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et key, which is used both for encryption and decryption. Encryption and decryption keys are the same or could be easily found from each other. Asymmertic (public-key) ciphers: knowledge of encryption/decryption keys is not equivalent. One of the keys kept secret and the other is made public. Many different people can encrypt but only one can decrypt. o Public-key system based on Knapsack problem o RSA o ElGamal o other

Merkle-Hellman Knapsack (1978) Subset-Sum Problem (knapsack) : given numbers a1, a2, ..an and a value t, determine if there is a subcollection of the ai whose sum is t. In other words, determine if there is a selection of numbers x1, x2, .xn, where each xi is either 0 or 1 such that: x1a1+x2a2+.xnan = t

Example: 3, 5, 11, 23, 51 and t = 67, the answer 01101 Superincreasing sequence: if each number in the sequence greater than the sum of those preceding it: 3, 5, 11, 23, 51 yes, 1, 4, 7, 12, 19 not

Example: 13, 18, 35, 72, 155, 301, 595 and t = 1003 Solution: 13 + 18 + 35 + 72 + 155 + 301 + 595 > 1003 but 13 + 18 + 35 + 72 + 155 + 301 = 594 < 1003, 595 must be in the sum: x7 = 1 1003 595 = 408 and repeat with the rest of the numbers: 13 + 18 + 35 + 72 + 155 + 301 = 594 > 408 but 13 + 18 + 35 + 72 + 155 = 293 < 408, 301 must be in the sum, x6 = 1 401 301 = 107 and repeat with the rest of the numbers: 13 + 18 + 35 + 72 = 138 > 107, 155 is not in the sum and x5 = 0 13 + 18 + 35 = 66 < 107, 72 must be in the sum and x4 = 1 107 72 = 35, 13 + 18 = 31 < 35 , 35 must be in the sum, x3 = 1 35 35 = 0, we are done the answer: x1x2x3x4x5x6x7 = 0011011 in this case solution is unique Example: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and t = 20, there are two solutions: 0100111 and 0011011

Merkle Hellman Cryptosystem: t ciphertext, and x1, x2, .xn enciphered message and a1, a2, ..an key a1, a2, .. an should be supeincreasing, BUT look as an arbitrary sequence apply transformation on the key sequence to change it to look as an arbitrary sequence Suppose Alice would like to receive the encipher messages from other, she will set up a few things: o Transformation: ( suppose that a1, a2, .. an is an increasing sequence that sums to s) Choose prime p > s Choose number w - multiplier, 2 < w < p 1. w has a multiplicative inverse v mod p ( w is relatively prime to p) The new sequence is defined as follows: bi = wai mod p, i = 1, 2, 3, n Sequence bi is PUBLIC, and a1, a2, .. an , p and w are SECRET The process: suppose Bob wants to send Alice the encipher binary message x1, x2, .xn o Bob takes the PUBLIC sequence bi and calculates the ciphertext y = x1b1 + .. xnbn and sends it to Alice o Alice received y o Alice first will calculate Y = vy mod p o Y = vy = v (x1b1 + .. xnbn ) = x1 (vb1) = ..xn (vbn) = x1a1+x2a2+.xnan mod p, and since a1, a2, .. an is superincreasing sequence Alice can find efficiently the x1, x2, .xn enciphered message from Y.

Example: Alice has selected the superincreasing sequence: 3, 5, 11, 23, 51. Bob wants to encipher the binary message: 0110110101. Solution: 3 + 5 + 11 + 23 + 51 = 93 The first prime p = 97 > 93, we have to choose the w, w should be relatively prime with 97. We will choose w = 13. We have to find v that is multiplicative inverse of w = 13 mod 97 ( v*w 1 mod 97). Euclidian algorithm for finding gcd will help us to do that. gcd ( a, b ) = b, if a%b is 0 gcd ( a, b ) = gcd (b, a%b) if a%b is not 0 Theorem: for any two positive integers a and b there exists integers s and t such that as + bt = gcd ( a, b) If a and b are relatively prime, then b has a multiplicative inverse mod a. Moreover t is a multiplicative inverse of b modulo a: tb 1 mod a

Example: 1. gcd ( 12, 8 ) = 4 12 = 1* 8 + 4 8 = 2*4 + 0 4 is gcd 1* 12 1* 8 = 4, s =1 , t = 1 2. gcd (97, 13) = 1 97 = 7 * 13 + 6 13 = 2*6 + 1 -2*97 + 15*13 = 1 s = -2 t = 15 15 is multiplicative inverse of 13 modulo 97

Go back to the encryption, o the new sequence will be: b1 = 3 * 13 = 39 b2 = 5 * 13 = 65 b3 = 11 * 13 = 143 b4 = 23 * 13 = 299 b5 = 51 * 13 = 663 o Public Key is a sequence: 39, 65, 143, 299, 663 o If Bob would like to send a message: 0110110101 = 01101 10101. o First block of 5 bits: 0* 39 + 1 *65 + 1* 143 + 0 * 299 + 1 * 663 = 871 o Second block of 5 bits: 1* 39 + 0 * 65 + 1 * 143 + 0 * 299 + 1 * 663 = 845 o Bob sends 871 845 cipher text o Decryption: o p = 97, w = 13, v = 15 o y = 15 * 871 mod 97 = 13065 mod 97 = 67 o Alice has to find the knapsack string x1x2x3x4x5 such that x1* 3 + x2 * 5 + x3 * 11 + x4 * 23 + x5 * 51 = 67 o 3, 5, 11, 23, 51 is superincreasing sequence, the algorithm to find a knapsack sequence is: o t = x1*a1 + .xn* an o if t < an, then an cant be in the knapsack keep the same t and continue to the sequence a1an-1 o if t an, then an HAS TO BE in the knapsack

For our example: the first ciphertext is 871, y = 67 1. 67 > 51, 51 inside, x5 = 1, t = t 51 = 67 51 = 16 and the sequence is 3, 5, 11, 23. 2. 16 < 23, 23 outside, x4 = 0, t = 16, sequence 3, 5, 11 3. 16 > 11, 11 inside, x3 = 1, t = 16 11 = 5, sequence 3, 5 4. 5 inside and 3 outside, x2 = 1, x1 = 0 5. the knapsack vector: 01101 - this is the plaintext o For the second number 845: o y = 15 * 845 mod 97 = 12675 mod 97 = 65 65 > 51, 51 IN, x5 = 1, t = 65 51 = 14 and the sequence is 3, 5, 11, 23. 14 < 23, 23 is OUT, x4 = 0, t = 14, sequence 3, 5, 11 o 14 > 11, 11 is IN, x3 = 1, t = 14 -1 = 3, sequence is 3, 5 o 3 is IN and 5 is OUT, x2 = 0 and x1 =1 o knapsack 10101 plaintext

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