw kheeJ paJ bOJ-boJ • 'Whlle he was a student he went often.' khaw b00g waa . of hlm. I wouldn't go. /mya/ /to0-mya/ /naJ-mya/ 'when' 'only when. ~ ~ tha~-tha~-thil fan tog. naJ-rawaa~ khon-tham-suan maJ-Juu • 'Ghlldren go and plck flowers whlle the gardener lS not there. ~ chan ko-phuud dll kakhaw .' th~~ chan camaJ-cho0b khaw . ' 3. he went out anyway. I'm not gOlng. whlle' 'whlle' /rawaa~/ and /naJ-rawaa~/ wee-laa khaw pen n~g-rlan . only lf' 'at a tlme when' mya pham mll r~d . I used to go often.' k00n r~d pham s1a . pham ko-capaJ daJ • 'When I have a car. 1 ' 11 be able to go. although' 'even lf It should come to the pOlnt that' 'although It has come to the pOlnt that' thy~ khaw capaJ . ' thammaJ khun 00g paJ-khaa~-no0g . khaw capaJ t00-mya pnam paJ • 'He sald he would go only lf I went.' A V . pham ko-maJ-paJ: myan-kan • 'Even lf he goes. phom k0-maJ-paJ 'Even lf I had a car. I deg-deg paJ-ded d00g-m~aJ . pham kheeJ paJ bOJ-bOJ • 'Before my care broke down. /thy~/ or /thy~/ and /thy~-haag/ /thy~-m~E-waa/ and mEEn-waa/ /tha~-tha~-thll/ and /con/ 'even lf. ' V 'Although I don't llke hlm. I 173 .

' phoo khaw daJ-Jln Ja~an . lt'll be dark already. contlnulng from the tlme that' la~-caag rab-prathaan aahaan . phom keed puad-th~o~: khyn-maa • 'After eatlng. ' 10. /kwaa/ and /con-kwaa/ 'untll such tlme as. ' khaw chaaJ paJ-Ja~{l con-kratha~ sataa~ khaw mods paJ-leeJ .khun khuan carlan na~-syy: sag-nooJ . ' 6. by the tlme that' phoo raw paJ-thy~ thll-nan . 'Keep on dOlng thls untll 1t heals. /la~-caag/ /ta~-tee/ 'after. unless there lS speclal work to be done. ' taD-tee rab-prathaan aahaans maa . ' /con/ and /con-thy~/ and /con-kratha~/ chan waaJ-naama sa 8. we'll be able to bathe. nag-rlan ko-klab baan daJ: leeJ .' 174 . before gOlng to bed. and predlcate 1S preceded by /ca-/ kwaa capaJ-thy~ thll-nan . leEw . 'The students can go rlght home. he woke up. /phoo/ 'as soon as. con-~aa cahaaJ . k5-mYyd. raw ca-aab-naam daJ . by the tlme that' Clause usually has no subJect. koon-thll cakhaw noon.' tham Ja~{l ryaJ: paJ . /noog-caag/ 'except that. I got a stomach ache. khaw tyyn than-thll • 'The moment he heard that. unless' Clause usually has no subJect. 'untll. I have had a stomach ache. ' 7. 'He kept on spendlng llke thlS untll all hlS money was used up. ' 9. and predlcate lS usually preceded by /ca-/.L'e. noog-caag camll ~aan phis~ed haJ-tham . phom puad-th~oD ryaJ • 'Ever Slnce eatlng. 'You ought to study a Ilttle. 'As soon as we get there. later than the tlme that' 'slnce. 'By the t1me we get the. to the pOlnt that' con myaJ paJ-mod tha~-tua • 'I swam untll I was completely worn out.

'He drlves wlthout uSlng hls hands at all. 'OWlng to the fact that the number of teachers lS stlll lnsufflclent the new school can't open thls year.' 12. pen an-taraaJ maag • 'As you say.od . raw maJ-tS~ klua: leeJ • 'Wlth hlm as drlver (lnasmuch as he's the drlver) we don't have anythlng to be afrald of. phr5-waa r6d sla • 'I can't go.' khaw moo~ araJ maJ-hen . /phya/ 'In order to. ' duaJ khaw pen khon-khab . and predlcate lS usually preceded by /ea-I. khun tS~ haa phuu-rab-roo~ soo~ khon ha J. "because he's the drlver.' 14. roo~-rlan maJ peed maJ-daJ pll-n{l . ' 13. ' ConJunctlons of the Ithaa/ class do not necessarlly exclude each other semantlcally (cf.5 . /Jaa~/ and /Jaa~ ka-/ /myan ka-/ 'as If' 'llke. myan ka-taa b. you have to flnd two sponsors. such Engllsh comblnatlons as 'Although In order to save 17. /dooJ/ and /duaJ/ 'by. /phr~/ and /phr5-waa/ and /nya~-caag/ 'because. phr~ khaw pen khon-khab • 'We don't have anythlng to be afrald of. 'He can't see a thlng. khaw khab r6d dooJ maJ-chaJ ~yy: leeJ . Just as If he were bllnd. khaw keb ~en waJ .11. wlth the attendant clrcumstance that' Clause usually comes second and has no subJect If /dooJ/ occurs. ' nya~-caag cam-nuan khruu Ja~ maJ-phoo . oWlng to the fact that' raw maJ-tS~ klua: leeJ .da J • 'In order to become a member. ' pham paJ maJ-daJ . as' Jaa~ khun waa . because my car's broken. for the purpose of' Clause usually has no subJect. ' phya capen samaa-ch{g : nan. wlth. phya casyy r6d khan-maJ • 'He lS savlng money to buy a new car. It's very dangerous.

such ones as' sy~ khaw waa: nan. the one that. and no matter whlch member of the class occurs. subJect. In addltlon to occurrlng In the deflnltlve context. No lnternal order 4. /sy~/. and the selectlon of a partlcular conJunctlon lS more s~gnlflcant. whlch. what. are assoclated wlth formal Ilterary style.usually tOplC. 2) are In 3) functlon syntactlcally as substantlves. such a one as. then.money ~t may be necessary to cut corners ••• .conJunc~lons even more frequently lntroduce the second of two clauses. It lS very frequently closed wlth /nan/ or /nil/. The /sy~/ class lS small and closed. that.' are relatlve pronouns such as 'who.). and Three members of the class. or obJect.lntroduced clause comes second. ' When the /sy~/. 'Thlngs he says don't make sense. /~/ Class The class conslsts of conJunctlons whlch occur In absolute lnltlal posltlon In clauses whlch close clause Juncture.3. the followlng belng the only lmportant members. or a modlfler of a substantlve constltuent actually present In the flrst clause. 'That whlch. maJ-daJ khwaam . /sy~/ or /sy~/ occur In colloqulal speech.•. however.) 176 . The class meanlng. that . sy~ khaw kh~d: w~J 'It fell down lnto a dltch . has been establlshed. /thil/ or /thi/ and /thi-waa/ 'That whlch. and 1) come flrst In a serles of clauses. the ones that' (Restrlcts a modlf~ed element much more than /sy~/ does.' When the clause lntroduced by a /sy~/-class conJunctlon comes flrst. /sy~/ ltself. /an/. lS Engllsh equlvalents 'substantlve constltuent follows. 8. but also sometimes 1.' tog 10~-paJ naJ-khuu . ' 2. the echolng /nan/ or /ni~/ lS less common. or ltself a constltuent of an adJacent clause. A corollary of the last condltlon lS that ~lauses assoclated wlth /s~/-class members lack one of the typlcal substantlve constltuents . 6. the Engllsh equlvalent lS nearly always '(the fact) . 1. elther modlfler of somethlng In precedlng clause. the class ~n Examples of two members of wh~n the same constructlon are extremely rare. except the second member lS actually a /dooJ/-class preposltlon.one that had been dug. In such cases the clause so lntroduced may be elther a substantlve constltuent belonglng to the flrst clause as a whole.3./kaan-thil/.

4. . WhlCh should.og khaw duaJ: na khrab .' khaw casadEE~ lakhoon .' chuaJ b. maJ-cl~ leeJ . wa pham camaa saaJ. thlnklng. /haJ/ 1S selected. 'You go take a look. maJ-daJ phan • 'What he has done here lS of no use.4. saYlng. n.' kh~o th~od: na khr~b . who should. haJ than lyag: waJ • 'They wlll show plays for you to select from' (l. 'That I look down on them lS slmply not true.) 3. Compare the folloWlng: khaw casadEE~ lakhoon . 'plays WhlCh you should select from') si. Especlally.6.' (Dlrect quote) 177 . ' ('Excuse me that I come so late. thl khaw kh~d: waJ • 'It fell down lnto the dltch that had been dug for It. (See also 4.). /haJ/ or /haJ/ 'so that.1.' 4. thll than lyagl waJ • 'They wlll show the plays that you have selected. the flrst three members of thlS class.og waa-khun paJ duu: '1 sald. the hypothetlcal sltuatlon that' In commands and all types of hypothetlcal sltuatlons.4. thll pharo maa saaJ: . sy~ than lyag: waJ • 'They wlll show such plays as you have selected.' khaw casad£E~ lakhoon .2.4. or knowlng that' (lntroduces a quote.) /waa/ lS homonymous wlth a postposltlon of the same meanlng WhlCh occurs at the end of clauses (4. wa capen-paJ-daJ: ryy-maJ . /waa/ or /wa/ 'that.) pham b. ' thl-waa pham duu-th~ug: nan .' lchan k5-Ja~ maJ-saab nEE-noon.oJ • 'Please tell hlm also that I'll be a Ilttle late. /th~l/ and /waa/.e. 'I stlll don't know for sure whether lt wlll be posslble or not. ~g • 'Excuse me for comlng so late. maJ-cl~: leeJ • 'To say that I look down on them lS slmply not true. and ln noun expresslons lnvolvlng unreal referents.thll khaw tham: nll . lt replaces /sy~/. ' tog 10~-paJ naJ-khuu . waa pham duu-thuug: nan .

) pharo b~~g: khun waa .' ('He thlnks so that It wlll be very detalled. ' cam w~ J ha J.' In addltlon to these uses. 'I told you.' khraJ law haJ-fa~. I) 'Remember 1t well. ('Wash the clothes so that they. but you were present. but 2) before all adJect1ves In hypothet- ('Who told (for you) to llsten.dll: na 1) where the subJect of a prlor clause lS not the same as the subJect of the dependent clause. 'I can remember It well. haJ kh8cg r~b-prathaan: baa~ .') 178 . Compare the followlng: 1) aw na~-syy maa-duu: n~~J • 'Get the book and see. /haJ/ lS obllgatory the new subJect lS not ment10ned. and 1cal predlcates. wlII you? ' s~g phaa haJ-sa-aad: sl 'Get the clothes clean!' khaw kh{d haJ-Ia-iad maag. 'Go take a look. are clean. t.' (Indlrect quote.) t. sl • 'I told you to go take a look. 'He's try1ng to thlnk 1t out In great deta11. 'I'll go get some assorted fru1ts for the guests to eat. la • 'Who told (you) that? 2) pham cam daJ-dll . ' ) chan capaJ-aw phan-lam~aJ ta~-taa~ .' (Dlrect) pham b~~g khun haJ-paJ-duu.) Other examples of /haJ/' haJ khaw khaw-paJ-k~~n dll kwaa • 'Better let hlm go In flrst.' (Indlrect. ' aw na~-syy maa haJ-duu: n~~J • 'Get the book (for someone else) to see. paJ dUUI sl .pham b~~g haJ-¥~un paJ duu: sl • 'I sald for you to go take a look. you may not even have been present. ' ( 'Hls hypothetlcal enter1ng f1rst 1S better. .

•• 'In thls world WhlCh lS full of mlsfortune ••. /kaan-thll/ 'the fact that. ' an-waa khaw tham phid: nan .' samrab khE~-khan: kan nil . /kaan-thll/ ln many cases. chan maJ-thyy • 'That he may have commltted a sln. don't blame hlm so much. /aaJ/ or /aJ/ and /aJ-thll/ 'that. naJ loog an-tem paJ-duaJ th~gl nil . lna smuch as' kaan-thll khaw s. ' 6. I don't hold agalnst hlm. ' kaan-thll khaw tham-daJ ee~: nan.' 9. khaw sabaaJ dll • 'As far as I know. pham k5-maJ-r~u rya~ • 'As for thelr competlng together. Jaa paJ-thood: khaw l88J • 'Inasmuch as he was able to do lt by hlmself. the SUpposltlon that.5. pham maJ pralaad-caJ: 188J . 179 . such that' The form /an/ Substltutes for /thll/. ' aJ-thll khaw tham baab: nan. maJ-daJ phan: 188J • 'ThlS buslness of taklng lt to court lS absolutely useless. /an/ and /an-waa/ 'one that. I know nothlng about It.' 8. k5-Cl~: J~u • '(To say) that he dld wrong lS true enough.' 'lnsofar as. he's well. that WhlCh. 'That he should have falled the examlnatlon doesn't surprlse me at all. /thaw-thil/ or /thaw-thll/ and /taam/ and /taam-thll/ to the extent that. ' 7. the colloqulal equlvalent of 6. she never falls to. aaJ capaJ f~a~ saan: nil . /s~an/ and sam-rab/ or /samrab/ 'As for the fact (or SUpposltlon) that' s~an paJ-w~d paJ-waa: nan maJ-khaad: sa sag-thll • 'As for gOlng to the temples and that sort of thlng.ab tog. and the form /an-waa/ for /waa/ (when the /waa/-clause comes flrst) ln formal style. accordlng to what' thaw-thll pham saab . thls buslness of' /aJ-thll/ lS /aaJ/ most commonly before clauses wlth no subJect.

conslstlng of only four members and thelr varlants. 4. and extremely small. /!El!J/ Class These conJunctlons are the only ones WhlCh occur after the subJects or tOP1CS of thelr clauses.3. They come lmmedlately after the subJect and Synbefore all elements of the predlcate.3 ·4.. llke' /chen/ lS frequently followed by a complementlve /pen-ton/ at the end of ltS clause. 'She does everythlng wrong. or unexpectedness of event. or establlshment of tlme-sequence. tactlcally thelr clauses are exactly llke clauses lntroduced by /dlaw/-class conJunctlons . chen aw-law paJ-haJ d~g kln: pen-ton. /haJ/.11. /Jaa~/.2. /koo/. llke glvlng WhlSky to bables. thaw-thll catham daJ .e.phom phaJaa-Jam catham haJ-maag . 'I'm trylng to do as much of lt as can posslbly be done.• 10 3 'Such as lS sald to be correct ••• ' 4. ' khaw casad€€~ lakhoon .. /chen/ or /chen/. lncludlng all types of modals.) Internal order of the class lS not flxed. also: 'temporal or loglcal correlatlon wlth precedlng message.•• ' s~an aaJ paJ-w~d paJ-waal nan ••• 7 5 'As for thlS buslness of gOlng to the temple ••• ' Jaa~ waa th~ug: nan •.' (Compare flrst three examples under /thaa/-class. The flrst member. and also see /Jaa~/.' phom phaJaa-Jam catham taam-thll khaw sa~: w~J • 'I'm trylng to do lt as he ordered. and /Jaa~-chen/ 'such as. 'The fact that he should be allowed to do lt hlmself .' 10. The class meanlng lS partlally the same. expectedness. they are lndependent clauses WhlCh can occur flrst In a serleswlthout belng In close Juncture. Jaa~ than lyag: W~J • 'They wlll show plays such as you have selected. khaw tham araJ-araJ ph~d: m~d .l. but two /sy~/-conJunctlons do occur In the same clause: kaan-~hll h[J-khaw tham ee~: nan . lS easlly the most 180 . ' The class lS closed. 4.

