CONTENTS

51. No Page No.
1. Syllabus
2. Unit - 1
Design for climate
1
3. Unit - 2
Ventilation
15
4. Unit - 3
Thermal comforts
32
5. Unit - 4
Day lighting
47
6. Unit - 5
Artificial lighting
57
7. Unit -6
Acoustic and sound insulation
69
8. Unit -7
Noise and vibration control
83
9. Unit - 8
Intelligent buildings
97
SYLLABUS
BUILDING SCIENCE (BCQ 3.7)
Design For Climate: Climatic factors-classification of tropical climates - site climates
microclimate of human settlement.
Ventilation: Elements of air and the effect on human being-limit of comfort and heat
tolerance -ventilation requirement for health mechanisms and estimation of natural
. ventilation airflow patterns in buildings.
Thermal Comforts: Thermal comfort factors - comfort indices thermal quantities heat
exchange in buildings-periodic heat flow-mechanical and structural means of thermal
control moisture control of buildings.
Day Lighting: Day lighting Principal of day lighting design - Design offenestration in
buildings of various types-quality of day lighting-illumination design - luminaries and their
characterizes - code requirements.
Artificial Lighting: Types of sources and luminaries - design for interiors - determination of
illumination level - Lumen method Artificial lighting to supplement day lighting - Energy
conservation.
t Acoustic and Sound Insulation: Propagation of Sound - sound absorption and insulation
- absorption and transmission reverberation - design of floor and walling and roofing
systems for sound absorption insulation - functional absorbers -building standards
design of auditorium.
Noise And Vibration Control: Noise - Noise and vibration sources noise and vibration
control in buildings of various types - planning and design against outdoor and indoor
noise measuring instruments-isolation systems effectiveness of base isolation.
Intelligent Buildings: Smart materials - microprocessor controlled automatic adjustment
of light ventilation - fire safety and security - crisis management - examples of intelligent
buildings.
~ ' " ~ - - - - - - - - - - - " ~ - - - ...----..- . - - - - - . ~ ~ ~ - - - - ~ - . - ~ - - - - . - - - - - - - - - ~ ~ ~ - ~ - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - " - - ~ - . - - - - . - ~ - "
UNIT - 1 : DESIGN FOR CLIMATE
SECTION A
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Tropical climate occurs when annual mean temperature is
a. less than 20°C
b. more than 20°C
c. all the above
d. none ofthe above
2. Visible light is having the range of radiation:
a. 290t0380nm
b. 380 to 700 nm
c. 700 to 2300 nm
d. none ofthe above
3. The temperature of the air is measured in:
a. Fahrentleit
b. Celsius
c. Both (a) and (b)
d. None ofthe above
4. The ultra violet light is having the range of radiation:
a. 290 to 380 nm
b. 380 to 700 nm
c. 700 to 2300 nm
d. none ofthe above
5. As a broad description, monthly mean temperatures can be given for each of:
a. 12month
b. 6month
c. 3month
d. none ofthe above
Answer Key
1.a 2.c
I· 3.b 4.a 5.a
r
I
SECTION B
TRUE FALSE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Climate is defined as an integration in time of the physical states of the
atmospheric environment, characteristic of a certain geographical location .
.o:::.l'
2. Tropical climates are those where heat is the dominant problem.
3. The earth moves around the sun in a slightly elliptical orbit.
4. The temperature ofthe air is measured in degrees Celsius (C).
5. Relative humidity is the ratio of the actual amount of moisture present, to the
amount of moisture the air could hold at the given temperature.
Answer Key
1. T 2.T 3.T 4.T 5.T
SECTIONC
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q1.
Ans:
What do you mean by term climate?
Climate (from Greek: klima) is defined by the Oxford Dictionary as region with
certain conditions of temperature, dryness, wind, light, etc. A somewhat more
scientific definition is an integration in time of the physical states of the
atmospheric environment, characteristic of a certain geographical location.
2.
Ans:
What do you mean by tropical climate?
Tropical climates are those where heat is the dominant proplem, where, for the
greater part of the year buildings serve to keep the occupants cool, rather than
warm, where the annual mean temperature is not less than 20°c.
3.
Ans:
Write a short note on the movement of earth around the sun.
The earth moves around the sun in a slightly elliptical orbit. One revolution
completed in 365 days,5 hours,48 minutes and 46 seconds. This orbit results
from the gravitational pull of the sun and the centrifugal force due to the earth's
inertia and momentum. At aphelion the solar distance is 152 millionkm and at
perihelion is 147 million km.
4.
Ans:
What is the method of measuring the temperature of air?
The temperature of the air is measured in degrees Celsius (C) , most often with a
mercury thermometer. the dry-bulb or 'true air temperature' is a value taken in
the shade, the thermometer being mounted inside a louvered wooden box,
known as the' Stevenson screen' at aheight of 1.20 to 1.80m above the ground
5.
Ans:
What do you mean by relative humidity?
Relative humidity is the ratio of the actual amount of moisture present, to the
amount of moisture the air could hold at the given temperature- expressed as a
percentage:
RH=AH xlOO%
SH
6.
Ans:
What do you mean by the term humidity of air?
The humidity of air can be described as absolute humidity (AH), i. e. the amount of
moisture actually present in unit mass or unit volume of air, in terms of gramme per
kilograms (g/kg) or gm per cubic meter (g/m3)
7. What are the various instruments used for measuring wind velocity and its
direction?
Ans: Wind velocity is measured by a cup-type or propeller anemometer, or by a pitot
tube (similar to the air-speed meters of airplanes), and its direction is measured
by a wind vane. An anemograph can produce continuous recordings of wind
velocity and directional changes .
...~ - : : . ~
8. How the direction of wind is grouped into different categories?
Ans: Direction. can be grouped into eight or sixteen categories: the four cardinal
(N.,E.,S. and W.) and four semi-cardinal compass points (NNE., SE., SW. and
SSW.,WSW.,WNW. and NNW.) Velocities are measured in meters per second
(m/s), but much data can still be found in obsolete units such as ft I min, mph or
knot(nautical mile per hour).
9. Where you find warm humid climates? Also give examples of some cities having
these climates ..
Ans: Warm-humid climates are found in a belt near the equator extending to about 15°
Nand S. Examples of cities in this zone: Logos, Dar-es- Salam, Mombasa,
Colombo Singapore, Jakarta, Quito and Pernambuco.
10. Give the examples of regions where hot dry desert climate occurs.
Ans: These climates occur in two belts at latitudes between approximately 15°and 30°
north and south of the Equator. Examples of settlements in this zone are Assuan ,
Baghdad. Alice Springs, and phoenix.
11. What is the range of solar radiation?
Ans: The spectrum of solar radiation extends from 290 to 2300 nm (nanometer
=10·9m). According to human means of perception we can distinguish:
a. ultra-violet radiation, 290 to 380 nm, producing photo-chemical effects,
bleaching, sunburn, etc.
b. visible light, 380 (violet) to 700 nm (red).
c. short infra- red radiation, 700 to 2300nm, radiant heat with some photo- chemical
effects.
12. What are the various factors which causes the deviation of the urban climate from
the regional macroclimate?
Ans: The factors causing deviations of the urban climate from the regional
macroclimate are the following:
a. . changed surface qualities (pavements and buildings) increased absorbance of
solar radiation; reduced evaporation.
b. buildings- casting a shadow and acting as barriers to winds, but also channeling
winds, possibly with localized increase in ventilation or by storing absorbed heat
in their mass and slowly releasing it at night
c. energy seepage- through walls and ventilation of heated buildings; the output of
\1
refrigeration pants and air conditioning(removing heat from the controlled space
to the outside air);heat output of internal combustion engines and electrical
appliances; heat loss from industry, especially furnaces and large factories
d. atmospheric pollution- waste products of boilers and domestic and industrial
chimneys; exhaust from motor- cars; fumes and vapours, which both tend to
--:::,...1'" reduce direct solar radiation but increase the diffuse radiation and provide a
barrier to out- going radiation
SECTIOND
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
01. What do you mean by climate &tropical climate?
Ans. Climate (from Greek: klima) is defined by Oxford Dictionary as region with
certain conditions of temperature, dryness, wind, light, etc. A somewhat more
scientific definition is an integration in time of the physical states of the
atmospheric environment, characteristic of a certain geographical location. As
weather is the momentary state of the atmospheric environment at a certain
location, climate could be defined as 'the integration in time of weather
conditions.
