Introduction

Cooling towers operate as a heat exchanger system, used to which reject waste heat from hot water to the atmosphere due to an air circulation mechanism while at the same time provides the cool water to the facility. The circulating cooling water absorbs heat by cooling or condensing the hot process streams or even by cooling hot rotating machinery and other hot equipment within the industrial facilities. The cooling towers then reject that absorbed heat by transferring it to the atmosphere. Initially cooling towers provides intimate contact of the hot water with a flow of ambient air, which is well below the saturation point, i.e. air which contains less water vapour that it is capable of containing. Hence in this sense the heat contained in the water itself causes part of the water to evaporate to the atmosphere and therefore causes the water to cool. Cooling towers can exist in different configurations namely natural draft, forced draft or induced draft cooling towers (i.e. mechanical draft)

Natural draft

It is an enclosed structure where the warm inside air naturally rises due to the density differential between that inside warm air and the cooler outside air. Thus, the buoyancy of the inside air relative to the outside air induces a flow of air through the cooling tower.

Mechanical draft,

This type uses mechanical forces in terms of motor-driven fans to either force or draws air through the tower and includes:

 Induced draft
The latter uses a fan at the air exit from the cooling tower to pull or draw air through the tower. This produces low entering and high exiting air velocities, reducing the possibility of the exit air recirculating back into the air intake.

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Applications of cooling towers in large commercial scale also include:  Coal and Bagasse Power Plants  Petrochemical and chemical plants  Natural gas processing plants  Chiller Plants in Hotels and cold rooms However it is important to note that to maintain a proper operation of the cooling tower. However the low exiting velocity is more susceptible to recirculation. Industrially. Forced draft This makes use of a fan at the air intake to the cooling tower to push or force air through the tower. The tower then makes use of two fans which extract the warm air to the atmosphere while cold water fills up the spaced below opening. The tower receives hot water from the condenser after extracting heat from the working fluid leaving the turbine. mainly in powerplants the induced draft type cooling towers are most. which is then sent back to the condenser. 2 . which is a tray that is used to increase the surface area of the water in order to facilitate the cooling procedure. This sedimentation process promotes scaling and hence has the ability to damage the piping systems as well as the pumps in mechanical draft systems. This produces high entering and low exiting air velocities. This allows warm water to evaporate which is absorbed by the air. Ambient air enters through the openings of the tower and flow counter current to the down flowing liquid. The hot water flow through pipes to a certain height of the tower. where they are sprayed over the fill. regular blowdown procedures in order to remove most of the minerals and other impurities which would settle down during the evaporation preprocess.

The objective of the practical is to measure wet and dry bulb temperatures. 3 . apply psychometric principles to determine relative humidity and eventually analyse the wet bulb as well as make up water fed to cooling tower as they are used in designing cooling towers.Aim and Objectives The aim of the practical is to know the basic mode of operation of the cooling tower and identify the water and air circuits and characteristics which form part of the Bench Top Water Cooling Tower.

The contact between the air and water allows the water to cool and rejecting its heat to the air. Some water is lost as mist and this is accounted by addition of make-up water in the feed water tank between the basin and the pump.Litterature Review In this experiment. we use a mechanical forced draft cooling tower which circulates air from below to the falling water as shown is the schematic below. Figure 1: Figure showing the schematic of a bench top cooling tower Air is fed from the fan below( forced draft) and the air is distributed through the chamber in the packing. The schematic proposes the circuit 4 . The cool water falls to the basin where it is recirculated through a heater via a pump. The heater can be set a desired power ratings to the give the heat required by the water. Water that is to be cooled is distributed from above the packing. The water gets heated again and follows the same cycle.

wmich. This explains the concept used in power plants. The water forms a closed loop and cools the water in the water in the condenser which is actually only a type of heat exchange equipment.gif 5 . Figure 2: Figure showing heat engine. The condenser can be represented by the heater in this case.edu/~kaldon/classes/ph107-13-heat-engine. sink and reservoir Courtesy: http://homepages. In power plants. cooling towers are the heat rejecting device to the cold reservoir.of the air and that of the water.

Before proceeding the make up level of water is added as needed to bring the level back to the level at the start of the cooling tower operation. The difference gave the make-up which was supplied in the time interval.0 kW 2. 4. The tower is allowed to stabilize for 10 minutes and then all temperatures and flow rates are noted at regular time interval and the mean values are recorded in the observation sheet.Methodology Procedure: 1. 3. Step1 and 2 is then repeated. The bench Top Cooling tower is allowed to stabilize under the following suggested conditions: Orifice differential – 16mmH2O Water flow rate – 30gm/s Cooling Head – 1. 6 .

8 20.3 3.8 23. Packing Installed 1 B 2 B 3 B 4 B 5 B 6 B Packing Density /m-1 Air inlet.5 400 1200 110 25.7 22. t4/°C Wet Bulb Water inlet.1 25.1 7 .5 156 300 110 25.4 3.5 504 1500 110 25.5 250 600 110 25.2 21.8 25.3 25.3 20.0 26.2 21.1 22.0 25.8 25.8 25.2 23. t7/°C Orifice Differential.8 16 40 0.0 21.2 25.0 16 40 0.3 23.1 23. t5/°C Temperature Water outlet. t6/°C Temperature Water Make-up Temperature.3 23.2 23.5 22.5 324 900 110 25.4 25.9 16 40 0.8 22.3 16 40 0.2 23.6 20.9 20. mq/mL Time interval. x/mm H2O Water Flow Rate.0 19.6 21.1 23.3 3.6 22.4 24.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Test No. Q/kW Make-up quantity.5 16 40 0. t3/°C Dry Bulb Air outlet.5 20.0 23. t2/°C Wet Bulb Air Outlet. y/s 110 25.6 16 40 0. t1/°C Dry Bulb Air inlet.3 3. Δp/mm H2O 3.3 25.3 3. mw/gs-1 Cooling Load.9 23.5 522 1800 Pressure Drop.