' khruu k5-m11 . 1~ 2) repeated 1n par- changes the 1nterrogat1ve mean1ng to '1ndef1n1te. All members except /cy~/ 1tself (Wh1Ch has a sllghtly Ilterary flavor) have homonYms belong1ng to other classes.. .' raw paJ-duu na~ k5-daJ: nl khrab • 'We could go to a mov1e. at least. ' 181 .) pham ee~ k5-maJ-r~u rya~ .) thaa pen khruu . or .. let's go. the last two forms elsewhere.common lexeme 1n the ent1re language and 1S very d1ff1cult to translate 1n most of 1tS contexts. you know. that be1ng the case. I can't see. slm1larly. 'When 1t was f1n1shed. 'If we're gOlng. /k5o/ has two other semant1cally 1mportant uses: allel constru~t1ons. JUu k5-daJ • 'Anywhere at all. /k5o/ or /k5/ or /ko/ 'then. ' 2. 1. . then I ~on't m1nd. he went to bed. don't know anyth1ng about 1t. at least' (The f1rst form occurs under normal stress. phyan maJ-J~u . /188J/ or /18J/ 'consequently. he (for that reason) went home.) sed leEw . ' pa J . 'There are both teachers and students. ') 2) paJ k5-daJ . 1) moo~ araJ ko-maJ-hen • 'I can't see anyth1ng. khaw 188J klab baan • 'When he saw h1S fr1end was not there.' thl1-naJ k5-d11 • ('Whatever I look at. as m1ght be expected. ' ('Our gOlng to a mOV1e 1S an add1t1onal poss1b1l1ty. nag-r1an k5-m11 .• ' or 'e1ther . 'I myself. ko pa J: si . .) ('Anywhere 1S all r1ght.' d1aw saam11 k50 car~u than . therefore' mya hen waa . here.•.•• and . too.' and 1t means 'both .' 'You can e1ther go or stay. 1) after an 1nterrogat1ve word of any class.. 'Pretty soon her husband w1ll f1nd out (too) •.' Bes1des occurrence 1n the def1n1t1ve context. ' ('Hav1ng f1n1shed. he then went to bed. khaw k5-paJ noon. pham ko-maJ-waa araJ • 'If 1t'S a teacher. ln addlt1on.

phyan maJ-Juu . he (after that) went home. he stlll (In splte of that) went home. 'There were only a few clouds. ' mya hen waa . only then.3. and (only) then go. 'Isn't the traln leavlng Ja~ ~~ . 4. ' 182 . wlll there be another falr. 'subsequently.) r~~ ilg-sag-khruu . or /il g/ at end of whole clause.' Frequently echoed by /Juu/ at end of verb expresslon. /JaD/ 'stlll.~g: khun waa . It comes to the pOlnt that' (The form /cy~/ lS more formal than the other two. so I wasn't sure whether It would raln or not. maJ-daJ-paJ • 'It hasn't gone yet. khaw k5-Ja~klab baana il g • tAlthough he saw that hls frlend was not there. contlnues to. r pham JaD tDD-kaan casyy buril: ilg . ' r~d-faJ JaD maJ-.2.mll meeg l~g-n~~J: thaw-n~n . only then. ' /cy~/ and /thy~/ or /thy~/ 3.2. fan catog ry-plaaw . phyan maJ-Juu . t tha~-thaD-thil hen waa . goes so fas as to. even. .) dyan naa . khaw thYD klab baan 'When he saw hls frlend was not there.~g: il g ryY t . khaw aad camaJ-paJ • 'They even told you they mlght not go. thy~ camll ~aan ilg. pham l88J maJ-ncc caJ: wa .). ' ('Next month.khra~: ny~ • 'There won't be another falr untll next month. lS2w Cy~-khDJ paJ • 'Walt & moment longer. khaw JaD pen nag-rlanl JUu • 'He lS (or was) stlll a student. ' Another lmportant use of /cy~/ lS In clauses lntroduced by /thamaJ/-class complementlves-see examples (3. 'I stlll need to buy clgarettes also. ' khaw Ja~ b.

183 . If the predlcate lncludes a preposltlon. but the comblnatlons 13 and 34 are rare. and. Llke the bound lexeme classes WhlCh lntroduce constructlons . frequently occur after the morpheme / and clauses. or cross-reference of an enumeratlon' for the fourth sub-class. and to s'ome extent the /nag/ class.). dlstrlbutlon. quantlty. enumeratlon or phrase. although there lS some overlap between the two classes. the membershlp lS extremely Ilmlted. 1) /waJ/ class (verb modlflers).) . WhlCh mod1fy or create enumeratlons. Postposltlons A postposltlon lS any bound lexeme that occurs as a latter const1tuent of an express1on. classes are modlflers).). or degree of a free-lexeme concept' for the flrst three sub-classes.4.postposltlons are sub-clasSlfled accordlng to the nature of thelr co-qonstltuent. The class of postposltlons lS thus 1n general contrast wlth that of sentence partlcles (4.). ' k5-Ja~ (see last example under /Ja~/) 1 4 Ja~ khaw 18J maJ ruu-cag kan . centrlc.5. 4.1. the /waJ/-class member elther precedes or follows the 4. llke the sentence partlcles. predlcatlon. such that the larger constructlon (prlor constltuent plus postposltlon) lS less than an ent1re clause. 1 2 'He then (consequently) went home. '80 they stlll don't know each other. the /waJ/-class member always follows the obJect. elther endocentrlc or exocentrlc. and 'lncluslveness. /wa . preposltlons (4.3. and from the last type. and 4) enumeratlve postposltlons. Examples: khaw k5-188J kl~b baan . The sub- 2) /nag/ class (adJectlve The con- 3) /baa~/ class (substantlve and predlcatlon mod1f1ers).Internal order of the class lS 1. 2-3. ' 4. : / In thelr phrases The class meanlng lS 'restrlctlon as to tlme.1/ Class These postposltlons occur wlth weak stress lmmedlately follow1ng and In constructlon wlth verb expresslons.1.4. If the verb expresslon lncludes an obJect. Except for the /baa~/-class. structlons resultlng from the flrst three types of postposltlon are endo- All postposltlons characterlstlcally have weak stress. WhlCh together wlth thelr co-constltuents compr1se entlre clauses. A '" . and conJunctlons (4.modals (4.2. space.

' deen khaw-maa klaJ-klaJ: na • 'Walk r1ght up close. 9-10) • The class lS small and closed. but all have homonYms Wh1Ch are verbs. now. Jaa waaJ-naam oog-paJ klaJ-klaJI ne . /khaw/ 'lnto an enclosed space. cons1st1ng only of these ten members. t1cal allomorphs.' 3. 'Don't SWlm out too far. newly arr1ved on the scene' khew Jib naD-syy khyn-maa • 'He Ilfted up the books. /khyn/ 'upward. The members of the class are not negatable 1n any pos1t1on. The class mean1ng 1S 'or1entat1on of act10n w1th respect to space and t1me relat1onsh1ps. '" . ' faJ kamlaD dab: 10D • 'Th0 flre lS dy1ng down.' khaw wiD oog-maa-caag-hnD' phoo-d11 • 'He came runn1ng out of the room Just then. the pattern1ng of Oppos1t1on lS ma1nta1ned (7-8.prepos1t1onal phrase. 1.' slaD pyyn-koo daD: khyn • fA p1stol-shot rang out (suddenly). /oog/ 'out of an enclosed space or farther from the center of 1nterest' . ' 184 .' and the forms together const1tute a k1nd of aspectual system for the verb. /loD/ 'downward. depart1ng from the scene' khew phaa-kan-th{D knon-hin 10D-paJ naJ-khuu • 'They were all dropp1ng stones down 1nto the pond. but sets 1-4 and 7-10 have an even more complex 1nternal relat1onsh1p. or closer to the center of 1nterest' man khwaa~ luug-boon khaw-paJ-naJ-hn~ • 'He threw the ball lnto the room. but on the bas1s of greater frequency of /sla/ 1n mean1ng 8. The ent1re class cons1sts of pa1rs of semant1c oppoMembers 8 and 10 have 1densltes. Members of set 1-4 exclude each other ent1rely. w1ll you~' 2. and /sa/ 1n mean1ng 10.' (/Jib/ 'plck up') 4.

v (/paJ naJ/ 'Where are you gOlng~ . 'The donkey ran 1nto the forest (toward us). toward the future. .' pham c.) thl1 khaw daaJ: maa ••• 'The money Wh1Ch he had gotten . ' ta~-te8 wan-nan: roaa ••• 'From that day (In the past) onward .5..' before prepos1tlonal phrase: a defln1te but d1stant goal.' 'toward laa W1~ khaw-paJ-naJ-paa • 'The donkey ran off 1nto the forest (to get away).~d r~d: th{~-waJ . .. ' . /maa/ 'toward the speaker. .~g-maaJ: aw-wa~ ' saJ cEE-kan . khaa~-naa 'I have the car parked out front. act10n deferred.. ' 'removed from the scene but w1th future relevance. put aS1de temporar1ly for future ref- 185 .• ' raw kh~~J maa-naan l8Ew. up to the present or toward a def1n1te. ' cf.• r 6. 'Where have you been?' ~8n . ' 1chan ded d.' raw to~ kh~~J paJ-i1g-naan: rnaJ • 'Do we have to keep on wa1t1ng long~' ta~-teE wan-nan: paJ •. ' laa wi~ khaw-maa-naJ-paa . mya-waan-n11 lyym syy: paJ 'I forgot to buy 1t yesterday.• 'From that day (In the future) onward . 'We have been wa1t1ng a long t1me already (the wa1t1ng mayor may not be over).' paJ naJ: maa . toward the future or an lndef1nlte or lrrelevant goal. relevant. 7..' mya-waan-n{l lyym syy: maa 'I forgot to bUl 1t yesterday. /waJ/ or /waaJ/ and /aw-waJ/ and /th{~-waJ/ erence.' khaw Jam naa: paJ baa~ • '(One of the th1ngs) they (do 1S) trample the f1elds. /paJ/ 'away from the speaker. nearby goal. 'I'm p1ck1ng flowers to put 1n a vase.

wlth no future relevance' sYa. wlll you~ r th{~ sya: waJ .' caan waa~ Juu-bon-to • 'The dlshes had been placed on the table (wlth what lntent. r dlchan khDDJ: JUu . we don't know. 'The money WhlCh I (happen to) have . ta~-naan leEw • 'I am belng kept waltlng an awfully long tlme. wlthout necessary future slgnlflcance. ' laa Wl~ khaw-paJ-Juu naJ-paa • 'The donkey had run lnto the forest (and was stlll there. 'He lS studylng In Amerlca (for the present.' khaw waa~ caan waJ sa-naJ-tuu . sia thll-nan: s{ .' 8.)' khaw'kamla~ rlan na~-syy: JUu . ' 10.dlchan ta~-caJ: waJ leEw waa camaa-haa khun • r 'I had already lntended to come to see you. lf only temporarlly).' ~en thll pham mll' JUu ••. 'Your mother hasn't gone anywhere (for good). not contlnulng lnto the future' tEE pham pen samaa-ch{g sa-lEEw . pham pen samaa-ch{g Juu-IEew • 1 r I am alrea dy a member (a s 1 t happens). 'But now I've become a member... Isa/ or ISlal 'sltuatlon changed. 'Leave the coat there (to get rld of It).' 9. ISlal th{~ or /sa/ 'removed from the scene permanently.' N ' _ A 186 . IJuu/ 'remalnlng on the scene. at least). naJ-amee-rikaa . temporary. actlon vlewed as a unlt. thll-nan: s{ . cam waaJ haJ-dll: na • 'Remember lt well. actlon contlnulng. 'She has (gone and) put the dlshes away In the cupboard. 'Leave the coat there (where you can get It).' met maJ-daJ-paJ nSJ: sia . unchanged.

'Eat It upJ' (/kln Sll/ 'EatJ . slgnlflcantly' (10) maa waJ sa 7.. 9-10. are termlnal. . k3on-hln tog lOlJ-paJ-Juu naJ-n~am 459 'The stone had fallen down lnto the water.. ta~-naan le€w . 1-4 wlth respect to 5-6 lS complete. lncldentally' 'come. 4. 8-10. 'I walted an awfully long tlme (the waltlng lS over now).kln: sa Sll t . come subJect to recall' 'kept. lncldentally' 'kept. Dlstrlbutlon of 5-6. 6.. khaw paJ khaw maa 2. Addltlonal examples.. maa wa J (7) 'come subJect to recall' maa JUu maa sa . slgnlflcantly' 'havlng gone there subJect to recall' 'as of now. waJ JUU (9) 'come to stay. lncldentally' 'gone.) dlchan khooJ: sa . oog paJ oog maa khyn paJ khyn maa . 7-8.' Internal order of the class lS 1-4.. wlth representatlves from no more than three of the sets belng found In a slngle constructlon. gone subJect to recall' paJ paJ paJ sa .. ' 187 . 3. slgnlflcantly' 'as of now. (maa sla (8) does not occur) . lOlJ paJ lOlJ maa The remalnlng dlstrlbutlon lS as follows: " pa J Sla 'gone away for good' 'gone subJect to recall' 'gone to stay. 'golng In' 'comlng In' 'golng out' 'comlng out' 'golng up' 'comlng up' 'golng down' 'comlng down' 1. paJ waJ JUu paJ waJ sa .

lncludes the most frequent members. nlce and .class postposltlons (5-8 below) but have qUlte dlfferent meanlngs. you'll never make the traln. lAnd the wlnd lS nlce and strong.2. 18-19 are found In both types of constructlon.' pham kheeJ paJ . and The class meanlng lS 'to a The followlng llst. /dll/ 'to a deslrable degree. certaln extent.' pham tham dll maa-sa-maaga lEew t . thee k3-capaJ maJ-than r6d • 'If you get up so late. 1. adJectlves.' 188 .J' nag. however. /nag/ Class These postposltlons occur wlth weak stress lmmedlately after.. and In constructlon wlth.' lEew 10m Ja~ ree~: dll duaJ . /nag/ 'to such an extent. and some members whlch are homonYmOus wlth /baa~/-class postposltlons (13-15. the membershlp lS qUlte large.' dlchan ded d.k3on-hin tog 10~-paJ-sa naJ-naam • 'The stone fell down lnto the water. but not too often. 18) and have slmllar meanlngs.' /nag/ ltself occurs most commonly after negated adJectlves. 'I've been there. too. 4 5 10 458 6 10 'I've already done a lot of good!' pham tham dll Juu-maag: lEew • 9 'I'm already dOlng a lot of good. The class lS open (and. The class lncludes some members whlch are homonYmOus wlth /waJ/.4. seems to act as a magnet for slang lnnovatlons). sSJ cee-kan . 6 7 'I've plcked some flowers to put In a vase.og-maaJ: maa-waJ . ' k3on-hin tog 10~-paJ-naJ-naam: sia .' 4. too. members 2-17 rarely so occur. tee maJ-b. 'The stone fell down lnto the water (and was lost). In fact. ' h3~-n{l kwaa~: dll • 'Thls room lS nlce and spaclous.. so' thaa thee tyyn chaa: nag.' 2.

og JaD{l leEw t JaD faD maJ-than: il g reG. you stlll say It's too slow. /khaw/ 'closer to a deslred goal or ultlmate condltlon. 8. progresslvely more' phoo thaaJ ruub pen: khaw leEw ••.' phuud rew: khyn ilg-n{d .ob-khun . In lncreaslng fashlon' 'more than before.og-cataaJ/ 'to an undeslrably great extent. /thldlaw/ or /chlaw/ and /tem-thll/ 'qulte. ' chan phuud ch~a: . 'You're qUlte late today. where on earth have you been~' r~d len rew: tem-thll • 'The car went at full speed.og/ and /. 'He's gettlng fatter. excesslvely' hen camaaga keen-paJ lamaD • 'Don't you thlnk that's Ilttle too much~' chan tham maJ-th~ug: leGJ t phuud JaD{l k5-waa .' 5. /keen-paJ/ and /paJ/ 'too. ' 4. even when I talk llke thlS.' khaw kEEl lOD • 'He's gettlng older.3. /. 'I've already slowed down an awful lot as It lSi can't you understand what I'm saYlng yet~' 6. pham im: thldlaw (tem-thll) • 'Thank you. 'When you get a Ilttle better at taklng plctures ••• ' rew !khaw: Sll t . 'Hurry up! Faster! I 7. 'Thls book lS terrlbly thlCk. completely' kh.' (refuslng food) wan-n{l maa sa-ch~a: chlaw t mua paJ-Juu sa thll-naJ t . In decreaslng fashlon' khaw uant khyn . ' naD-syy lem-n{l naa: . ch~a: paJ-ilg • 'I can't do anythlng rlght. I'm completely full. /khyn/ /IOD/ 'more than before. daJ: maJ • 'Gan you speak a Ilttle faster~' 189 .og-cataaJ .

most. Jaaw thaw-thaw: kan .phuud chaa: lo~ ilg-n{d . enough' kS khaw khab r~d rew: ph00-chaaJ . he drlves fast enough.' na~-syy lem-n{l naa: kwaa • 'Thls book lS thlcker (than some other book). ph~ud chaa: thaw-kan . 'Thls book lS thlcker than the others. ' tham Ja~an kS-dll: thlsud • 'It would be best to do It that way. daJ: maJ • 'Can you speak a Ilttle aakaan dll: khyn • 'Hls condltlon lS lmproved.' khaw Ja~ phuud chaa: kwaa • 'He speaks even more slowly (than someone else). ' 11. 'These two penclls are equally long. comparatlvely more' 'It's better to do It thls way. 'Well. /thaw-kan/ or /thaw-thaw: kan/ 'to the same degree. /kwaa/ and /keen-kwaa/ tham Ja~ll dll kwaa . 'These two students both speak slowly.) slower~' 9. ' 12. 'more than somethlng else of ltS klnd.' 10.' ph00 so~-khraam khSJ-sa~ob: lo~ . /thll-sud/ or /thlsud/ and /kwa-phyan/ 'more than all others of ltS klnd. 'When the flghtlng flnally qUleted down' (Selectlon between these two ltems lS to a large extent lexlcally condltloned.' na~-syy lem-n{l naa kwa-phyan . extremely' r~d khan-n{l lEn rew: thil-sud • 'Thls car runs the fastest of all. I dln-SQ0 SQ0~ thE~: n{l . ' khon-nan phuud chaa: thlsud . equally' n~g-rlan Sa0~ khan: n{l . /ph00/ and /ph00-chaaJ/ 'to a satlsfactory degree. 'That one speaks extremely slowly. ' 190 . but /khyn/ lS by far the more common.

somewhat' 'very' 'very (restrlcted to small-scale concepts) .leEw 10m Ja~ rEE~: phDD duaJ • 'And the wlnd was stlll sufflclently strong. /maag/ (and many slang Substltutes) /n{d-dlaw/ /noDJ/ 'a Ilttle. 'How blg lS 'how much. to any extent' lt~' maJ-JaJ: thaw-raJ. ' 18. ' chaaw-phyyn-mya~ suan-maag can: tem-thll • 'excesslvely In an undeSlrable sense.' 13.' 19. khaw khab r~d ch~a: maag • 'He drlves very slowly. /lya-keen/ or /lakeen/ and Item-thll/ Jm8E t wan-n{l r~Dnl lakeen • 'My. ' baan J~u kla J: maag • 'The house lS very far away. ' 17. ' baan JUu klaJI nODJ • 'The house lS rather far away.' khaw khab r~d rew: lya-keen • 'He drlves terrlbly fast. rather. after negatlve. /leeJ/ 'qulte'. terrlbly' 'Most of the lnhabltants are terrlbly poor. too. ' pham ch5Db maag: Cl~-Cl~ • 'I really llke lt a lot. 14. ' 16. leeJ • 'not at all' na~ thll-nll sabaaJ: 'It's qUlte pleasant slttlng here. /thaw-raJ/ or /thaw-raJ/ Ja J: thaw-ra J .' 191 . It's awfully hot today. ' baan JUu klaJ: n{d-dlaw • 'The house lS very close. 'It's not blg at all. /ca~! and /Cl~-Cl~/ 'really' na~ leeg ch~a: ca~ • 'The mOVle lS really slow lettlng out. 15.

