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Medieval Academy of America

Dante and Arnaut Daniel Author(s): Maurice Bowra Reviewed work(s): Source: Speculum, Vol. 27, No. 4 (Oct., 1952), pp. 459-474 Published by: Medieval Academy of America Stable URL: . Accessed: 20/12/2012 07:34
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He seems to of nieglect unduly those whom we most admire and to select for special honor otherswho make liltle appeal to us. Appel.whose lamentforBlacatz is a nioble of rmonumnentProvengal art. we in cannot expectDante to set forth it all his likes and dislikesill poetry. of Riberac figures to the enigmatic in the Dordogne.and at Convito.He realizedhis own debt -to troubadours the and appreciatedtheirachievement. Dante meets the Bolognese poet. J. points out the close resemblance betweenDante's conceptionof poetryat Purg.Of coursethe Divine Comedy not a workof literary criticisms.' Rudel by Iiis cult of an ideal lady.XXV1I OCTOBER 1952 No. 2. Henry 11. On the Mount of Purgatory. ed. Dante clearlyknowsand admireshis poetry.A JOURNAL OF MEDIAEVAL STUDIES VOL. is also true that Sordello.From Scriptto Print (Cambridge. 78. 184 ff. but and liberality.The and impressive Bertrande Born is indeed praised at De Vulgari Elopowerful quentia.2 and his poetryis It not mentioned. 11. 20 Dec 2012 07:34:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . p. whose work will live: 1 HI. 4 PEC ULUM DANTE AND ARNAUT DANIEL BY SIR MAURICE BOWRA is Comedy a salutary lesson on the fluctuations literarytaste. in theDivine Comedy is placed amongthe sowersofdiscord. as a preeminent II. TIIE treatmentwhich Dante gives to Provengal troubadoursin the Divine 459 This content downloaded on Thu. as an of eminentpractitioner words. and Marcabru by his pungentrealism.where the sexual sinnersare purged in flame.and plays a considerable part in the Purgatorio.but in it he pays much attentionto poetryand to some poets whom he admires. 15. poet of war.he seems to value him but though more for his connectionwith Mantua and Virgil and for his robust political is and opinions.who was a friend Richard Coeur de Lion in the last decade of of the twelfth century. fully but he displayedhis respectin a tributenot to one of the more familiarand but attractive and forbidding ArnautDaniel.1945). 592-54 and that of Bernartin Poem XV. Guido Guinizelli.I.and sees in him his master. he because he set the Young King against his father. Neitherin the Divine Comedy elsewhere nor does he mentionBernart de Ventadouror JaufreRudel or Marcabru. though Bernartmightwell have appealed to him by the pure qualityof his love-poetry. forhis courtesy iv. is praised at De Vulgari Eloquentia. XXviii. Chaytor. xxiv. 2 Inf.

' disse.Guinizellipointsto anotherfigure: 'O frate.El. So.xxvi.'questich'ioti cerno Col dito. in than in of Whether verse loveor prose romaunt He surpassed and letthefools all.Dante speaks to Arnaut. Vida de Sancto Domingo. forhis iv.115-19O) said 'O brother. rcs 4 De Vulg.who repliesin eightlinesof resplendent poetryin the Provengaltongue.'5 Arnaut. Guinizellisays that Arnaut is a betterworkmanin his mothertongue of Provengalthan he. uses it.Very little indeed is knownof the 'prose di romanzi.prefers. Guinizelli. 10. Arnaut is praised alike forhis 'versid'amore' and his 'prose di romanzi. that Arnaut surpassesall otherpoets in verses of love and tales of romance.and is superiorto 'him of Limoges. III.'that is. II.'(Purg. and therecan be no doubt about the main import of the words.the beloved masterwho knewwhat poetry ought to be. contend WhomakehimofLimoges more of account.'ed addit6un spirto innanzi.althoughprosa can be used forwork in verse.About them we have only a few hints. Gonzalo de Berceo. when he distinguishes what is written'prosaice' fromwhat is writtein 'metrice.whompublic opinion. forhis skillful of the vernacular i.' (Binyon) in Such praise is not unexpected.since Dante praises Guinizelli in De Vulgari Eloquentia. which. e Versi d'amore prose romanzi di e Soverchi6 tutti.5: 'Quiero faruna prosa en romanpaladino. 9.quantodurer'a l'usomoderno.In his Discor8isul Poema Eroico 46 Torquato Tasso 3 4 71 in Italian. he must be heard with respectfulattention.' On the whole it is probable that theywere storiesin prose.460 Dante and ArnautDaniel 'Li dolcidetti vostri.wroteproseromances. to Guiraut de Borneil.' he. when through Dante's verse Guinizellispeaks on literary matters. So longas modern is notlet die. 'Fu miglior fabbro parlar del materno. Afterthis tribute. Che. since. when he distinguishes betweenwriting prose' and 'en risme.'The two kinds of work are clearlyseparate and even contrasted.'4 'en or Dante himself. 1. use and in Convito.112-4) 'Yourownsweet ditties.xxvi.' This content downloaded on Thu.'(Binyon) This personis ArnautDaniel.'he whois singled by in My finger.holdingmoreby rumorthan by truth.' pointed a spirit front) (he to 'Wrought better themother-tongue I. Faranno cariancorai loroinchostri.After listeningto Dante's praise of him. by the Spanish poet. lasciadirglistolti Che quel di Lernosi credon ch'avanzi.'(Purg. use The inkthatthey were written shallenrich.we may conclude.Brunetto Latini.. rightunderstanding love in his poem 'Al cor gentil ripara sempre amore.3this is not how Dante's teacher.' of Guinizelliwas near to Dante's heart. 20 Dec 2012 07:34:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

