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TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER NO.
ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES

TITLE

PAGE NO.
v vi vii

1.

INTRODUCTION 1.1

AUTOMATIC COOLING SYSTEM

1
2

2.

LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 2.2

LATHE SENSORS
2.2.1

2 3 4 5 5 5 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 9 Temperature Sensors NTC Thermistors: General Properties and Features

2.2.2

2.2.2.1 2.2.2.2 2.2.2.3 2.2.2.4 2.2.2.5 2.2.2.6 2.2.2.7 2.3 TRANSISTOR 2.3.1 2.3.2

Temperature Ranges and Resistance Values Accurate and Repeatable R/T Characteristic Sensitivity to Changes in Temperature Interchangeability Small Size Remote Temperature Sensing Capability Ruggedness, Stability & Reliability

Importance Usage

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2.4

RECTIFIER 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.4.3 Half-wave rectification Full-wave rectification Peak loss 14

9 10 11 13 14

2.5 2.6 3.

PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD (PCB) RELAY

PLAN OF WORK 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Selection of project Design and Drawings Purchase Consideration Fabrication Assembly of the parts Cost Estimation Report

17 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 25 26 Design calculations

4.

MATERIALS AND METHODS 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 TEMPERATURE SENSOR AMPLIFIER COMPARATOR RELAY WASHER PUMP RESERVOIR 4.6.1 Design of reservoir 4.6.1.1

5.

DESIGN AND DRAWINGS 5.1 5.2 5.3 FRONT VIEW SIDE VIEW TOP VIEW

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COST ESTIMAION

27

7.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 7.1 7.2 OPERATION BENEFITS OF AN AUTOMATIC COOLING UNIT 29

29 29

8.

CONCLUSION

30

9.

APPENDICES

31

10.

REFERENCES

35

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LIST OF TABLES
CHAPTER NO. 4.1 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 TITLE Specification for reservoir Material cost Labor charge Other cost Total cost PAGE NO. 22 27 27 28 28

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LIST OF FIGURES
CHAPTER NO. 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 5.1 5.2 5.3 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 Lathe NTC Thermistor Comparative resistance graph Half-wave rectification Graetz bridge rectifier: a full-wave rectifier using 4 diodes Full-wave rectifier using a center tap transformer and 2 diodes Three-phase bridge rectifier Full-wave rectifier with vacuum tube having two anodes Printed Circuit Board Relay Relays switch connection Temperature sensor bc 547 transistor LM358 Comparator Relay SPST Relay Washer pump Reservoir Front view Side view Top view Washer pump Circuit Reservoir Automatic cooing unit 31 32 33 34 22 23 24 25 26 12 14 15 16 19 20 20 21 21 12 11 11 TITLE PAGE NO. 2 4 6 10

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ABSTRACT
The project is to introduce automatic cooling unit instead of manual cooling process through design and fabricating the reservoir of the unit. Automatic cooling unit is a system typically delivers a controlled amount of coolant to specific locations on a machine while the machine is operating, at specific times from a central location. when the temperature at the work piece is increased above the reference temperature, the automatic coolant unit will activate and automatically pumps coolant and will reduce the temperature. The temperature sensor or thermistor is placed near to the tool or work piece, as a result the thermistor senses the temperature from the tool -work piece interface and sends an electrical signal to the amplifier. The electrical signal is amplified by using amplifier, then this signal is send to the comparator then the comparator compares both input and reference signal. If the input signal is greater than the reference signal then the relay gets activated automatically to control the temperature to a certain level. So the coolant is pumped from the reservoir to the tool- work piece interface. Similarly when the temperature decreases below the reference value the control unit deactivates the pump by using the relay. The process will continue according to the increase and decrease of the temperature.

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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 AUTOMATIC COOLING SYSTEM


The long working schedule in the lathe, drilling machine etc... leads to increase the temperature at the tool as well as the work piece. This high temperature will affect the tool life and also will affect the surface finish of the work. So it is very important to introduce automatic cooling system instead of manual cooling, which will be very useful in the manufacturing industry. An Automatic coolant unit comprises a pump, reservoir, valves and control unit. It typically delivers a controlled amount of coolant to specific locations on a machine while the machine is operating, at specific times from a central location. When the temperature at the work piece is increased above the reference temperature, the automatic coolant unit will activate and automatically pumps coolant and will reduce the temperature. So that we can work for longer time without any interruptions.

