Contents

List of Symbols and Abbreviations Preface Road Map of the Book The Arrangement Suggested Route for the Coursework Suggestions for the Class Use of Semi-empirical Relations

page xxi xxxi xxxv xxxv xxxix xli xlii

1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Overview 1.1.1 What Is to Be Learned? 1.1.2 Coursework Content 1.2 Brief Historical Background 1.3 Current Aircraft Design Status 1.3.1 Forces and Drivers 1.3.2 Current Civil Aircraft Design Trends 1.3.3 Current Military Aircraft Design Trends∗ 1.4 Future Trends 1.4.1 Civil Aircraft Design: Future Trends 1.4.2 Military Aircraft Design: Future Trends∗ 1.5 Learning Process 1.6 Units and Dimensions 1.7 Cost Implications 1 1 1 2 7 8 9 11 11 12 14 15 17 17

2 Methodology to Aircraft Design, Market Survey, and Airworthiness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
2.1 Overview 2.1.1 What Is to Be Learned? 2.1.2 Coursework Content 2.2 Introduction 2.3 Typical Design Process

19 20 20 20 21

These sections are found on the Cambridge University Web site at www.cambridge.org/Kundu

v

.12 High-Lift Devices 3.8 2.2 Abrupt Stall 3. .1 Aircraft Specifications and Requirements for Three Civil Aircraft Case Studies Military Market∗ 2. . .8 Definitions of Aerodynamic Parameters 3. .cambridge.6.5 Airflow Behavior: Laminar and Turbulent 3.10.7 Aerofoil 3. .6. .vi Contents 2. . .4 Fundamental Equations 3.11 Comparison of Three NACA Aerofoils 3. .7. .1.2 Coursework Content 3.1 Civil Aircraft and Its Component Configurations 2. .6 2. .9 2.5. .3.11 2.2 Introduction 3.5.3 Typical Cost Frame 2.4. .5 2.7. .1.3.13 Transonic Effects – Area Rule ∗ 43 43 44 44 46 48 50 55 56 56 57 58 59 62 63 65 66 66 66 67 68 These sections are found on the Cambridge University Web site at www.1 Overview 3. .7 2.6 Aircraft Motion and Forces 3.1 What Is to Be Learned? 3. .2 Typical Resources Deployment 2. .10.10 2. .4. .1 Flow Past Aerofoil 3. .4 2. .3 Atmosphere 3.1 Motion 3. 43 3.3. . .4 Typical Time Frame Typical Task Breakdown in Each Phase 2. .10 Types of Stall 3.1 Four Phases of Aircraft Design 2.org/Kundu .5.1 Gradual Stall 3.8.1 Aircraft Specifications/Requirements for Military Aircraft Case Studies∗ Comparison between Civil and Military Aircraft Design Requirements Airworthiness Requirements Coursework Procedures 23 25 26 26 26 28 29 31 31 33 33 35 36 39 39 40 41 42 3 Aerodynamic Considerations .1 Groupings of Aerofoils and Their Properties 3.9 Generation of Lift 3. .2 Forces 3.2 Military Aircraft and Its Component Configurations∗ Market Survey Civil Aircraft Market 2.1 Functional Tasks during the Conceptual Study (Phase 1: Civil Aircraft) 2.2 Project Activities for Small Aircraft Design Aircraft Familiarization 2.3. . .