127 the strength his protestations. But we may doubt whethersuch notionswere possible in the twelfth whenArnautwrote. P. and 168-169.lEventhosewho have a taste forProvengalverseare not usually attractedby Arnaut. 8 The poems have been well edited by if it were impossibleto adinire him forhis love-poems. since Luigi Pulci refersto such a work three times in his MorganteMaggioreand attributesit to Arnaldo. at least shows he that in his time a Lancillotto was attributedto Arnaut. Lavaud (Toulouse.' Eighteencompletepoemis survive.Yet Arnauthas his own 6 Perhaps Dante drawson the Lancillotto Inf. he feelsthat 'Arnauthas nothingof that idealismwhichwas the essence of the new stylein Italy.and the comparison betweenGuido or Guirautand Arnautis on the comparative merits of theirpoetry. 1883) and by R. and we can judge Dante's opinion ofhis workonlyby the extant'versid'amnore. Though I disagreewithKer's treatment of Arnaut.And here a problemarises.But much depends on what we mean by idealism. A.Whatever his reasons may have been. his likingfor in images of winter.Ker findsnothingof the sort in Arnautand complainsthat his wordsare harshand ugly and that he has 'a curiousviolent emphasis.' and secondlyhe is unable to understand Dante's admiration forArnaut'sstyle. 7 xxv.7Of course this may not be Arnaut Daniel. Guido Guinizelliand Arnaut Daniel'9 shows the difficulties whicha sensitivescholarmay findwhen he tries to see Arnaut throughDante's eyes. They are lost. of course. v. It is.. 1929).' of iKer is in fact disturbed thatDante shouldchooseforadmiring attention poet who has neither grace a the of Bernart de Ventadournor the livelinessof Guillaume of Aquitaine.Dante certainly thinksthat Arnaut's verses are at least as eminentas his romances.Assumingthat in the De VulgariEloquentiaDante demands a special kind of verbal euphony.theyare the productof a longprocess century of development whichculminatedonly in Dante's time. 13 ff. 20 Dec 2012 07:34:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . at and Par. xxvii.W. To his questions Ker findsno answer. true that Arnaut has not Dante's mature conceptionof a man's love fora woman as a celestialpower whichbringshim nearerto God. Dante clearly admired Arnautas a poet.'whichcomes out 'in his harsh use of monosyllables.8 and since the shortest 35 linesand the has longest 109. There the scanty evidence forArnaut's romancesends. Ile is perplexedby two problems. Ker's paper on 'Dante.First. I am greatlyindebtedto both.A Arnaut may also have writtena Rinaldo. 1910). pp. 115.79-80. is a confession defeatand despairand at variance It of with what Dante says both in the Purgatorio and elsewhere. 9 Farm and Stylein Poetry(London.but concludes by hintingthat afterall Dante must have admiredArnautforhis romances. HIe has not even such a notionof honorableand chaste devotion as we findin Sordello. but it is at least possible that it is.Dante and ArnautDaniel 461 says that Arnaut Daniel wrote of Lancelot. and though Tasso is not a final on authority the authorship a workof the twelfth of century.he deservesgratitudeand respectfor raisingimportant questions and settingthem in theirhistoricalcontext. This content downloaded on Thu. we can see what kind of love-poetry Arnaut wrote. xvi. Canello (HTalle. Ker claims that Arnaut has no idealism in love and assumes that this lack should disqualifyhim for Dante's admiration. 319-828.

withinits own limitsand in its own way.. quandla remire. misol so's tresors. Non a tal briuc'al corpluslargadotz No-mfassaestanc d'amor. . . lo parlar la votz enansque digarenqueus tire. knows the ideas of Provengal courtlylove. E jes d'aissono-ill falsplazentiers sui Que maisla volnonditzla bocal cors. . idealistic. whichis.bos faitze belsdemors. joven. per Al cor. De lieis. Vuoillperdre Ma chansos precque nous sia ja'n seraiestiers jauzire! ni pliu. . sobriers. Ancmais.perDieu. aiga que l'engrois. This content downloaded on Thu. .His typicalapproachmay be seen fromPoem XV. las! tantmalm'a comors! ris Perol'afanm'esdeportz. nom fora ni breus cortz Nuilsjauzimens devinar. rotz desplazens Tant a de si totzfaitz De lieisno crerensde bensia a dire.. et Qu'enlieislos volcDieus triar assire. digz. e Gen1'ensignet Cortesia la duois. elaborates them. qu'a' Dic trop?Eu non. .nom plac tanttreps bortz. vauz ni plansni puois Qu'euno vau tantchams. .no s presenta fors. ab C'una de pretz lieisnois pot egar.tantl'ai. lo Car si voletz grazir sonel-smotz Pauc prezaArnautz que plassao que tire. Quel sieussolatzes delsdes autres Ai! si no l'ai. Qu'ensola lieisveiet aug et esgar. . Beutat. which of is. bonascortz Ben ai estata maintas Mas sai ab lieistrobpromaisque lauzar: e bos Niesura senet autres mestiers.que dire. e Bella. Cui encubic prim motz. ses per Que jes Rozers.d'amor et es Car mosvolers tantferms entiers ni de C'anc no s'esduis celliei s'estors al vezere puois.sol lieisnonsia representative his art that it may be quoted in full: quem sortz Solssui qui sai lo sobrafan sofren sobramar. cui * . indeed. Qu'enun sol corstrobaissibos aips Ni resal cortantde joi nom poc dar Cumfetz lausengiers aquel.462 Dante and ArnautDaniel of conception love.donanc feinz No s'esbrugic. . 20 Dec 2012 07:34:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . . e jois. . . .cui precqu'o vuoilla Que ja perminono sabraestiers de Sil cors. . Joise solatzd'autrampar false bortz. sui Car en pensan de lieislecse glotz: Ai Dieus. D'autrasvezersui secse d'auzirsortz.and puts his He own impresson them. Qu'adesses lieisdic a liciscochos Pois quan la vei nonsai.