12-15 and 16-19. 6-8. Examples of double mod1f1catlon of adJect1ves by /n~g/-class members follow. other members are term1nal. Set 6-8 1S followed by 9 and by 12-15 and 16-19. other members are term1nal. and th1S 1S apparently also the maX1mum number of mod1f1ers. th~g th11 . r 192 . and 19. /kwaa/ 1S followed by 13-15 and 18-19. From set 12-15. From set 9-11. rew: paJ-nooJ 4 15 Construct1ons w1th members 6-8 as a const1tuent also occur frequently 1n parallel phrases. /maag/ 1S followed by 1 or 3 and 16-17. ch~a: khaw . Set 16-19 1S not followed by members of any other set. 9-11. From the sets 1-5. In all cases but the last the 1mmed1ate const1tuent analys1s 1S AB/C. other members of th1S set are term1nal.phaa n11 maJ-d11: 188J • 'Th1S cloth 1S no good. ' Two /n~g/-class postpos1t1ons follow1ng a slngle adJect1ve are not uncommon. only one member of each set may Internal order of the class works as follows: From set 1-5. occur 1n such construct1ons. /k88n-paJ/ and 1tS alternant /paJ/ are followed by 13-15. khan maa khooJ-r~b J~u-neEn: paJ-mod . rew khyn: kwaa 'faster than ever' 'much faster than before' 'how much faster than before' 'a Ilttle faster than the other' 'how much faster than the other' 'def1n1tely very fast' 'really very fast' 'a Ilttle too fast' 7 9 rew khyn: maag 7 13 rew khyn: thaw-raJ 7 18 rew kwaa: n{d-d1aw 9 rew kwaaa 14 9 rew maag: ch1aw 13 3 rew maag: ca~ 13 17 . r~d t5~-18n ch~a: khaw . 'There were so many people wa1t1ng for the bus 1t kept hav1ng to slow up more and more.

the slower It runs. follows only /llg/. moreover. Just as the /waJ/-class modlfles verbs and the /nag/-class modlfles adJectlves. although lndlvldual members are Ilmlted as to the type of preposltlon they can follow . th~g thll • 'The mor~ I take It to be flxed. 1.) whlch have the syntactlc functlon of replaclng partltlve numeral phrases (3.). The class meanlng of both the /baaD/-postposltlons and thelr correspondlng complementlves lS 'quantlty of a substantlve expresslon.3. sometlmes.5. the members of the /baa~/-class have covert lexlcal relatlonshlps wlth partltlve numerals (see tabulatlon In 3. khYn. Ji~ aw-paJ-kE8 .2.3. or freThe class lS small but For each member lnformatlon lS glven quency of a predlcate or predlcatlve expresslon. /baaD/ below).) . modlfled. In the sense that when a noun expresslon occurs In the prlor part of the clause.2.4. wlth frequent slang lnnovatlon. the /baaD/ class can be saJd to modlfy substantlves. The occurrence of normal stress on the ltem followlng the /sag/-class preposltlon and the nature of the constructlon requlre lnterpretatlon of thls ltem as a complementlve rather than a postposltlon In all cases.2.). th~g thll. can be preceded by /sag/-class preposltlons (4.naa-likaa khoo~-chaL . /baaD/ or /maD/ 'some. pham tOD-kaan naam ilg-baaD • II need some more water. rewa take my watch to be repalred the faster It runs. ' 193 . 'The more I Jl~ deen rew: khyn . and they follow both /waJ/-class and /nag/-class postposltlons In the same clause. All members of the /eeD/ class whlch correspond to /baaD/-class postposltlons. stressed forms of those feeD/-class complementlves (3.6. Ji~ deen chaa: lo~ .2.6.for example /baaD/ ltself replaces any numeral phrase lntroduced by /baaD(. ' 4.' open. /baaD/ below). ' Jl~ aw-paJ-ke~ . When no noun expresslon lS so postposltlon has the entlre predlcatlon as ltS co-constltuent Llke thelr counterpart members of the feeD/-class of complementlves.2. /baalJ/ Class These postposltlons are all weak. some of them' Replaced In numeral phrases by /baaD/.3. on the partltlve numeral replacement and the /sag/-class preposltlons whlch precede (the latter lnformatlon applYlng only to the complementlve). the /baaD/-class postposltlon refers to It (see flrst example under 1.for example /baa~/ ltself lS preceded only by /ilg/. chaa: lo~ . the (see second example under 1.2. some of It.

'Much more raln lS stlll needed. follows only iilg/. phom tQ~-kaan naam phla~-1~g-n68J • 'I need only a 11ttle water.' 3. not much' Replaced by /maJ-kil/. 'He 11kes to eat lots of food (large meals). Selectl0n among the three forms lS compllcated: /maag/ 18 general. the several' Replaced by /laaJ/. a 11ttle' Replaced by /n68J/.' 4. 194 . khaw chQ8b rab-prathaan aahaan: mag-maag. ' nag-rlan th~~-laaJ t . but /mag-maag/ lS usually used where /maag/ mlght be lnterpreted as one of ltS homonYmS (see flrst two examples). follows /ilg/ and /sag/. 'Students]' Ja~ tQ~-kaan fan 11g-maag (mag-maag) . 11ttle. follows /ilg/ and /phla~/. /kll-man68J/ and /thaw-raJ/ 'how much. how many' Replaced by /kil/.' khaw chQ8b rab-prathaan aahaan maag • 'He 11kes to eat lots of food' or 'He llkes eatlng food very much.' /1~g-n68J/ 'a few. ~tlme. ma~ s{ • 'I'd 11ke to go to Ayuthya 2.lchan Jaag capaJ aJud-thaJaa. /maag/ or /mag-maag/ and /tha~-laaJ/ 'much. ' 5. many. fan aad catog ilg maJ-thaw-raJ • 'Not much more raln lS 11kely to fall. lots of. /maJ~maag/ and /maJ-thaw-raJ/ 'not many. /tha~-laaJ/ lS used ln dlrect modlflcatlon of nouns and pronouns as a general plurallzer. follows only /llg/. ' aad camll phaJu ilg-1~g-n68J • 'There may be a few more storms. few. khun tQ~-kaan naam ilg-thaw-raJ • 'How much more water do you mll nag-rlan sag-k{1-man68J • 'About how many students are there~' need~ .

ruam tha~-m~d . follows only /kyab/. /~lg/. ' khaw khaaJ na~-syy ta~-J8-JE . /m~d/. how much do you flgure It would be~ I I 7. follows only /ta~/ and I'oJ V V V tAo ~. follows /sag/ and /~lg/. ' 10.o J • 'Please glve me a l~ttle water. khaw 188J paJ-w~d: kan tha~-n~n • 'They all went to the wat. /tha~-m~d/ and /tha~-sln/ fall of It. 'They sell an awful lot of books. and /n{d-n. ' 8. I phuud ch~a: lo~ ~lg-n{d .6.2.oJ/ 'a Ilttle blt ' Not replaced In numeral phrases. kh{d thaw-raJ • 'Includlng everythlng.5.2.). khoo n~am& sag-n. 'Can you speak a Ilttle slower~1 pham t3~-kaan teE n{d-n. /naan/ 'a long tlme ' Replaced by /laaJ/ and a tlme-classlfler. /tha~-n~n/ fall of them. khaw khan khoo~ paJ kyab-m~d: leEw • 'They have taken nearly all the stuff away. /n{d/. daJ: maJ . pham Ja~ t3~-kaan n~am ilg-J~ • 'I stlll need a whole lot more water. follows only /kYab/.oJ: thaw-n~n • 'I only need a Ilttle blt of It. /J~/ or /J8/ or /J~-Je/ 'a whole lot' Not replaced. ' 9. the whole buslness ' Replaced by preposltlon /tha~/ (4. every one I Replaced by /th~g/. I 195 . to~ kh~oJ paJ-ilg-naan: maJ • 'Must we walt much longer~ I khaw tham-~aan thll-nll maa-ta~-naam: lleEw • 'He has been worklng here for an awfully long tlme. /n~oJ/. follows /ta~/ and /ilg/.

1. 1) those WhlCh occur after cardlnal numeral phrases 2) those WhlCh occur after /nll/~ class demonstratlves (3.4. ' khaw phuud: phlaa~ . 4. ' One dlscontlnuous postposltlon. Enumeratlve Postposltlons The remalnlng postposltlons are always the flnal constltuents of enumeratlons.4. ' Members of the /baa~/ class seem to exclude each other completely. and tabulatlon below). 6. hua-ro: phlaa~ • 'He was half talklng.1. 3) those WhlCh occur after lnterrogatlve lexemes contalnlng the morphs /aJ! and /aJ/ (see 2.6.. but constltute a resldue. occurrlng wlth weak stress In the last posslble posltlon In the constructlon. .4.• haIr . Interrogatlve 'who' 'WhlCh person' 'what' 'WhlCh thlng 'why' 'how' r /Ja~an/ or /~an/ IJa~ll/ or I~{l/ 196 .5. 'We won't have to walt much longer. probably belongs to thlS class. 4) those WhlCh occur after all types of aonstructlon and make enumeratlons out of whatever precedes. /maJ-naan/ and /maJ-chaa/ 'not long' Replaced by /maJ-kil/ and a tlme-classlrler.3. the related group of common demonstratlve and lnterrogatlve lexemes and constructlons WhlCh are followed by enumeratlve postposltlons of sub-groups Demonstratlve /khon-nan/ /khon-n{l/ /an-nan/ /an-n{l/ 'that person' 'thlS person' 'that thlng' 'thlS thlng' 'thus' 'so' /khraJ/ /khon-naJ/ lara J/ /an-naJ/ /thamaJI / Ja~a J/ 2) and 3) are llsted below.• sometlmes •. rol10ws only /il g/.)..2. although It does not clearly correspond to any partltlve numeral. WhlCh occurs only In parallel constructlon.2.. /phlaa~ •. t5~ khooJ paJ-il g : maJ-naan.4. There are four sub-groups: (3.11. The enumeratlve postposltlons do not form a well-deflned.5. Some double as sentence partlcles (4.). sometlmes •. For convenlence of reference.) and thelr derlvatlves (see tabulatlon below). half laughlng. mutually excluslve class. l~ternal No order can be stated.• phlaa~/ 'slmultaneously. except posslbly /khry~/ 'half': 12. half •.

) or classlfler numeral (3. kluaJ raa-khaa baJ-Ia-baad • 'The bananas are one baht each (one-baht per one-banana).' sa am dyan la-khr~D . sib baad • 'The sugar lS ten baht per kllo. ' 197 .4. /la/ 'per.5. 'Once every three months.2.6.1. ' r~~J-Ia-s.3.) 'plus a resldue' 2. but also after ordlnary cardlnal numeral phrases./mya-min/ /dlaw-n{l/ /thll-nan/ /thll-nll/ /thll-noon/ 'then' 'now' 'there' 'here' 'over there' 'that much' 'thls much' 'thls tlme' /mya-raJ/ 'when' 'where' /thaw-n~n/ /kheE-n{l/ /thll-n{l/ /thaw-raJ/ /khEE-naJ/ /thll-raJ/ 'how much' 'to wha t extent' 'whlch tlme' 1) Numeral postposltlons 1.2.~D r~~J baad: s~ed • 'Over two hundred baht. end.~D • 'Two percent (two per hundred).) plus the normal-stress morpheme 'one' (see 2.' n~m-taan raa-khaa kl-loo: la . ' haa mooD: kwa-kwaa • 'Later than flve o'clock.2.2.3.).1. /s~ed/ or /s~ed-s~ed/ and /kwaa/ or /kwa-kwaa/ S.2.' (See also 3. based on the precedlng unlt' Occurs malnly after the slmultaneous constructlon of a unlt or metrlc classlfler (3.6.

. 'That's all. thll-nlla ee~ • /lE/ and /~aJ/ 2.). thamaJ t .2) Demonstratlve postposltlons 1. cf. Interrogatlve postposltlons /kan/ 'reasonable answer not foreseen' 'Why the devll have you come7' 'Why have you (plural) come~' (pronoun /kan/) maa thamaJ: kan t . /~aJ/ after /n{l/ and lts derlvatlves. 'there It lS. /nE/ 'look at thls new thlng (polntlng to somethlng not sought) . and thelr derlvatlves. Ja~~n: lE • khon-n{l: ~a J . exactly. /baa~/ 'What In the world! ' 2. 'That's how It lS. ara J: kan t . Ja~an: ee~ . /noon/. kun-cEE hS~ • 'Here's the key to the room. maaa kan .aw-n{l: ee~ • . that's the one (polntlng out somethlng that has been sought) . /ee~/ 'the very one. 'Here It lS.' nll: ~a J . The members of thls sub-group exclude each other.) 3. ' 'Preclsely that way. ' 'Rlght now. ' (Speakers seem to prefer the form /lE/ after /n~n/.' Thls lS the one.2. ' 'Rlght here. 'Over there! Look!' noon: nE t duu: Sl t nll: nE . ' thaw-n~n: ee~ • dl. none other than' 'Just that much. /~aJ/. 'plural or multlple answer foreseen' 'Who all are you gOlng wlth7' 198 . and /ne/ are also sentence partlcles (4.' /lE/.5. That does It. 3) 1.' 'Thls lS the person.

General enumeratlve postposltlons /n~l/ or /nll/ or /nle/ 'thls sort of thlng (prevlously mentloned) . the last two members JUu thll-na J: kan baalJ la t . pham caJud lJaan . wan-alJkhaanl n~l . 'As for thls buslness of the preparatory students gOlng to drlll •.. 'Where the devll are they all'?' ('They are In what unreasonable places. 2. or should be already known to speaker' 'I wonder why he came. pen kham san-sakrid . demonstratlve postposltlons descrlbed above). The flrst two forms are weak-stressed verSlons of the demonstratlve /n~l/ 'thls. 'I'm gOlng to take thls Tuesday off.) wan-alJkhaan n~l . /na/ 'answer not expected.khun capa J na J: baalJ ara J: baalJ v . 3..2. excludlng each other. (Engllsh falllng lntona tlon) 4. /la/ or /law/ 'answer demanded' 'Why have you come'" 'Where are you 'Wha t.. Example: 3-4. tell meJ .) Members 3. khun capaJ naJI la ara J: la t v . ' (cf.' (demonstratlve /n{l/) suan nag-rlan trlam paJ s~oml kan nie . 'Thls (word) 'Tuesday' lS a Sanskrlt word. and 4. ' ~'" maa thama J: law t .5.). also occur as sentence partlcles (4. 4) 1. 'What places are you gOlng to'?' 'What (plural)" ' .' 'Where lS It you're gOlng'" 'What" ' (Engllsh hlgh rlslng lntona tlon) maa thama J I na • khun capaJ naJI na • Internal order of the sub-group lS 1.' and the thlrd contalns an addltlonal morpheme (probably to be ldentlfled wlth /18/ and /nE/. ' 199 .

enumeratlons.5. 'Now Chaluay (on the other hand) lS a woman's name only. /waa/ 'as follows (new or old quotatlon) . pen chyy phuU-Jl~: thaw-nan.0J • 'They're always talklng (about lt. expresslons. ' chaluaJt na . ' chaluaJ: la . 'If one brlngs up the subJect Df the preparatory students gOlng 4.1. ' khaw phuud samee .. and phrases. 4. /la/ and /la/ are related to homonymous sentence partlcles (4.2.. In any clause In WhlCh It occurs (regardless of the order In WhlCh lt actually occurs). pen chyy phuU-Jl~: thaw-nan. There lS a Sllght dlfference In emphasls dependlng on whether Compare the the /waa/ occurs before or after the lntonatlon break. ' la . ' Internal order of the sub-group lS 1-3.).0J • 'What they always say lS that the food lS no good. flrst two examples below. mll laaJ Jaa~ • 'For that flsh-catchlng operatlon there are several methods. waa aahaan maJ-ar.). ThlS ltem lS a homonYm of a conJunctlon wlth slmllar meanlng (4. /la/ or /la/ 'the new or contrastlve thlng (I have Just mentloned) . ' suan nag-rlan trlam paJ s~0m: kan to drlll. khaw phuud samee: waa .3. The flrst two forms are weak-stressed demonstratlves and the thlrd lS probably a comblnatlon of /nan/ and /nE/ or /le/.5. 'That (name) Chaluay lS a woman's name only. saYlng among other thlngs) that the food lS no good. ThlS ltem lS probably to be ldentlfled wlth the complementlve /lE£w/ 'already.. 4. The co-constltuents of sentence partlcles are entlre predlcatlons. or part of the last constltuent. and also such constructlons plus 200 . The forms /na/. now ..3. Sentence Partlcles A sentence partlcle lS any bound lexeme WhlCh lS always the last constltuent. /nan/ or /nan/ or /na/ 'that sort of thlng (prevlously mentloned) . 3.' 3. apart from lntonatlon. kaan cab-plaat nan. aahaan maJ-ar.