W 3.2 V-Tail 3.16.1 H-Tail 3.20.26 Speed Brakes and Dive Brakes 70 73 73 76 76 77 77 77 77 78 78 79 79 80 82 83 84 85 87 87 89 90 90 91 91 93 93 94 94 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 95 96 96 96 96 96 96 . Wcab 3.23. H 3.23.3 Additional Vortex Lift 3.5 Fuselage Closure Angle 3.1 Planform Area.2 Fuselage Length.23.1 Induced Drag and Total Aircraft Drag 3.23.16.20. FR 3.8 Midfuselage Constant Cross-Section Length.4 Wing Root (croot ) and Tip (ctip ) Chord 3.2 Wing Aspect Ratio 3.7 High/Low Wing 3.23. La 3.23.21 Finalizing Wing Design Parameters 3.4 Additional Surfaces on Wing 3.Contents vii 3.22.3 Fineness Ratio. SW 3.23.23. λ 3. 3.1 Fuselage Axis/Zero-Reference Plane 3.15 Aspect Ratio Correction of 2D Aerofoil Characteristics for 3D Finite Wing 3.14 Wing Aerodynamics 3. Lm 3.19 Wing Stall Pattern and Wing Twist 3.16. Lf 3. Dave 3.23.6 Wing Twist 3.8 Dihedral/Anhedral Angles 3. Lfus 3.2 Aircraft Wetted Area (AW ) versus Wing Planform Area (Sw ) 3.23 Fuselage 3.23. Hcab 3.1 The Square-Cube Law 3.20 Influence of Wing Area and Span on Aerodynamics 3.23.5 Wing Taper Ratio.3 Wing Sweep Angle.7 Aft Fuselage Closure Length.16.11 Average Diameter.24 Undercarriage 3.23.10 Fuselage Width.22.16.14.6 Front Fuselage Closure Length.16 Wing Definitions 3.4 Fuselage Upsweep Angle 3.14 Pilot Cockpit/Flight Deck 3.20.18 Compressibility Effect: Wing Sweep 3.25 Nacelle and Intake 3.13 Cabin Width.22.3 Tail Volume Coefficients 3.22 Empennage 3.17 Mean Aerodynamic Chord 3.20.23.9 Fuselage Height.16.16.23.12 Cabin Height.16.

. .13 Military Aircraft Mission∗ 4.7.4 Flight Crew (Flight Deck) Compartment Layout 4.5. . . and Posture (95th Percentile) Facilities 4.1 Maximum Takeoff Mass versus Number of Passengers 4.5.7 Wing Loading versus Aircraft Span 4. .5.5.7.2 Fuselage Length 4. .7.14. . Pitch.6 Civil Aircraft Component Geometries 4. and Choices for Configuration . .1 What Is to Be Learned? 4. .14.14 Military Aircraft Statistics (Sizing Parameters – Regression Analysis)∗ 4.1 Overview 4.2 Military MTOM versus OEM∗ 4.14.9 Empennage Group (Civil Aircraft) 4. .8 Cargo Container Sizes 4. 98 4.1 Fuselage Width 4. . .5 Civil Subsonic Jet Aircraft Statistics (Sizing Parameters and Regression Analysis) 4. .3 Military MTOM versus Fuel Load Mf ∗ 4. .7. . .7. .2 Coursework Content 4.5.1 Military Aircraft Maximum Take-off Mass (MTOM) versus Payload∗ 4.7.10 Nacelle Group 4. . .1.1. Evolutionary Pattern.3.11 Summary of Civil Aircraft Design Choices 4.5.9 Doors – Emergency Exits 4. . .7.14.7 Fuselage Group 4. Statistics.5 Cabin Crew and Passenger Facilities 4.8 Wing Group 4.org/Kundu .6 Empennage Area versus Wing Area 4. . and Mission Profile∗ 4.2 Maximum Takeoff Mass versus Operational Empty Mass 4.4 Civil Aircraft Mission (Payload-Range) 4.5 Maximum Takeoff Mass versus Engine Power 4. .3 Aircraft Evolution 4.12 Military Aircraft: Detailed Classification.cambridge. . . .viii Contents 4 Aircraft Classification.6 Seat Arrangement.7 Passenger Facilities 4.5. .3 Maximum Takeoff Mass versus Fuel Load 4. . . . . . .7.7. .3 Front (Nose Cone) and Aft-End Closure 4.4 Maximum Takeoff Mass versus Wing Area 4. .1 Aircraft Classification and Their Operational Environment 4. .2 Introduction 4. . .4 MTOM versus Wing Area (Military)∗ ∗ 98 99 99 99 100 101 104 105 106 107 108 109 111 112 113 113 114 114 117 117 121 121 122 123 124 125 126 128 130 133 134 134 135 135 135 135 135 These sections are found on the Cambridge University Web site at www. . .