Tropical climates are those where heat is the dominant problem, where, for the
greater part of the year buildings serve to keep the occupants cool, rather than
warm, where the annual mean temperature is not less than 20°C.
Before tropical climates can be examined in detail, we must survey the factors
shaping the climates, on a global scale.
o . 2 What do you mean by solar radiation? Explain in terms of its quality &quantity
Ans. The earth receives almost all its energy from the sun in the form of radiation, thus
the sun is the dominating influence on climates.
The spectrum of solar radiation extends from 290 to 2300 nm (nanometer
=10·9m). According to human means of perception we can distinguish:
a. ultra- violet radiation, 290 to 380 nm, producing photo-chemical effects, bleaching,
sunburn, etc.
b. visible light, 380 (violet) to 700 nm (red).
C. short infra- red radiation,700 to 2300 nm, radiant heat with some photo- chemical
effects.
The energy distribution varies with altitude, due to the filtering effect of
the atmosphere. Some of the shorter wavelengths are absorbed by the
atmosphere and reradiated at much longer wavelengths, .e.g. long infra-red,up
to 10000nm.
As the luminous efficiency of energy radiation depends on its spectral com­
position, there is no constant relationship between radiation intensity and its
lighting effect. However, as a general guidance, the value of 100 lumens/watt can
be used for solar radiation. This would give an illumination of 100 lux for every
W/m2 intensity or 1 00 000 lux per kW/m
2
The intensity of radiation reaching the upper surface ofthe atmosphere is taken as
';'t
the solar constant: 1395 W/m2 , but it may actually vary ± 2% due to variations in
the output of the sun itself and it varies ±3.5% due to changes in the earth-sun
distance.
The earth moves around the sun in a slightly elliptical orbit. One revolution is
completed in 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes and 46 seconds. This orbit results
-.:" from the gravitational pull of the sun and the centrifugal force due to the earth's
inertia and momentum. At aphelion the solar distance is 152 million km and at
perihelion is 147 million km.
Q .3 How temperature is measured and its data is used for various purpose?
Ans. The temperature of the air is measured in degrees Celsius (C) , most often with a
mercury thermometer. the dry-bulb or 'true air temperature' is a value taken in the
shade, the thermometer being mounted inside a louvred wooden box, known as
the' Stevenson screen' at a height of 1.20 to 1.80m above the ground. Readings
can be taken at specified times of the day, or if a maximum- minimum
thermometer is used one reading daily can give the momentary temperature as
well as the maximum and minimum temperature reached in the past 24 hours.
Alternatively a thermograph can be used, which is based on a bimetallic
thermometer and gives a continuous graphic recording of temperature variations.
All these reading would produce an unmanageable mass of data, thus some
simplification is necessary.
As a broad description, monthly mean temperatures can be given for each of the
12 months. The average is taken between each day's maximum and minimum
and then the average of the 30 day's average is found (and possible as many
years' average for the same month) To give an indication of diurnal variations, this
can be supplemented by monthly mean maximum temperatures. These will
establish the average of 30 day's maximum temperatures. These will establish the
monthly mean range oftemperatu res.
It may be useful to indicate the highest and lowest temperatures ever recorded for
each month, i.e. the monthly extreme maxima and minima, to establish the
monthly extreme i.e. the range ottemperatures.
These five values for each of the 12 months would give a reasonably accurate
picture of temperature condition, on which the design work can be based.
Q. 4 Write a short note on
a) Humidity measurement
b) Humidity data
Ans.
a) Humidity Measurement - The humidity of air can be described as absolute
humidity (AH), i. e. the amount of moisture actually present in unit mass or unit
volume of air, in terms of gramme per kilogramme (g/kg) or gramme per cubic
meter (g/m3)
:",
The relative humidity (RH) is, however, a much more useful form of expression, as
it gives a direct indication of evaporation potential. The amount of moisture the air
can hold (the saturation- point humidity: SH) depends on its temperature. Relative
humidity is the ratio of the actual amount of moisture pre-sent, to the amount of
moisture the air could hold at the given temperature expressed as a percentage:
RH ./lH xl 00%
SH
Humidity is usually measured with the wet and dry bulb hygrometer. This consists
of two ordinary mercury thermometers mounted side by side. The first one
measures the air (dry-bulb) temperature (OBT) . The bulb of the second one is
covered with a gauze or wick and is kept wet. Moisture evaporating gives a
cooling effect, thus the reading of the wet-bulb temperature (WBT) will be less
than the OBT. As in dry air the evaporation is faster, the cooling is more
pronounced and the difference between the two readings (the 'wet-bulb
depression') is greater. In case of 100% RH the two readings will be identical, as a
function of the relative humidity. Having made the two readings, the
corresponding RH can be found from the psychometric chart from a table or a
special slide-rule
b) Humidity Data - To give an indication of prevailing humidity conditions, it is
sufficient to establish the monthly mean maximum (the average of 30 day's
maximum) and the monthly mean minimum relative humidity values for each of
the 12 months. This is only possible, where continuous hygrograph recordings
are available. Where these are not available, readings are made just before
sunrise, e.g. at 6.00 hours (which is likely to be the maximum value), and at 15.11
hours (which is near the minimum value).
As the early morning values are fairly high in any climate, the afternoo n values are
much more characteristic of a giver. location. They are often used alone, as a brief
indication of humidity conditions.
Q.5 How wind velocity is measured using different instruments? Also explain the
usefulness of wind data.
Ans. Wind velocity is measured by a cup-type or propeller anemometer, or by a pitot
tube (similar to the air-speed meters of airplanes), and its direction is measured by
a wind vane. An anemograph can produce continuous recordings of wind
velocity and directional changes.
Free wind velocities are normally recorded in open flat country at a height of 10m.
Measurements in urban areas are often taken at a height of between 10 and 20 m
to avoid obstructions. Velocities near the ground are a good deal lower than free
wind speed.
Direction can be grouped intro eight or sixteen categories: the four cardinal
(N.,E.,S. and W.) and four semi-cardinal compass points (NNE., SE., SW. and
SSW. ,WSW.,WNW. and NNW.) Velocities are measured in meters per second
(m/s) , but much data can still be found in obsolete units such as ft I min, mph or
knot(nautical mile per hour).A 'wind-force scale' developed by Beaufort in 1806,
based on visual observation, is still in use in spite of its completely unscientific
nature.
The designer must try to determine whether there is a prevailing direction of
winds, whether predicable daily or seasonal shifts occur and whether there is a
recognizable pattern of daily or seasonal velocities. It is also important for him to
note the calm periods in each month. All observatories record the occurrence of
storms, hurricanes, typhoons or tornadoes it is customary to tabulate winds
according to their direction and velocity categories, in term of their frequency of
occurrence, over a significant time, generally 25 to 50 years. Several methods of
diagrammatic representation have been evolved
Q.6 What is warm humid climate? Explain in detail.
Ans. Warm-humid climates are found in a belt near the equator extending to about 15°
Nand S. Examples of cities in this zone are: Logos, Dar-es- Salam, Mombasa,
Colombo Singapore, Jakarta, Quito and Pernambuco. There is very little
seasonal variation throughout the year, the only punctuation being that of periods
with more or less rain and the occurrence of gusty wind electric storms. Air
temperature, i.e. DBT, in the shade reaches a mean maximum during the day of
between 27 and 32°C, but occasionally it may exceed the latter values. At night
the mean minimum varies between 21 and 27°C. Both the diurnal and annual
ranges of temperature are quite narrow.
Humidity, Le. RH, remains high, at about 75% for most of the time, but it may vary
from 55 to almost 100% Vapour pressure is steady in the region about 2500 to
3000N/m2.
PreCipitation is high throughout the year, generally becoming more intense for
several consecutive months. Annual rainfall can vary frpm 2000 to 5000 mm and
may exceed 500 mm in one month, the wettest month. During severe storms rain
may fall at an intensity of 1 00 mm/h for short periods.
Sky conditions are fairly cloudy throughout the year. Cloud cover varies between
60 and 90%. Skies can be bright. a luminance of 7000 cd/m2 or ever more when it
is thinly overcast, or when the sun illuminates white cumulus clouds without itself
being obscured. When heavily overcast, the sky is dull, 850 cd/m2 or less.
