ME-372 Mechanical Design II Cams Experimental Lab Page 1 of 8 S2007 GR

The fundamental objectives of this laboratory are: 1. to observe the effect of cam profile on the cam dynamics, 2. to study the displacement, velocity, and acceleration profile of cam and 3. to identify the factors which may improve the cam dynamics.

TM21 Cam analysis machine, E3 MKII Speed controller, Tachometer, Tangent and Curved cams.

A cam may be defined as a machine element having a curved outline or a curved groove, which, by its oscillation or rotation motion, gives a predetermined specified motion to another element called the follower. Cams play a very important part in modern machinery and are extensively used in internal-combustion engines, machine tools, mechanical computers, instruments and many other applications. The contour of the cam dictates the cam system's dynamic response. The contour is controlled by the cam's displacement diagram that is created based on design specifications. To analyze the cam's dynamic response the acceleration and jerk of the follower need to be determined. The two parameters can be computed from the cam's displacement diagram. In this lab, with the same design specifications (Table 1), two cams (a Tangent Cam and a Curved Cam) with different contours will be tested and analyzed. The formulae for calculating follower displacement, velocity and acceleration are provided below. These formulae were derived from geometrically analyzing the contours of these cams. Cam angle 0° - 90° 90° - 180° Tangent Cam 25.4 mm (rise) 25.4 mm (fall) Curved Flank Cam 25.4 mm (rise) 25.4 mm (fall) Dwell

180° - 360° Dwell

Table 1. Design Specifications. 1. Tangent Cam with Roller Follower: Roller in contact with flank (Fig. 1) Let R = base circle radius: 25.4 mm

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r = radius of nose : 12.7 mm d = center distance : 38.1 mm ro = radius of follower : 14.3 mm Consider the roller follower in contact with the flank AB, as in Fig. 1:

Figure 1. Tangent cam - Roller in contact with flank/ roller in contact with nose. When the cam has rotated through an angle θ from the lowest position of the follower center Q, displacement of the follower from lowest position, X X = OQ1 - OQ = (R + ro) Sec θ - (R + ro) where 0<=θ<=β. θ = 0 corresponds to the point A and θ=β corresponds to point B on fig. 1. Velocity V = ω dX dθ (2) (1)

= ω (R+ro) Sec θ Tan θ Acceleration A = ω2 d2X dV = ω2 2 dθ dθ

= ω2 (R - ro) (Sec3θ + Sec θ Tan2θ) = ω2 (R + ro) (2 Sec3θ + Sec θ) The range of the cam angle (β) turned while the roller moves from A to B is:
Tanβ= d


sin α R + ro

where α is the total angle of lift.

ME-372 Mechanical Design II Cams Experimental Lab Page 3 of 8 S2007 GR

In this case, α = 70.53° and β = 42.14° 1.1 Roller in contact with nose: When the roller has rotated through an angle θ from the highest position of the follower, displacement of follower: X = OQ2 - OQ = {d Cos θ + (r + ro) Cos λ} - (R + ro) where 0<=θ<=(α-β) θ=0 corresponds to point C and θ=α-β corresponds to point D in fig.1. Also  d Sin θ = (r + ro) Sin λ Sin λ = d Sin θ r + ro 1 Sin θ n


Because Cos λ = ( 1 - Sin 2λ )0.5 Then X = d Cos θ + (r + ro) [ 1 - ( sin θ 2 0.5 ) ] - (R + ro) n (4) (5)

= d { Cos θ + ( n2 - Sin2θ )0.5} - ( R + ro) and V= − ω * d (sin θ +

2 n − sin 2 θ


sin 2θ




2 and A= − ω * d (cos θ +

sin 4 θ + n 2 cos 2θ



− sin 2 θ





The velocity decreases from a maximum at B to zero at C while the acceleration falls from a maximum at B to a minimum at C. 2. Cam with curved flanks (Roller Follower) Roller in contact with flank (See Fig. 2) Let R = base circle radius : 25.4 mm r = radius of nose : 12.7 mm d = center distance : 38.1 mm ro = radius of follower : 14.3 mm

ME-372 Mechanical Design II Cams Experimental Lab Page 4 of 8 S2007 GR

ρ = radius of curvature : 79.4 mm Consider follower in position Q1 as shown in Fig.2. The length 'PA' = (ρ + ro) Cos ψ also 'PA' = OQ1 Cos θ + (ρ - R) Equating above equations gives: OQ1 = ( ρ + ro ) cosψ − ( ρ − R ) ) cos θ

Figure 2. Curved cam - Roller in contact with flank/ roller in contact with nose. From Cosine Rule, cosψ = ( ρ + ro ) 2 + ( ρ − R ) 2 − OQ1 2( ρ + ro )( ρ − R)

Now substituting for Cosψ in above equation leads to OQ12 + 2OQ1(ρ - R) Cos θ - {(ρ + ro)2 - (ρ - R)2} = 0 hence X = OQ1 - (R + ro) Displacement:  ( ρ + ro ) 2 ( R + ro )  X = ( ρ − R ) (cos 2 θ + − 1) 0.5 − cos θ −  ( ρ − R) 2 ( ρ − R)   Where 0<=θ<=β, θ=0 corresponds to the point A and θ=β corresponds to point B in fig.2. (7)