. .2 Introduction 6. .2 Roll Plane (Y-Z) Maneuver (Aileron-Induced) 5.1 Considerations in Configuring the Fuselage ∗ 149 150 150 150 152 154 These sections are found on the Cambridge University Web site at www. . . . . . . . . .1 Low-Speed Limit 5.4. .17 4.1 On the Ground 5. . .2 Coursework Content 6.5 Theory and Definitions 5. . . . .2 Introduction 5. .3. . . .1 Maximum Limit of Load Factor 5. . . . .2 Speed Limits 5.3 Shaping and Layout of a Civil Aircraft Configuration 6. . . .6 Limits – Load and Speeds 5.1.20 4. . . . .22 4. .5.2 In Flight 5. .19 4. .8 Gust Envelope 138 138 139 139 140 140 140 140 141 141 141 141 141 141 142 143 144 144 145 145 146 146 147 6 Configuring Aircraft . .6 Empennage Area versus Wing Area (Military)∗ 4.7.7 Aircraft Wetted Area versus Wing Area (Military)∗ Military Aircraft Component Geometries∗ Fuselage Group (Military)∗ Wing Group (Military)∗ 4.21 4. .1 What Is to Be Learned? 6.3. .Contents ix 4.3.6.2. .3 Yaw Plane (Z-X) Maneuver (Rudder-Induced) 5.7.17. .7 V-n Diagram 5. .2 High-Speed Limit 5. .3 Flight Maneuvers 5.1. .14.1 Overview 6.5 MTOM versus Engine Thrust (Military)∗ 4. .14. .1 Overview 5.cambridge. . .18 4.1. .16 4.2.1 Load Factor. . . .1 Generic Wing Planform Shapes∗ Empennage Group (Military)∗ Intake/Nacelle Group (Military)∗ Undercarriage Group∗ Miscellaneous Comments∗ Summary of Military Aircraft Design Choices∗ 135 136 136 136 136 136 136 136 137 137 137 137 5 Aircraft Load . . . . .6.1. .1 Pitch Plane (X-Z) Maneuver (Elevator/Canard-Induced) 5. . 138 5. .1 Buffet 5. . . . . .14.3 Extreme Points of a V-n Diagram 5. .org/Kundu .3.1 What Is to Be Learned? 5. . . 149 6.2 Coursework Content 5. . . . .15 4. n 5. .4 Aircraft Loads 5.4.2 Flutter 5. .7. .

.10 6. . and Definitions ∗ 191 192 192 193 194 195 These sections are found on the Cambridge University Web site at www. . . . . .4. Single-Aisle Aircraft 6.2 Vertical Tail 6.3 Types of Undercarriage 7.7.5.12 6. . .6 6.12.1 Summary of the Worked-Out Military Aircraft Preliminary Details∗ 157 158 159 160 163 167 171 174 174 175 176 177 177 180 181 181 182 184 185 187 187 189 189 189 190 190 190 190 190 7 Undercarriage .1.5 6. .8 6. . Nomenclature.2 Considerations in Configuring the Wing 6.4.11 6. .3 Wing-Mounted Control-Surface Layout 6.3. . .1 Use of Statistics in the Class of Military Trainer Aircraft∗ 6. . . 191 7. . . . . . .2 Wing Design 6. .1 Worked-Out Example: Configuring and Positioning the Engine and Nacelle in Civil Aircraft Undercarriage Positioning Worked-Out Example: Finalizing the Preliminary Civil Aircraft Configuration Miscellaneous Considerations in Civil Aircraft Configuring Military Aircraft – Shaping and Laying Out∗ Worked-Out Example – Configuring Military Advanced Jet Trainer∗ 6.1.4 Considerations in Configuring the Nacelle Civil Aircraft Fuselage: Typical Shaping and Layout 6.1 Aerofoil Selection 6. . . . .6. . .3.1 Overview 7. .x Contents 6.4.4 Undercarriage Layout.1 What Is to Be Learned? 7. . .6.1 Narrow-Body.2 Coursework Content 7.12. .9 6.3.3 Miscellaneous Considerations – Military Design∗ Variant CAS Design∗ 6. . .1 Horizontal Tail 6.13 6.2 Wide-Body.3 Worked-Out Example: Configuring the Empennage in Civil Aircraft Configuring a Civil Aircraft Nacelle: Positioning and Layout of an Engine 6. Double-Aisle Aircraft 6.3 Considerations in Configuring the Empennage 6.7 6. .2 Introduction 7.cambridge.5.13.org/Kundu .3 Worked-Out Example: Civil Aircraft Fuselage Layout Configuring a Civil Aircraft Wing: Positioning and Layout 6.6.5.4 Positioning of the Wing Relative to the Fuselage 6. .5. .5.4 6.5 Worked-Out Example: Configuring the Wing in Civil Aircraft Configuring a Civil Aircraft Empennage: Positioning and Layout 6.12.2 Worked-Out Example – Advanced Jet Trainer Aircraft (AJT) – Fuselage∗ 6. .