plains and hills I shall not find United in one beingall such things. Above all others'meritsare her dues. But if my music yourapproval brings. if I have her not! 'Tis my despair! joy Yet in my torment and bliss are twiined. Both record the same stunning effect of love at first sight.whose Nature has measure. By Courtesyshe's fashionedand designed. Let her. All moods ungraciousfarfromher she flings. Arnaut praises the courtesy which formed his lady. this my utterancestings. God. Is that too much? My faith.unshakenand complete.and giftsto mate. to a My thought. For her alone I listen. No one in gossipprate Shall noise abroad what secretwealthwe share. daintygluttonl. Arnautcares not who praise or who despise it! 463 This is a fair sample of what Arnaut means by love. the same pride in the unique qualities of the beloved. Since the first When I am farfromher. springs to Yet stronger my heartthe brimming it. the same attribution to her of all virtues. But! . My love forher. it. No flattering. Know of a heartthat too much love subdues. thoughtdenies it.wit. fromher glancesto surprise Come hurtling Joyfromanotherbastard is and vain. Her worth'sfromGod.dales. this clings. and shows that his outlook is in some ways like Dante's.deaf to theirrefrain. Her virtue'sperfect. if I get no more! Nothingoutvies it! In dance and joust I'll not delightagain.Dante and ArnautDaniel I rushing I'm blind to speech upsprings. The joys she gives to me fail not nor wane. Beauty and grace. at least in the Vita Nuova. Dante refersto This content downloaded on Thu.look. No otherwoman's charmswithhersI rate.unravelmy hid clues. Ah. and muse.highactions and proud air.I pray. Has neverturnedaside nor looked elsewhere my sightof her inflamed mind. if not in the Divine Comedy. When she is near. Out withthe tongueand voice that would devise it! I pray you may not thinkmy song unkind. 20 Dec 2012 07:34:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . In her I findto sing morepraises. wants her morethan my wordsdeclare. For nothingcan my heart withjoy suffuse Compared withher. Nothingcan disguiseit. falsepraises I repeat. Though the Rhone floodwithwatersunconfined. My hleart On nelds.who endureexcess of pain. who guides and glorifies Althoughto many a goodlycourtI've been. For nothingwill she learn in words' debate Unless my silentheartreveal its care.she's too lady.

8-14) sweetdesire. Arnautdefies on who the scandal-mongers gossipabout him. Frank. anticipates to and more than once refers it in the effects it the basis of love's ennobling Vita Nuova: E qual soifrisse starla vedere di a Diverria cosa. quei prova sua virtute. Dante recordsan occasionwhenhe whichreachedBeatrice about him (10).o si morria: nobil E quando trova alcun che degnosia Di vederlel. parcedors. I muse. I feela mostdeliciouspain. themnot. Or again: D'amor mi prenpenssanlo fuocs El1 desiriers doutz e coraus. loyal. the Love makeshis own in thissimilitude. humble. Tricksand falsehood wither Till truelovertendthemwell. Whereoneverygood fruit If one pick themfaithfully. grows. E1 mal es saborosqu'ieu sint Eil flamasoaus on plus m'art: C'amors enquierlos sieus d'aital semblan.merciful.Dante prideshimself doingso (4). ni Mas si l romptrefans culvertz Peris troleials lo sagre.ci6 che gli da salute. Arnautsays suffered fromevil rumors that in his lady's presencehe becomesspeechless. e Car a sa cortnotz orguoills val blandres. moreit burns. E si l'umilia. Sweeterthe flame. (XI. E de proesa us estancs. them. 9-16) (xiii. Love's the key to all trueworth And a shootof excellence. S'es qui leialmenlos cuoilla. merceians. In many ways the cult characteristics. oflove as Arnautand Dante observeit has common he than this wheen tells how love for a beautiful Arnaut goes even further womanbreedsvirtuesin men: Amores de pretzla claus. wins. fis. Arnautclaims that he will keep his love secret. Verais.464 Dante and ArnautDaniel Beatrice's 'unspeakablecourtesy'when she salutes him (3). Qu'un non delis gel ni niula Mentreques noirisel bel tronc.che ognioffesa (19) This content downloaded on Thu.Dante tells how in love his body 'many timesfell like a heavy lifelessthing' (11).truthful. Chb gli addivien. Frost and fogdestroy Whilstthe good trunknurtures them. 20 Dec 2012 07:34:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . A penetrating. For at his courtpridefailsand kindness he Dante. Don naissontuichli bon fruich. who makes WhenArnautsays that love induceshumility.and love's fire seizes me. oblia.francs.