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2. LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 LATHE

Figure 2.1 Lathe

A lathe is a machine tool which rotates the work piece on its axis to perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, or deformation with tools that are applied to the work piece to create an object which has symmetry about an axis of rotation.

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Lathes are used in woodturning, metalworking, metal spinning, and glass working. Lathes can be used to shape pottery, the best-known design being the potters wheel. Most suitably equipped metalworking lathes can also be used to produce most solids of revolution, plane surfaces and screw threads or helices. Ornamental lathes can produce three-dimensional solids of incredible complexity. The material can be held in place by either one or two centers, at least one of which can be moved horizontally to accommodate varying material lengths. Other work holding methods include clamping the work about the axis of rotation using a chuck or collet, or to a faceplate, using clamps or dogs. Examples of objects that can be produced on a lathe include candlestick holders, cue sticks, table legs, bowls, baseball bats, musical instruments (especially woodwind instruments), crankshafts and camshafts.

2.2 SENSORS
All sensors perform the same basic function. They detect a mechanical condition, chemical state, or temperature conditioning and change it into an electrical signal that can be used by the microcomputer makes decisions based on information it receives from sensors. Each sensor used in a particular system has a specific job to do. Most sensors present in use are available resistors or potentiometers. They modify a voltage to or from the computer, indicating a constantly changing status that can be calculated, compensated for, and modified. That is, most sensors control a voltage signal from the microprocessor. In addition to the variable resisters, two other commonly used sensors are switches and thermistors. Thermistors are special types of resistors that convert temperature into voltage.

Even though there are a variety of different sensors designs, they all fall under one of two operation categories.

1. Reference voltage sensors

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2. Voltage generation sensors. Reference voltage sensors provide input to the microprocessor by modifying or controlling a constant, predetermined voltage signal. This signal which can have a reference value from 5 to 9 volts, is generated and sent out to each sensor by a reference voltage regulator located inside the processor. Because the processor knows that certain voltage value has been sent out, it can indirectly interpret things like motion, temperature, and component position, based on what comes back. Variable resistors, switches and thermistors are the example of reference voltage sensors. Voltage generation sensors include components like the hall-effect switch, oxygen sensor which are capable of producing their own input voltage signal.

2.2.1Temperature Sensors
Temperature sensor detect a temperature conditioning and change it into electrical signal that can be used by the microcomputer makes decisions based on information it receives from sensors. Two common temperature sensing technologies are based on thermistors or semiconductor junctions. A thermistor behaves like a resistor whose resistance changes with temperature. Thermistor is a combination of the words thermal and resistor. The thermistor was first invented by Samuel Ruben in 1930.

Figure 2.2 NTC Thermistor Thermistors are available with either positive or negative temperature coefficients. Positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistors have increasing resistance with increasing temperature. Negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors exhibit decreasing resistance at increasing temperature. In either case when the current is passed through the thermistor, the voltage drop across it is proportional to the temperature

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being sensed. This voltage can then be applied to a simple meter or via an analog-todigital converter.

2.2.2 NTC Thermistors: General Properties and Features NTC thermistors are manufactured in a variety of sizes and configurations. The thermistor element is usually coated with a phenolic or epoxy material that provides protection from environmental conditions. For applications requiring sensing tip dimensions with part to part uniformity and/or smaller size, the devices can be encapsulated in PVC cups or polyimide tubes. NTC thermistors offer many desirable features for temperature measurement and control within their operating temperature range. Although the word thermistor is derived from THERMally sensitive resISTOR, the NTC thermistor can be more accurately classified as a ceramic semiconductor. The most prevalent types of thermistors are glass bead, disc, and chip configurations and the following discussion focuses primarily on those technologies.

2.2.2.1 Temperature Ranges and Resistance Values


NTC thermistors exhibit a decrease in electrical resistance with increasing temperature. Depending on the materials and methods of fabrication, they are generally used in the temperature range of -50C to 150C, and up to 300C for some glass-encapsulated units. The resistance value of a thermistor is typically referenced at 25C (abbreviated as R25). For most applications, the R25 values are between 100 100 k . Other R25 values as low as 10 and as high as 40 M resistance values at temperature points other than 25C can be specified. and can be produced, and

2.2.2.2 Accurate and Repeatable R/T Characteristic


The resistance Vs temperature (R/T) characteristics (also known as R/T curve) of the NTC thermistor forms the "scale" that allows its use as a temperature sensor. Although this characteristic is a nonlinear, negative exponential function, several

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interpolation equations are available that very accurately describe the R/T curve. The most well known is the Steinhart-Hart equation: 1/T =A + B (lnR) + C(lnR) 3

Where, T = Kelvin temperature R = resistance at temperature T Coefficients A, B, and C are derived by calibrating at three temperature points and then solving the three simultaneous equations. The uncertainty associated with the use of the Steinhart-Hart equation is less than 0.005C for 50C temperature spans within the 0C-260C range, so using the appropriate interpolation equation or lookup table in conjunction with a microprocessor can eliminate the potential nonlinearity problem.