) ln that they The whole have close tles wlth speclflc syntactlc elements ln the clause. 4. I but the members of the flrst sub-class (/rog/-class) also resemble enumeratlve postposltlons (4.g-ryy-khrab nll t .4. posslbly belng Ilmlted to the members Ilsted ln All members occur both by themselves and ln coda- The meanlngs of sentence partlcles can be only vaguely stated. SUb-classes: rWell. (you mean) yourre not gOlng wlth them~! r The general class meanlng of sentence partlcles lS 'attltude of the speaker toward what he lS saylng. and the names of the sub-classes are taken from one of the posslble maXlmum sequences: khun maJ-paJ kab-khaw: r. and others have forms WhlCh occur ln absolute clause-flnal posltlon only. Some of them have varlant forms dependlng on clause lntonatlon. phrase lS four lexemes (or four syllables. For the same reason. /khrab/-class.5.4. a number of lengthy examples are glven consecutlvely ln the last sectlon Exchanges. and the last three wlth predlcatlve elements. the term codaphrase lS used to The maXlmum length of a codarefer to such groups of sentence partlcles. lt lS dlfflcult to quote out of context examples of sentences In order to avold repeatlng examples wlth sufflclent context under dlfferent headlngs. of 'clause partlcle') tence partlcles (except The term 'sentence partlcle' (chosen lnstead lndlcates a further relatlonshlp: most types of senhave var2) by the 3. lant forms condltloned ln two ways: presence of other sentence partlcles. the followlng sectlons. lf one or more two-syllable parThe sub-classlflcatlon of sentence partlcles lS based on posltlon ln the codaphrase. many sentence partlcles rather than once per clause. below) occur only once per sentence. tlcles are present). class lS closed.1. because a great deal'depends on the emotlonal lnterplay between speakers. 1) by clause lntonatlon. contalnlng partlcles. and are ln complementary dlstrlbutlon wlth respect to each other. /rog/ Class These sentence partlcles occur ln the flrst relatlve posltlon of the codaphrase. The flrst flve members have strong tles wlth the substantlve elements of the clause. In addltlon.' (4.) under the general headlng 'Sample Reference lS made to these examples after the lllustratlons of use of lndlvldual members of the class of sentence-partlcles.5. and small. None has an emphatlc form 201 . always after the morpheme / : /.thelr postposltlonal modlflers. and Slnce the members of thlS class often occur ln clusters at the ends of clauses.5. phrases.

3. 4. and one of the low-tone var1ants occurs elsewhere. 'I d1dn't goJ' ('not me') pham maJ-daJ paJ: 188J . The 1tem /r5g/ 1S almost ent1rely restr1cted to occurrence 1n clauses conta1n1ng a negat1ve (member of the /maJ/ class of modals. 'D1dn't you go to Bangsaen that day~' chan l~Q len: r~g .(occurr1ng slmultaneously w1th / J I). 2-1. 3-3. Nos. 'You see. /ryy/-class lS also present 1n the codaphrase.2. but when sub-class 2) 1ntervenes. It does not occur after /Jaa/ 'don't. /naa/.2.' Wh1Ch 1S a complement1ve of the /eeD/ class (3.g.5. 1t determ1nes the select10n of the statement form .3. When followed 1mmed1ately by a member of sub-class 3). 2. In codaphrases.g-ree . and 3. the quest10n form of the sub-class 3) member may be selected .e. Jaa krood: 188J • 'I was only fool1ng (that's what). /kha/ (see also 2.) and a postpos1t1on. that's whatf' (See also Exchanges. Don't be angry. 12-3.2.3.5. when / J / lS present a member of 2.3. 7-2.).' ('not anywhere. 7-7. pham maJ-daJ paJ: r5g t .g. 4.10.e. /r5g/ and /r~g/ or /d~g/ or /dr~g/ 'that's what' (otherw1se) 'not that' (after negat1ve). 'I d1dn't go at all. The h1gh-tone var1ant occurs 1n absolute clause-f1nal pos1t1on when / t / lS present (th1S be1ng the most common env1ronment of the ent1re 1tem). 'Why wouldn't he come~' maJ-chaJ naD-syy kh0QD-chan: r~g-na . and d1rects the force of the negat10n toward them and away from pred1cat1ve elements. 1. rather than a sentence part1cle (see contrast1ve examples below). 'Pretty soon you'll get your heads cracked. 1t 1S followed by these members of sub-class 2): 1. not any t1me') khaw maJ-maa thamaJ: r~g-na t . 1-2. /kha/.1.) 202 . but occas1onally turns up 1n pos1t1ve statements (see last two examples below). /ryy/.).. /Sll/. 8-4.' diaw daJ hua-tEEg kan-maD: r5g t . 1t's not ~ book.' It has reference to substant1ve elements 1n the clause. often to the subJect.' wan-nan khun mSJ-daJ-paJ baa~-s£En: r. In Ch1S mean1ng 1t contrasts semant1cally w1th the 1tem /188J/ 'at all. 11-4. and 14-2.

and 7-4.4. ' (See also Exchanges I-h.4. ' ('thls lS what r ) The dlfference meanlng lS very sllght.2 .) k5 khaw r~u-cag kan JUU-188W. and 4. nllnaa . don't you see. 2. /Sll/. etc.8b daJ . and the dlstrlbutlon lS the same except that /nll/ does not appear to occur before /ryY/. and wlth homonymous forms In the /ryy/ and /n{l/ sub-classes of sentence partlcles (4.2. the hearer lS not presumed to know the lnformatlon glven. /ryy/. k5 khun-ee~: naSll t .2. nar88 . ' khun: nalE .5. 9. /naa/. but speakers prefer /nll/ to /na/ whenever (Thls may In turn account for the absence of /nll/ before the sentence partlcle /ryy/. /na/ 'that's what. and 4.) 3. etc.2. s.) and also lS homonymous wlth one form of a complementlve meanlng 'how' (the other form belng /Ja~aJ/)' It occurs alone In clause. thls lS what. Ch08b tham sia~ da~: n~g • 'You really llke to make a lot of nOlse. 2-1.5. /~aJ/ 'somethlng known prevlously becomes newly relevant' or 'how can one overlook thls fact' Thls ltem lS easlly confused wlth a postposltlon of slmllar meanlng (4. whlch ~lun: nile .4. requests lnformatlon.2. but lS clearly dlstlngulshable when It lS followed In codaphrases by one of these members of sub-class 2): 1.4.4. 'Well. 'Say. /nll/ or /nl/ lthlS lS who.). ' k5 man cathuug kracog: nllnaa • 'Well. that's what. ch58b tham sla~ da~: n~g . that's who. It was you yourself (that's who)!' khun c~d. you do.' Statements about /na/ apply also to thls ltem.) 4.' Thls ltem by ltself lS easlly confused wlth the postposltlon /na/ (4. 3. and lS rare after negatlves. 3-4.4.3.2. that's where. you really llke to make a lot of nOlse. 'But they already know each other. rDld Chlt really pass the exam (lS that who you mean)?' man cathuug hua tua-ee~: nanaa • 'Why.and phrase- 203 . and 9-5. ' (See also Exchanges 2-2.2.). you mlght hlt yourself In the head wlth It. you mlght hlt the wlndow wlth It. Semantlcally It replaces /r5g/ In most posltlve statements. /le/.

4-1. and In codaphrases before only one member 5.flnal posltl0n. /rYy/. ' Both forms also occur as postposltl0ns wlth slml1ar meanlng (4. I (See also Exchanges 12-2 and 13-2.' (More commonly sald wlth postposltlon /~aJ/: nlll ~aJ .' ('how can one explaln that~') nll na~-syy thll khun-cld faag maa-haJ: ~aJ • 'Here's that book Chlt gave me to glve you.' but 1n fact lt occurs d1rectly after /1£8W/ ltself 1n the same 204 .) chan boog lE8W. and 4-2. wlth WhlCh It lS In semantlc contrast.2. /la/. It determlnes selectl0n of the questlon form of any sub-class 3) member In the same codaphrase. ~aJ-la .4.5. 6.1. The form /ne/ occurs only In clause-or phrase-flnal posltl0n. /ne/ or /nle/ 'somethlng prevl0usly unknown lS now relevant' or 'don't overlook thlS new thlng. /la/ or /la/ or /la/ ThlS ltenl lS 'changed sltuatl0n' sa1d by ST speakers to be a shortened form of /1£8W/ 'already. boog-waa maJ-choobl ~aJ • agaln~ 'Why on earth dld you buy green I thought you sald you dldn't 11ke It. o~ sub-class 2): /~aJ/ lS Whether followed by /la/ or not. waa man phed • 'I already told you (dldn't I) that It was SP1CY. na~-syy thll khun-cld faag maa-haJ . I chan syy phaa maa-faag ch~n: ny~ ne • 'Here's a plece of cloth I bought for you. Llke form /nle/ (posslbly analyzable morphemlcally as /nll/ plus /le/) also precedes one member of sub-class 2): 4. 4.' 'Just the one paJ naJI kan n18 plece~' t .). very frequent as a flnal partlcle In sentences lntroduced by the responses Jaaw t thamaJ syy sll-khiaw maa-l1g: la • naJ . duu khaw tham araJ: ne • ILook at what (new thlng) they are dOlng now. /naJ/ and /~aJ/ (3. but the 1.) 6.). /~aJ/. 'Where do you thlnk you're gOlng~ (thlS lS news to me)' (See also Exchanges 1-3. thlS partlcle determlnes the questl0n form of any sub-class 3) member In the same codaphrase.) 5.

phoo thaw-nil: koon • 'All rlght. the r standard way to ask a questlon lS wlth /maJ/.' hen camaag: paJ lama~ • 'Maybe lt's too much already.) 7. chan maJ-paJ: la • 'In that case I won't go. Just a mlnute ago.5. however. rather than The form /la/ occurs In clause-and-phrase-flnal posltlon.2. then. thaa Ja~an .)-see flrst. lt lS related to the negatlve /maJ/.clause. and does not occur In clauses WhlCh have no predlcatlve elements (for example. If the predlcator lS an adJectlve. members of sub-class 2): ltself lt determlnes the statement form of any sub-class 3) partlcle. for example.' khun capaJ: lares. If the predlcator lS a completlve verb or a modal verb. closely tled to predlcatlve elements. equatlons. then.2. and If the predlcadoes not occur In clauses contalnlng any /maJ/-class modal. . /maJ/ has a cltatlon form /maJ/. thlrd and fourth palrs examples below. but no other allolexes. or that the sltuatlon lS capable of change .see second palr of examples. that's enough for the tlme belng. WhlCh also turns up occaslonally In formal styles of speech. /Sll/. It lS. 3. 2. Any lnterrogatlve word In a clause contalnlng /maJ/ automatlcally has ltS lndeflnlte meanlng . and slmply lmplles that an evaluatlon lS belng asked for. In clauses conslstlng of substantlve expresslons. regardless of tlme factors.' aw: la . for past sltuatlons of for scheduled future events. and enumeratlons).) lS selected. 'Are you gOlng. dlchan t5~ paJ-koon: lana. In WhlCh case /rYJa~/ 'yet7 (4.) '~you must be full I . In codaphrases lt lS followed by these By 1. In codaphrases lt lS 205 . and 6) ma~. tor lS a transltlve verb. /maJ/ 'Yes-no questlon' ThlS partlcle lS tled dlrectly to the predlcator of the clause. 'I'd better be gOlng.' (See also Exchanges 15-2. As a sentence partlcle /maJ/ contrasts most strongly wlth /ryy/ (4.1. /naa/. /ryy/. Morphologlcally speaklng.5. the forms /la/ and /la/ elsewhere. the use of /maJ/ lmplles that a voluntary cholce lS posslble. now~' ('You weren't. the selectlon of /maJ/ lS nearly automatlc. substantlve ones. now. unless a tlme-element lS Involved.lt lS not used.1.

sanug: maJ • 'Was It fun gOlng to the mOVle yesterday~ I raw paJ-duu na~ . It? ' (oplnlon requested) 'I bought thlS book to glve Chlt . 206 11-3. and 12-5.do you llke It?' chan syy nau-syy nll maa-faag khun-cid . khun Jaag capaJ duaJ-kan: maJ • (modal verb predlcator) 'Do you want to go along? raw paJ-duu na~ . choob maJ-la (answer requlred) m8J-na • chan syy nau-syy nll maa-~aag . 11-1.) . Inaal and 5. are yoU?' khaw tO~-kaan araJ: maJ . Ila/.followed by these members of sub-class 2): phrases In whlch It occurs. Do you llke belng a soldler~' khaw paJ-duu na~: duaJ-kan maJ • 'Are they gOlng along (as a matter of cholce) to see the mOVle~ khaw paJ-duu na~: duaJ-kan ryy . daJ' maJ • 'Can we go to see the mOVle?' (completlve verb predlcator). thaan kaa-fee ilg: maJ • 'Wlll you have some more thaan kaa-fee ilg • ryy • 3. 'Do you llke (the ldea of) belng a soldler~' 'Would you llke to be a soldler~ I khun choab pen thahaan: ryy . It deter- mlnes the selectlon of the questlon-form of sub-class 3) members In all coda- coffee~' 'You're havlng more coffee. khaw choob. maJ • 'Shall we go see a mOVle (lS It a good ldea)~' (adJectlve predlcator) (adJectlve predlcator) . dll. 'Do they want somethlng~' khaw to~-kaan araJ • 'What do they want~ . khun 'I bought thlS book to glve you . khun cho8b pen thahaan: maJ .wlll he (do you thlnk) llke (See also Exchanges 7-1. 'Dld they go along to see the or: ora r mOVle~' 'Are they scheduled to go along to see the movle7 ' 'Do they (as a matter of fact) go along to see the mOVle~' mya-waan-n{l paJ-duu na~ .

raw paJ: kan the • 'Let's go. and 10-3.8. why don't you' Thls partlcle lS tled to the predlcate and.)' kln sa-the lSll t . /le/ and 5. /the/ or /theed/ 'why not.).).2.2. The second varlant /theed/ lS largely a cltatlon form but occurs In In codaphrases It lS followed by these 2. (See also Exchanges 7-6. /la/.) All members can All have varlant Each mem- forms. does not occur In clauses whlch do not have predlcatlve elements. paJ kan: the-na • 'It's late. let's get~.' kln: sa s{ t . The meanlng of /the/ lS always a mlld suggestlon.2. ber has an emphatlc form (occurrlng slmultaneously wlth /1/). Also. /naa/. except for 4.5. follow at least one member of the /r5g/-class (4. The /ryy/-class members.) These sentence partlcles occur In the second relatlve posltlon of the codaphrase. 3. 8-3.1.5. members of sub-class 2): common. It lS not used In statements of fact.' them~ . or In urglng people to belleve assertlons. 'Why don't you let me carry some of saaJ leEw . /Sll/ and 3.6. 'Go ahead and eat It (whether you want It or not. llke 6. as lS the other 'command' partlcle /Sll/ (4. /maJ/. let's. 8-1.2. elther advocatlng JOlnt actlon lncludlng the speaker (In whlch case the pronoun /kan/ often occurs somewhere In the clause) or unllateral actlon by someone other than the speaker. It does not occur In the same clause wlth the pre-predlcate preposltlon /ca-/ (4. and SOme of the emphatlc forms are dlstlnct from all other allolexes of the partlcles they represent. It determlnes the selectlon of the statement form of the sub-class 3) member In all codaphrases In whlch It occurs. the latter belng far more formal varletles of speech as well. are true sentence partlcles In the sense that they do not have reference to speclflc 207 . ' khun kln: sa the • 'Go ahead and eat It (If you want It). 'Please go ahead and eat ltl' khun be~ haJ-chan thyy ma~: the . and are In complementary dlstrlbutlon. some of whlch are condltloned and some In free varlatlon.

' /rYJa~/ It lS one of the posslbllWhlCh can nearly always ltles for questlonlng a non-predlcatlve element of a clause. yet'l ' 'or not' 'or otherwlse' 'or what' /ry-m8J/ /ryplaaw/ /ry~aJ/ The varlants of the slmple partlcle are dlstrlbuted as follows: /ryY/. The four derlvatlve partlcles. and feel occur In absolute phrase-or-clause-flnal posltlon and. after members of the /r5g/-class.). determlnes the selectlon of the questlon form of any sub-class ~y assump- tlon' or 'conflrm my understandlng of what you Just sald. It lS mandatory In questlons about past events bUllt around a transltlve verb predlcator. 3) member. the ltem /18EW/ 'already. The slmple partlcle occurs In clauses of any syntactlc composltlon whatever. but they are llsted under /ryy/ for convenlence of contrast.5. but most commonly wlth / lS nearly always lronlC. 208 . Slnce they can all be followed by /18/ and /naa/ from the present class. or feel 'lS the assumptlon correct" ' Emphatlc form: Derlvatlves: /Jryys/ /rYJa~/ or /Ja~/ 'or not yet. and even slngle substantlve lexemes. /ry/ and /re/ occur everywhere. on the other hand. commonly. enumeratlons. but to the sentence as a whole.' The sub-class mean- 1. freel. eq¥atlons. 1. Its meanlng lS slmply 'conflrm I t / or before members of the /khrab/-class (4. elegant Substltute for /ryy/ ltself. /ryy/ ltself has four derlV- atlves (lexemes contalnlng ltS allomorph /ry/) WhlCh actually belong to the /r5g/ class. lng lS 'expected reactlon from the hearer. freel. by the sub-class 2) partlcles 3.5. lncludlng substantlve expresslons. /ryy/.7.1. for comparlson wlth /maJ/-questlons and examples of the contrast). /naa/ and a negatlve In the same clause. blllty belng the phrase /ch8J: maJ/ replace It ln thlS use. /re/. as a much more open questlon-word of the /maJ/ type. but can also replace /maJ/.syntactlc constructlons. are actually members of the /r5g/-class and are much closer to /maJ/ ln use. derlvatlve. and derlvatlves. /18/. lncludlng ltS The emphatlc form /ryy/ occurs only wlth loud stress and extra duratlon. and In negatlve questlons of any klnd (see 4. another POSS1'Is that so" I 'or not yet' lS closely tled to predlcates and lS usually assoclated wlth /ry-m8J/ 'or not' can replace /maJ/ In any of lts /rffplaaw/ 'or otherwlse' lS usually an The last uses but lS sllghtly more formal. The presence of any form of /ryy/. /ry~aJ/ lS an lnformal Substltute for /ryy/ but also functlons All four can be followed Only /rJ~aJ/ can follow 5.3. /ry/.

