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Biogas potentials in Turkey - Presentation of Results Jaqueline Daniel-Gromke, DBFZ Funda Cansu Ertem, DBFZ Nadja Rensberg

, DBFZ 20 December 2011

This project is part of the International Climate Initiative. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety supports this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag.

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Agenda

Background Objective and Focus of the study Methodology /Data base Results of Biogas potential analysis Biogas plants (Overview) Summary

This project is part of the International Climate Initiative. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety supports this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag.

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Background
The Turkish-German Biogas-Project is a German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Natural Conversation and Nuclear Safety funded assistance project enforced by the GIZ within the scope of a Cooperation Agreement, signed between the Turkish Republic and Federal Republic of Germany. The partner and beneficiary of the Project is the Ministry of Environment and Urbanisation (MoEU). The overall objective of the project is to develop a sustainable biogas production concept from agricultural residues (e.g. cattle manure) and organic wastes (e.g. from the agro industry), introduce organic/natural fertilizer and as a result reduce carbon emissions. Moreover the aim is to identify biogas production capacity for a selected implementation region and establish a practical operating environment for the investors in the region, in which such enterprises can operate competitively with German high quality and holistic biogas concept and technology.

This project is part of the International Climate Initiative. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety supports this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag.

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Objectives of the Study
Gross estimation of biogas potential of different sectors (Agricultural residues, Animal residues, agro-industrial residues) on a national and regional level Gross calculation of the total national biogas potential, participation on the energy mix in Turkey Availability of surplus agricultural land currently not in use with potential for the cultivation of energy crops for biogas production

This project is part of the International Climate Initiative. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety supports this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag.

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Biogas potential – Focus
Biogas calculation on regional level with the focus on: Animal livestock Manure from cattle Manure from poultry (broiler and laying chicken)

Agricultural area differed to the crops for the calculation of the agricultural byproduct (e.g. straw of cereals, maize silage not used as fodder, sugar beet leaf, tomatoes waste)
Residues from food industry, slaughterhouses, fruits and vegetables production (e.g. meat residues, agro-industrial wastewater, press cake of sugar beet, olive press cake)

This project is part of the International Climate Initiative. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety supports this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag.

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Biogas potential – Methodology
Data collection Statistics (Ministry data base, data from cattle breeder’s association as well as egg producer association) survey food industry (up to now no data) information from actors and experts Kind of animal husbandry systems/options for collection of manure Evaluation of the data Calculation of the biogas potential according to the different sector Theoretical potential Technical potential Identification of regions with high biogas potential by summarizing the most important residues for biogas production in Turkey

This project is part of the International Climate Initiative. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety supports this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag.

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Biomass potential - Definitions
Different kind of definitions of potential The study focus on theoretical and technical biogas potentials

Theoretical potential

Technical potential

Economic potential

Realisable potential

This project is part of the International Climate Initiative. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety supports this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag.

CURRENT SITUATION – Biogas Plants -

This project is part of the International Climate Initiative. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety supports this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag.

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Biogas plants in Turkey (Overview)
Biogas Capacity Biogas Plants in operation Plants in operation [MW] in planning Total Agriculture (animal waste, crops) Food Industry (wastewater, organic waste) Municipality (landfill gas, wastewater) Municipality (landfill gas) Municipality (wastewater) Undefined 36 2 17 17 13 4 0 111,234 0,579 13,676 96,979 93,043 3,936 0 49 12 2 12 9 3 23 Capacity in planning [MW] 111,756 11,999 3,88 34,718 32,033 2,685 61,159 Biogas Plants total 85 14 19 29 22 7 23 Total Capacity [MW] 222,99 12,578 17,556 131,697 125,076 6,621 61,159

Data base 12/2011 (GIZ)

This project is part of the International Climate Initiative. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety supports this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag.

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Biogas plants in Turkey (Overview) II
Agriculture Food Industry Municipality

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Biogas Plants in operation Biogas Plants in planning

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Biogas Plants in operation

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Biogas Plants in operation

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Biogas Plants in planning

Biogas Plants in planning

11,999

0,579

Capacity in operation [MW] Capacity in planning [MW]

3,88 13,676

Capacity in operation [MW] Capacity in planning [MW]

34,718 96,979

Capacity in operation [MW] Capacity in planning [MW]

Data base 12/2011 (GIZ)

This project is part of the International Climate Initiative. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety supports this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag.

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RESULTS

This project is part of the International Climate Initiative. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety supports this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag.