2.2.2.3 Sensitivity to Changes in Temperature


The NTC thermistor's relatively large change in resistance Vs temperature, typically on the order of -3%/C to -6%/C, provides an order of magnitude greater sensitivity or signal response than other temperature sensors such as thermocouples and RTDs. On the other hand, the less sensitive thermocouples and RTDs are a good choice for applications requiring temperature spans >260C and/or operating temperatures beyond the limits for thermistors.

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Figure 2.3 Comparative resistance graph From the graph, over the range of -50C to 150C, NTC thermistors offer a distinct advantage in sensitivity to temperature changes compared to other temperature sensors. This graph illustrates the R/T characteristics of some typical NTC thermistors and platinum RTD 2.2.2.4 Interchangeability Another important feature of the NTC thermistor is the degree of interchangeability that can be offered at a relatively low cost, particularly for disc and chip devices. Interchangeability describes the degree of accuracy or tolerance to which a thermistor is specified and produced, and is normally expressed as a temperature tolerance over a temperature range. For example, disc and chip thermistors are commonly specified to tolerances of 0.1C and 0.2C over the temperature ranges of 0C to 70C and 0C to 100C. Interchangeability helps the systems manufacturer or thermistor user reduces labor costs by not having to calibrate each instrument/system with each thermistor during fabrication or while being used in the field. A health care professional, for instance, can use a thermistor temperature probe on one patient, discard it, and connect a new probe of the same specifications for use on another patient--without recalibration. The same holds true for other applications requiring reusable probes. 2.2.2.5 Small Size

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The small dimensions of most bead, disc, and chip thermistors used for resistance thermometry make for a very rapid response to temperature changes. This feature is particularly useful for temperature monitoring and control systems requiring quick feedback. 2.2.2.6 Remote Temperature Sensing Capability Thermistors are well suited for sensing temperature at remote locations via long, two-wire cable because the resistance of the long wires is insignificant compared to the relatively high resistance of the thermistor.

2.2.2.7 Ruggedness, Stability, and Reliability As a result of improvements in technology, NTC bead, disc, and chip thermistor configurations are typically more rugged and better able to handle mechanical and thermal shock and vibration than other temperature sensors. 2.3 TRANSISTOR A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals. It is made of a solid piece of semiconductor material, with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be much more than the controlling (input) power, the transistor provides amplification of a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits. The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. Following its release in the early 1950s the transistor revolutionized the field of electronics, and paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios, calculators, and computers, among other things.

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2.3.1 Importance The transistor is the key active component in practically all modern electronics, and is considered by many to be one of the greatest inventions of the twentieth century. Its importance in today's society rests on its ability to be mass produced using a highly automated process (semiconductor device fabrication) that achieves astonishingly low per-transistor costs. Although several companies each produce over a billion individually packaged (known as discrete) transistors every year, the vast majority of transistors now produced are in integrated circuits (often shortened to IC, microchips or simply chips), along with diodes, resistors, capacitors and other electronic components, to produce complete electronic circuits. A logic gate consists of up to about twenty transistors whereas an advanced microprocessor, as of 2011, can use as many as 3 billion transistors (MOSFETs). "About 60 million transistors were built this year [2002] ... for [each] man, woman, and child on Earth." The transistor's low cost, flexibility, and reliability have made it a ubiquitous device. Transistorized mechatronic circuits have replaced electromechanical devices in controlling appliances and machinery. It is often easier and cheaper to use a standard microcontroller and write a computer program to carry out a control function than to design an equivalent mechanical control function. 2.3.2 Usage The bipolar junction transistor, or BJT, was the most commonly used transistor in the 1960s and 70s. Even after MOSFETs became widely available, the BJT remained the transistor of choice for many analog circuits such as simple amplifiers because of their greater linearity and ease of manufacture. Desirable properties of MOSFETs, such as their utility in low-power devices, usually in the CMOS configuration, allowed them to capture nearly all market share for digital circuits; more recently MOSFETs have captured most analog and power applications as well, including modern clocked analog circuits, voltage regulators, amplifiers, power transmitters, motor drivers, etc.