'D1d they go~' thee ruu: ryplaaw • 'Do you know~ . or what" ' khun maJ-chSoba rYlJaJ . 'E1ght o'clock~' khaw chyY cld. thYlJ maJ-kh5J-saJ: leeJ • 'Don't you l1ke 1t.No member of th1s group. 1nclud1ng /ryy/ 1tself. 'Really~ . '" ree • 'Th1s coa t" ' SOOlJ thum: rykha . but also by the two sub-class 4) part1cles /n1. can follow /Jaa/ 'don't.that you hardly ever wear khun maJ-paJ wad. rekha • 'Aren't you g01ng to the temple'" " . reha • 'H1s name 1S Ch1t~ . khaw capaJ: rYlJaJ • 'Are they g01ng. V N 1t~ 209 .' As 1n the case of /maJ/. JalJan: ryy • 'I s tha t . '" so~.1/ and /nan/. not~ . 1nterrogat1ve words have the1r 1ndef1n1te mean1ngs before these part1cles. In codaphrases. m11 Jryy t manud cab1n daJ • 'Is there such a th1ng as a man that can khaw paJ-leEw: ree • 'Are they gone already~' khaw paJ-leEw: rYJalJ • 'Have they gone yet~' khaw capaJ: rYJalJ • 'Are they g01ng yet~' fly~J' khaw capaJ: rYmaJ • 'Are they g01ng or khaw paJI ryplaaw. C1lJ-C1lJ: ee t . /ryY/ (but not 1tS der1vat1ves) can be followed not only by sub-class 3) part1cles. or what .

and ISll/ wlth elther type. 9-1. and Exchanges 1-4.see contrastlve examples below.! ' maa-duu araJ nil: Sll t 'Come look at somethlng here! ' 210 . /si/. The form /Sl/ lS almost entlrely re- strlcted to occurrence In codaphrases before sub-class 3) members. /s{l. ISll/ lS used most commonly to urge actlon on the part of someone who lS not actlng. never by sub-class 4).1. Llke the sentence partlcle second use of /Sll/ lS In emphatlc statements. The composltlon of clauses In whlch thls partlcle lS found lS ldentlcal wlth that descrlbed for Iryy/ (4.) . otherwlse. whlch may have elther thelr statement or questlon forms.5.) 2. the use of /Slll In thlS sense lS not famlllar. 4.7. or ISll 'thls lS the correct behavlor or bellef (change yours If necessary)' The flrst three forms occur only In phrase. /Sll/ can follow any negatlve. and lS frequently found after IJaa/ 'don't. 2-1.) It does not occur In statements about past events whlch have a transltlve verb predlcator.1. 10-2.1.. sawad-dll: sa Sll • I Say hello! I (/sawad-dlll lS an lsolatlve.) cheen nalJ: slha t . Isil wlth normal In- tonatlon. I already~! (For more examples. /Sll/.or clause-flnal pOSltlon. t • 'Why don I t you . Interrogatlve words have lndeflnlte meanlngs before /Sll/.the co-constltuent may be even a slngle non-predlcatlve lexeme (see flrst example below).khaw ma J-pa J w~d: renan t .7. or to change the course of actlon of someone who lS. and 16-1. It deflnltely lS. the form Is{/ usually wlth hlgh lntonatlon I t I. where It elther expresses or ImaJ/ (4. 'You mean he's not gOlng to the mod we-laa 18EW: renll 'Is the tlme up temple~J' t.5. urges agreement. belng replaced In thls sltuatlon by the partlcle /nll/ . 'Please have a seat!' paJ sa-nooJI Sl .2. see /maJ/. Sub-class 4) does not occur after any form of /Sll/.B2. the latter belng more common when / t / lS present.5. 5-6. When the actlon recomA mended lS somethlng beneflclal to the hearer ('Please Slt down! I). 4-2. I In codaphrases It lS followed only by sub-class 3) partlcles. .

chan ko maJ-daJ-paJ naJ: Sl • 'In that case I won't go anywhere. never 4}. pham maJ-daJ-paJ naJ: 188J nil t . 5-7. don't you agree' /ln50:/ and /!naa.•• '. u~age.' mll ! Sll t . now. 15-2. the effect lS somethlng 11ke an echo-questlon ('I am supposed to know thlS. k5paJ. before sub-class The form /na/ lS /na/ lS also the only one Wh1Ch precedes other sentence partlcles ln codaphrases.' thaa Ja~. frequently after the sub-class 1) partlcles 2.2. /th8/. 5-3.d. but tell me agaln.. I dldn't go anywhere at all!' nan: slkhrab . 7-4. /la/ and It frequently follows the sub-class 1) partlWhen 7.' capaJ . v Jaa paJ-naJ: Sll • 'Don't go anywhere.) 1D although lt lS weaker and somewhat more pollte.. or /na/ Emphatlc forms: 'I thlnk. 211 . and 16-2. ' cf.5.n . /naa/ ltself urges acceptance of the It occurs speaker's wlshes or lnstructlons. then go ahead. /maJ/. wlth sllghtly dlfferent meanlngs. 10-1. /naa/ and /na/ are replaced by the emphatlc form /!naa:/. replac1ng both /naa/ and /na/. but not necessarlly rude./ All three weak-stressed forms occur ln phrase-and clause-flnal POS1tlon. 'It's good! Why wouldn't lt be good~' (See also examples under /th8/. Both The second varlant /na/ lS more lnslstent. It occurs only before sub-class 3). 6-1. . /na/. 6-2. and lS very close to /Sll/ (4. 'Of course there are some!' dlll slkha t thamaJ camaJ-dll t . and always determlnes the selectlon of the quest10n form of the /khrab/-class partlcle. /naa/. Sl • 'If you're gOlng. lsn't lt so. 'That's exactly It. 'Well. 4.5. and Exchanges 1-1. 12-4. 1-3.) replaced ln all lts uses by the emphat1c form /!noo:/. lnterrogatlve words occur ln lts sentence.) 3.2.5. mean1ng somethlng llke 'I wonder If . 5-2.1. mean1ng and 1. and commonly follows the sub-class 1) partlcles 1.). cles 6. /rog/ and 8. 7-8. /nll/ (see 4. /na/ and 3. The thlrd form /na/ ln flnal posltlon lmplles merely a weak questlon or request for conflrmatlon.

2. but you dldn't belleve me.1. and 15-1. 'It's late. wlll boog leEwl nanaa .Except for the ObV10US relatlonshlp of the form /na/ to lnterrogatlve words. and resembles 1. 'Do you thlnk he can see laa: thll lana. dld paJ' thee Jnaa t . ' paJ thaa~ naJI nakhrab • 'WhlCh way lS lt that you are thamaJa na . dldn't I. but you dldn't belleve me.1. 7-6.~' Jaa paJ-naJ: na • 'Don't go anywhere. I~' you~' gOlng~' 'But why~ J ' khaw moo~ henl maJ-na . paJ: kan the-na . Let's get gOlng .). now ••.' thama J Jnoo t . the partlcle /naa/ does not have close tles wlth any partlcular type of clause constltuent.?' lt~' ke~: Cl~ na . 4. /le/ or /la/ or /e/ Emphatlc form: 'here's the thlng we've been looklng fori /!leE:/ ThlS lS a statement partlc1e.' . O. maJ chya • 'ThlS lS what I told you.5. /ryy/ and spect. Jaa paJI naa • 'Don't go. maJ chya • 'I already told you.. /Sll/ In thlS reIts forms occur after all types of negatlve an~ /Jaa/ 'don't. 3-4.K. wasn't lt.) 4. lsn't lt~' (See also examples under sub-class 1) partlcles WhlCh precede /naa/. and Exchanges 1-2.5. 'That's really clever. 'I wonder why that lS.O. 'Aw. wlll you~' pham maJ-daJ-paJ naJ: leeJ na • 'I dldn't go anywhere at all. 'Goodbye. come on and go.K. very slml1ar In meanlng to /~aJ/ (4.4. ' boog leEw: nll-naha . ' saaJ 18Ew . All three forms are In free varlatlon. WhlCh has strong tles to the 212 .

and after khun: ni le-kha . /Sll/ where the latter would be rude. /le/ frequently replaces 2. It also occurs ln statements. wlth WhlCh lt has a speclal relsand after the sub-class 1) partlcle 7. ' pham maJ-daJ-paJ naJ leeJI la t . /la/ or /law/ or /la/ Emphatlc form: /!laa:/ 'tell me!' The flrst two weak-stressed forms are ln free varlatlon ln phraseand clause-flnal posltlon.). /maJ/. r 'That's all.demonstratlve system but also occurs wlthout any demonstratlve element ln the same sentence.' Cl~: nale-ha • 'That's rlght!' (See also Exchanges 4-3. lS at best famlllar and at worst rude unless lt 1S followed by a sub-class 3) partlcle. /~aJ/.' 213 . for WhlCh lt determlnes Belng the most soclally acceptable of the statement partlcles. 4) members. ' nan !leE t chan boog-IEEwl maJ-la . tlonshlp.1. where lt lS usually replaced by /rog/ (4. 'I dldn't go anywhere at all! r nill e-ryy . however. occur- lng frequently after lnterrogatlve words. /nil/.1. choob tham sla~ da~: nag • 'You (are the one who) really llke to make a lot of nOlse. and frequently follows the sub-class 1) partlcle It 6. It has strong tles wlth lnterrogatlve elements of ltS clause. cahaJ chan saJ: paJ • 'Is thls the one you want me to wear?' thaw-nan: e • 'That's lt. 'That's Just It! Dldn't I tell you so~' It lS rare after negatlves. 3) partlcles. now. and precedes only sub-class the selectlon of the statement form. but occurs wlthout them and even after /Jaa/ 'don't. ln both statements and questlons. now.5.) 5. The partlcle /la/. partlcles ln the codaphrase. /Jaa/ 'don't. It follows the ~ub-class 1) partlcles 2. /na/ and 3. wlth a meanlng somethlng llke 'how about that!' In elther case lt determlnes the questlon-form of any sub-class lS not followed by sub-class 3) member WhlCh follows. The form /la/ occurs only before other sentence ThlS lS baslcally a questlon-partlcle.

1.' It lS sllghtly fam1l1ar 1n sOC1al connotat1on.. /ma~/ or /ma~/ 'perhaps' Emphatlc Form: The form /ma~/ determlnes the questlon-form of any sub-class Both are preceded by the sub-class lowed by the sub-class 3) partlcle WhlCh follows.6. 'Do you see It". hen camaagl paJ lama~ • 'Maybe 1t'S a Ilttle too much. 13-1. ' (The flrst /l~/ lS /r5g/-class. ence In meanlng between the two varlants lS sllght: flrmlng answer more than /ma~/ does. 1) partlcle 6. and the form /ma~/ determlnes the statement form. and also lS poss1bly related to the quest1on-part1cle /maJ/ (4.5. but It has no t1es w1th any part1cular type of clause const1tuent.) Jaa paJ-naJ: Ia .thamaJ ch~a: n~g la t .' chan pen s~ed-thll mya-raJ: law pham capa J da J Ja~a J I kan J laa t. 4.) 6.' thamaJ ch~a: n~g la-khrab • 'Why are you so late". /krama~/. 5-4. aren't you". rpon't go anywhere!' paJ thaa~-naJ: la-kha .Chlt'S flanc~e.5. 'WhlCh way shall I go".7). /nll/ In the codaphrase. 12-5. khuu-man khoa~ khun-cid . 7-3. A cltatlon form. and 16-3. and both are folThe dlffer/ma~/ expects an con- 4) partlcle 1. /l~/.1. 18 rarely ThlS partlcle has an ObV10US morpholog1cal relat10nshlp wlth /baa~/ 'some' (Wh1Ch has an allolex /ma~/).' 1m lEE1r1l l~Sll t chaJ: maJ-la 'You must be full. 'There she lS . and Exchanges 3-2. heard outslde of formal style. 'How the devll would I be able to get there".1.5.' nan: ~aJ-la . 'Why are you so late}' hena maJ-law . ' (See also contrastlve examples under /maJ/. 'When would I ever be a rlch man! ' t. 4. 214 . but by no means rude.7.

) . and I lnterlor of dlscourses. extreme example belng 6. deferentlal. those used In addresslng royalty). the statement form before / (Clauses endlng In / penslve lntonatlon. 215 . or noble personage. the members are lnterchangeable. the far~s. lnformatlon lS also glven on the sex of the speaker. 1. and the statement form.. the last two patronlzlng or rude. 14-1. and the normal pattern of occurrence lS one /khr~b/-class partlcle per sentence (although exceptlons occur to thls In over-deferentlal speech). questlon form. /khs/. and are In complementary dlstrlbutlon. ! r (See also Exchanges 9-3. whlch does not.3.) res pons e s ( 3 . /.3. the questlon form usually before / t / and .' and for the flrst four members. glven the proper soclal sltuatlon. morphologlcally related through a superflx (2. / or / hearer). Not Ilsted here are partlcles of extremely speclallzed use (e. No member of the class lS related to any partlcular klnd of clause constltuent.): the whlch antlclpates further dlscourse (elther by speaker or Both forms occur In the . often no partlcle at all lS used. all rlght. t / and phrases endlng In / . reverend. but slnce. of 1. partlcle. where no two lnformants agreed upon the dls- Statement form: Questlon form: Sltnatlon: /khraphom/ /khraphom/ Male speaklng to hlghly superlor. Except for ~rlbu~lon 4. /wa/. The class meanlng lS 'relnforcement of the speaker's status wlth The flrst two members are clearly the respect to the hearer. 2. thaa khaw camll thur~: lama~ • 'I guess he must be busy.) /khr~b/-Class These sentence partlcles occur In the thlrd relatlve posltlon of the codaphrase. however.g.kh{d-waa khaw cachooba ma~ . Among lntlmates and establlshed equals. the second two non-famlllar. / are sald to have 'susrequlrlng the questlon the form of any /khr~b/-class Most members of the class are also morphologlcally related to 4. Each member has at least two forms. the same examples wlll apply to the whole class wlth the proper substltutlon of the form called for. usage varles conslderably among speakers. 'Do you thlnk she mlght llke lt7' nil kho~-chaJ: lama~-kha-nll • 'Thls must be the rlght one. Full exempllflcatlon of the varlOUS uses of the /khr~b/-class partlcles lS glven only for members 3.3. and both occur at the ends of dlscourses.

Statement form. JUU bon-t~ a nll lS~ hen: maJ-ha . B. D. waa phe En. I can't seem to It's on the table here - see lt~ r 4. D. or non-lntlmate equal person. (Forms wlth /c/ more common among female speakers.thll JUu thll-na J pham haa maJ-ph~b: leeJ khrab khun saab: maJ-khrab . ) 216 .) 5. (The phonemlcally less complex forms /ha/ and /ha/ are decldedly less formal. (The forms /ha/ and /ha/ are less formal.2. elder. Statement form: Questlon form: Sltuatlon: /caw-kha/ /caw-kha'/ Female speaklng to hlghly superlor. Statement forma Questlon form: /ca/ or / Ja/ /ca/ or /Ja/ Person speaklng to lnferlor or younger person. waa pheEn-thll JUu thll-naJ • dlchan haa maJ-phob: leeJ kha • nll lJaJ ha • JUu bon-t~ nll hen: maJ-ha • (Same translatlon as In 3. c. or noble personage. Questlon forma Sltuatlon: /kha/ or /ha/ /kha/ or /ha/ Female speaklng to superlor. above. elder. ' 'Here It lS. reverend. 3. .) c. or non-lntlmate equal person. Statement form: Questlon form: Sltuatlona /khrab/ or /ha/ /khrab/ or /ha/ Male speaklng to superlor. . 'Do you know where the map flnd It anywhere. khun saab: maJ-kha . nll: lJa J ha . those wlth /J/ among male speakers. Occaslonally used among equals.) A.