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Summary: Biogas Potential from manure (Cattle + Poultry)
Theoretical biogas potential In total Cattle + Poultry: 144.366 TJ/year Technical biogas potential In total Cattle + Poultry: 78.372 TJ/year

20%
5%

broiler chicken laying chicken
54%

36%

broiler chicken laying chicken

75% 10%

highest share of biogas potential from animal residues in Turkey results from bovine
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This project is part of the International Climate Initiative. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety supports this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag.

Biogas Potential – Summary
Technical Biogas Theoretical Biogas Technical Biogas Potential Potential [PJ/year] Potential [PJ/year] [PJ/year] 115,9 36,6 276,7 47,3 36,2 27,7 83,5

Substrate
Agriculture livestock Agricultural Residues Energy crops Agro-Industrial Residues

Cattle Manure Poultry Manure Straw of Cereals

Sugar beet leaf
Tomato Wastes Energy Crops on fallow land

17,5
11,1 300,0

4,4
4,1 75,0 36,1 75,0

Meat production residues Cheese - waste water

0,5 2,7

0,2 2,4

Sugar beet press cake
molasses (sugar production) Olive press cake Olive mill waste water Juice residues (Pomace) Draff (Bioethanol-production)
Municipal Waste

5,0
3,3 1,3 1,3 1,8 0,9 22,0 796,4 496,4 219,7

4,5
2,9 1,2 1,2 1,5 0,8 11,0 220,4 145,4 117,7 14,7 11,0

Municipal Waste Total (with energy crops) Total (without energy crops) Total (without energy crops and straw)

This project is part of the International Climate Initiative. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety supports this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag.

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Biogas Potential – Summary
Theoretical Technical Biogas Biogas Potential Potential [PJ/year] [PJ/year] 152,5 83,5 305,3 36,1 300,0 75,0 16,6 14,7 22,0 11,0 796,4 220,4 496,4 145,4 219,7 117,7

Sector Agriculture - livestock Agricultural Residues Energy crops Agro-Industrial Residues Municipal Waste Total (with energy crops) Total (without energy crops) Total (without energy crops and straw)

Theoretical Biogas Potential [PJ/year]
2% 3% 19% 38% 38%
Agriculture - livestock Agricultural Residues Energy crops Agro-Industrial Residues

Technical Biogas Potential [PJ/year]
7% 5%
Agriculture - livestock Agricultural Residues Energy crops Agro-Industrial Residues

38%

34%
16%

Municipal Waste

Municipal Waste

This project is part of the International Climate Initiative. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety supports this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag.

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Biogas Potential vs. Energy Demand in Turkey
The range of technical biogas potential of organic residues in Turkey (agricultural residues, municipal waste, residues of food industry) is calculated between 117,7 – 220,4 PJ/year (without/with energy crops and straw) = 32,7 – 61,2 TWh/year
The technical Biogas potential can cover:
techn. Biogas potential TWh/year 32,7 61,2

related to… Primary Energy Demand Total Energy consumption RES for energy consumption the share of natural gas for energy consumption Electricity production* RES electricity production*
* assumed electrical efficiency 40% for biogas facilities

2,6 3,4 37,5 20,1 6,2 23,4

4,8 6,3 70,2 37,5 12 43,9

This project is part of the International Climate Initiative. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety supports this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag.

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Summary
Very less energy-related biomass utilization in comparison to the given biogas potentials High biomass potential according to the agricultural sector (cattle manure, poultry manure), but currently unused Highest biogas potential of animal residues results from cattle manure

Utilization of animal residues (manure) and agro-industrial wastewater can contribute to solve environmental problems (e.g. river polution, groundwater safety, greenhouse gas reduction)
High straw potential esp. from wheat and barley, but the most part of straw is used for fodder for animal breeding Calculated technical biogas potential of organic residues between 117,7 – 220,4 PJ/year (without/with energy crops and straw) can cover 6 -12% of the total electricity production in Turkey The share or RES for electricity production in Turkey with 23 - 44%

This project is part of the International Climate Initiative. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety supports this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag.

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Thank you for your attention!
Turkish-German Biogas Project Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH And Sokak No: 8/11 06680 Cankaya/Ankara, TURKEY T T E I I +90 312 466 7056 +49 6196 79830 007 biogas-tr@giz.de www.giz.de www.biyogaz.web.tr

Author: DBFZ Deutsches BiomasseForschungsZentrum gemeinnützige GmbH Torgauer Straße 116, 04347 Leipzig, GERMANY

This project is part of the International Climate Initiative. The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety supports this initiative on the basis of a decision adopted by the German Bundestag.

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