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2.4 RECTIFIER A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which is in only one direction, a process known as rectification. Rectifiers have many uses including as components of power supplies and as detectors of radio signals. Rectifiers may be made of solid state diodes, vacuum tube diodes, mercury arc valves, and other components. A device which performs the opposite function (converting DC to AC) is known as an inverter. When only one diode is used to rectify AC (by blocking the negative or positive portion of the waveform), the difference between the term diode and the term rectifier is merely one of usage, i.e., the term rectifier describes a diode that is being used to convert AC to DC. Almost all rectifiers comprise a number of diodes in a specific arrangement for more efficiently converting AC to DC than is possible with only one diode. Before the development of silicon semiconductor rectifiers, vacuum tube diodes and copper (I) oxide or selenium rectifier stacks were used. Early radio receivers, called crystal radios, used a "cat's whisker" of fine wire pressing on a crystal of galena (lead sulfide) to serve as a pointcontact rectifier or "crystal detector". Rectification may occasionally serve in roles other than to generate direct current per se. For example, in gas heating systems flame rectification is used to detect presence of flame. Two metal electrodes in the outer layer of the flame provide a current path, and rectification of an applied alternating voltage will happen in the plasma, but only while the flame is present to generate it. 2.4.1 Half-wave rectification In half wave rectification, either the positive or negative half of the AC wave is passed, while the other half is blocked. Because only one half of the input waveform reaches the output, it is very inefficient if used for power transfer. Half-wave rectification can be achieved with a single diode in a one-phase supply, or with three diodes in a three-phase supply.

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Figure 2.4 Half-wave rectification

The output DC voltage of a half wave rectifier can be calculated with the following two ideal equations: V rms = V peak / 2 V dc = V peak / 2.4.2 Full-wave rectification A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input waveform to one of constant polarity (positive or negative) at its output. Full-wave rectification converts both polarities of the input waveform to DC (direct current), and is more efficient. However, in a circuit with a non-center tapped transformer, four diodes are required instead of the one needed for half-wave rectification. (See semiconductors, diode). Four diodes arranged this way are called a diode bridge or bridge rectifier.

Figure 2.5 Graetz bridge rectifier: a full-wave rectifier using 4 diodes

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For single-phase AC, if the transformer is center-tapped, then two diodes back-to-back (i.e. anodes-to-anode or cathode-to-cathode) can form a fullwave rectifier. Twice as many windings are required on the transformer secondary to obtain the same output voltage compared to the bridge rectifier above.

Figure 2.6 Full-wave rectifier using a center tap transformer and 2 diodes

A very common vacuum tube rectifier configuration contained one cathode and twin anodes inside a single envelope; in this way, the two diodes required only one vacuum tube. The 5U4 and 5Y3 were popular examples of this configuration.

Figure 2.7 Three-phase bridge rectifier

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Figure 2.8 Full-wave rectifier with vacuum tube having two anodes For three-phase AC, six diodes are used. Typically there are three pairs of diodes, each pair, though, is not the same kind of double diode that would be used for a full wave single-phase rectifier. Instead the pairs are in series (anode to cathode). Typically, commercially available double diodes have four terminals so the user can configure them as single-phase split supply use, for half a bridge, or for three-phase use. Most devices that generate alternating current (such devices are called alternators) generate three-phase AC. For example, an automobile alternator has six diodes inside it to function as a full-wave rectifier for battery charging applications. The average and root-mean-square output voltages of an ideal single phase full wave rectifier can be calculated as:

Where, Vdc, Vav - the average or DC output voltage, Vp- the peak value of half wave, Vrms - the root-mean-square value of output voltage. = ~ 3.14159 2.4.3 Peak loss An aspect of most rectification is a loss from the peak input voltage to the peak output voltage, caused by the built-in voltage drop across the diodes (around 0.7 V for ordinary silicon p-n-junction diodes and 0.3 V for Schottky diodes). Half-wave rectification and full-wave rectification using two separate secondaries will have a peak voltage loss of one diode drop. Bridge rectification will have a loss of two

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diode drops. This may represent significant power loss in very low voltage supplies. In addition, the diodes will not conduct below this voltage, so the circuit is only passing current through for a portion of each half-cycle, causing short segments of zero voltage to appear between each "hump.