Solar radiation is party reflected and party scattered by the cloud blanket or the
high vapour content of the atmosphere, therefore the radiation reaching the
ground is dinuse, but strong, and can cause painful sky glare. Cloud and vapour
is content also prevents or reduces outgoing radiation from the earth and sea to
the night sky, thus the accumulated heat is not readily dissipated.
Wind velocities are typically low, calm periods are frequent, but strong winds can
occur during rain squalls. Gusts of 30m/s have been reported. There are usually
one or two dominant directions.
Vegetation grows quickly due to frequent rains and high temperatures and it is
difficult to control. The red or brown laterite soils are generally poor for ag riculture.
Plant- supporting organic substances and mineral salts are dissolved and
washed away by rain-water. The subsoil water table is usually high and ground
may be waterlogged. Little light is reflected from the ground. Special
characteristics: high humidity accelerates mould and algal growth, rusting and
rotting. Organic building materials tend to decay rapidly. Mosquitoes and other
insects abound. The thunder-storms are accompanied by frequent air-to-air
electrical discharges.
Q.7 In which areas hot-dry desert climate occurs? Also explain the other
characteristics of hot dry desert climate.
Ans. These climates occur in two belts at latitudes between approximately 15 and 30°
north and south of the Equator. Examples of settlements in this zone are Assuan,
Baghdad. Alice Springs, and phoenix.
Two marked seasons occur: a hot and a somewhat cooler period.
Air temperature, I.e. DBT, in the shade rises quickly after sunrise to a day-time
mean maximum of 43 to 49°C. The ever-recorded maximum temperature of 58°C
was measured in Libya in 1922. During the cool season the mean maximum
temperature ranges from 27 to 32°C. Night-time mean minima are between 24
and 30°C in the hot season and between 10 and 18°C in the cool season. The
diurnal range is very great: 17 to 22 deg C.
Humidity, i.e. the RH, varies from 10 to 55% as the wet-bulb depression is
large(rapid evaporation). The vapour pressure is normally between 750 and 1500
N/m2 preCipitation is slight and variable throughout the year, from 50 to 155 mm
per annum. Flash- storms may occur over limited areas wittl as much as 50 mm
rain in a few hours, but some regions may not have any rain for several years.
Sky conditions are normally clear. Clouds are few due to the low humidity of the
air. The sky is usually dark blue, with a luminance of 1700 to 2500 cd/m2, and
further darkened during dust or sand-storms to 850 cd/m2 or even less. Towards
the end of the hot period, dust suspended in the air may create a white haze with
a luminance of 3500 to 10000 cd/m2, which produces a diffuse light and a painful
rol<>ro
0,
Solar radiation is direct and strong during the day, but the absence of cloud
permits easy release of the heat stored during the day-time in the form of long­
wave radiation towards the cold night sky. Diffuse radiation is only present during
dust haze period.

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Winds are usually local. The heating of air over the hot ground causes a
temperature inversion, and as the lower warm air mass breaks through the higher
cooler air, local whirlwinds are often created. Winds are hot, carrying dust and
sand- and often develop into dust-storms.
11
500

Q. 10
Ans.
a.'
b.
c.
d.
(woods, shrubs, grass paving, water, etc.)
object, such as trees, or tree-belts, fence, walls and buildings
,as these may influence air movement, may cast a shadow and may sub-divide
the area into smaller units with distinguishable climate features.
A logical methods will be to follow the sequence of climate elements, and see how
eachofthese may be affected by the above mentioned factors.
Explain the factor which causes the deviation of the urban climate from the
regional macroclimate.
Man-made environments can create microclimates of their own, deviating from
themacroclimate of the region to a degree depending on the extent of man's
intervention. Such intervention with the natural environment is greatest in large
towns orcities, thus it is justifiable to speak of an 'urban climate' .
. The factors causing deviations of the urban cljmate from the regional
macroclimate are the following:
changed surface qualities (pavements and buildings) - increased absorbance
of solar radiation; reduced evaporation.
buildings - casting a shadow and acting as barriers to winds, but also
channelizing winds, possibly with localized increase in ventilation or by storing
absorbed heat in their mass slowly releasing it at night
energy seepage - through walls and ventilation of heated buildings; the output of
refrigeration pants and air conditioning(removing heat from the controlled space
to the outside air);heat output of internal combustion engines and electrical
.' appliances; heat loss from industry, especially furnaces and large factories
. atmospheric pollution - waste products of boilers and domestic and industrial
chimneys; . exhaust from motor- cars; fumes and vapours, which both tend to
reduce direct solar radiation but increase the diffuse radiation and provide a
barrier to out-going radiation. The presence of solid particles in urban
atmosphere may assist in the fOrmation of fog and induce rainfall under favorable
conditions
The extent of deviation may be quite substantial.
Air temperature in a city can be 8 deg C higher than in the surrounding
countryside and a difference of 11 degC has been reported.
Relative humidity is reduced by 5 to 10% due to the quick run-off of rain-water from
paved areas, tothe absence of vegetation and to higher temperature.
Wind velocity can be reduced to less than half of that in the adjoining open
country, but the funneling effect along a closely built- up street or through gaps
. between tall slab blocks can more than double the velocity. Strong turbulences
and eddies can also be set up at the leeward corners of obstruction.
14 BCO - 3,7
I
UNIT 2 : VENTILATION
SECTION A

;."
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
..~ : ...A 1 . An average person, depending on his activity, inhales about:
a} 0.5 to 5 m
3
/h
b} 5t015m
3
/h
c} 15t020m
3
/h
d) none ofthe above
2. The functions of ventilation is:
a) supply of air
b) convective cooling
c) physiological cooling
d} all the above
3. Ventilation involves the movement of air at a relatively:
a} high rate
b} slow rate
c} medium rate
d) none ofthe above
4. Units of stack pressure is:
a) N/m2
b) N/m
3
c) N/sec
2
d) none of the above
5. In very low humidities, the cooling effect is:
a) very poor
b) excellent
c) good
d) fair
Answer Key
.'
1. a 2.d 3.b 4.a 5.a
SECTION B
TRUE FALSE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. In high humidities, this cooling effect is not great, as there is an unrestricted
evaporation even with very light air movement.
2. In mechanical ventilation the air is moved by motor driven fans.
3. If the opening at the inlet side is at a high level, regardless of the outlet
opening position, the air flow will take place near the ceiling and not in the
living zone.
4. In cold climates the need for cooling rarely arises.
5. If the air in a space is to be cooled, the space not need to be fully enclosed.
Answer Key
1. F 2. T 3. T 4. T 5. T
l
.""

t
1.
<'".':" Ans:
a)
b)
c)
2.
Ans:
a)
b)
c)
d)
3.
Ans:
4.
Ans:
a.
-
. '.
b .
c.
d.
e.
f.
5.
Ans:'
SECTION C
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
What are the three basic distinct function of ventilation?
Ventilation has three different functions:
Supply offresh air
convective cooling
physiological cooling
What are the var\ous factors on which the supply offresh air depends?
The requirements offresh air supply are governed by the:
type of occu pancy
number of occupants
activity of occupants
nature of processes carried out in space
What is the effect of cooling in very low humidities?
In very low humidities, the cooling effect is not great, as there is an unrestricted
evaporation even with very light air movement. In high humidities, the cooling
effect is restricted by the high vapour pressure preventing evaporation.
What are the various factors on which the indoor air flow depends?
On the basis of experimental observations the following factors can be isolated
which affectthe indoor airflow (both pattern and velocities):
orientation
external features
cross-ventilation
position of openings
size of openings
controls of openings ..
How the ventilation is affected by the positions of openings?
Air movement must be ensured through the space mostly used bythe occupants
the living zone. Ifthe opening at the inlet side is at a high level, regardless
of the outlet opening position, the air flow will take place near the ceiling and not in
the living zone.
6. What are the various methods of mechanical ventilation?
Ans: In mechanical ventilation the air is moved by motor driven fans, which can i:)e.
a. propeller type or axial flow fans
b. impellertype, centrifugal or tangential flow fans
7. Discuss the role of ventilation in cold and warm climate.
Ans: ,In cold climates the need for cooling rarely arises. In warm climates the inte ntion is
to keep the indoor air cooler than the out- door air, thus there can be no cooling by
ventilation. It can, however, be used quite successfully in a situation where the out­
door air is at a comfortable temperature or just below that, but there is a sig nificant
internal heat gain (e.g. in a meeting room or a dance hall) which would cause
indoor overheating.