11 Tires 7.16 Undercarriage and Tire Data 197 199 199 201 202 202 203 205 206 206 207 208 209 212 213 215 215 219 221 222 8 Aircraft Weight and Center of Gravity Estimation . .5 Undercarriage Retraction and Stowage 7.10. . .1 Load on Wheels 7.2 Introduction 8.1 Civil Aircraft 8. .7 Turning of an Aircraft 7.1 Stowage Space Clearances 7.3 The Weight Drivers 8.2 Military Aircraft: AJT 7.10.15 Miscellaneous Considerations 7.Contents xi 7.13 Undercarriage Layout Methodology 7.cambridge. .2 Wing Group – Civil Aircraft 8.10.1 Overview 8.2 Energy Absorbed 7.9.3 Deflection under Load 7. .1 Civil Aircraft: Bizjet 7.10 Runway Pavement Classification 7.4 Nacelle Group – Civil Aircraft 8. . .2 Military Aircraft (Combat Category)∗ 8.6 Miscellaneous Group – Civil Aircraft ∗ 223 224 224 225 227 228 228 230 231 232 233 234 234 238 238 241 242 243 243 244 This subsection is found on the Cambridge University Web site at www.10.12 Tire Friction with Ground: Rolling and Braking Friction Coefficient 7.1.1.7 Aircraft Component Mass Estimation 8.4 Aircraft Mass (Weight) Breakdown 8.6 Aircraft Component Groups 8.8 Wheels 7.9 Loads on Wheels and Shock Absorbers 7.2 Coursework Content 8.6. 223 8.10.3 Empennage Group – Civil Aircraft 8. .9.10.5 Undercarriage Group – Civil Aircraft 8. .6.14. .6 Undercarriage Design Drivers and Considerations 7.1 Load Classification Number Method 7.2 Aircraft Classification Number and Pavement Classification Number Method 7.5.10. .1 What Is to Be Learned? 8.1 Fuselage Group – Civil Aircraft 8.9.9 Graphical Method for Predicting Aircraft Component Weight: Civil Aircraft 8.14.10.10 Semi-empirical Equation Method (Statistical) 8.org/Kundu .14 Worked-Out Examples 7.8 Rapid Mass Estimation Method: Civil Aircraft 8.5 Desirable CG Position 8. .

11.8 Systems Group – Civil Aircraft 8.15.11.5 Undercarriage Group Mass 8.11.12 Fuel (MFUEL )∗ 8.10.12.15.11 Crew Mass∗ 8.1 Military Aircraft Fuselage Group (SI System)∗ 8.cambridge.12 8.15 8.11.10.15.9 Furnishing Group Mass 8.14 Weight Summary Center of Gravity Determination 8.14 8.7 Power Plant Group Mass 8.11 Crew Mass 8.11.10 Contingency and Miscellaneous – Civil Aircraft 8.10.11 8.11.10 Contingency Group Mass 8.10.org/Kundu .9 Furnishing Group – Civil Aircraft 8.12 Payload – Civil Aircraft 8.7 Power Plant Group – Civil Aircraft 8.11.11.13 8.13 Payload (MPL )∗ 244 246 246 246 246 246 247 247 247 249 250 250 250 250 250 251 251 251 251 251 251 251 252 253 254 254 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 255 256 256 ∗ These sections are found on the Cambridge University Web site at www.11.12 Payload Mass 8.3 Empennage Group Mass 8.10.15.7 System Mass – Military Aircraft∗ 8.8 Aircraft Furnishing – Military Aircraft∗ 8.2 Military Aircraft Wing Mass (SI System)∗ 8.15.11.xii Contents 8.4 Nacelle Mass Example – Military Aircraft∗ 8.1 Fuselage Group Mass 8.4 Nacelle Group Mass 8.6 Undercarriage Mass Example – Military Aircraft∗ 8.8 Systems Group Mass 8.15.11.1 Bizjet Aircraft CG Location Example 8.11.11.10 Contingency (MCONT ) – Military Aircraft∗ 8.11 Crew – Civil Aircraft 8.15.2 Wing Group Mass 8.2 First Iteration to Fine Tune CG Position Relative to Aircraft and Components Rapid Mass Estimation Method – Military Aircraft∗ Graphical Method to Predict Aircraft Component Weight – Military Aircraft∗ Semi-empirical Equation Methods (Statistical) – Military Aircraft∗ 8.5 Power Plant Group Mass Example – Military Aircraft∗ 8.10.10.15.15.3 Military Aircraft Empennage∗ 8.9 Miscellaneous Group (MMISC ) – Military Aircraft∗ 8.13 Fuel – Civil Aircraft Worked-Out Example – Civil Aircraft 8.13 Fuel Mass 8.12.15.15.15.15.11.6 Miscellaneous Group Mass 8.