9 kJ/kg ωB = 0. (hf at 25.0587 kg/s Make-up rate.520 103 kg/s Using steam table. the specific enthalpy of make-up. hA = 56.0 °C) hg = 104.CALCULATIONS Considering experiment 1: Using the wet and dry bulb temperatures and the psychrometic chart.9 kJ/kg ωA = 0. mg = mq y = 156 10 3 kg/s 300 = 0.0124 kg/kg hB = 61.0137 x (1  B )VB = 0.0152)  0.0152 kg/kg VB = 0.89 kJ/kg 8 .859 m3/kg dry air From the orifice calibration. ṁa = 0.859 = 0.0137 16 (1  0.

mghg 9 .1) = 1.1 kW (Pump power is approximately 100 W. negative) ΔH = H1 – H2 = ṁahB .ṁahA .P = ΔH + ΔKE Q – P = 1.0.Figure 3: figure showing the energy balance over the tower Applying the steady flow equation to the above system.0 – (. Q .

0127 0.520 103 x 104.0153 VB/m3kg -1 0.3 ωA/kgkg1 0. Performing a mass balance mg = ṁa (ωB .9 2 57.9 3 58.7 64.859 0.858 0.ωA) = 0.863 0.0 ωB/kgkg1 0.mghg = 0.0152 0.0128 0.0587 (61.7 5 58.239 kW The discrepancy may be attributed to errors and heat transfer to or from the surroundings and to the manufacturing tolerances in the rating of heating elements.0128 hB/kJkg-1 61.863 0.6 and the results are tabulated as shown below: Test No. hA/kJkg-1 1 56.9 64.6 6 58.0160 0.0 64.858 10 .0129 0.0153 0. The above calculations are repeated for experiments 2 .164 103 kg/s The discrepancy may be attributed to carry over and drifts.0587 (0.9) – ( 0.0159 0.6 4 58.0137 0.0126 0.0124) = 0.9 – 56.6 62.= ṁa (hB .0124 0.3 62.860 0.0152 – 0.89) = 0.hA) .

ṁa/kgs-1 0.417 103 0.0588 0.290 103 hg/kJkg-1 104.333 103 0.89 106.314 0.239 0.0587 mg/kgs-1 0.65 108.0 T2 T3 19. T3 and T4 against time 11 .0 23.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Figure 4: Figure shows graph of T1.180 0.0 T1 21.336 103 0.318 0.309 0.23 106.520 103 0.0585 0.98 ΔH/kW 0.0 15.0 T4 17.360 103 0.0587 0.40 108.186 INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS 27. T2.0 25.14 107.0586 0.0585 0.

0 20.0 22.0 18.24.0 23.0 19.0 21.0 1 2 3 4 5 6 T2 t6 Figure 5: Figure showing wet bulb approach Graph of make up water against time interval 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 Linear (time interval ) time interval Figure 6: Figure showing graph of make-up water against time 12 .

cheresources. The outlet temperatures T3 and T4 which are the dry bulb and wet bulb respectively are more or less constant for the first 20 minutes and they gradually fall at the end of the experiment. T3 is the dry bulb air outlet temperature and T4 is the wet bulb outlet temperature. the higher the amount of make up water added to the cooling tower. The approach is the difference in temperature between the cooled-water temperature and the entering-air wet bulb temperature. This means that heat is being transferred from the water to the saturated air. The lesser the approach the more efficient the tower is. Figure 5 shows the wet bulb approach of the experiment. It can be noted from the graph that T2 and T4 which are the wet bulb temperatures of the inlet and outlet air respectively approach each other.8 o C is an actual figure for cooling tower approaches. T1 is the dry bulb inlet air temperature. The four temperatures were measured from the equipment and were taken at five minute intervals. The graph is close to the linear line. T2. T1 shows an increasing trend as the temperature of the air increases with time.( www.9 oC. T2 is the wet bulb air inlet temperature. CONCLUSION 13 . T2 lower than T1 (wet bulb lower than dry bulb) also shows and increasing tendency with time. figure 4 shows the relationship between the temperatures T1.DISCUSSION From the results above. Literature states that 2. T3 and T4 with time. Make up is added to cater for the lost in water in the evaporating/cooling process. The graph shows the difference between the two temperatures over the period of time. The approach is an important parameter in designing a cooling tower. There is a small discrepancy at the end of the experiment owing to user’s errors. The approach increases slightly with time until stabilizing to 2. The higher the time of operation. Figure 6 shows the graph of make-up water against time.com/ctowers) More experiments carried out could have given a broader picture of the behavior and an even better approach.

Amount of fill surface Breakup of water into droplets.In the light of the experiment it can be seen that the temperature of the inlet air and the outlet air come closer at the end of the experiment.8 oC. The other conclusion that can be drawn is that the approach nears approximately 2. The heat-transfer process involves the Latent heat transfer owing to vaporization of a small portion of the water and Sensible heat transfer owing to the difference in temperature of water and air. The cold water temperature approaches but does not equal the wet-bulb temperature of air because it is impossible to contact all the water with fresh air as the water drops through the wetted fill surface to the basin. Ideally the wet-bulb temperature is the lowest theoretical temperature to which the water can be cooled. The important factors are as follows:    Air-to-water contact time. 14 . Finally the makeup water addition increases linearly with time. Approximately 80% of this heat removal per Kg of air circulated in a cooling tower depends on the temperature and moisture content of air. An indication of the moisture content of air is its wet-bulb temperature. The magnitude of approach to the wet-bulb temperature is dependent on tower design.