8. Give the example of cooling by the movement of air.
Ans: Another form of cooling by air movement is the 'physiological cooling' by directing
an air stream of substantial velocity at the body surface. This is achieved by table­
top or ceiling- mounted fans (punkahs), which do not provide air exchange, but
generate an air movement.
9. What are the conditions of cooling the particular space?
Ans: Ifthe air in a space is to be cooled, the space must be fully enclosed, otherwise the
cooled inside air and the warm outside air would mix. If doors and windows are
closed, the fresh air needed by the occupants must be supplied mechanically.
Thus cooling must be combined with some form of mechanical ventilation
system.
10. What is the basic principle behind the installation of air conditioning system in
building?
Ans: In principle a building installation can take one of the following three forms:
1. Central handling, i.e. all the functions are performed bya central plant and all
the required air is distributed through a duct system
2. Local handling, where the boiler and refrigeration plant is central, hot and
chilled water is circulated to local air handing units, each serving a certain
section ofthe building (much less ductwork is necessary)
3. An induction system, where only a small proportion of the required air
quantity is treated centrally but it is dried or heated or cooled far beyond the
required level, it is distributed through small size circular ducts usually at high
velocity and before being discharged it is mixed with the room air through an
induction unit.
SECTION D
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
0.1 Whatdoyou mean by ventilation? Explain.
Ans. Humans consume oxygen, taken from the air by breathing, and exhale carbon
dioxide.An average person, depending on his activity, inhales about 0.5 to 5 m
3
/
h. In a closed environment oxygen content is reduced and the carbon dioxide
content is increased by man's presence. Biologically the limit of existence is
5.0%C0
2
content (by volume) but a 0.15 % content already gives a markedly 'used
air effect. Body smells, fumes and vapours produced by a variety of processes,
such as smoking; all add to the deterioration of an enclosed volume of air. A
supply of fresh air at a rate substantially higher than the volume of actually inhaled
air will be necessary. In many situations an adequate air supply can be ensured
simple by keeping the windows and doors open. If, however, there is a large
difference between externally given and internally created (comfort) conditions,
the air exchange rate must be regulated, particularly if the interior is heated or
cooled by the expenditure of energy. Often a certain degree of control can be
achieved by the occupants opening and closing the windows at will, but in many
cases there are no windows or a more precise and centralized from of control is
necessary-therefore mechanical ventilation should be installed. This should
supply air at the rate of 12 to 28 m
3
/h per person, depending on the volume of
space and the activities carried out.
O. 2 What are the various types of mechanical systems avaible for ventilation? Discuss
in detail.
Ans. In mechanical ventilation the air is moved by motor driven fans, which can be.
a. propeller type or axial flow fans
b. impeller type, centrifugal or tangential flow fans
These can be local, e.g. built into a window or a wall, or may be central in which
case ducts will be necessary to deliver and distribute the air to where it is required.
The installation can take the following forms:
1. an exhaust system-removing the used air and letting fresh air find its way in
through grilles and opening (room under reduced pressure)
.2. a plenum system-supplying air into the space and forcing out used air through
grilles, etc. ( slight overpressure in room)
3. a balanced system-both supplying and removing air. The most dependable, but
most expensive, system used when combined with warm air heating, as it permits
partial recirculation.
With a plenum or balanced system the air will normally be filtered at the pOint of
intake, by one of the followinQ means:
a. dry filters, fibrous or porous materials (paper, cloth or glass fibres) usually
disposable
b. wet filters, metal turning or some loose material with a large specific surface,
where all surfaces are coated with oil, normally by dipping. These can be cleaned
and reused
c. washing, by a curtain of water flowing down the face of a metal or porcelain grille,
or a spray through which the air is drawn
d. electrostatic filters, in which the suspended dust particles are ionized by a high
static electrical charge and stick to the face of electrode plates
0.3 Explain the process of cooling by ventilation with the help of example.
Ans. The moving air can be utilized as a heat conveying medium. Warm air heating is
usually combined with a mechanical ventilation system. Ventilation can also
provide a cooling effect simply by replacing the warm inside air with cooler
outside air.
In cold climates the need for cooling rarely arises. In warm climates the intention is
to keep the indoor air cooler than the out- door air, thus there can be no cooling by
ventilation. It can, however, be used quite successfully in a situation where the out­
door air is at a comfortable temperature or just below that, but there is a significant
internal heat gain (e.g. in a meeting room ora dance hall) which would cause
indoor overheating.
As an example, let us assume that the out- door temperature is 1 SoC; the indoor
temperature has risen to 2SoC and there is an internal heat gain of 5 kW, which
would cause a further increase of indoor temperature.
The temperature difference (LlT) is 2SoC -1 SoC= 1 OdegC. the specific heat of air is
1300 J/m3 deg C. Using the ventilation heat loss equation
Ov= 1300xVxLlT
5000=1300xVx 10
Wemust provide a ventilation rate of:
V= 5000
1300 X 10 = 0.385
m
3/
s
With an air velocity of 2 m/s the necessary duct cross- sectional area should be:
.,
0.385m3/s 2
---= 0.192m, e.g. 0.3OxO.64m
2m1s
A fan giving the above ventilation rate can be selected from catalogues.
Note. The above is an approximate calculation only: a mechanical engineer
would make allowances for frictional losses in ducts (velocity and pressure
gradients)
Another form of cooling by air movement is the 'physiological cooling' by directing
an air stream of substantial velocity at the body surface. This is achieved by table­
top or ceiling- mounted fans (punkahs), which do not provide air exchange, but
generate an air movement.
Q.4 What do you mean evaporative cooling? What is the purpose ofthis?
Ans. The evaporation of water absorbs a significant amount of heat. The .latent heat of
evaporation, at normal temperatures, is around 2400kj/kg of water. This
phenomenon can be successfully utilized forthe cooling of air when the air itself is
dry, so that the moisture does not cause inconvenience- and it may even improve
the conditions. This is likely to bethe case in hot-
In a mechanical installation, a very fine spray of water may be put across an air
intake duct to achieve maximum surface contact between air and water. {it must
be followed by a set of 'eliminator plates' which would trap and drain away any
small droplets of water carried by the fast moving air stream.} it may serve three
purposes:
1. 'Washing the air', that is water droplets will stick to dust particles, which can thus
no longer remain in suspension; they fall down and are washed away by the
surplus water.
2. . evaporative cooling,
3. humidification, i.e. the increase of relative humidity
In a warm- humid climate the first of these functions could be performed; the
second one only to a limited extent ( as the air is alreCidy humid, it will not take on
much extra moisture, especially if its temperature is lowered atthe same time)- but
the third one would definitely be undesirable: it would increase the humidity,
which is already too high.
Such water sprays can be utilized in warm- humid climates only as a preliminary
treatment of air if it is to be subsequently dehumidified.
Q.5 Write a short note on mechanical cooling?
Ans. The simplest example of mechanical cooling is the domestic refrigerator, shown
diagrammatically in figure 2.1. A suitable gas, the 'refrigerant', is Circulated in a
closed circuit by a compressor. This is most often a gas called Freon (CF2C12); at
least in small installations in large plants, such as cold storage building, ammonia
(NH
3
) or carbon dioxide (C0
2
) is often used: the former is toxic, therefore any
leakage may be troublesome; the latter requires very high pressure.
The circuit consists of two coils:
a. the warm coil or condenser, and
b. the cold coil or evaporator.
The two coils are connected on one side through a compressor and on the other
side through a pressure release valve. The warm coil is thus kept under high
pressure and the cold coil under a negative pressure. The refrigerant is in a liquid
state under compression and in a gaseous state under low pressure. Without
changing the heat content, compression increases the temperature; expansion
decreases it. When liquefying, the refrigerant releases its latent heat of
evaporation, and when evaporating, it absorbs a similar amount of heat.