3 Parasite Drag Definition 9.16. . .2 Coursework Content 9.8.12 Payload (MPL )∗ 8.7. .1 Fuselage 9.16. Pylons.1 What Is to Be Learned? 9. . .3 AJT Empennage Example (Based on CAS Variant)∗ 8.16. .1 AJT Fuselage Example (Based on CAS Variant)∗ 8. .2 Computation of Wetted Areas 9.16.1 Classroom Worked-Out Military AJT CG Location Example∗ 8. .5 AJT Power Plant Group Mass Example (Based on AJT Variant)∗ 8. . Reynolds Number. .16 Classroom Example of Military AJT/CAS Aircraft Weight Estimation∗ 8.6 Aircraft Drag Estimation Methodology (Subsonic) 9. .8 AJT Furnishing Group Mass Example (Based on AJT Variant)∗ 8.8 Semi-empirical Relations to Estimate Aircraft Component Parasite Drag 9. . 258 9.17 CG Position Determination – Military Aircraft∗ 8.1 Overview 9.16. .2 First Iteration to Fine Tune CG Position and Components Masses∗ 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 257 257 9 Aircraft Drag .16.16.13 Weights Summary – Military Aircraft∗ 8.3 Nacelle Drag 9.2 Wing.4 Excrescence Drag ∗ 258 259 259 259 261 262 263 265 265 266 267 268 268 268 271 273 277 These sections are found on the Cambridge University Web site at www.17. .org/Kundu .cambridge.4 Aircraft Drag Breakdown (Subsonic) 9.6 AJT Undercarriage Mass Example (Based on CAS Variant)∗ 8. . .5 Aircraft Drag Formulation 9. .8.4 AJT Nacelle Mass Example (Based on CAS Variant)∗ 8.16.17. and Winglets 9.7 AJT Systems Group Mass Example (Based on AJT Variant)∗ 8. . .9 AJT Contingency Group Mass Example∗ 8.8. and Basic CF Determination 9. .7. . .16. . . .16.1.16.16. . . Empennage. . . .3 Stepwise Approach to Compute Minimum Parasite Drag 9. . . .8.7 Minimum Parasite Drag Estimation Methodology 9.10 AJT Crew Mass Example∗ 8.11 Fuel (MFUEL )∗ 8. . . . . .Contents xiii 8.2 Introduction 9.1.16.7. . .1 Geometric Parameters.2 AJT Wing Example (Based on CAS Variant)∗ 8.

2 Coursework Content 10.1.14.14.20 Concluding Remarks 278 279 280 280 281 282 282 282 286 286 288 288 289 290 292 292 293 295 299 299 299 299 299 300 302 303 305 306 306 306 310 310 10 Aircraft Power Plant and Integration . .4. Re.19.2 Computation of Wetted Areas.18.2 Turbofan: Bypass Engine 10.18. .5 CDp Estimation 9.14 Low-Speed Aircraft Drag at Takeoff and Landing 9.1.5 CDp Estimation 9.1 Simple Straight-Through Turbojet 10. . .3 Undercarriage Drag 9.2 Background 10. .18.3 Computation of 3D and Other Effects to Estimate Component CDpmin 9.1 What Is to Be Learned? 10.18.16 Military Aircraft Drag 9.19. .6 Induced Drag 9.4.19.4 Summary of Parasite Drag 9.19. . .8 Total Aircraft Drag 9. .4 Introduction: Air-Breathing Aircraft Engine Types 10. . .3 Afterburner Engine 314 314 315 315 319 320 320 321 322 .14. Re.4 One-Engine Inoperative Drag 9.1 High-Lift Device Drag 9.12 Subsonic Wave Drag 9.3 Computation of 3D and Other Effects to Estimate Component CDpmin 9.3 Definitions 10. .xiv Contents 9.13 Total Aircraft Drag 9.15 Propeller-Driven Aircraft Drag 9.18. 314 10.19.7 Total Aircraft Drag at LRC 9. .18 Coursework Example: Civil Bizjet Aircraft 9. .1 Geometric and Performance Data 9. .19 Coursework Example: Subsonic Military Aircraft 9.14.10 Minimum Parasite Drag 9.19.1 Geometric and Performance Data of a Vigilante RA-C5 Aircraft 9.18. and Basic CF 9.6 Induced Drag 9.1 Overview 10. . .8.2 Dive Brakes and Spoilers Drag 9.4. . .19. and Basic CF 9.4 Summary of Parasite Drag 9.2 Computation of Wetted Areas. .7 Supersonic Drag Estimation 9.18.5 Miscellaneous Parasite Drags 9.9 Notes on Excrescence Drag Resulting from Surface Imperfections 9. .11 CDp Estimation 9. .19.17 Supersonic Drag 9. .