6.). (Dlstrlbutlon of forms not clear. 'ThlS must be the rlght one.3.4. B.2. aren't Oh. that's rlghtJ they~' I'd completely forgotten. Nelther member affects occur after a sub-class 3) the selectlon of the form of the sub-class 3) partlcle.5. class meanlng lS slmllar to that of the vocatlve /nll/ the effect lS to call the hearer to hlS senses. (The dlfference between the vocatlve /nll/ and the homonYmous partlcle lS slmply a phrase-boundary). Two other partlcles probably are varlants of thlS member.og haJ-tom n~am thug-chaaw t thamaJ: na-ee . 'Say. The subIn that (3. 'I told you to bOll water every mornlngJ remember? ' A.3. 1. so that they are dlfflcult to ldentlfy unless they (/khrab/-class) partlcle.1. chaJ: maJ • Why lS lt you never Cl~1 Sl-ee t chan lyYm sa-sanid t . /nll/ or /nl/ 'here. but are lnsufflclently attested: speech) I feel and /eeJ/' Examples (all taken from women's wan-nil raw cakln araJ dll: eeJ • 'I wonder what we should have to eat today. or /weeJ/ /wa/. and are In complementary dlstrlbutlon. or /weeJ/ Person speaklng rUdely or to lntlmate equal. ' (See also examples under /rog/ and /ryy/. /wa/. '.). These two sentence partlcles occur In the fourth and last relatlve posltlon of the codaphrase. see Exchange For ex- 5 (4. maJ ruu-cag cam t .5. and Exchanges 9-5. A. They're comlng to see you today.) amples. Both members of the sub-class have many other homonYms. lncludlng partlcles of the /rog/ class (4. you' nil kho~-chaJ: lama~-kha nil. /w60 J /. now. statement forma Questlon form: Sl tua tlon: /wa/. you're certalnly dressed beautlfullyJ Where are you gOlng?' chan b. te~-tua suaJ: Cl~ t capaJ naJ: eeJ t .1. but both frequently occur Wl th / t / lntona tlon In clauses lntroduced by the conJunctlon /k5/ 'Well. khaw camaa haa khun wan-nil.' meE . B.1.5.).5.' 4·5.) 217 . /w60 J /.

4./la/ Q 6. Q QN E Q Q EN 7. ' (See also examples under /r5g/ and /ryy/ and Exchanges 2-1. In terms of lndlvldual members of sub-classes 1) through 4). the symbol and the symbol /E/ means elther form lS posslble. 6. or after any partlcle contalnlng the demonstratlve morpheme /n/. It can be seen from the chart that /nll/-class partlcles occur relatlvely lnfrequently. The symbol /N/ means sub-class /X/ means nelther lS posslble. the symbol /Q/ means the questlon-form lS called for. Sub-class 1) partlcles are 2) along the horlzontal.Mlsslng l. 2. If present. lS called for. 8./1E/ S. and that they do not occur at all after /Sll/. chan Ja~ maJ-than phuud l(YoU mean) she's gone already~! I hadn't had a chance to talk to her at all. and sUb-class In questlon occur together.) The flow pattern of codaphrases. The key to the chart lS as follows. you' khaw paJ-l€cWI rekha-nan kakhawl 188J • t. /r5g/ /na/ /nll/ /DaJ/ /ne/ /la/ /maJ/ /the/ EN SN Q Q s S EN E E E S S Q SN E E x x Q S Q 5. The presence of any symbol at an lntersectlon means that the two partlcles The symbol /S/ means that the statement form of the sub-class 3) partlcle. /nan/ or /na/ 'there./Eix/ 2. lS summarlzed below. arranged along the vertlcal aXls. 4) may occur. Mlsslng 1./naa/4. /lE/.2. then. Flow Pattern of Codaphrases O. /la/./maD/ O./Sll/ QN QN Q Q E E 3. Q E x 218 . 3.

and D. . system 1S as follows. the speaker of each d1scourse 1S 1dent1f1ed by a cap1tal letter.2. A.. and The reference means '1-1' means the f1rst sentence of the f1rst Translat10ns are glven only 'A' 'f1rst woman speaker. Look how they got my blouse all d1rty.. 1n the exchange 1S numbered consecut1vely regardless of speaker. A. but also hav1ng relevance to the whole quest10n of pred1cate Subst1tut1on (see 2. B. n11' nE t sa J sya d1chan pa J. Here. B. 219 .1. Sample Exchanges Follow1ng are some actual exchanges (2. chaJ: kha .) chosen spec1f1cally to 111ustrate the use of sentence part1cles.da J.kl EElJ: r8g-na . B. 1-5. 1-5. 1-3. ' .). 1-2. . 2-2. The reference each exchange 1S ass1gned a number and each sentence A. w1ll you" Is th1S the blouse you want me to wear" Yes. for women. Exchange 1. C. 1-4· B. and B. 1-4· B. nobody 1nv1ted me. 2-1.6. duu: si khaw tham sya d1chan pyan: mod t . B. Exchange 2. exchange. 2-1. 1-1. A.5. sya n11: naree cahaJ d1chan sa J: paJ . I'm sure they d1dn't mean to. 2-2.5. 1-2.2.5. 1-1. 1-3.4. wear my blouse. A. for men. slkha . A. khun maJ-paJ thiaw kab-khaw: r~g-rekha-na kS maJ-m11 khraJ chuan d1chan: n~l-kha Aren't you gOlng on the tr1p w1th them then" Well. A.' for whole exchanges. khaw khOlJ ma J.5.

3-3. B. c. b. Exchange 5. 3-2. A. 3-4. 3-4. D. 5-3.. maJ-r~u Cl~-Cl~:. 5-2. khraJ tham thuaJ-kE8w t88g: wa. D.' . c. D. Don't say 'wah'J 220 . c. 3-2. 5-4. c. You stlll mlght hlt yourself In the head. c. D. Exchange 4. 5-1. man cath~ug hua tua-ee~: nanaa • Don't throw stones that way. ko maJ-r~u: SlW~OJ t . D.:>g: maa s{ t khraJ tham tE8ga la • '" '" maJ-ruu: wa . chan syy phaa maa-faag ch{n: ny~ n8 • ch{n sil-lya~: nie-rekha • chaJ . 5-5. 4-1. Thls yellow plece c. 3-1.6. Who broke the glass~ 5-7. A. c. 4-2. Why not? 1 1m throwlng so as not to hlt the wlndows. rewa. A.Exchange 3. 5-1. 5-2. c. 5. 3-3. Jaa phuud w~: slw~eJ t b. 3-1. though. D..:>g-waa maJ-r~u . 4-3. c. B. 4-3. 4-1. A. 4-2. Yes. tha t' s the one. ch{n n~n: l£-kha • Here's a plece of cloth 1 bought to glve you.

B. 6-1. It's terrlbly frlghtenlng.. 7-3. A. 7-2. wlll you". B. maJ paJt r0g • thama J: la • chan maJ-Jaag paJ: naSl • man naa-klua-~0g • pa J' thenaa t . pham lm s8. 221 ... 7-8. Come on and goJ 'Psycho'~ . 5-5. A. 5-3. 7-8. 5-6.. 7-1. 7-5. C. C. . 6-1. Eat wlth us. 6-2. 7-2. D. slkhnl'b . 7-6. 7-3. D. Who broke It'Z I don't know. . You really don't know". A. . 7-7. B. k5-paJ khon-dlaw: Sl • Shall we go see the mOVle I'm not gOlng. Why not". If you want to go. It's not all that frlghtenlng. D. khun Jaag paJ . 7-1. I'm already full.C. C. If say I don't know. 6-2. 7-4. A. then I don'tJ D. Tell meJ 5-4. Exchange 7. A. B. 7-6. 7-5. thaan khaaw dua J-kan: . A. 7-7 · B. 5-7 · Exchange 6. I Just don't want to go. B.'-l Eew: Sl . go by yourself. 7-4.

B. A. t00n-nan khun kholJ maJ-Juu baan . thaa-lJan khun klnl sa the ma J. B. But I dldn't go anywhere at all yesterday. You must not have been home at the tlme. 8-2. 8-3. 9-5. 9-4. I'm starvlng already.1 A. You don't have to walt for me. B.Exchange 8. Exchange 9. A. . Dld you get the letter that I had the boy take over to you yes terday" I dldn't see any (letter) at all. 9-4· B. 9-5. . 8-1. nalJl the-ha . mya-waan-n{l chan haJ-deg aw-cod-maaJ paJ-haJ khun daJ-rab: ryplaaw • maJ-hen mll: 188J nil • thaa-JalJan khaw kholJ-faag khon-yyn waJ-haJ: malJ . 8-4. 9-3. . A. maJ pen-raJ . 10-1 222 . 10-3 ch88n nalJ: slha t . . B. 8-4· maa-kln-khaawl kan the chan hlw-cataaJ: 188W . 10-2 C. mya-waan-n{l chan maJ-daJ-paJ naJ: 188J nll.. B.t3lJ kh88J chan: r8g Come on and ea t. A. A. In that case he must have left lt wlth someone else to glve you. 8-2. maJ-chaJ: rekha. 9-2. A. Exchange 10. 9-3. 9-2. C. 9-1. Please have a seatJ C. 8-3. 9-1. kaw-il nil kho0lJ-naaJ khun nalJ . I guess. 10. 8-1. In that case you go ahead and ea t.

Say! I wonder If Chlt would have any. C. It's not the same. khaw camll: maJ-na • D. 12-2. They're not a t a l l allke. he wouldn't have any. paJ-aw khoa~-thee maa-duu: Sl t . 10-3. myan kakhoa~ thee. 223 . Exchange 12. 12-3. C. tua: ny~ . 12-6. D. Just llke yours. 11-3. A. Well. 12-2. khun mll khan-~8n JaJ-JaJ baa~: maJ • pham maJ-mll: 188J . B. maJ myan: rag • naJ .A. No. go and get yours and let's see! Do you see~ B. A. 12-5. 12-3. doesn't Go anead and Slt down. 12-5. D. 12-4· B. 11-2. Thls lS l t. hen: maJ-la t maJ myan: kan leeJ • v . chan syy sya: maa . lt~ Exchange 11. A. 11-2. It'S all rlght. 12-1. 10-2. 12-1. 11-4. A. 11-3. 12-4· B. C. C. D. bowls~ Do you have any large slIver I don't even have a slngle one. I bought a new blouse. 11-1. 11-1. Thls chalr belongs to your boss. C. 11-4. khaw ma J-mll: r5g t. sag baJ: ny~ • J~e t khun cid .

khon-1aJaalJ • Thal and Amerlcan chl1dren's characterlstlcs are not the same at all. 15-2. B. are they~ Tha t 's for sur e J They're brought up In dlfferent ways. 13-1. c. They go In Opposlte dlrectlons (clash). Well I am worklng here. Exchange 15. ab-rom: maa . 13-2. deg thaJ kadeg amee-rikaa . t . 13-2. nisaJ maJ-myanl kan-188J na • ko D. D. 15-1. 14-1. B. kanulJ kaphroolJ s11-khlaw nan. don't you see7 Exchange 14. 13-1. dlchan casaJ sya Srl-dEElJ tua-n{l . 15-3. thamaJ khun maJ-tham-lJaan:' 1a • ko pham kam-1alJ tham Juu-18EW: nll-lJaJ Why aren't you worklng~ D. 14-3. A. daJ: malJ • maJ daJI rog-kha • man paJ: kan . 14-3. C. khon-1athaalJ • Do you thlnk I can wear thlS red blouse wlth that green sklrt~ Not them. 14-2. n8 E : la sit .Exchange 13. 15-1. C. 224 . 14-2. A. 14-1. 15-2. D. c. 15-3.

16-1. B. B. 16-1. You're not gOlng to Bangsaen el ther~ Of course I'm gOlngJ Why wouldn't I be gOlngJ 225 . 16-3. . 16-2.s Ecn duaJ: ree paJ JSl.l t v . 16-3. khun Y1a J-pa J baalJ. 16-2. . thamaJ thYlJ.Exchange 16.cama J-pa J: la t A. A.

see Index of Forms for the latter. 4. For example: bases 2. and 72.3. 2.3.11.4.3.2.4. Hyphenated references.3.4.3. 90 105.2.3. 178 121 adJect~ve 'adverb' 3.1. 2·4.4.4.1.108 123-4 126 53 118 ff 205-6 56 67.2. 70-1 redupl~cators allo1ex 119 73 allomorph 2.5.4.3.2. 3.3. References apply~ng to longer 'abnormal 1. 67-72. 2. 8).1. 2. e~ther of head~ng or page numbers.7. 26 adJect~ve mod~f~er 4. 3. 67. The f~rst t~onal head~ng.2.2.1.4.2.2. 72 organ~za­ adJect~ve Reference to adJect~ve bases w~ll be found ~n Chapter Two. 3.2. (Redupl~cat~ons). passages are g~ven as follows: 67ff.TOPICAL INDEX The ~ndex wh~ch follows ~ncludes the follow~ng k~nds of entr~es: 1) 2) General Terms l~ngu~st~c terms: allophone for th~s spec~f~cally def~ned grammar: adJect~ve (~nclud~ng word-classes ~dent~f~ed by reference to a member: baaD-class postpos~t~on) terms and general reference top~cs (always ~n 'adverb' 3) Undef~ned quotes): Apart from words ~dent~fy~ng classes (baaD).4. 37 36 65-6 62-3 adJect~ve expreSSlon 226 .3.3.4.3. reference g~ven on each l~ne of th~s ~ndex ~s to the the second ~s to the page number. 2. 188.3. 3.3.1.2.192 dlstr~butlonst abstract nouns 'actor' 3. and 11).2.2.2. e. 67.2.4.5. 2.1.1.2.3. no ~nd~v~dual ST lex~cal ~tems are l~sted here-. (used lnterchangeably w~th complement~ve before the latter term ~s lntroduced) aillterat~ve adJectlve bases 2.3. 2.11 3.8.3. beg~nn~~g on three separate pages: 67. 8. 70.4. ~mply a ser~es of references to the same top~c w~th~n a relat~vely short stretch of text.3. 2.1. 3.7.10. 70.3.g.1. 70. 72 adJectlve predlcat~on 74 118-9 4. uncer the head~ng 2.5.3.5. sub-head~ngs 1).2.

2. 201 ff 207 89 188 ff 75 114 124 91 ff 121 193 118 125 154 205-6 69-70 79 59 ff 87 110 63 postposltlon 3.4.1.3.2.1.3.2.6. 4. 2.2.3. 4. 4. 2.4.5.1.£ caag-class preposltlon cardlnal numeral cardlnal -phrases Central Plalns Dlalect classlfJ. 135 138 147 158 171 184 ff 184 4 22 32-4 73 close Juncture (see Juncture) codaphrase 'command' common noun 'aspect of verb' b baa~-class 4.2.2.4. consonant allophones.3. 3.1.1.4. 2. 1. 3.allophones.2.2. 4. tone allophones.3.2. 1.4.5-8.2.2.2.5.6.6.6.7. 148 166-8 III complex redupllcators complex sentence composltlon of lexemes 156 0.3. 4. 3.4.5.1. 113 188 193 92 48 ff 66 ff 'comparlson of adJectlves' complement ba~-een-class complementlve base base lexeme bound lexeme complementlve 2. Councll of Learned Socletles 'antonym .1. 2.1.1. 4. 4.1. 2. 4.2.3.1.3. 1. 3. 3.3.3.1.1.4.2.3.5. 3.1.2. 3.4. 1-2 45 104 227 compound .2. 3.2.2.er 4.6·4. 4.2. Chapter IV 79 112 I}} completlve verb bound lexeme classes .5.3.2. 3.2. 4.2. 9 classlfler -as head -bases -phrase 18 2. 1.2.6.2.1.5. vowel 1.8.2.3. 4·4.2. 4. 3.6. 2·4.3 · 3.3.5.6.4.1.1.4.1.14· 3 · 3.5. 2.3. 2.2. 4·4·2.2.2.4.1.4.3. 64 105 68-9 75 104 133 197 Amerlcan 0.2.6. 1.2. 3. 4.3.1.4.5. 4.1.1.5.2. 3.3.3.4. classlfler numeral clause 4.2. 3. 2.2.2.4.8.3.5.

d duratlon of syllables 1.2.4.2. 4. 4.5.4.4.2.2.2.5.2.4.3. dlscontlnuous constructlon dlscourse dlstrlbutlon of phonemes dooJ-class preposltlon 2.3. 4.4.8.3.3.2.2. 2. 3.2.3.1. -noun-pronoun 3.1.6.2.4.4. 3.5.5.3 • consecutlve-order constructlon 2. 3.2.5.1. 2.2.3. 3. 103 163 168-71 172 180 conJunctlon 4. numeral -noun-c1asslfler 3.2.4.2. -verb-comp1etlve verb cYlJ-class conJunctlon 3. eelJ-class complementlve 3.3.5.5.2.2.171 180 -complementlve3. 3.3.2.4.2.2. 55 102 196 213 198 11 59 87 111-3 196 207 228 endocentrlc constructlon -compound -phrase enumeratlon 3.3.2. 2.4.2.6.4.2. 4. 1.5. 3.5.2.1. 89 105 108 128 133 168 73 8 ff 72 ff 78 dlaw-c1ass demonstratlve dlaw-class conJunctlon 4.3.1.2.1~5.6. contour (see lntonatlon) 'covert re1atlonshlps' -adJectlvepostposltlon 4·4·2.3.3. 2. 4. .4.4.1.6.3. end 190 112 89 104 ff 98 125 128 ff 133 168.3. 2.3.2.2.6. 3.3. demonstratlve postposltlon dental consonants derlvatlve 4.2.4.3. 3. 4·4. 'lnltla1' and 'flnal') constructlons constructlon types 2.5. 1.5.3.6.6.3. 4.5.5.1.2.2.3.3.1. 3.2. 5 15 15 76-8 73 24 ff 152 159-61 162 172 23 208 consonants (see also 1. 3. 1.2.2.1.6.4.1. 4·5.2.4.3. end 4.4.3. 3. 4. 4.3.2.3.2. 4.2.4.2. 3. 1.2.1.4.2.1.6. 4. 4. 3.2.7.3.1-3.4. 45 3. 93 102 112-3 120 153-4 193 103 207 119 183 63 73 76 102 104-5 109 ff 165-6 196 'emphatlc forms' demonstratlve 2.4.1. 4.3.6.3.2. 4.2.3·4· dlphthongs 1. 4.2. 4.5.2.5.1.4.3. 2.concrete noun 3. 2.2. 4. 4.1.2.5.1.4.4. 4. 3. 4.