The cycle can be described as follows:
a. compressor
(i) increases pressure
(ii) no change in heat content
(iii) temperature'from, say, O°C to 30°C
b. condenser
(i) no change in pressure
(ii) in condensation latent heat released and dissipated to the environment
(iii) temperature from 30 to, say, 26°C
c. pressure valve
(i) admits liquid only above a set pressure, thus guarantees a low pressure in
evaporator
(ii) no change in hea.t content·
(iii) temperature from 26to, say, _4
D
C
d. evaporator
(i) no change in pressure
(ii) in evaporation latent heat absorbed
(iii) heattaken from environment
(iv) temperature from -4 to, say,O°C
Ifthe evaporator coil is placed into an air.supply duct (instead of into a refrigerator
cabinet) the air blown across it will be cooled
- %
'l.
%
~
r
A,r _ ~
intake
~
£9
Fan
i
Figure 2.1
0.6 What are the various problems associated w;th cooling?
Ans. Ifthe air in a space is to be cooled, the space must be fully enclosed, otherwise the
cooled inside air and the warm outside air would mix. If doors and windows are
closed, the fresh air needed by the occupants must be supplied mechanically.
Thus cooling must be combined with some form of mechanical ventilation
system.
If the outside air is at a high temperature (30°C OBT) and of a medium humidity
(60%), this will be conditioned at the point of air intake. If it is to be cooled to 18°C
OBT, its RH will increase. It will actually reach saturation point at 21.SoC, so with
further cooling some moisture will condense and at the end we will have an 18°C
OBT air of 1 OORH. As the AH at 21.SoC is 16 g/kg, and at 18°C and 100RH it is
13 g/kg, 3 g of moisture will condense out of every kg of air passing through the
cooler. This condensate may be drained away, but the 1 OO%RH of the supplied air
would be the cause of acute discomfort.
T:oC RH:% AH;g/kg
cooled
30
21.S
18
60
100
100
16
16
13
Condensation
0.7 What is the use of Psychometric Chart? Explain with help oftaking example.
Ans. What we would like to get, is air at 18°C OBT and 60% RH. The only way to remove
moisture from the air is to force it to condense out. This can only be alone by
cooling when air is cooled to its dew point, the point indicating its condition on the
psychometric chart (Figure 2.3) would be moving horizontally across to the left.
When it reaches the extreme curve it to move 100%RH line, it has reached its dew
point. Further cooling would cause it to move along the 100%RH curve, down
point and to the left. The downward movement indicates that moisture is being
condensed out, i.e. the absolute humidity is being reduced.
What must be done here, is to cool the air far below the required 18°C DBT to get
rid of moisture and then reheat it to 18°C, without any addition of moisture, thus
reducing the relative humidity. The question now is : How far is it to be cooled?
First we have from the psychometric chart at what temperature this AH would
saturate the ai r.
All this can be done by using the psychometric chart without any calculations. If
any two of the DBT, RH, AH and WBT are known, the other two quantities can be
found from the chart.
The method is best illustrated by an example. The values in bold type are the ones
found from the psychometric chart:
DB,-oC RH% AH g/kg
Given condition:
Desired condition:
Cooled to:
Reheated to :
25
18
10.5
18
65
60
100
60
13
7.8
7.8
7.8
Incidentally it can be established that the 13-7.8 = 5.2 g/kg moisture will
condense..
Figure 2.2
Q.8 What is air conditioning? What are the various form of installation available for a
building?
Ans. The air, supplied to a room orto a building by mechanical means, offollowing type
can be:
i • propelled or moved
• filtered
• washed
• cooled
• dehumidified
• heated or reheated
The collective term for the machinery which carries out all these functions is 'air
handling plant', and the installation is referred to as air conditioning. Without
dehumidification the system is not air conditioning.
Figure 2.3 shown the schematic arrangement of an air conditioner. As an actual
piece of machinery, this may be available in the form of a box or unit conditioner
which can be built into a wall or a window, or for a large plant, each section can be
a separate unit and such section of the appropriate size and capacity can be
combined forthe desired sequence.
fr"" ai,
v--..;,
water
~
drain
boi_
tan
wWIef
cooling coil
eliminlllOr plates
heater
tube
Figure 2.3
I n principle a building installation can take one of the following three forms:
1. Central handling, Le. all the above functions are performed by a central plant and
all the required air is distributed through a duct system
2. Local handling, where the boiler and refrigeration plant is central, hot and chilled
water is circulated to local air handing units, each serving a certain section of the
building ( much less ductwork is necessary)
3. An induction system, where only a small proportion of the required air quantity is
treated centrally but it is dried or heated or cooled far beyond the required level
and it is distributed through small size circular ducts usually at high velocity and
before being discharge it is mixed with the room air through an induction unit.
Q.9 How can we control unit conditioner? Explain in detail the major components of
control system.
Ans. In its simplest form the unit conditioner can be controlled by manually turning a
few knobs. In its more refined form the air conditioning installation becomes a
self-regulating (homeostatic) system. Such control system has three major types
of components:
1 . Sensors; thermometers and hygrometers, constantly monitoring the conditions
and sending information to the control unit.
2. The control unit, which receives the above information and according to a set
programme issue 'instructions' for compensatory adjustments.
3. Servo-mechanisms: motorized valves, switches and dampers, which carry out
the above instructions and regulate all the processes, such as fan speed. rate of
airflow, temperature of cooling or heating, thus the rate of working for the boiler or
the cooling plants, etc.
Variations of solar heat gain differ from elevation. heat losses may depend on the
direction of wind internal heat gains may vary from one part of the building to
another. clearly various parts or zones of the building may require different
thermal adjustment at the same time .Thus a sophisticated system requires the
building to be subdivided into several or many zone, each of which is monitored
and conditioned independently.
In an extreme case it can happen that the northern part of a building requires
heating , whilst the south facing part is overheated and requires cooling . For
such extremes, the recently developed 'total energy concept' requires the various
zones to be interconnected, and if the situation so requires, the surplus heat of
one zone to be utilized in heating the under heated zone
Q. 10 Explain the air flow pattern around the building with the help a diagram.
Ans. When the architect's task is a to design more than one building, a cluster of buildings
or a whole settlement, especially in warm climate, in deciding the layout,
provision for air movement must be one of the most important consideration.
After a careful analysis of site climatic conditions a design hypothesis findings, on
the basis of general informative confirmation (or rejection) ofthis hypothesis can
only be provided by model studies in a wind simulator. If the construction of
adjustable or variable layout models is feasible, alternative arrangements can be
tested and the optimum can be selected.
The effect of tall blocks in mixed developments has been examined in
experiments conducted by the building Research Station at Garston. Figure 2.4
shows how the air stream separates on the face of a tall block, part of it moving up
and over the roof, part of it down, to form a large vortex leading to a very high
pressure build-up. An increased velocity is found at ground level at the sides of
the tall block. This could serve a useful purpose in hot climates, although ifthe tall
block is not fully closed but is permeable to wind, these effects may be reduced.
. ---...
~
Fisture 2.4
A series of studies in Australia, relating to low industrial buildings, produced the
surprising (but post facto obvious) result that if a low building is located in the
wind shadow of a tall block (Figure 2.5) , the increase in height of the obstructing
block will increase the air flow through the low building in a direction opposite to
that of wind. The lower (return-) wing of a large vortex would pass through the
building.
---
....
~
)
Figure 2.5
In Texas a series of experiments was directed at finding the downwind extent of a
turbulence zone, which was found to depend on building size, shape:type and
slope ofthe roof, but practically unaffected by wind velocity.
Experiments at the architectural Association Department of Tropical studies
yielded the following results:
a) It in a rural setting in open country, single stored buildings are placed in
rows in a grid-iron pattern, stagnant air zones leeward from the first row will
overlap the second row (Figure 2.6) . A spaCing of six times the building height is
necessary to ensure adequate air movement for the second row. Thus the 'five
times height' rule for spacing is not quite satisfactory.
m
­
---
~ = = = ' D:=:_ :=.= = ' - - = : ~
........ --­
~ D ~ - - - - ' - . - - = = = = = = ~
WIld 0 -­
~ ~ = - .P
... ...,,-----.-.. ....... ---­
Figure 2.6
b) In a similar setting, if the building are staggered in a checker- board pattern
the flow is much more uniform, stagnant air zones are almost eliminated (Figure
2.7).