(D. De sai Savoia Plus bella nos noiris. (III. She'll not annoy Her friend who worships her. Rossetti) of Or Ogni dolcezza. as for classical antiquity. nor do his learned parallels always make his position clearer. a type of guilty passion: Ges non es croia Cella cui soi amis.are raised above. who were for the Middle Ages.through her. but seems at times to oscillate between protestations of purity and something more dubious. 42-8) This content downloaded on Thu.or else die.'tis then her powerattains its proof.we are not so comfortable when he draws a comparison with Paris and Ihelen. Ond'e laudato chi prima la vide. No greaterjoy Did Paris stir. Making his heartstrongforhis soul's behoof With the fullstrength meek humility. 32). is not far renmoved from what Arnaut says in some of his poems. When one deserving be raised so high to Is found. G. By speech of hersinto the mind are brought And who beholds is bless'edoftentimes. Rossetti) Dante's view of love's ennobling and inspiring influence. Ma ciascuna per lei riceveonore. a famous case of pure devotion derived from Book X of Ovid's Metamorphoses. Arnaut however is not always so idealistic and high-minded as this. Tals m'abelis Don ieu plus ai de joia Non ac Paris D'Elena. ogni pensieroumile Nasce nel core a chi parlar la sente. as put forward in the Vita Nuova. (D. Who loved Helen of Troy. This side Savoy No one is lovelier. (921) Humblenessand the hope that hopethwell. though he may claim that his love for his lady is like that of Meleager for Atalanta (XI. Rossetti) Or La vista sua face ogni cosa umile. Her I prefer To all. cel de Troia. G. but hers. G. Thus. (D. 20 Dec 2012 07:34:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . E no fa sola s6 parerpiacente.Dante and ArnautDaniel 465 While any who enduresto gaze on her Must eitherbe ennobled. (27) Merely the sightof her makes all thingsbow: Not she herself alone is holier Than all.

it pleaseThee. In 'L'aura amara' Arnautbeginswith a description of springbut of not or winter. At ii.In Poern XV the fifth of consummation hlis passion. and this image of his lady's coldnessevokes not complaints recriminations but protestations fidelity of and a confident assertionthat nothingcan shake him since he gloriesaniddelightsin the pains of such a love. is also there.but as a loverof poetryhe was did not always more charitable. 'L'aura amara.but he liked it nevertheless.thatmyladyand I if we Lie in thechamber where heldourfirst For (xii. faras poets are concerned.s1Iplatz. even thoughhe hardly dares to think of it. descobra Que-lseu bel corsbaisanrizen lum E quel remir contralI de la lampa. grant Whodidstforgiveness To blindLonginus histrespasses.'of whichthe openingstanza sets the tone and introduces mainl themes: This content downloaded on Thu.As a moralist Dante was implacable. thisgreat I wait.and after it we are not surewherehe reallystands.'Al the poco giorno. Andcontemplate bythelantern's her an Arnaut. is in good companiy. joy I Whensmiling. que jassam Voilla.' Nor is it impossibleto surmisewhy he made this choice.466 Dante and ArnautDaniel We mightargue that Arnaut regardshimselfas superiorto Paris because his love is pure. for Grant. if not ambiguous. Proven?alexamplesforarms. ArnautDaniel.Nor. In Poem XII he hintsthat he has enjoyedit in the past and hopes to enjoy it again in the future: Dieus lo chausitz.and the piece of Arnaut's which he selects formentionis Poem IX. and rightBertrande Arnautalways high-minded.was not so consistent idealistin love as Dante might demand. 33-40) Mostgracious God.qu'ieue midonz on En la chambra amduinosmandem don Uns ricsconvens tan granjoi atendi. Dante's views on Arnaut may be gatheredin greaterdetail fromthe De Vzulgari Eloquentia. A similar imageryand a not very dissimilarspiritmay be found in Dante's sestina.He must have seen that Arnaut's love-poetry and satisfythe highest standards of morality. outspokento leave no doubt about the natureof his At timeshe is sufficiently stanza suggeststhat he wishes for the physical desires. but the comparisonis piquant. about love Arnautwas the greatest. assoutas Per cui foron lo Las faillidas retzLongis cecs.anidthat is no doubt why Dante put him among the carnal sinnersin since Guinizelli So he Purgatory. 20 Dec 2012 07:34:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in seems clear. thoughtthat of the poets who had written anidafterall therewas enoughin commonbetweentheirtwo outlooksto justify such a conclusion. and mindedness rectitudo are respectively Guiraut de Borneil. kissing shallsee herform light. when he classifiesthe subjects treated by eminent his poets in theirown vernaculars. 2.