4 Propeller Performance: Blade Numbers 3 ≤ N ≥ 4 10.3. .1 Simple Straight-Through Turbojet Engine: Formulation 10.4. .10.10.10 Propeller 10.11.3 Propeller Performance: Practical Engineering Applications 10.7.5 Piston Engine 10.org/Kundu .6.4 Military Aircraft Thrust Reverser Application and Exhaust Nozzles∗ 10.6. .1 Subsonic Civil Aircraft Nacelle and Engine Installation 10.6 Formulation and Theory: Isentropic Case 10.2 Military Aircraft Intake Design∗ 10.2 Introduction 11.1 Civil Aircraft Intake Design: Inlet Sizing 10.1 Propeller-Related Definitions 10.3 Afterburner Engine: Formulation 10. 371 11.4 Sizing for Landing Distance ∗ 371 371 372 372 373 374 377 378 378 These sections are found on the Cambridge University Web site at www.2 Civil Aircraft Exhaust Nozzles 10.11 Engine-Performance Data 10.11.8 Intake and Nozzle Design 10.11.5 Propeller Performance at STD Day: Worked-Out Example 10.9.10.1 Sizing for Takeoff Field Length 11.10.4 Turboprop Engine 10.1 Civil Aircraft Thrust Reverser Application 10.cambridge.6.9.4.11. .2 Propeller Theory 10. .1 Overview 11. and Variant Derivative . . .1 What Is to Be Learned? 11.2 Turboprop Engine (Up to 100 Passengers Class) 10.7. .6.1 Piston Engine 10.7.3 Theory 11.2 Coursework Content 11.1.3 Turbofan Engine: Civil Aircraft 10.5 Simplified Representation of the Gas Turbine Cycle 10.Contents xv 10.1.3 Combat Aircraft Engine Installation 10.3 Sizing to Meet Initial Cruise 11.4 Turboprop Engine: Formulation 10.10.4 Turbofan Engine: Military Aircraft∗ 323 323 324 325 325 327 329 330 331 332 335 336 338 338 341 341 342 343 344 345 345 348 349 355 357 358 359 361 363 365 370 11 Aircraft Sizing.7 Engine Integration with an Aircraft: Installation Effects 10.3.3 Coursework Example of Civil Aircraft Nacelle Design 10.3.3.2 Sizing for the Initial Rate of Climb 11.2 Turboprop Integration to Aircraft 10.8.9 Exhaust Nozzle and Thrust Reverser 10.8.9. Engine Matching.9.2 Bypass Turbofan Engine: Formulation 10.

5.3 Static and Dynamic Stability 12. M) 12.7 Sizing Analysis: Military Aircraft∗ 11.6.5 Coursework Exercises: Military Aircraft Design (AJT)∗ 11.6.2 Initial Climb 11.1 Variants in the Family of Aircraft Design 11.3 Roll Plane 12.1 Single-Seat Variant in the Family of Aircraft Design∗ 11.6 Inherent Aircraft Motions as Characteristics of Design 12. . . .2 Coursework Content 12. .2 Directional Stability: Yaw Plane (Yaw Moment. .1.1 Longitudinal Stability: Pitch Plane (Pitch Moment.7 Spinning 12.4.6.2 Directional and Lateral Modes of Motion 12.4.xvi Contents 11.1 Takeoff 11.9 Future Growth Potential 379 379 380 380 381 381 381 381 381 381 381 382 383 384 384 384 385 12 Stability Considerations Affecting Aircraft Configuration . .3 Cruise – Military Aircraft∗ 11. . . .1.4.4. .3. .2 Initial Climb – Military Aircraft∗ 11.1 Overview 13. . .3 Cruise 11. .1 Overview 12.4 Summary of Forces. .6.5.1 Takeoff – Military Aircraft∗ 11.1 Pitch Plane 12. . Moments.2 Example: Civil Aircraft 11.6 Sizing Analysis: Civil Aircraft (Bizjet) 11. . . L) 12. .4 Theory 12. and Their Sign Conventions 12. . .4 Landing 11.3 Lateral Stability: Roll Plane (Roll Moment. .3.5. .4 Landing – Military Aircraft∗ 11. . .1.8 Design Considerations for Stability: Civil Aircraft 12.4. .2 Yaw Plane 12. . . N) 12. . 387 12.1 What Is to Be Learned? 13.org/Kundu . .and V-Tail Coefficients 12.3. . .3. . . 417 13.1 Short-Period Oscillation and Phugoid Motion 12.5.4.4. .1 What Is to Be Learned? 12.5 Current Statistical Trends for H. .8 Sensitivity Study 11.1.10 Active Control Technology: Fly-by-Wire 387 388 388 388 389 392 393 393 396 396 396 400 401 402 403 404 406 408 409 413 413 13 Aircraft Performance . . .cambridge. .9 Military Aircraft: Nonlinear Effects∗ 12.2 Introduction 12.2 Coursework Content ∗ 417 417 418 These sections are found on the Cambridge University Web site at www. .4 Coursework Exercises: Civil Aircraft Design (Bizjet) 11.7. . .