-----rDil)

,.--­


-- --- :::------..:
Figure 2.7
Q. 11 Explain the stack effect in relation toventilation.
Ans. Ventilation, i.e. both the supply of fresh air and convective cooling, involves the
movement of air at a relatively slow rate. The motive force can be either thermal or
dynamic (wind)
The stack effect relies on thermal force set up by density difference ( caused by
temperature difference) between the indoor and out-door air. It can occur through
an open window (when the air is still): the warmer and lighter indoor air will flow
out at the top and the cooler, denser out-door air will flow in at the bottom. The
principle is the same as in wind generation.
Special provision can be made for it in the form of ventilating shafts. The higher the
shaft, the larger the cross-sectional area and the greater the temperature
difference, the greater the motive force therefore, the more air will be moved.
The motive force is the 'stack pressure' multiplied by the cross-sectional area
(force in Newtons- area in m2).The stack pressure can be calculated from the
equation.
P = h
s
Where· Ps = stack pressure in N/m2
h = height of stack in m
T = temperature di'fference in deg C
(the constant is N/m
3
deg C)
Such shafts are often used for the ventilation of internal, window less rooms
(bathrooms and toilets) in Europe. Figure 2.8 shows some duct arrangements for
multistory building, with vertical or horizontal single or double duct systems.
These systems operate satisfactorily under winter conditions when the
temperature difference is enough to generate an adequate airflow.
I t '1 I
'.
l tb,.
I t'j' i-
"I"
- t = - l , t ~
-! --it
.J
, J,.
' ...... '1
....... ..,.
.. ..., i'Iue,
----.... ­
---,­ t __
"1_..,­
Figure 2.8
Q.12 Explain the air flow pattern through the buildings with the help of a diagram.
Ans. As no satisfactory and complete theory is available, air flow patterns can only be
predicated on the basis of empirical rules derived from measurements in actual
building or in wind tunnel studies. Such empirical rules can give a useful guide to
the designer bur in critical cases it is advisable to prepare a model of the design
and test it on a wind simulator.
Wind simulators may be of the open-jet type or the wind tunnel type. The former
type is in use with the Architectural Association School of Architecture which has
been developed with the cooperation of the Department of Fluid Mechanics,
University of Liverpool. The latter type is best represented by an economical
model developed by the Building Research Station which is described in BRS
Current Paper 69/1968.
For qualitative studies a smoke generator can be used and the smoke traces can
be photographed. This gives a convincing picture offlow pattern, position laminar
flow and turbulences. With some practice the wind tunnel operator can estimate
velocity ratios from smoke traces with quite reasonable accuracy. For quantities
analyses air velocity or air pressure measurement must be taken with miniature
instruments at predetermined grid points.
l
,
On the basis of such experimental observations .the following factors can be
isolated which affect the indoor air flow (both pattern and velocities):
a orientation
b external features
c cross-ventilation
d position of openings
e size of openings
f controls of openings.
~ .
UNIT - 3 : THERMAL COMFORT
SECTION A
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. In the morning, heat starts entering the outer surface ofthe wall.
a. as out-door temperature increases
b. as indoor temperature increases
c. as out-door temperature decreases
d. as indoor temperature decreases
2. The direction of the heat flow is completely reversed, when the wall temperature
falls below the:
a. indoor temperature
b. outdoor temperature
c. both (a) & (a)
d. none ofthese
3. The units of specific heat is:
a. J/mdegC
b. !\11m degC
c. J/kgdegC
d. none ofthese
4. The units ofthermal diffusivity is:
a. m/sec
b. N/sec
c. m
2
/sec
d. noneoftheabove
5. The thermal capacity is a factor to be considered in:
a. Tropical climate
b. Warm humid climate
c. Moderate clirnate
d. All the above
6. The environment immediately outside and between building can be influenced by
the:
a) design of a settlement
b) grouping of building to a minor extent
c) both (a) &(b)
d) none of the above
7. Precisely controlled indoor climate can only be achieved by:
a. mechanical controls
b. natural controls
c. psychological controls
d. all the above
8. The temperature gradient between areas of concentrated
windows) and zone ofthe heat output units may be:
a. steep
b. uniform
c. gradual
d. none ofthe above
9. Dryness (very low humidity) is a result of:
a. cooling
b. heating
c. both (a) &(b)
d. none of the above
heat loss (e. 9
10. When cool air of medium humidity is heated, its relative humidity is:
a. decreased
b. increased
c. both (a) &(b)
d. none ofthe above
Answer Key
3 6 7
I ::: 1 1 2 ~ . a a 1 .C \4. C \5. C 1.. C 1. a Is. a I
"":,.
.... "':../<­
SECTION B
TRUE FALSE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. The objective of thermal control is to prevent heat loss.
2 . Under extreme conditions, when human existence is at risk, mechanical controls
are positively necessary.
3. The p r o c e s s e ~ involved in converting foodstuff into living matter and useful form
of energy are known as metabolism.
4. In nature the variation of climate conditions produces a non steady state.
5. Precisely controlled indoor climate can only be achieved by natural controls
Answer Key
I
1. T 2.T
3. T 4. T
5.F
SECTION C
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1. What are the various quantities characterizing the periodic change?
- ~ .
~ ~
?
Ans: The two quantities characterizing the periodic change are the time-lag (or phase
shift,) and the decrement factor (amplitude surface attenuation). The latter is the
ratio of the maximum outer and inner surface temperature amplitudes taken from
the daily mean.
2. What are the various objectives of thermal controls?
Ans: The objective of thermal controls are as follows:
a to prevent heat loss
b to utilize heat gain from the sun and internal sources
c to compensate for any net loss, by heating which uses some form of energy
supply
3. Under what conditions, mechanical controls are necessary?
Ans: Under extreme conditions, when human existence is at risk, mechanical controls
are positively necessary. When the conditions are such that only the degree
comfort is in question when the risk is a slight discomfort- the use of mechanical
controls is optional.
4. How can we achieve a preCisely controlled indoor climate?
Ans: Precisely controlled indoor climate can only be achieved by mechanical (active)
controls, but this may not be our aim, and even if it is, with adequate structural
controls, the task of mechanical controls is radically reduced and it becomes
more economical.
5. Write a note on heat and its production.
Ans: Heat is continuously produced by the body. Most of the biochemical processes
involved in tissue-building, energy conversion and muscular work are
exothermal, i.e. heat producing. All energy and material requirements ofthe body
are supplied from the consumption and digestion of food .The processes
involved in converting foodstuff into living matter and useful form of energy are
known as metabolism.
6. How the total metabolic heat production is divided into basal metabolism?
Ans: The total metabolic heat production can be divided into basal metabolism, i.e. the
heat production of vegetative; automatic processes and the muscular
metabolism, i. e. the heat production of muscles whilst carrying out consciously
controlled work. Of all the energy produced in the body, only about 20% is utilized,
the remaining 80% is 'surplus' heat and must be dissipated to environment.
7. Write a note on effective temperature.
Ans: . The first such scale was produced by Houghton and Yaglou in 1923, working at
the American society of Heating and Ventilation Engineers. Their findings were
plotted on a psychometric chart, producing' equal comfort lines'. The named the
new scale as effective temperature and it can be defined as the temperature
of a still saturated atmosphere
8. Give some detail about Equatorial Comfort Index.
Ans: This was developed by C G Webb in Singapore during 1960. Subjective
responses not acclimatized subjects were recorded together with measurements
of air temperature, humidity and air movement· the experimentally· found
relationships were organized into a formula and shown on a graph, very similar to
the ET nomogram.
SECTION D
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS,
~ " - i
Q1 What do mean by periodic heatflow? Explain in detail.
Ans. In nature the variation of climatic conditions produces a non steady state. Diurnal
variations produce an approximately repetitive 24- hour cycle of increasing and
decreasing temperatures. The effect of this on a building is that in the hot period
heatflow from the environment into the building, where some of it is stored, and at
night during the cool period the heat flow' is reversed: from the building, to the
environment. As the cycle is repetitive, it can be described as periodic heat flow.
Time: IegC.,.
, ~
i
I
;
I
.... .
,.,-- ....,
1i max ",.