204 ff. Arnaut is "excelsus. images and is to therefore worthy be called lofty. derived ultimatelyfrom Latin grammarians like Priscian. e2Ibid. 19-3). Rossetti) Dante is not so confident Arnaut. still continuesto love a lady at a respectful he distance.' Perhaps he of feltthat this was the kind of poem whicha man shouldwritewhen. it (D. venustus.. ii. suggest that he has learnedsomething from Arnautand especiallyfromthe bold masculinity 'L'aura amara. no less thanhis unusuallyastringent temper. 'constructio est dictionumcongruain '1 orationeordinatio. Venustusseems to have been applied especially to the order and structure of wordsin a periodand was traditionally connectedwithdignitas.thoughtheyadd something our information. Gr. Faral. Che parlae sente comefosse donne.At ii. 10. 'Sols sui qui sai lo sobrafanque-m sortz. accordingto Geoffroi Vinsaufin his Documentum Arte de de Versificatoria. The othertwo references Arnautin the De VulgariEloquentiaare less imto to At portant.noris his imagery straightforward. The example taken to illustratethese qualities is Poem XV. L Artspoe'tiques XIIe et du XIIIe siee (Pans. p.' dui E. The second passage on Arnaut is more technical. lasso!ed al bianchir colli.It has undoubtedly vivid choice ofwordsarrangedin firm a and it is diversified with originaland impressive expressivesentences. and of Therewhere see no colour thegrass. in Ad Herenas nium." a quality which Geoffroi associateswith the amplification and elaborationof them by metaphorsand perIf sonifications. 20 Dec 2012 07:34:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 16. de' Quandosi perde color lo nell'erba. The word constructio. 288. viii.'2 we apply these adjectives to Arnaut's Poem XV. is used of words when they are 'placentia' or pleasing. 18. we can see theirrelevance." ii. G. Si 6 barbato nelladurapietra. ix.Nor is theremuch doubt oftheir meaning. 467 To thedimlight large and circle shade of I haveclomb. Dante treats 10 Inst. and excelsuscome from similar ancientsourcesby muchthe same route.thoughhis devotionis unrequited.10 was used by technicalwriters the twelfth of with reference the construction sentencesand versesaccordingto century to of acceptedrulesand may almostbe translated'style'in the sense of the choiceand of arrangement words. Finally.' which we have quoted in full. pp. It has so takenrootin thehardstone Which talksand hearsas though werea lady.Dante foundit agreeable. we in Natheless longing my losesnotitsgreen. 13. This content downloaded on Thu. E '1miodisiopertnoncangiail verde.Sapida. Whateverothersmay have thoughtof Arnaut'sstyle. his as so but themeof a wintry love and his sense that he cannot get away fromit. 5-6.Dante and ArnautDaniel Al pocogiorno al grancerchio ed d'ombra Son giunto.The adjectives sapidus. to thewhitening thehills. Dante discusses constructio chooses Arnaut's kind as being 'sapidus et venustus etiam et and excelsus' ('savoury and charmingand even lofty').

since. sicut cum we If dicitur"Verba habes perpexa.So Geoffroi Matthieu de Vendomne says that call adjectives 'perpexa' since 'per pexionenidesignamusornatum.whateverits Dante.comerein verbo. The metaof phor in both cases comes fromhair. suggeststhat it appealed to his sense of structure Since Dante's remarkson Arnaut'spoetryprove that he studied it withconwe siderablecare and that his highopinionof it was no merepassingfancy.each stanza as a wholerhymes witheveryother. he calls respectively which 'pexa' ('combed') and 'hirsuta' ('shaggy').whichhas. and that he himself to the kind of stanza which does not have its own separate. The first of a poem."l4 the end of his PoetriaNova he sums up the help whichlie has givento intending poetsby comparing to the use ofa it comb: Ecce dedipecten. in limitations may be. may of Arnaut's alleged rhymes. p.15 '3 Faral.whether a garmentor the head. and was in the twelftth when Geoffroi Vinsaufand to literary de familiar theory century. 'Lo fermvoler qu'el cor m'intra' was surelythe model forhis own 'Al poco giorno. In his discussionof the rightwordsforpoetryDante to attaches importance 'grandiosavocabula' and divides them into two classes. it has a logical and mathematical completeness. when we may be At said 'polire. 13. withhis love of formality. In this he classes together two different is since the same set of words the sestina.such as the vocabularywhich ask what he thought W. even thoughtheremay be internal rhymes withina stanza.' uses it in 'Al poco giorno. can also be applied to an apt use of metaphor.468 Dante and ArnautDaniel of of and says that of the construction a stropheand the disposition its rhymes. P.'13 the image can be applied to certainwords. that Arnaut uses this in one kind is 'continua usque ad ultimnum progressive..' and his carefuldescription the second kind of poem and completeness. This content downloaded on Thu. He used the not sestina. it is true. as Dante observesat ii.does not explicitly praise eitherthe sestinaor this other kind of verse. 20 Dec 2012 07:34:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . onlyfor'Al poco giorno'but of for 'Amor. use it to describeclasses of words. and in each. p. self-contained its but is connectedthrough rhymes withall the otherstanzas systemof rhymes formsof poem. 'nulla rithimorum habitudoattenditur.whichmay well be Arnaut'sinvention.'It was almost inevitablethat should admirethe sestina. Ker foundso ugly.'He refers nearlyall his poems.. si sintpexarelucent quo tam Carmina prosaequammetra.' For this he quotes Arnaut'sPoem IX. 'Si'm forsAmorsde joi donat tan is clear that he had a for predilection it. Dante seems to go out of his way to mentionit because Arnaut's Poem XVIII. cit. 286. but is used at the ends of lines throughout. as Dante says. strictly speaking. that the first of versefixestheshape and lengthofthewholepoem.' to Since twelveof Arnaut'spoems conform this scheme."id est "ornata". op.. The secondform poem is.tu vedi ben. '4 16 Ibid. commonin Arnaut'sworks.p. 289. 9257.In it. Ibid. It too has the advantage that it binds the separate stanzas in and makes themall contribute a united to together a progressive continuity effect.but we can hardlydoubt that he approved of both.