2.5 PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD (PCB)


A printed circuit board, or PCB, is used to mechanically support and electrically connect electronic components using conductive pathways, or traces, etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. It is also referred to as printed wiring board (PWB) or etched wiring board. A PCB populated with electronic components is a printed circuit assembly (PCA), also known as a printed circuit board assembly (PCBA).

Figure 2.9 Printed Circuit Board

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PCBs are rugged, inexpensive, and can be highly reliable. They require much more layout effort and higher initial cost than either wire-wrapped or point-to-point constructed circuits, but are much cheaper and faster for high-volume production. Much of the electronics industry's PCB design, assembly, and quality control needs are set by standards that are published by the IPC organization.

2.6 RELAY A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. The coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and they are double throw (changeover) switches. Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be completely separate from the first. For example a low voltage battery circuit can use a relay to switch a 230V AC mains circuit. There is no electrical connection inside the relay between the two circuits; the link is magnetic and mechanical. The coil of a relay passes a relatively large current, typically 30mA for a 12V relay, but it can be as much as 100mA for relays designed to operate from lower voltages. Most ICs (chips) cannot provide this current and a transistor is usually used to amplify the small IC current to the larger value required for the relay coil. The maximum output current for the popular 555 timer IC is 200mA so these devices can supply relay coils directly without amplification.

Figure 2.10 Relay

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Relays are usually SPDT or DPDT but they can have many more sets of switch contacts, for example relays with 4 sets of changeover contacts are readily available. Most relays are designed for PCB mounting but you can solder wires directly to the pins providing you take care to avoid melting the plastic case of the relay. The animated picture shows a working relay with its coil and switch contacts. You can see a lever on the left being attracted by magnetism when the coil is switched on. This lever moves the switch contacts. There is one set of contacts (SPDT) in the foreground and another behind them, making the relay DPDT.

Figure 2.11 Relays switch connection

The relay's switch connections are usually labeled COM, NC and NO:

COM = Common, always connect to this; it is the moving part of the switch. NC = Normally Closed, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is off. NO = Normally Open, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is on.

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3. PLAN OF WORK
Planning is an important part of every project. Nobody plans to fail, but they fail to plan. So before staring our project work we made some planning for the successful completion of the project.

3.1 SELECTION OF PROJECT


By considering the benefits of the project with the present conditions, the amount of money can be invested, availability of the material, duration of project, design and fabrication area the project can be planned.

3.2 DESIGN AND DRAWINGS


Having been decided about the project to be manufactured, it must be designed. The work of the design should be done very carefully by considering all the relevant factors. After designing the project its detailed drawing are prepared so that no doubts are left for future, detailed specifications of raw materials and finished products should be decided carefully along with the specification of the machine required for their manufacture.

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3.3 PURCHASE CONSIDERATION
It is very difficult to fabricate each and every components of the project. Fabrication must be based on the accuracy that can be obtained from the components. If the project have some electronic components, then it is better to buy the components from the market, and assemble it to the requirement.

3.4 FABRICATION
Fabrication of the components can be done with the help of designed calculations and drawings through different manufacturing process like cutting, welding, drilling etc

3.5 ASSEMBLY OF THE PARTS


The fabricated and purchased components are assembled together to complete the fabrication process.

3.6 COST ESTIMATION


Cost estimation can be calculated by considering the material cost, labor cost, transportation charges etc... 1. Material cost 2. Labor cost 3. Transportation expenses

3.7 REPORT
At the end of the project work, a report is prepared for future references. The project report consists of all the items done during the project work.

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4. MATERIALS AND METHODS


4.1 TEMPERATURE SENSOR
The Sensor used for the temperature measurement is thermistor. Temperature sensor detect a temperature conditioning and change it into electrical signal that can be used by the microcomputer makes decisions based on information it receives from sensors. Name Type Temperature range Resistance tolerances : 2% Overall lengths : 18mm- 78mm : Thermistor : NTC Thermistor : -50C to 150C

Figure 4.1 Temperature sensor

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4.2 AMPLIFIER
Amplifier is any device that will convert one signal often with a small Amount of energy into another signal often with a larger amount of energy. In automatic coolant unit the electrical signal from the thermistor is amplified by using amplifier.

Figure 4.2 bc 547 transistor

4.3 COMPARATOR
The comparator is used to compare the amplified electrical signal from the amplifier to the comparator with the reference signal.

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Figure 4.3 LM358 Comparator

4.4 RELAY
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts. The coil current can be on or off so relays have two switch positions and they are double throw (changeover) switches. Relays allow one circuit to switch a second circuit which can be completely separate from the first.