3 In the Postprocessor (Menu-Driven) 14.3 Military Turbofan (Advanced Jet Trainer/CAS Role – Very Low BPR) – STD Day∗ 13. .6.2 Takeoff Field Length (AJT) 13. .1.1.6 Specific Range (Bizjet) 13. .6.cambridge. . . . .5.4 Initial Maximum Cruise Speed 13. .4 Integrated Climb Performance (Bizjet) 13.6.Contents xvii 13.2 Landing Field Length (Bizjet) 13.3.3.4.7 Summary 13.2 In the Flow Solver (Menu-Driven) 14. .5 Payload Range Capability 13.1 Turbofan Engine (BPR < 4) 13. .4. . .3 Climb Performance Requirements (Bizjet) 13.5 Aircraft Performance Substantiation: Worked-Out Examples (Bizjet) 13. .3.1 Aircraft Speed 13.1 The Bizjet 13.2. .2 The AJT 418 419 420 420 422 422 423 425 425 429 430 435 435 437 437 442 443 444 446 446 447 448 451 451 452 456 457 458 458 459 461 462 14 Computational Fluid Dynamics . .1 Overview 14.4.2 Landing Performance 13.4. .org/Kundu .1 In the Preprocessor (Menu-Driven) 14.6.6 Fuel Requirements (AJT) 13.5 Initial High-Speed Cruise (Bizjet) 13.2 Turbofan Engine (BPR > 4) 13.3 Climb and Descent Performance 13.3 Current Status 14.5.6.4.7. .3.4 Approach to CFD Analyses 14.1 Mission Profile 13.6.2 Coursework Content 14.4 Derivation of Pertinent Aircraft Performance Equations 13.1 Takeoff 13. .7 Descent Performance (Bizjet) 13. . .5. .5.4.4. .5.1 What Is to Be Learned? 14.6 Aircraft Performance Substantiation: Military Aircraft (AJT) 13.5 Case Studies ∗ 464 465 465 465 466 468 470 470 470 471 This subsection is found on the Cambridge University Web site at www. . .4.5 Maximum Speed Requirements (AJT) 13.2 Introduction 14.8 Payload Range Capability 13.5.4 Turboprop Engine Performance 13.2 Introduction 13.7. .4 Climb Performance Requirements (AJT) 13.5.3 Establish Engine Performance Data 13.5. 464 14. . .3 Landing Field Length (AJT) 13.1 Takeoff Field Length (Bizjet) 13.