20 Dec 2012 07:34:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . joy dothdeign which I prayyoubytheGoodness of To guideyouto thesummit thisstair (Binyon) Bethink in due seasonofmypain. E veijauzenlo jorn.17 thishe may well have had Arinaut mindand have ultimate and. 17 De El.Dante and ArnautDaniel 469 kindofpolish some to of use theorists pexaas a word praise denote If theliterary senseforwhat shouldbe in theyuse hirsuta an condemnatory or elegance. and 'shaggy' in In grandeur. as as him. p. too verse readily worth in of he their so effects.Dante classesmonosyllables 'shaggy' from something learned Dante saw balps. request or I haveno power willfrom to hide. usessuchwords letz. is nowusedofthedivine (v. Vulg. 22) 16 Ibid.' vos 'Yourcourteous pleasesmeso. not thatwordsshould be lays de expressly dowln avoided. leu sui Arnaut. denan. she from is on hisjourney. ii. Dante revolutionizesby claiming both'combed' thetraditional to in equally an contribute are since they words needed a fullstyle. in thepoetry Arnaut recognizes suithis rougher theright place.. these poetry tionand understandinghim. 7. which the from words of maybe gauged style Dante's appreciation Arnaut's himspeakin theDivineComedy: he makes deman. de Sovenha a temps ma dolor. you and I am Arnald.' you (Purg. in seemto indicate of accumulation words metre the ment shaggy This goat'swool. aquellavalor per Que vosguidaal somde l'escalina. cortes 'Tan m'abellis vostre voilla voscobrire. Arnaut both he and thatto createa reallyexpressive 'tragic'language mustemploy and elements breakthe softness ease intowhichItalian to and smooth rough words to he rough chooses Just in hisownpoetry often as falls. ni-me Qu'ieuno-me puesc. Aravosprec.xxvi.. Ker complains. que vei Consiros la passadafolor. and on I think mypastfolly see thestain. 'Valor. but manner assimilated his characteristic fully eightlinesnotonlyis Arnaut's he Words which has used to purpose. are up phrases picked and turned a special he which uses in a lovesreceive newsignificancePurgatory.' ofhisearthly Dante which guides power ofhislady'sworth 33).16 was a garment from that on theprinciple no onemakes festal that it and view. 154. I weepand singing go.Matthieu Vend6me hirsuta shouldtake care 'ne ex penuriaornatus and that the writer 'hirsuta' of in poverty ornamendicare' ('lestfrom videatur verborum aggregatio metro beggarliness'). and mutz. This content downloaded on Thu. 'jauzern' transferred thejoy which giveshim(xv. plore vau cantan. Andviewwith theday I hopeto know.qu'esper.140-7) to are to testimony Dante'sadmirawords given Arnaut another The Provengal In for and theradiant of speaks itself. as becs. 6.

and his latterpassage. who I am Arnaut. Poi s'ascosenelfocoche1iaffina fire.xxiv.So too when Arnautgoes back into the flamewhichis his punishment: 148) (Purg. In the De Vulgari EloquentiaDante seems to class Arnaut and Guiraut de Borneil as equally eminentand to contradictwhat he says in the Purgatorio.'of whichhe once accused those who think love painful (vii. 52-4) (Purg. 49.he showshow well he knowsand appreciateshim.que plore vau cantan. In fourteen his eighteensurviving favorite to by poems Arnaut refers himself name in the thirdperson and at one place him speaks muchas Dante nmakes speak here: qu'amasI'aura Ieu sui Arnaut. 34). mi ed noto. whichfifteen to a whichGuirautshowshimself seriouscriticofmoraland politicalissues. I am onewhohearkens when into Love prompteth.chequando Amnor spira. For him the the poetryof love or a poet who excelledin it as of the highest to poetryof love is superior any otherkind. Dante nmay his which for may reflect distasteforan enthusiasm contempt Guiraut'sadmirers more comhe had once shared but now abandoned.' one ofhis of is mannerisms given a new point. xiii. 43-5) E nadicontra suberna. In the De VulgariEloquentiaDante claims not that Guiraut as is comparableas a poet to Arnautbut thathe is preeminent a poet ofrectitudo. 8. 21. xv. a quelmodo vo Ch'e' dittadentro significando.xxvi. surviveand in of In this he no doubt refers Guiraut'ssirventes. E chatzla lebreab lo bou (x.But we as Dante would regardthe poetryof rectitudo equal to may well doubt whether class. 'folor. But the matteris slightly plicated than that. When Dante turnsArnaut'sphrases and ideas against his earlier outlook.470 Dante and ArnautDaniel to his joy in the hope of salvation. reapthewind with ox the Andchasetheleveret the Andswim against current.since he ascribesto love the motive powerofhis own creativeness: Io misonun. backin therefining Thenhe shrank (Binyon) we cannot but connectthe presentoccasion with those passages (vi. 20 Dec 2012 07:34:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . VIII. is now applied to his own faults in his previous So existence. too whenhe says 'Jeusui Arnaut. It is true that Guirautis a notable poet of love and that his important This content downloaded on Thu. for of boast nowbecomesa proclamation repentance a What was before conceited sins and of gratitudefordivine mercy. for where the popular preference Guiraut is condemned. I putthought word and he within. (Biniyon) After modewhich dictates the because love is a more Dante places the poet of love above the poet of rectitudo subject. 33) in whichArnautdeclareswhat pleasurehe findsin the fires of love.When he wrote the well have changed his ideas about Guiraut.