' Mean
24.00 6 . ~
Decrement factor : J1" T
j
max
T.m.lX
Figure 3.1
The diagram given in Figure 3.1 shown the diurnal variations of external and
internal temperatures in a periodically changing thermal regime .In the morning,
as the out door temperature increases, heat starts entering the outer surface of
the wall. Each particle in the wall will absorb a certain amount of heat for every
degree of rise in temperature; depending on the specific heat of the wall rnaterial
.Heat to the next particle will only be transmitted after the temperature of the first
particle has increased. Thus the corresponding increase of the internal surface
temperature will be delayed, as shown by the broken line.
The out-door temperature will have reached its peak and started decreasing,
before the inner surface temperature has reached the same level. From this
moment the heat stored in the wall will be dissipated partly to the outside and only
partly to the inside. As the out-door air wall temperature falls below the indoor
temperature the direction ofthe heat flow is completely reversed.
The two quantities characterizing this periodic change are the time-lag (or phase
shift,) and the decrement factor (amplitude surface attenuation). The latter is the
ratio of the maximum outer and inner surface temperature amplitudes taken from
the daily mean.
0.2 Explain the heat exchange process in building?
Ans. The Human body was considered as a defined unit and its heat exchange
processes with the environment were analysed .The building can similarly be
considered as a defined unit and its heat exchange processes with the out-door
environment can be examined (Figure 3.2)
Ot + O. :.t:: Q
c
1: Q.. ± Om ­ Q • ... 0
Figure 3.2
a
b
Conduction of heat may occur through the walls either inwards or outwards the
rate of which will be denoted as Oc (convective and radiant components in the
transfer ofthe same heat atthe surface are included in the term: transmittance)
The effect of solar radiation on opaque surface can be included in the above by
using the sol-air temperature concept, but through transparent surface(windows)
the solar heafgain must be considered separately. It may be denoted as as.
c Heat exchange in either direction may take place with the movement of air, i.e.
ventilation, and the rate ofthis will be denoted as Ov,
d An internal heat gain may result from the heat output of human bodies ,lamps,
motors and appliances, This may be denoted as 0
1
,
e There may be a deliberate introduction or removal of heat (heating or cooling ),
using some form of outside energy supply. The heat flow rate of such mechanical
controls may be denoted as O ~ .
f Finally, if evaporation takes placed on the surface of the building (e. g .a roof
pool) or within the building (human sweat or water in a fountain) and the vapours
are removed, this will prod uce a cooling effect, the rate of which will be denoted as
Oe·
The thermal balance, Le. the existing thermal condition is maintained if:
O;+Os±Oc± Qv±Qm-Oe==O
If the sum of this equation is less than zero (negative), the building will be cooling
and if it is more than zero, the temperature in the building will increase.
0.3 What are the various objectives ofthermal control?
Ans. The objective of thermal controls are as follows:
1 When cold discomfort conditions prevail:
a to prevent heat loss
b to utilize heat gained from the sun and internal sources
c to compensate for any net loss, by heating which uses some form of energy
supply
2 When hot discomfort conditions prevail:
a to prevent heat gain
b to maximize heat loss
c to remove any excess heat by cooling,
supply
which uses some form of energy
3 When conditions vary diurnally between hot and cold discomfort:
a to even out variations
b (1) in the cold phase and (2) in the hot phase (as above)
c to compensate for both excesses by a flexible heating cooling systems
Objectives listed under a and b in each group can be achieved by structural or
constructional (passive) means, item a in each group is the task of mechanical or
energy- based (active) controls.
0.4 Explain the degree of control-under various conditions.
Ans. Under extreme conditions, when human existence is at risk, mechanical controls
are positively necessary. When the conditions are such that only the degree
comfort is in question when the risk is a slight discomfort- the use of mechanical
controls is optional.
As D H K Lee expresses it 'the degree of sophistication (in environmental
39 BCO - 3.7
controls) is largely a socio-economic question' in other words, we are capable of
creating and maintaining any specified set in indoor conditions, but both our
preference and the refinement of control- installations will depend on our social
status, on the standards of the society we live in and on the financial means at our
disposal. A value judgment will be involved in deciding what degree of comfort we
want to achieve and how much we are prepared to pay for it.
The environment immediately outside and between building can be influenced by
the design Of a settlement and by the grouping of building to a minor extent
Figure 3.3 shows that the extremities of climatic variations can be attenuated by
such means.
N.atural conditions
5
J
Microclimllt. control (MWement)
Structural controls (buUding.

:u


Figure 3.3
Structural (passive) means of control can provide a further leveling out of the
climatic variations, and often even comfort conditions can be achieved by such
means.
Precisely controlled indoor climate can only be achieved by mechanical
controls (the straight line in Figure 3.3),but this may not be our aim, and even if it
is, with adequate structural controls, the task of mechanical controls is radically
reduced and it becomes more economical.
a.5
Ans.
What are the various problem associated with heati ng?
Heating may be the answer to an environmental problem ,but it will create some of
its own problems.
40 BCO - 3.7
Distribution of heat, evenly, throughout the heated space is not an easy task. The
temperature gradient between areas of concentrated heat loss (e. g wtndows)
and zone ofthe heat output units may be so steep that strong convection currents
(draughts) are generated, adversely affecting comfort conditions and causing, for
instance, discoloration of surface.
Dryness (very low humidity) is a result of heating. When cool air of medium
....~ ' : ~ humidity is heated, its relative humidity is decreased. For example, air at 0 °C DBT
and 60% RH, heated to 20°C DBT, will cause the RH to drop to 15%.
Condensation can be caused indirectly. The warm indoor air will really take on
moisture from any available source: human exhalation (around 45 g/h per
person), cooling, kettles, baths etc. Its RH increases, consequently its dewpoint
temperature is also increased. Air at 20°C DBT and 80%RH will have a dewpoint
temperature of 16.5°C. It only needs to come into contact with a surface of 16°C
and condensation will appear. Interstitial condensation may soak the wall material
and increase its conductivity, thus lowering the wall surface temperature, which in
turn further increase the condensation.
None of these problem is likely to arise in tropical climates (except with artificial
cooling), but it is useful to understand the principles involved, which may be
relevant under any sort of conditions.
0.6 What are the needs for structural controls in building?
Ans. 'The use of massive air conditioning plants to correct an ill-conceived
environment does not differ in principle from the use of a masonry fagade to hide
unnecessarily ugly concrete structure'.
'The Climate ... presents a challenge to the architect not satisfied with substituting
mechanical equipmentfor good design'.
These statements express an unequivocal ethical attitude to architectural design.
V Olgyay arrives at a similar conclusion by way of a pragmatic approach: 'We do
not expect to solve the problems of uncomfortable conditions by natural means
only. The environmental elements aiding us have their limits. But it is expected
that the architect should build the shelter in such a way as to bring out the best of
the natural possibilities'.
E T Weston sums it up most poignantly:' The less plant and fuel , the more
satisfactory the result'.
Referring to Figure 3.3 ,we could summaries the task of environmental controls as
follows.
To ensure the best possible indoor thermal conditions by relying on structural
(passive) controls, which may obviate the need for any mechanical (active)
controls, but even if mechanical controls do have to be resorted to, their task will
thereby be reduced to a minimum.
0.7 How the thermal insulation is used for controlling the thermal environment? Also
explain the thermal capacity along with this.
Ans. A construction with a low U- value (air-to-air) transmittance will reduce all forms of
conduction, heat transfer through the building envelope. Such a conduction heat
flow would be large, if the temperature difference were large .With small
temperature differences between the inside and outside, the heat flow would be
small anyway; an improvement in thermal insulation would not bring any
significant reduction.
However, it is worth remembering, that in a heat gain situation, with strong solar
radiation, it is the sol-air temperature value which must be used to find the
temperature difference acting as a motive force for heat flow may be large,
consequently insulation may be important.
Insulation will be most effective under steady state conditions, or ifthe direction of
the heat flow is constant for long period of the time- especially for heated or air
conditioned buildings. Where the direction of heat flow is twice reversed in every
24- hour cycle, the significance of insulation will be diminished.
Under conditions with large diurnal temperature variations the significance of
thermal capacity will be much greater than the insulation. Some authors refer to
the effect of thermal capacity, as capacitive insulation, as opposed to resistive
insulation provided by low conductivity materials and low transmittance
constructions.