4.1.3.2.2.fler lmmedla te constltuent 159. lmJ. common head types Hoc ke t t.5.3.6.1. 4.2. 1.3. F. 2.6.2.2.2. 4 53 105 63 ff 73 167 64 119-20 1 2.5.3.3.2. 4. 3.1.3. Gedney. 1.3 .6.4.1.3.6. 2. W.3.5.5.3. 2.4. 3. 88 108 2. -conJuncted clauses 4.enumeratlve postposltlon -general equatlon equatlonal predJ.1. 2.6.1.5.1. 4.on general 3.er 4.1. 4. 3.2.5.1.2.2. 2.2. Mary R.2. 4.3. C. -derlvatlves 2. sample exclamatory sentence exocentrJ. ta tJ.6.3. 2.2.3.3.2.2.J.2.3.1.2. 139 165 229 . 218 2 end 1.1. 3.3.1. 4. 2.fJ. 2.3.7. 4.4. 3.c constructJ. f flnal fJ.1.2. expreSSlon 'female speaker I Haas.1.3.3.ve lml ta tlve classJ.1.cate 4.1. 4.cle (see 'sentence partlcle') flow pattern of codaphrases Forelgn Servlce Instltute (FSI) form-class free lexeme free lexeme classes 'future' 4. 2.2·4· 196 199 75 75 90 165-6 80 73 219 ff £.1.2.nal partJ.1. 2. 'homonym .2. completlve verb general modal verb general pronoun glottal stop 'goal h r 3. head head-noun head-nouns.1.5. 185 ff 205 3 122 108 127 117-8 101 equatlonal sentence exchange exchanges.2.2. 4. 4·2. 2. 3. general adJectJ.5.2. 1.1.3.3.5.60 167 171 188 2.2. 79 75 146 168 59 73 56 99-101 216-7 219 4 9 123-4 3 -complement phrases 4.1.4·4.4. 4 38 79 79 J.1.4. 3.4·2. 2. 4.1.1. 1.2.4. 0.4.2.1.4. 0.ves general classJ.5.2.4.1.4.8. end 35 37 74 81 192 Chapter III 81 ff 4. 0.4. 2.4.1.2. 0.4.6.6.2. 2.nal contrasts 5 6 fJ.6.3. 1.1.4.5.4.2.3. 3.

1.5. 1.2. 4.5.5.4. 1.2. 1.4.4. 74 124 167 98 50 67. 0.4.3.1.2.4.1. end k 'klnshlp terms! -as vocatlves -In lexeme composltlon -In pronoun suppletlon khyyn-class modal lnterJectlon 3.2.5. lnterlocklng constructlon 'lnterrogatlve' 87 87 99 133 166 1 lablal consonants length of vowels 1.1.1-4 2.2. 1.1.6.3.3.3.6.2.3. 2.4. 4. 4.9-11 3.2.1.3.2.1.3.2.3.1.3.3.2. 3.1.3.2. 1.8.1. 4. 1.1.3.3.4·3 • 2. 1.8. 4. 4·5.5.5.2.8.2.2. 4.2.2.2.5. 1. 4.5.4.3.3.2. 3.2. 3.6. 1. 3. 3.2. 2.3.2.6. 2·4·2.2.5.6.4.2. 4. 4 5-6 14 15 27 37 79 59 ff 87 110 36 59-62 62-3 lnterrogatlve postposltlon lntona tlon lexeme -categorles -composltlon lntona tlon contrasts lexemlc morpheme lexlcal preflx lexlcal sufflX lntonatlon morphemes lntonatlon phonemes 230 .3.4·1.4.2. 3.3.3. 4·4.1.J.6.4.3.2.7.1.1. 4.2. 4. Juncture khrab-class sentence partlcle .5. 4.69-70 88 3 5 5 26 188 193 40 81 78 57 96 102 138 181 196 205 209 ff 198 4 18 33-4 201 215 7-8 48 38 21 . 3. 4.3.5.3.4. 4·5. 2.5. 4. 119 112 64-6 70-1 81 ff 210 8 22 32-4 201 208 215 218 -pronoun lnflx lnflXed redupllcators lnflxed lml ta tlves Informants lnltlal lnltlal contrasts 'lnnovatlons ' 4.2.4.3.2.4.3.2. 3. 1. 2.8·4.2. 2.' 10 1.1. 3.2.1. 2. 3. 4.3.6.1. 1. 2.lndlrect obJect 2.2-3.2.5.1.3. 2·4. 1.1.4·4.3. 2.2.3.3. 1.5.1.2. 2.3.1. 2.7. 2. 1.3.4. 3. 'lntransltlve verb ' lrregular compounds lrregular redupllcators lsolatlve 3.1.1.3.8.3. 1.2.

1.6.1.5. 4.1.8-10. 2.1.3.3.2.4.4. modal adJectlve modal verb 3. 37 21 38 208 -of numerals morphophonemlcs Mosel.2.4.1.lexlcal unlt loud stress 2. 57 138 188 202 205 208 210 mass noun 3.1.8.4. 4·5.5.1.3.7.4.5.6.2.4.2.5. 4. 4.1.2.4· 4. 4. 3.2.4. 2.11.5.5.3.2.1.3.4. 1.3.2.7. 4. 166 188 61 97 147 15 maJ-class modal 4. 3. 4.2.3.2.1.3.5.5.2. 3.72 73 mlnor sentence mlscellaneous modals mlscellaneous preposltlons modal 2.5.1.6.1.2. 3. 3.2. 3.3.1. 4.2.2. 197 80 143 159 115 126 133 ff 122 114 205-6 74 102 119-20 35 36 35 231 noun noun bases noun expreSSlon noun substltutlon nuclear contrasts nucleus nil-class sentence partlcle non-consecutlve constructlon normal stress nasallza tlon 'negatlve I nag-class postposltlon naJ-class preposltlon 4·2. 1.3. 2. maJor sentence 'male speaker' 2.end 2.1. 4·5. 2.3. 2. 136 156 165 138 202 205 80 99-101 215-6 219 89 107 106 -phrase -response 4.3.1.6.2. 4·5.1.1.1. 3.2.2. 4·1.2.2.1. 151 n~l-class demonstratlve 75 83-4 103 176.6.1.3.1.7.2.5. 3.5.7. 2.4.6.2.5. (footnote) 109 ff 27 ff 87 !!! mag-class modal E 4.4.4.3.8. 3. 4. 4.2. 3.5.1.1. 2.1.5.1.6.3.3.2.1.1.2.4.2.3.2.2. 2.2.1.6.5.6.3. 4.2.2. 2.3.2. 5-6 5 . 3. 4.5. morph morpheme morphology 2. 4.7.3.2.2.2.2. 3.2.2.8.1.1.2. 3. 1.5. 4. 4.2.1.1.3.1.4.3.end 102 1. 4.11.9. 2. 4·4·2. 4.2.3.3. metrlc classlfler 3. James N.5. 1·4. 3.2. 4. 4·4.1.1.2.4.2.1. 4. 1. 196 217 218 76 ff 21 28 ff 45 193 89 68.3.2.2.5.2.3.6.

2.end 4.2.7.2.6. 2.1.4.4.1.2. 1.8. 3.1.3-7 1. vowel phonemlc clause phonemlc phrase phonologlcal unlts phonology phrase 4 1 ff 2 4 24 73 169 31 7-8 97 90 108 101-2 103 160 194 198 4 105 palatal consonants parallel constructlon 1.5.3.2.4. 3.2. 4.1.4.3. Chapter I 1.3.5. 3.7.8.6·4. 4.2.2.3.4·1.4.3.5.1.3.8.3.2. 2 •. -postposltlon 4. 0.3.3.2.3.6.40 151 193 197 'passlve' 3.4. 4.2.2.3·4. 2.5. 1.2. 232 .numeral 2. 3.6.3.2.6.2.4.4.2.2.12. phonemes of ST Chapter I 1.4.3.3.3. 4.7. 3. 1.1.1. 2.6. (see also 'proper names r ) personal-attrlbute 3.1. open Juncture (see Juncture) order -In redupllcatlons orders of lexemes 2. 1. 4. 3. 4.3.1. 3.3. 4·4.1. 4.1.3. 2. 144 181 192-3 196 77 112 157 193 parenthetlcal constructlon partltlve numeral 2. syl1ablc phonemes. personal noun 3.1. consonant phonemes.3.3.4. 3. 44 45 55 109 ff 109 136 138. 3.1.2.3.4.2.:.4.11.1.1. phrase boundary phrase morphophonemlcs 4. 1.3.3.4.3.2. 'plural' 3. 4.5.1.3.3.1.J.2.4.2.5. 74 114 119 123-4 phonemes.2. 1.2. 1.4.1. noun c 3. 4.3.1.5.5.1.6. 4. 3.2.5.3.4. 124 126 139 185 ff 205 208 90 90 108 1 ff 10-14 20-24 'past' 4.3. 2 .6.5.2.3.3.3. 3.1. -morphs -phrase 3.1. 4.2.3.2. 4.3.3.1.3. 2.2. 1.12. 4. 12 77-8 pltch 'place expresslon' place noun 2.2.2.2.5.1. tone 5 18-20 15-17 22 24 35 67 38 59 III phonemes.6.2.3.4. prosodlc phonemes. 1.3.6·4· 1.2.1.5.3. ordlnal numeral Outllne of Slamese Grammar 'overt rela tlonShlPS' 3.2.5.2. 4. 2.2.1.3.

5.2. 2.3. 2 .4.1.5.2. 4·5. 4.3.1. 1.2.3.6.2.2.2.3·4· 1. 4.2.5.3. 0.1.5.2.1.7.1.1. 183 159 166 quasl redupl1cators 'questlon' (see 'lnterrogatlve' and 'yes-no questlon' ) questlon form (of sentence partlcle) 2.4.2.1.6.2.2.3. 2.3.3.2. 3.2.2. 4.1. preposltlon preposltlonal phrase 'present' 'reverse-order compound' 'reverslble constltuents' rhymlng redupl1cators rhythm pre-verbal phrases pronoun 4 18 23 67 7 pronoun sets 'proper names' (see also personal nouns) prosodlc contrasts prosodlc morphemes rhythm phonemes 1. 2. 1.5.3. 4. 2.4. 2. 4.4. 2.postposltlon post-verbal phrases post-adJectlval phrases predlcate 4.2. 2.1.3. 4.7.1. 3.4.3.4. 4.5.3.3. 70-2 2.3.2.4. 4.2. -In redupl1catlons 2.3.6. 2.6.2.3. 74 219 74 114 ff 165 74 205 48 59-62 111 146 75 138.4. 67. end 218 2.1.1. 2.3.3. 3.6.2.5. 1. 4.2.4.5.2.3.5.2.4. 1.3.5.2.2.5.1. 2. 4.6.2. 1.3. 3. 3.2.2.3.3.1.11.1. 1.1.2.4. 2.2.5.3.3.1.2.7.3. 4.2.2. 66 ff 67 101-2 176 55 82 215 65 95 172 67.5. 4.1.7.4.1.7. 1.2.3.4·3.2. 4. 2. 2.14 215 4.2.5. 3. 4·3.4.2. 4.3.70-1 preflX lexlcal redupl1catlon redupl1cators 'reflexl ve ' 'relatlve pronoun' response 3.3.1. 4.5.2.5. 2.3. 4.2.5·2.1.4.2. 2. 2. 55 202 204-6 208.3. 2.1.1. 3. 13.2.40 159 ff 183-4 139 185 ff 159 45 98 99 ff 48 87 46 ff 36 38 ff predlcatlon predlcatlve -expresslon predlcator 2.6. rhythmlc contrasts 46 41 72 2 rhythmlc morphemes prosodlc phonemes dlstrlbutlon of 4 20 ff 26 /r/-/l/ dlstlnctlon 12 14 233 .6.3.

0.5.1.6.5.3.3.4. 1.3.2.2. 81 99-102 215 120 128 115 3 4 1-2 55 202 205 207 212-3. 4.2. 4.2.6. 4.1.3. 3.5.5. 1·4.5.6.r5g-class sentence partlcle 4.5. 7 47 167 40 45 21 stress morphemes 2. 4·5. 2.2.1.3.4. (see r antonym') (see 'antonym') 2. speclflc completlve verb speclflc modal verb Spoken Thal 3.5. 4. 2. 4.4.2.2. r50b-class preposltlon 'royal language' ryy-class sentence partlcle 3.5.4.2.1.1. 4.2.5.3.3. 1.4. 4.4. 4.2.3. 0.5. 4.1. speclflC adJectlve 3. slmple redupllcators 2.2. 3.4. 1. 73 215 55 183 196 200 79-80 5-6 14 67-9 120 146 88 72 -reference 101-2 3.2.2.3.3.5. 2.2.2.5.1.3.5.3.1.3.A. end 4. 4·5.6. 4 18 21 28.2. 1.3.2. 4.4.1. 3. 2.5. 4.2·4· 4·5.1.6. Heng R. sentence types short vowel 2.3.3.end 201 207.3.3. 214 215 218 sag-class preposltlon 3.1. subJect 1. 3.1. 4·4. 4.2. 1.1.5.3.3.1.6. 1.2.6. 'soclal usage' 0. 2. stress phonemes Subhanka.2.4·2.1·4·7.4. 4.3. 113 156 193 219 ff Standard Spoken Thal statement form (of sentence partlcle) 0. W.1.3. 3 74 118-20 202 123-4 36 48 subJect-verb constructlon sub-lexemlc morpheme 'slang' (see 'lnnova tlons ' ) 234 .6.5.3.3.2.1.2. slmple-redupllcatlon lml ta tlves slmultaneous constructlon 'slngular-plural dlstlnctlon' Sltachltta.3.5. stress contrasts 1. 4.3.2.1. Kanda 3.1.8 218 154 215 202 207 218 Smalley. 1.end sample exchanges 'semantlc contrast' 'semantlc Opposlte' sentence 4.3.2.1.1.2.8. 3. 4. III sentence partlcle ( 'flnal partlcle') stress 1.5. 4.1.1.30 4·4.5.6. 4.1.2.8.2. 2.5. 2.2.1.5.

3. 4. 3.1. 4.1.3. 2.5. 2.cla s.5. 4. 3.5.3. 4.5.4. 1. 1.2.2. 4.3.2.2.3.1.2. 3.4.6.'subordlnate c. 1.2.5. 2·4. 1. 3.3.6.8. 4 73 ff utterance-portlon 1. 2.1.2. 8 2.3.5.2.8.10 120 219 3. 1.2.2.4. 105 128 197 utterance 1. 4.3. lexlcal 2. 2.2.1.7.5.4.1.2.1.1.6.3.1. 2.2. 235 .2. 99 112 215 tOPlC 'suspenslve Intona t lon' syllable syllable duratlon 4.5.2.2.1.6.5. 1.1.3. superflX superflXed redupllcators 'suppletlon' 4 17 ff 29 75 91 114 124 123 205-6 208.')nJunctlon' substantlve 4.4· 4.5. 172 88 ff 193 56 58 62-3 113 54 67.2.1.2. 4. 3.2.70 thamaJ-class complementlve 3. 0.3.2. 4.2.3.8. 4.3. 3.1.7.2.3.5. (see also al101ex) velar consonants 1.1.1.4.s conJunctlon 1.3.1.1. sub-syllablc morphemes sufflX.2. 3. 2. syllable morphophonemlcs syllablc phonemes -dlstrlbutlon of syntax syntactlc clause syntactlc constructlon syntactlc phrase syntactlc unlt sYlJ.3. 1.1.2. 2.3. 4.3.4.5.1.3. 2. 3. 4.3.4.2.3.2. 5 24 ff two-part predlcatlon u 35 73 38 72 ff 73 72 169 176 161 'varlant I unlt classlfler 3.3.3.2.3. 1.3.5.6.6. 35 pronoun numeral 99 111 201.3.2.3.2. 4 23 208 28 transltlve verb 3.3. 168 172 161 163 sentence partlcle 4.5. 'tlme expresslon' 3.2.6.4.5.1.6.2.5.2.1.5.4.2.3.2.2.1. 95 147 152 172 92 96-7 90 87 6 2 substantlve modlflers 4.3·4· 2.1. tlme noun 'tltles' tonal contrasts tone 3.2. 2.2.1. 4. 3.4.207 13 t thaa-class conJunctlon 4.2. 2.1.3.1.