and Dante would have knownof them. my That hundreds them I Hereflame bear.49-54Dejeanne) Ab que sai la flam' I My meanings So richly ply of strike aim. A poem in alternate verses between him and Raimbaut d'Orangearguesthe case forand againstclear poetry.he changedhis views Though Guirautbegan as an advocate of the trobar and his allegiance. They nmight himself: es Per o majestres de totz sos Ab qu'unpauc esclarzis motz. Though Raimbaut's answeris not a defence ifnobodyunderstands it an ofthetrobar clus.The exponentsof trobar Theirclaims not alwaysbe enoughand that a new depthis gainedby complexity. is certainly attack on the leu: trobar This content downloaded on Thu. of considerations a moretheoretical of poetry. more his clear. If he butmakes words understand. fidence by of Dante's preference Arnautto Guirautmay have been strengthened other views The two men held different character.thereis also someclus saw that plain statementmay thingmore serious.ofwhichhe was not an adherent. (xii. perhaps because on the whole they lack Arnaut's boundingconand inventive artistry. Andwater there. when Peire d'Auvergnesays of lusions.Dante and ArnautDaniel 471 relicsof Provengal and most charming is alba or dawn-song one of the freshest seem to have touchedDante as poetry. were denied by some distinguished lasted almost intoDante's time.The advocates of the trobar to understandand liked to dress theirthoughtsin ambiguityand esotericalas pass it offhumorously.Guirautdefendsit on the groundthat thepoet's onlyrewardis to reacha largepublicand thisis impossible what he says. whichbegan in poets. escantir. Withwhich myself Marcabru does: De pluzors sens Sui plese prens chauzir. whichmay roughly distinguished clear and trobar and the trobar on clus pridedthemselves beinghard obscurepoetry. few For very them Or theymighttake a pride in theirabilityto puzzle theirreaders. 82-4 Zenker) He's thebestpoetanywhere. 20 Dec 2012 07:34:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . put If thereis an elementof vanityand display in these claims. the twelfth century. clus. (xvi. per De centcolors meills sai Fog porti Et aigualai. The Provengalpoets of the disputedoftenand eagerlyabout the comparativemeritsof the century twelfth as be leu clus. and the controversy.But neitherit nor his many love-songs Arnaut's did. om Qu'a penasnulhs los enten.

Your way of speech has such obscurity. No vulgarfare Are daintiesrare. ch'uom pensa. after asserting that a man must have regard for his condition and nature and that only a fool believes himself to be the sole repository of truth. Per so prez'ommais aur que sal E de chanes totatretal. and makes him admit that his manner has been misguided: This content downloaded on Thu. C'anc gransviltatz No fo denhtatz. God set its natureupon each degree of And made disparity wits and sense. Raimbaut believes in art for art's sake and the primary claims of quality. i. and ascribes his practice to vanity. While Guiraut seeks popularity. when Bonagiunta of Lucca accused Guido Guinizelli of being unnecessarily obscure and wrote a sonnet attacking him for abandoning the pleasing manner of love-poetry. As salt is less esteemedthan gold. as there are many kinds of birds. so are there also of poets: Dio in ciascun grado sua natura mise. no dee dire. Cotant' 6 scura vostraparladura. Me no chal si tan no s'espan. He compares his work to a light in dark corners when it ought to be like the sun. (LVIII. Guinizelli replies with another sonnet in which. CGuinizelli's reply to Bonagiunta is in effectno more than an appeal for freedom and tolerance and a polite way of saying that he has no intention of modifying his practice. and he certainly had his own view of the comparative merits of the two poets.if I give of my best And set my thoughts out worthily. let So. In subtletyyou so surpassall men That none is foundwho can interpret you. him speak it not.' This criticism he elaborates and explains in the Purgatorio when he discusses poetry with Bonagiunta. he says that Bonagiunta's style is 'not curial but merely municipal. 28-35Kolsen) Guiraut. E' fe' disparisennie movimenti: E pert cio. he argues that. In De Vulgari Eloquentia.472 Dante and ArnautDaniel Giraut. 20 Dec 2012 07:34:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . In particular he tells him that he has become so subtle as to be unintelligible: Ma si passate ogn'om di sottiglianza Che non si trova gia chi ben vi spognia. A similar controversy took place a little later in Italy.sol que l melhsaparelh E di'ades e trai'enan. Of poetrythe same I hold. Praise fromthe crowdis naughtto me. Of this controversyDante was probably aware. 13. what a man thinks.