Figure 4.4 Relay

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Figure 4.5 SPST Relay

4.5 WASHER PUMP


Washer pump, various style 12V windscreen washer pumps, pumps for the transfer of water from reservoir to the specific location through nozzles.

Figure 4.6 Washer pump

4.6 RESERVOIR

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Reservoir is the storage area for the coolant and the coolant is supplied to the specific location from the reservoir with the help of pump. Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5 Material Length Breadth Height Nozzle diameter Sheet metal 30cm 20cm 17cm 1.2cm SPECIFICATION

Table 4.1 Specification for reservoir 4.6.1 Design of reservoir

Figure 4.7 Reservoir

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4.6.1.1 Design calculations ( i ) Volume ( V ) =l*b*h =30*20*17 =10200 cm3

5. DESIGN & DRAWINGS


5.1 FRONT VIEW

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Figure 5.1 Front view

5.2 SIDE VIEW

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Figure 5.2 Side view

5.3 TOP VIEW

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Figure 5.3 Top view

6. COST ESTIMAION

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MATERIAL COST Sl. No


1 2 3 Metal Sheet Electronic devices Washer pump

MATERIAL COST

COST
200 300 200

TOTAL
Table 7.1 Material cost

700

LABOR CHARGE Sl. No


1 2 3 4 Gas cutting Welding Drilling Other operations

LABOR CHARGE

COST
100 200 25 50

TOTAL
Table 7.2 Labor charge

375

OTHER COST Sl. No


1 2 Transportation charges Paintings 50 30

OTHER COST

COST

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TOTAL 80

Table 7.3 Other cost

TOTAL COST Sl. No


1 2 3 Material costs Labor charges Other costs

TOTAL COST

COST
700 375 80

TOTAL
Table 7.4 Total cost

1155

7. RESULT AND DISCUSSION


Reservoir has been fabricated successfully as designed and also assembled the components such as temperature sensor, amplifier, comparator, and relay in the PCB board to full fill the requirements of complete operation of the automatic cooling unit.

7.1 OPERATION
a) The temperature sensor or thermistor is placed near to the tool or work piece.

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b) The thermistor senses the temperature from the tool or work piece and sends an electrical signal to the amplifier. c) The electrical signal is amplified by using amplifier, then this signal is send to the comparator then the comparator compares both input and reference signal. d) If the input signal is greater than the reference signal then the relay gets activated automatically to control the temperature to a certain level e) The drive pumps the lubricant or coolant from the reservoir to the tool- work piece interface. f) Similarly when the temperature decreases below the reference value the control unit deactivates the pump by using the relay. g) The process will continue according to the increase and decrease of the temperature.

7.2 BENEFITS OF THE AUTOMATIC COOLING UNIT


Automatic cooling unit have many advantages over traditional methods of manual cooling process:
a) The process is an automatic with the increase in temperature.

b) Cooling occurs while the machinery is in operation. c) Proper cooling ensures safe operation of the machinery. d) Extended tool life, fewer breakdowns, reduced downtime, reduced replacement costs, reduced maintenance costs and good surface finish. e) Measured cooling means no wasted coolant. f) Lower power consumption.

8. CONCLUSION
The automatic cooling unit has been successfully introduced instead of manual cooling process by design and fabricating the components of the unit. As temperature in the tool- work piece interface comes above the reference temperature, the unit successfully activated and reduced the temperature. Similarly, as the temperature comes below the reference temperature, the unit gets deactivated successfully.

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9. APPENDICES

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PHOTOGRAPHY

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Figure 9.1 Washer pump

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Figure 9.2 Circuit

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Figure 9.3 Reservoir

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Figure 9.4 Automatic cooling unit

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10. REFERENCES
Books
1. Manufacturing Technology II, G.K. Vijayaraghavan, A.R.S. Publications, fifth edition, nov 2009 2. Electronics and Microprocessors, V. Thiyagarajan, A.R. Publications, fourth edition, dec 2008 3. Automobile Engineering, G.K. Vijayaraghavan, A.R.S. Publications, fifth edition, nov 2010

Websites
1. Automatic cooling system, www.koolmist.com/automatic_cooling_unit 2. BTS Room Automatic cooling unit FCU, www.damcon.com.pk/proinfo.php 3. Automatic air cooling unit, www.prodeco/srl.com/eng/accessori.html 4. Wikipedia , www.wikipedia.com/automaticlubrication

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