1.1. 3.5.2. 1.6.4.1. and transltlve verb)3.4. 3.8. 0.5.5. (completlve. 114 123 69 73 183 183 123-4 74 86 14 ff weak stress 1. 4.4.on vocatlve vowels (see also 'nucleus' ) w waJ-class 4·4.5.1.6.2.2.2.1. 1 21 28 ff 98 104 183 2-3 74 114 118 205 7 6 5 8 ]l Yale UnlVerS1. 2.on verb pred1. 2.7. 3.3.cat1. 1. 2.3.4.7. modal.1.2.3. postposltlon 4. 'zero lntonatlon' 2)6 . 3. 1.1.1.er verb-obJect construct1.161 188 'zero lnlt1.3. 2.4.2.2.verb (see also 3.3.al 1.3.2.2.3. 3.f1.2.1.3.8. 4.ty 'yes-no quest1.2. 3. 4.5.3. 4·4.4.2..5.2.2.4.3.on' ~ 'zero duratlon' 'zero flnal' 183 160.3.2. 1.2.2. 4.3. verb bases verb expreSSlon verb mod1.

117. morph preflX conJ. WhlCh occur only as context. forms For the most part. /~/ follows /n/. for example.3. demo demo 108 179 58. and consonants wrltten wlth a dlgraph follow thelr slmple counterparts (l. lnclude all the bound lexemes classlfled In Chapter 3 and thelr lmportant varlants. The consonant sequence beg1ns wlth zero (l. 100 179 129 118 81.INDEX OF FORMS ThlS lndex contalns ST forms quoted In the grammar WhlCh are of c1asslflcatory lnterest In themselves.13 6 . for organlzatlonal references. vb.) (It does not contaln. consult the toplcal lndex. not In the mlddle of them). noun . The sequence of vowels 1S as follows. .e. 1n wrlt1ng. 165 98 see d1chan SJ sJ " sJ " SJ 1nterrog. w1th a vowel wlll be found at the beglnnlng of the lndex).1.53 129 115. entry apply equally well to the varlant. 51 58 aJ-th1. 1nf1X 57 196 57 196 57 179 179 36. For convenlence In dlstlngulshlng homonyms. 138 115. references to the maln All numbers are page references. an lndlcatlon of form-class membershlp or morphologlcal category has been made after each entry. modal vb. Insofar as cltatlon of such forms lS feaslble. but some sub-lexlcal ltems have also been lncluded. modal modal vb.196 196 . all 1tems beglnn1ng w1th /ph/ come at the end of the /p/'s. 1nter J. Alphabetlzatlon In thls lndex lS phonemlc rather than llteral. and such free lexemes as present partlcular problems of classlflcatlon or occur frequently In all types of dlscourse. the forms quoted are lexlAn effort has been made to cal unltS (2.142 clf. conJ. conJ.). Items In parentheses are varlants of an adJacent form. all 1tems startlng. morph 1nterrog. Jaawl an-nan 237 .1 amn an an an '" an-na J prone conJ. /a e e e l 0 0 u y/ • aa aaC1an aad aad aad-tamaphaab aahan aa J aa J aan '" aasaJ 1nflX vb.e.

response 1nter J • compo vb. postp.143 prone ad J..158.60 160 161 vm-vvm elf. 120 5.)) response 1nter J. vb.102. prep. noun num.. num. . 82 126.5. aw-waJ vv v Jvv: vvg vvg ~ . .57.) eel..187.) el.182 156. 1nter J. 93.198-9 122 159. 155 83 82 129 184. lnter J. 217 Jyy-hyy: yyn lnter J • demo 82 . llg llg . prone modal s..pcl. postp.. see dlchan pref1x b bead baan ba a 1. postp.56 see dlchan 112-3.. e 88 88 88 88 ee J v . conJ.109.53 100 52 217 82 see ryy v s. prep.196 179 57. prep.196.) 00 Joo-h60: modal 76. 83 82 161-2 185 prep. lchan 11 l~chan.193-6 . s.. vb.pcl. ian. 189 189 82 1. . 112 lilian camp. 101.107 98. 106 (see also phra-01. J a -ed eel.58 od ••• maJ-daJ 01. 58.140 .an-p11 an-waa ara J araJ arvvJ aw aw aw aw demo conJ. postp.101 135 see Ie vvm u-~ 1nflX prone . camp.55 . response . postp. ua (U8) JUJ: un .pcl.vg.ca taa J 109 J3v J: 93 198 100.) eeb 1nter J. ~nf1X 81 .104 . 238 . allomorph camp..) clf.

prep.162ff 163. compo vb.208 57. pref1. conJ. 198. v s. ba J balJ-88n balJ-th1. co cuan cuan CYlJ ca ca ca caa caag caan caan cag -ca J calJ caw (caw) . con-thYlJ (con.156.105. .216 55. I 65. bya byalJEca(ca) caca- compo postp. 182 con con con-krathalJ 121 con. modal resp.112 102.lJ c~b adJ. ad J.ag buri1.106.174 152 174 174 152 174 129 137 157 58. 163ff.pcl. 55. prep. 216 216 109 130 C88 clf. J. pref1. 111.l. caw-kha caw-kha c~d s.122-3 191.121 120 118 104. conJ. clf. adJ.thYlJ) . 121 49 119 128 149. num.x postp. 107 92 92 147 118-20. compo compo prep.J baalJ-th1.147-8 con-kwaa 117 118.85 149 107 122 see caag .214 see balJ-th1.baalJ baa:t. noun ad J.136. 173. J b.X 'part1. conJ.216 85 55.lJC1.1 63. bon b. 106 126 138 57.cle modal prep. resp. compo modal vb.133.19 2 100 cha J ch~n 239 . modal prep. con.J b.166 105 see chslJ ch~alJ chaalJ chabab ch~d ch~g clf. compo vb.1.146 1 23.X postp. vb. 138.5 207 55.pcl. resp.lJ-C1. noun 125. prep. s.108.193. pcl.pcl.kra thalJ 61.lJ C1.1. 174. noun ch ch~a ad J.b.107 (ce) C1. clf. prone 62. s.112-3 suff1.1. conJ prep.170.

103 103 1 69.58. modal vb.pcl. comp. noun 63 130 131 115. 139.JIn dooJ-maag demo 57. camp.118. vb.154 57.171 97. 198 99.144-5 57. prep. daJ daJ ds J.. 175 92.103 see duaJ and da J 57 vb.n) chen chen-dIaWkan che8n chlaw -ch~g conJ.160 104 see dIchan demo demo conJ. vb. modal prep. camp. camp. clf. prone 59. 180 154 118. 161 duaJ 120. camp.154 92 see r5g 65. demo see duaJkan 130 118 124 130 130.197. comp.141 dooJ-chaph~ dooJ chyag chyy d da J daJ daJ . vb.160. vb.166 188 131 130 153 160· 118 dom 135 108 (do J) 105 dooJ conJ. camp. s. camp.pcl. 102 57 108. comp • prep.105 see r5g 94. conJ.vb. vb.100.112 57 13 6 .124 see thlldlaw dIChan (dIChan) dIl dIl din sufflX vb. modal clf.162 chIm chon ch5ab chuaJ chua J I kan ch~d adJ.153.124.chan chana J chanan chan~d chan~l prone camp. clf. s.162 dua J 125-6. modal vb.127. 100 57 da J-kan dSJ-klin camp. 164 175 93. vb. modal vb. 119.4 dSJ-rab dSJ-rab dSJ-r~d chslJ chaph~ daw deem dian dlaw dlaw-kan dlaw dlaw-n~l chen (ch.154 153. 141. camp. c1f. prep.139. modal vb.. comp.130 dua J-kan dog doag drog duaJ 240 . postp.4 57 153. camp. vb.vb.

165 59.84 148. camp.. . s.. .209. camp. 93 .216 55.108 153.. conJ.60 164 160 161 177 Jaag JaalJ JaalJ JaalJ JaalJJaalJ.164. prep. num.102. 175.pcl. conJ.13 6 hua-r~ vb. prep. h ha ha ha haa haa haag haaJ haJ (ha J) haJ haJ (ha J) haJ hen hen postp. camp.. conJ. modal vb. elf. s.pcl. 13 116. vb.216 55 133. elf. conJ.. prep.130 137 142 (see also rna J-hen) 241 .166 122 81.216 216 109 130. noun num.. modal 130 137 143 90 129. vb. modal . conJ.. noun 118 153 119 125. adJ. . 167 109 112 107 129 82 vb. camp.Ja J JalJ JalJ JalJ . 210.142-3. s. prep. 90. vb.12. 120.216 55.130 107 131 134.180 175 129 98.duu duu-my-an duu-thuug dyan dYlJ f faag faa J faJ falJ f~d vb. noun.chen JaalJ kaJad Ja J Ja J. resp. prep. ..141 57. . .131 hE ElJ hE ElJ (hElJ) hE ElJ hog hSlJ h.180 see JalJ- fyyn fyyn .141.6.. 202. modal vb. modal 161-2 125-6.pcl.8 elf. . vb. modal vb. resp.pcl. 153. s. .J Ja Ja Jaa Jaa v s. prep. resp • modal 55. vb.. hyy vb.pcl. elf.. elf.152 81...159.108 166-8 vb. 55. elf.162 172 131.

165 101. modal vb. 207 198 109 160 100. adJ.nan ) . kil-man88 J JUU JUu .144 169 129 63 130 116 136 118 121.154. postp.59 compo 59 96. 242 . vb. 124. JalJan ( JalJ. 129.dll JUu.101 151 164.. 160 kakakaan-kaan kaan-thll kaaw kab (ka-) kamlalJ kan preflX prep. JalJ JalJa J ( JalJraJ) JalJaJ-k5dll J a lJ a J-k5taam . num.J. modal prep. ( Jan-nil) .19 6 . camp.158 157 190 189 164 109. num. Jf: J€€ postp.131 76. . modal conJ. .8 56. JalJll 50 163ff (see kab and ked 60 63 179 129 150 164 camp.186. JUU JUu. compo camp. prep. sufflX vb.102.. 123 130 77. prone prep. khyn num. see Je 121 195 k JYym vb. vb. vb. 160. 182-3. prep. vb.164. postp. adJ.159. vb.122 100 131 182. allomorph 109 ad J. adJ. adJ. ka-) keE kef: k~ed ••. postp.lu3 157. 92 92 59 96 demo 196. postp.112 194 112 keen keen-kwaa keen-kwaa keen-pa J kiaw k1.167 Je (J~-J8) Jib J 11Jln-dll JllJ J llJ· • • JllJ J llJ· • • J llJ Jog -Jon Joon J88m J88m JUd '" JUlJ vb.94 92 postp.dlJ.184 kan kaw keb kEE keE (ke. modal prone 137-8. prone vb.dll . preflx sufflX conJ.19 6 compo compo camp.198 59 9 6 . 119 130. modal modal vb.

Klloo elf. prep.101 131 142 101 154 prep.183 khaa-phacaw khaam vb. camp. 61.29 -kwa 184. modal prep.187.97.187 148 134 164 kwa-phyan kyab kyab kh kha postp.153 197 197 kwaa (kwa) prep.216 85 55.101 112-3 119. vb. s. 102 pref1. 197 157 166. k50n elf. vb.8 khaw-caJ khen camp.x s. klaa!J kl~b 194 107 129.) preflX -koon sufflx 63 121.pcl. prep. 1.85 100.162.158-9 195 55.postp.140 resp. compo elf.13 6 . resp. vb. modal kla J kl € E!J (kl€!J) klua klyyn k5-khyy k5-18 EW : ka n modal 134 135. 10e 148 97.pcl. prone prone suf'f1. prone vb. compo vb. 113. s. krakrama!J kraphom kuu 152. 189.192 130 130 151. vb.138 157.X postp. 170 95 170. 214 100 100.. 181.197 190 137. postp. (comp. compo conJ.122 khaa!J khaa!J khaa!J-na J kham elf. 147-8.pcl. compo compo postp. 142 129 vb. conJ.190. conJ. conJ.19 2 . vb.171. elf. 243 .180.216 55. noun prep.101. 174 khee khee-naJ khee-niJ.153 173 106 153 108 49 compo khaw prone 97 98 100.147 106 prep.

156 130 156-7 196 196 196.13 0 60.166-8 khyy khyyn eonJ.123 61 123 164 130 63 58.143.138.ad khlaa J khlyan -khom khon modal vb.pel. preflx noun adJ.189.216 85 1 la s.216 55. 115.khaa lJ khoo kh50 khoolJ (kh51J) khoolJ khraab khrab khrab khrab kh vb. 145-6 khy-waa 137-8 khyy 95. 162 kh6n khon-la khon-naJ khon-nan . noun resp. 129 postp.pel.184. vb. 57. preflX vb. s.85 55.112. 135.90. see la see 200 Ie 1a (la) IE 244 . 165 modal modal modal vb. elf. modal 170. 139.1 2 9. elf. prep. demo demo demo modal modal eomp.101 102. modal vb. 187. 9 2 .161.198 75.pel. sufflX elf. ad J. s.196 108 215 eomp.pel.106. vb. 155 91 61 126 109-111.196 modal vb. vb.99. 167 55.100 102 87 108 130 60 130. prep. resp.136-7.kh88J khlalJ kh{d khllkhil khll-k1. 111. s.165 164 118.171 133.118 106 46 75. 114. s.pel. 192-3 170 58 eonJ. vb. 165 138 see also ma J-kh5 J khraJ khralJ khraphom khr6b khr6b khruu khryalJkhryalJ khrYlJ khuan khun khun khuu khwaa khwaamkhwaalJ khyn khyn prone elf.134. khon-nll kholJ kh5J (kh5 J) kh5 J-kh5 J kh5n. adJ. postp. 128 prep. 117 prone voe.58. noun preflX noun num. 98.

vb. vb. conJ.206. s.cag) lalJ-caag law postp. conJ.218.207.8.5 92 see also malJ 104 120 148 1. lulJ luug comp. postp. conJ. voc.pcl. 1.122 200.5 .112.132 191 10. lakeen lam 1amalJ 1alJ 1alJ lalJ 1alJ. vb. 131 131 129.pcl. laa Jlaa: vb.pcl.pcl. comp.204. comp. 204 214 218 len postp. vb.pcl. lew-k5o 18eg leeJ leeJ lee J conJ.202 170. s. s. comp. 130 109.caag (lalJ.52 modal vb. 189.pcl. 194 10.194. s. prep. 199 213 103 103 luug 113 clf.171 122 169 118 94. prep.5 141 198 203.211:3 169 169 130 212 121. clf.202 191.197 see la 199 see la 204. clf.1~ s.114 147 131. adJ.vb. l~an num. conJ.pcl.207.193 134 118 131 131 87 100 106 demo clf. comp. 174 comp.141 131.vb. 19. conJ.171 181. vb.vb. see also la 131 213 lee vb. modal vb. 208 169. s. postp. 208.213.5 109. postp.183 la postp. compo num.52 modal 1. 212. s. comp. demo demo comp. postp.56. noun 24.187. postp. prep.132 184.

162 128 195 155 107 125.112-3 193. s .165 196 136 140 modal modal 142.218 s.218 resp. metrlc clf.cha J) maJ-ehe8lJ roa J-da J (ma J-da J) maJ-hen (ma J-hen) . modal num.74 JmalJ: med med ImEE: : men. 101 92 124.208. 139-40. unlt clf.101 maJ-Jag maJ-kil ma J-khv J (ma J-kh5 J) . noun ad J.lyag lya-k88n lyy ~ vb.pcl. modal compo postp..142 135. modal postp.1 2 9.161-2 161-2. modal compo postp. 193.102 see malJ v 191.194 136 112 194 113 57 57.101.196 141 mamaa maa maa maa maag maag . postp.139-40 vb.207 205 214. s. clf. postp. 214 106 107 81. modal elf.pcl. prone 123 191 100. postp. modal 142 246 .pcl. modal 142 109.6.192.J (ma J) maJ maJ (ma J) maJ maJ-chaa ma J-cha J (rna J.126. prep.185. 138 205.kan meraJ rola mi-chanan mll mod rood mod moolJ m88lJ mua muan malJ malJ (malJ) postp.144 126 133. mag mag-maag mag-maag maJ mSJ (ma J) v preflx vb. prone 194 196 141-2 113 194 98. lnter J. 130 134 107 modal postp. 187-8 89 119-20 ma J-maag ma J-naan maJ-than ma J. clf.thaw-ra J maJ-thaw-raJ man malJ postp. modal 94. Ipartlcle I 50 125. Jnega tlve·f 83-4 57 57 noun compo vb.145 see myankan see myaraJ v m8. postp. compo vb.

. demo noun prep.57 eonJ. 'partlele' 56 55 nan nan nan nan nan nalJ nalJ-syy nE: ne v v . preflX s.192 195 199 204 nl8 nl8 . prep. postp. eomp. 103 199 83. noun postp. v v . naa J naaJ naa-klua 148 60. ad J. adJ.) J postp. postp. 152 naam naan .pel.mya (mya) mya myaJ mya-k. prone noun num.)n mya-nan myan (myan) myan (ka-) myan-kan mya-ra J mYlJ myy myyn n na (na) na na na na na naa naa " naa v v prep. see na 55. 175 9 2 . 211.pel. 173 162 173 197 153 164 naanaanag na J naJ na J naJ naJ Jna J-m3: J: naJ-mya naJ-rawaalJ naJ-welaa nan . 198 . resp. s. eomp.204 82 173 173 173 55-57 eonJ.203. lnter J. demo eomp.218 82.208.. eonJ • . 89 195 61 188 75. s.96. 103 209. lnter J.pel..94 91. noun voe. .176. 195 191.57 .pel. nan (nan) .202-7. s. eonJ • .197 101 90 109.pe1.211. prep. noun postp. postp.pel.. vb. postp. s.114 eonJ.218 see na 125 105 198 204. eonJ. 1~ 2 see nll Jnc: nl naa naa'naa.218 104 112 demo s.pel. preflx post