If we relate this to the controversy between him and Guinizelli. the Monk on Montaudan says of him: A sa vidabe nonchantet. 47-51. so Dante inisists that..'he showswhat he thinksof his styleand wherehe places him in the about clear and obscurepoetry. 4.58-692) 'For now I see well how the pen withyou Follows him who dictatethclose behind.he mustuse the agrees withthe excellence 'tragicstyle. Che delle nostrecertonon avvenne. I words wind Rare. 1934).'in whichthe elevationof the constructio of the words. (i.19and this accounts forthe discrepancy baut.El.. 20 Dec 2012 07:34:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . xxiv.' ( When he praises Arnaut forhis use of words and says that he is and virtue.he says nothing in favor of the trobarclus and its adherents but gives his support to a middle position between the two extremes.. Arnaut belongsto the controversy middle party and is on the rightlines because he aims at majesty of language to withoutbeingtoo obscure. the trobarric. It is however characteristic of Dante's independence that.18 'excelsus. He resembles Raimbaut d'Orange. II.' else (Binyon) 473 Dante's criticism of Bonagiunta is that he did not speak from the heart but in a conventional manner. brunse teinz motz entrebesc (xxii. we see what Dante's position was. Just as Raimbaut claims that he makes every word significant: Cars. He regards undue simplicity as false simplification and takes his stand against it. Il thoughtful thought . 19A. 9-20 Appel) Pensius-pensanz.ifa poet is to singof the highestsubjects.darkand coloured .Arnaut. And he who seeks to look beyondcan find No difference 'twixtone and the otherstyle. which sought to secure a grand style without being too esoteric.. II. 44-5 Klein) 8 De Vuly. Jeainrov. though he disapproves of undue simplification. La Po6sie lyrique des troubadiours (Paris. who rejected the trobarleu as commonplace and the trobar clus as unintelligible and placed his hopes on a third kind. We may conclude that he would be equally against the trobarleu as Guiraut de Borneil advocated it.Nor is this contrary the facts.Dante and ArnautDaniel 'lo veggioben come le vostrepenne Di retroal dittatorsen vanno strette. 7.For him this is the only style forsuch themesas salvation. Which our pens trulywerenot wontto do. . a oltresi mette E qual piCu riguardare Non vede piC dall'uno all' altrostilo. Mas us falsmotzc'omnonenten. This content downloaded on Thu.For Dante. was an exponentof the trobar If and betweenwhat othersthoughtof hinm what be says of Raimric.

he saw thatcertain but it does mean that. easily become too sweetand need some astringent him.whenDante thought him had been faced and to some degreesolved whichtroubled poeticalproblems Great poets are not necessarily by Arnaut. he wishedto be not sweetbut powerful. who saw that the softItalian tonguemight liked and admired corrective.For us it is difficult see Arnaut as Dante saw him.was likely to be less than generousto men fromwhose themes and Here was a Arnaut it was different. with his strongpersonal tastes and highlyoriginalconceptionof poetry. OXFORD This content downloaded on Thu.withall his idiosyncrasies.For thishe could not but be grateful.He was with and ArnautagainstBonagiuntaand Guiraut. is. consciousof such chargesand takes pains to answerthemby sayArnautis fully ing that his wordsare 'simpleand fine' (ii. about his ownart. This is trueenoughof giftsand pursuedifferent otherswho have different Dante.and his own consummate Guinizelli which men like Arnaut had made in tryingto are owed much to experiments styleforpoetry.But perience. to 36) or 'graciousand gay' (ix. but it is comes more fromhis vocabularyand his allusions true that Arnaut's obscurity of than fromhis thoughtsand his presentation them. techniquehe had nothingto learn.and thisprepossession ends. As an exponentof the withappropriate and strength in ric trobar he triesto state emotions theirfullness or them throughsimplication concealing dignityand withouteitherfalsifying Of themin ambiguousmystery. his complex emotions belong to a world of romanticchivalrywhich is far indeed frommodernexthan attractive. WADHAM COLLEGE. made he no Mad verses manunderstands. His brusque Provengal has not the fluentgrace of Italian. 1) and his song 'lightand easy' (vii. XYith poet whose chiefsubject was love and who sought to presentit in a suitably to richand loftystyle. who. undoubtedly That is whyDante. 20 Dec 2012 07:34:46 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . We may findthis difficult accept. this middleway Dante approved.474 Dante and ArnautDaniel but In life sangnotwell.his boldnessand his violenceare moredisturbing he and that. 1). create a morepungentand more impressive This does notmean thatArnautis a poet whomwe can read easilyforpleasure. may blind themto the meritsof whichit raisesforthem. is concerni with theirown poetryand the problems since theirfirst good critics.