ME-372 Mechanical Design II Cams Experimental Lab Page 5 of 8 S2007 GR

Velocity:     dx sin 2θ sin θ −  V = −ϖ = ( ρ − R )ω   dθ ( ρ + ro ) 2 2(cos 2 θ + − 1) 0.5   2 ( ρ − R)   Acceleration:   ( ρ + ro ) 2 cos 2θ (cos 2 θ + − 1) + 0.25 sin 2 2θ   2 2 d x ( ρ − R)  (9) A = −ϖ 2 = ( ρ − R )ω cos θ − 2 2   dθ ( ρ + ro ) (cos 2 θ + − 1)1.5   ( ρ − R) 2   When the roller is in contact with the nose of the cam, then equation (4), (5), and (6) apply. Angle β (angle turned through while roller is on flank) is given by:


( ρ + ro )d ( ρ + ro )( ρ − R) − ( ρ − R )( ρ − ro )

3. Dynamic forces on follower and spring The continuous contact between the follower and the cam is achieved by the downward forces of the spring and follower weight. On the other hand, the force along the axis of the follower exerted by the cam is the driving force of the follower. For the cam system shown in Fig. 3, If m is the effective mass of the follower, then the driving force required to accelerate the follower: ΣF = mf • Af Let S be the follower spring stiffness and xo the initial compression of the spring. When the follower mass is driven through a distance X the spring force is S(X + x o). The equation of motion is: F - mfg - S(X - xo) = mf Af where: F = contact force, mf = mass of the follower, Af = acceleration of the follower. S=4530N/m Preloading xo = 0.15 cm

ME-372 Mechanical Design II Cams Experimental Lab Page 6 of 8 S2007 GR

Figure 3. Schematic of a cam system. Af is a function of the spring stiffness S, the initial spring compression xo and the effective mass mf. When the cam contacts the follower the acceleration of the follower, Af, is equal to acceleration, A, of the cam along the axis of the follower. This A can be derived from the cam's displacement diagram and is a function of the angular velocity of the cam. During a rise phase, A should be larger than or equal to Af to keep the contact and during a fall phase, A should be smaller than or equal to Af for the same reason. At a point of follower bounce, the contact force F is equal to zero. The corresponding cam velocity is called bounce velocity. Then -mfg - S(X - xo) = mfAf To prevent bounce, the F must be larger than zero: That is A ≥ Af = − m f g + S ( X + x0 ) mf

 m f g + S ( X + x0 )  or  ≥A mf     also A = k ω2 ,where k is dictated by the contour of the cam. Therefore, the condition to prevent bounce is:  m f g + S ( X + x0 )  2   ≥ kω mf    

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To increase the bounce velocity, the parameters (S, xo, and mf) can be adjusted.

The TM21 Cam Analysis Machine (CAM) shown in Fig.4 is used for this experiment

Figure 4. TM21 Cam analysis machine. The CAM consists of a set of cams, a set of springs, a pen and drum recording system to record cam displacement diagram and other components. A D.C. shunt wound geared motor is directly coupled by a flexible coupling to an extension shaft, on which is mounted a flywheel to reduce the fluctuation in speed caused by the variable torque required to lift the follower. The cam is mounted on a taper on the end of the shaft, and secured on the shaft by a nut. The followers are of the flat face or roller type, and are mounted on the end of a vertical bar. A drilling in top end of the bar accommodates a steel ball, which is retained in position by a second bar carrying a spring and optional masses. The presence of the steel ball ensures that only an axial force is transmitted to the upper bar. The top end of the spring is supported by a crossbar mounted on two vertical pillars on the base plate. A pen traces a record of the follower amplitude on paper. The paper is fastened to a cylindrical drum driven by a timing belt from the camshaft. The camshaft speed may be measured by means of a Tachometer.

Before actually beginning the experimental procedure the following precautions are to be followed.

ME-372 Mechanical Design II Cams Experimental Lab Page 8 of 8 S2007 GR

Make sure that the nut securing the cam on the shaft is tight. Then revolve the cam through one or two revolutions, by means of the flywheel, to ensure that the spring pre-tension is not excessive. Then switch on the mains electrical supply and rotate the control knob slowly clockwise. The motor will then begin to rotate. Should the motor stall - this may occur if the follower is in contact with the leading flank of the cam when starting - return the control knob to zero and rotate the camshaft by hand in the opposite direction to that of the motor, until the follower is in contact with the other flank. Now rotate the control knob clockwise and the camshaft should revolve. The initial displacement xo has been adjusted to be zero. Before reversing the direction of rotation of the motor, ensure that the MAIN AC SUPPLY IS SWITCHED OFF, or the motor fuses will be blown. Perform the following the steps for the experiment. 1. Insert the pen into the penholder and allow it to gently touch the paper wrapped around the drum. 2. Make the electrical connections between the apparatus, E3MKII Speed controller and the AC power supply. 3. Fix the cam in the machine and rotate the flywheel to record the displacement diagram for the cam. 4. Release the pen and turn on the controller with the speed knob at minimum. 5. Gradually increase the cam speed until the bounce speed is captured. The bouncing speed is at which the cam begins to chatter and a loud banging noise is heard. 6. Measure the bouncing speed using a tachometer. 7. Repeat the same for the other cam.

Obtain the displacement diagrams of the two cams and compare it with the theoretical ones. Measure the bouncing speeds of the cams and generate the velocity and acceleration profiles using a code preferably MATLAB. Specify as to which type of cam has better dynamics and also discuss ways of improving the dynamics of tangent cam.

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