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SOIL DEGREDATION & LAND POLLUTION C&A, types, suggestion to reduce problems on waste, disposal methods… Soil  A fragile layer

of material that covers much of the earth’s surface.  Consists mostly of weathered rock, water, air and organic matter that serve as habitat for specialized community of animals such as insects, worms and centipedes.  It has a protective cover of vegetation that reduces the impact of rain on the soil and absorbs some of the water.  PROBLEMS: Erosion by wind and water; soil acidification or alkalinization; salination; destruction of soil structure including loss of organic matter. Land Degradation  It is a human induced or natural process which negatively affects the capacity of land to function effectively within an ecosystem.  It causes losses to agricultural productivity in many parts of the world. MAJOR CAUSES OF LAND DEGREDATION • • • • Land Clearing and Deforestation Soil Erosion Land and Soil Pollution Oil Spill and Urbanization

Sources and Types of Pollutants 1. Domestic Waste or Municipal Solid waste  These are waste that comes from homes like paper, metals, bottles, plastic, wood, food waste rubber, leather and others.  2 types of domestic waste: liquids wastes or sewerage; and solid wastes or garbage.

2. Agricultural and Industrial waste  Pesticides and herbicides pollute the land when they are washed into the soil. It may poison the land.  Farming, construction, logging and mining. 3. Hazardous Waste  These are wastes that pose a potential hazard to humans or other living organisms for one or more of the ff. reasons: Such wastes are nonbiodegradable; their effects can be magnified by organisms in the environment; they can be lethal; they may cause detrimental cumulative effects. Hazardous wastes are characterized by being:  Toxic – poisonous and have carcinogenic, teratogenic or mutagenic effects on humans and other organisms  Ignitable – it can create fire under certain conditions or friction sensitive substance like solvents  Corrosive – acidic or basic capable of corroding metals and by chemicals action can cause severe damage when in contact with living tissues  Reactive - they are unstable under normal condition and readily undergo violent changes without detonating and react violently with water and create spontaneously explosive mixtures like toxic gases, vapors and fumes and are capable of detonating. Source of Toxic and Hazardous Wastes  Industrial and Manufacturing plants – main source of toxic and hazardous wastes  Imports of chemicals which are toxic have increased tremendously. It

. c) Wildlife and even humans exposed to toxic wastes such as PCB’s found in old electrical transformers and pesticides have developed abnormally small penises rendering them incapable of sexual reproduction . Treatment/Disposals of Toxic Chemicals and Hazardous Wastes a) Increasing the acidity level of water off the coast of Zamboanga City damaging the huge seaweed plantation in the city’s coastal villages b) High levels of mercury.. nitrates.. Transporters . Putrescible/Organic wastes. Classes of toxic wastes:  Acid wastes. lead and benzene in the blood of residents living around the former US bases due to drinking of water from the shallow wells in nearby areas. Reactive chemical wastes.44M MT Alkali waste – 1. Industrial waste transporter before it can transport hazardous waste should obtain a license.means a possibility of major chemical accidents and risk to the environment.56M MT Reactive Chemical waste .015M MT Immobilized wastes . Sources Inorganic Chemical wastes – 18. Adhesives/Organic Sludge..34M MT Waste Oil .. Organic Solvents.017M MT Paints/resins/lattices/ink/dye/adhesive .53M MT Textile waste .Is an operator.22M MT Containers . Alkali wastes. which receives waste from the manufacturer and delivers it to recyclers of transports it to a landfill site.. Textile State of toxic chemicals and hazardous waste management in the Philippines A.29M MT Organic waste – 6.024M MT Miscellaneous wastes ..63M MT Plating waste – 5.0004M MT B.94M MT Acid waste .