6 Hierarchy of CFD Simulation Methods 14.6 Aircraft Structural Considerations 15. . .2 Coursework Content 15.3 Emergency Power Supply 15.6.6 Military Aircraft Survivability Issues 15.1 Material Properties 15. .1 Aircraft Control Subsystem 15. . .7 Emerging Scenarios 15.2 Introduction 15.3 Coursework Overview 15.8. . .1 Environmental Issues 15.2 Materials and Structures 15.2. 476 15.2 Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Technique 14.6.8.1.9.3 Civil Aircraft Flight Deck 15.8 Aircraft Flight Deck (Cockpit) Layout 15.5 Aircraft Materials 15.4 Engine Exhaust Emissions 15.7 Pneumatic System 476 477 477 477 478 478 478 478 478 479 479 479 485 487 487 489 491 493 494 495 497 498 499 500 500 501 502 502 502 503 505 508 509 510 511 513 .3 Safety Issues 15.7 Voice-Operated Control 15.1. .4 RANS Equation Technique 14.6 Hydraulic Subsystem 15.2.8. .5.2.6. .5. .4 Head-Up Display 15.6.3 Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) Technique 14. .6 Hands-On Throttle and Stick 15.2. .8.2.6.3. . .7 Doors: Emergency Egress 15. .6.2.9. .8.9.xviii Contents 14.5 Euler Method Technique 14.1 Summary 15.3 Noise Emissions 15.1 Multifunctional Display and Electronic Flight Information System 15.9.2 Engine and Fuel Control Subsystems 15.5.5 Systems Architecture 15.2 Combat Aircraft Flight Deck 15.1 What Is to Be Learned? 15.9. .1 DNS Simulation Technique 14.9.9. .6.4 Avionics Subsystems 15.5 Helmet-Mounted Display 15. .6 Full-Potential Flow Equations 14.2 Material Selection 15.8. .7 Panel Method 14.1 Overview 15.7 Summary 472 473 473 473 473 473 474 474 475 15 Miscellaneous Design Considerations .4 Human Interface 15.5 Electrical Subsystem 15. .8.2. .9 Aircraft Systems 15.

1.10. . . .6. .3 Aircraft Cost and Operational Cost 16.2 Worked-Out Example of DOC: Bizjet 523 526 526 526 528 531 533 536 536 540 544 546 548 17 Aircraft Manufacturing Considerations . .2 Coursework Content 16. . . . .4 Category IV: Operator-Driven Design Considerations 17. . .7 Reliability and Maintainability 17. .Contents xix 15.1.4 Cost Formulas and Results 16. .8 Design Considerations 17.8 Utility Subsystem 15. . . . .9.3 Design for Manufacture and Assembly 17.9.1 Index for “Design for Customer” 17. . . .3 Category III: Management-Driven Design Considerations 17. . . .8.6 Tolerance Relaxation at the Wetted Surface 17. . .8.2 Coursework Content 17.2 Introduction 16.6. .2 Introduction 17.9 End-of-Life Disposal 15.1 Category I: Technology-Driven Design Considerations 17. .10.5 Six Sigma Concept 17. .9 “Design for Customer” 17.2 Military Aircraft Stealth Consideration∗ 15. 523 16.8.2 Cost-versus-Tolerance Relationship 17.2 Worked-Out Example ∗ 551 553 553 553 554 555 557 559 560 560 561 562 563 564 564 565 565 566 567 These sections are found on the Cambridge University Web site at www. .1 Nacelle Cost Drivers 16.3 Low Observable (LO) Aircraft Configuration∗ 15.8. .4 Aircraft Costing Methodology: Rapid-Cost Model 16. . . .9.1 Overview 16.cambridge.1 Formulation to Estimate DOC 16.10. .1 What Is to Be Learned? 16. . . .5.1 Overview 17. .5. . .9. .1.3 Methodology (Nose Cowl Only) 16. .org/Kundu .1 Military Emergency Escape∗ 15.2 Nose Cowl Parts and Subassemblies 16.4.1. .4.11 Emerging Scenarios 517 518 521 521 521 521 522 16 Aircraft Cost Considerations . .1 What Is to Be Learned? 17. .10 Military Aircraft Survivability∗ 15. 551 17. . .4.4 Manufacturing Practices 17.4.1 Sources of Aircraft Surface Degeneration 17.2 Category II: Manufacture-Driven Design Considerations 17.5 Aircraft Direct Operating Cost 16. . . .

. . . . 575 International Standard Atmosphere .10. and In-Service Domains 17. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 590 591 600 References Index ∗ These appendixes are on the Cambridge University Press Web site at www. . Process. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Operations. . . . . . . . . and Resource Hub 17. . . . . . . . . 577 Aerofoils∗ . .4 Design for Maintainability and 3D-Based Technical Publication Generation Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E 568 570 571 572 573 Conversion . . . . . . . .cambridge. . Manufacturing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Integration of CAD/CAM. . . . . .10. .10 Digital Manufacturing Process Management 17. . . .1 Product. . . . . . . . 580 Tire Data∗ . . . . . . . . . .3 Shop-Floor Interface 17.org/Kundu . 579 Case Studies . . .xx Contents 17. . . .

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