O. 8 Write a short note on mechanical cooling?
Ans. The simplest example of mechanical cooling is the domestic refrigerator, shown
diagrammatically in figure 3.4. A suitable gas, the 'refrigerant', is circulated in a
closed circuit by a compressor. This is most often a gas called Freon (CF
2
CI
2
); in
small installations in large plants, such as cold storage building, ammonia (NH3)
or carbon dioxide (C0
2
) is often used: the former is toxic, therefore any leakage
may be troublesome; the latter requires very high pressure.
The circuit consists of two coils:
a) the warm coil or condenser, and
b) the cold coil or evaporator.
The two coils are connected on one side through a compressor and on the other
side through a pressure release valve. The warm coil is thus kept under high
pressure and the cold coil under a negative pressure. The refrigerant is in a liquid
state under compression and in a gaseous state under low pressure. Without
changing the heat content, compression increases the temperature; expansion
decreases it. When liquefying, the refrigerant releases its latent heat of
evaporation, and when evaporating, it absorbs a similar amount of heat.
------
.... ~ ': ...<!'
The cycle can be described as follows:
a. compressor
(i) increases pressure
(ii) no change in heat content
(iii) temperature from, say, OOC to 30°C
b. condenser
(i) no change in pressure
(ii) in condensation latent heat released and dissipated to the environment
(iii) temperature from 30to, say, 26°C
c. pressure valve
(i) admits liquid only above a set pressure, thus guarantees a low pressure in
evaporator
(ii) no change in heat content
(iii) temperature from 26 to, say, -4°C
d. evaporator
(i) no change in pressure
(ii) in evaporation latent heat absorbed
(iii) heattaken from environment
(iv) temperature from -4 to, say, OOC
If the evaporator coil is placed into an air supply duct (instead of into a refrigerator
cabinet) the air blown across it will be cooled
AIr --+­
Intake
%
~
h
~
~
7
t
Fan
Figure 3.4
A'l. Rl"'n ~ 'l. 7
_... -_.._.._----_._---- .--.--...- . - - . - - - ~ ..--------....,.-.---------.--.----- -. - . - . - - - - - - - - - - . - - - - ~ ~ . -_._-----_. ­ - . - - - - - - - - - ~ . - - - . ~ - - . - -
0.9 Explain the body's heat production factorforthermal comfort in detail.
Ans. Heat is continuously produced by the body. Most of the biochemical processes
involved in tissue-building, energy conversion and muscular work are
exothermal, i.e. heat producing. All energy and material requirements ofthe body
are supplied from the consumption and digestion of food. The processes
involved in converting foodstuff into living matter and useful form of energy are
known as metabolism.
The total metabolic heat production can be divided into basal metabolism, i.e. the
heat production of vegetative; automatic processes which are continuous, and
the muscular metabolism, i. e. the heat production of muscles whilst carrying out
consciously controlled work. Of all the energy produced in the body, only l3.bout
20% is utilized, the remaining 80% is 'surplus' heat and must be dissipated to
environment.
This excess heat production varies with the overall metabolic rate, and depends
on the activity. The following table indicates t ~ l e rate of excess heat output of the
body in various activities.
Activity watts
Sleeping min. 70
Sitting, mode·rate movement, e.g. typing 130-16
Standing, light work at machiner or bench 160-190
Sitting, heavy arm and leg movements 190-230
Standing, moderate work, some walking 220-290
Walking, moderate lining or pushing 290-410
Intermittent heavy lifting, digging 440-580
Hardest sustained work 580-700
Maximum heavy work for 30-minuties duration max.1100
(Average values of data published in many sources)
0.10 Define the following tomes
a) Effective Temperature (ET)
b) Corrected Effective Temperature (LET)
c) Equivalent Warmth (EW)
d) Operative Temperature (OT)
Ans. a) Effective Temperature (ET) : The first such scale was produced by Houghton
and Yaglou in 1923, working at the American society of Heating and Ventilation
Engineers. Theirfindings were plotted on a psychometric chart, producing' equal
comfort lines'. They named the new scale as effective temperature and it can be
44 BCO - 3.7
i
defined as the temperature of a still saturated atmosphere, which would, in the
'absence of radiation, produce the same effect as the atmosphere in question. In
, 1947 Yaglou slightly revised the scale, but other modifications also become
generally accepted.
b) Corrected Effective Temperature (LET) : Whilst the ET scale integrates the
effects of three variable originally of temperature and humidity but a later from
included air movement- the corrected effective temperature scale also includes
radiation effects. This is at presentthe most widely used one.
c) Equivalent Warmth (EW) : Experiments were carried out by Bedford in
England among over 2000 factory workers. The subjects were engaged in light
work, under varying indoor conditions. Air temperature, humidity and mean
radiant temperature were measured and recorded together with the subjective
response of the workers. Surface temperature of skin and clothing were also
measured and recorded. After correlating the findings, using statistical analysis
methods, the equivalent warmth scale was constructed and defined by a
nomogram. It is now thought to be reliable within the comfort zone up to 35°C with
low RH and up to 30°C with high RH, but it underestimates the cooling effect of air
movement with high humidities.
d) Operative Temperature (OT) : Another scale was developed in USA, by
Winslow, Herrington and Gagge, in principle very similarto the scale of equivalent
warmth. It combined the effect of radiation and air temperature .Studies were
carried out for a specific region with cool conditions, where the effects of humidity
were small and the rate of air movement was also negligible.
Q.11 Explain the following index related to thermal comfort Indices.
a) Equatorial Comfort Index
b) Heat Stress Index
c) Index ofthermal stress
Ans.
a) Equatorial Comfort Index: This was developed by C G Webb in Singapore
during 1960. Subjective responses not acclimatized subjects were recorded
together with measurements of air temperature, humidity and air movement
the experimentally - found relationships were organized into a formula and
shown on a graph, very similarto the ET nomogram.
b) Heat Stress Index: On the basis of theoretical considerations similar to the
above, a further scale was developed in the USA. Several Physiological
assumptions were made and calculation methods evolved to find an
indication of heat stress on the basis of Environmental measurements.
Metabolic heat production of subjects dOing various kinds of work was
measured and taken as an indication of heat stress.
A<: Cf"'f"\ ~ '7
....~ ":....t-
It is thought to be reliable for stHl air between 27 and 35 ce, 30 and 80% RH
and for lower humidities if temperatures are higher, but unsuitable for the
comfort zone.
c) Index of thermal stress: After reviewing and checking the validity and
reliability of many previous thermal indices Givoni set out to establish a new
index from first prinCiples. The index of thermal stress developed by him is the
calculated cooling rate produced by sweating, which would maintain thermal
balance under the given conditions. The calculation is based on a refined
biophysical model of the man environment thermal system. The index takes
into account all the subjective and objectives thermal factors. Its usefulness
extends from comfortable to overheated conditions as far as the
physiological adjustments are able to maintain thermal balance.
Due to complex calculations involved ,its use is probably restricted to research
workers and it is not used by practititioners.
46
Rr.n. :'I 7
UNIT 4 : DAY LIGHTING
SECTION A
MUI.:rIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Artificial lighting depends on:
a. location
b. climate
c. building fabric
d. externally given conditions
. 2.
One nanometer is equals to metres .
a. 10-9m
b. 10-6m
c. 10-3m .
d. none ofthe above
3. The ultimate source of day light is:
a. moon
b. sun
c. sky
d. all the above
4. Wavelength band of electromagnetic radiation varies from about:
a. 280to 580 nm
b. 18Oto 480 nm
c. 38Oto 780 nm
d. none of the above
5. From sun, we receive large amount of:
a. thermal radiation
b. light
c. both (a) &(b)
d. none ofthe above
Answer Key:
1. d 2.a , 3.b I 4.c S.c
SECTION B
TRUE FALSE TYPE QUESTIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The intensity of alight source is measured in units of degree celcius.
The whole of the sky hemisphere acts as a light source in moderate climate
The lumination level for casual seeing is 50 lux
Wavelength band of electromagnetic radiation varies from about 28Oto 580 nm
Hot- dry desert climates are characterized by strong direct sunlight from
cloudless skies.
Answer Key:
1. F
2. T I· 3. F
4.F 5. T
SECTION C
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1. What is the source of artificial lighting? What are the factors on which it depends?
Ans: In artificial lighting the light source itself is under the designer's (users) control. In
.:.,r
day lighting the source (sun and sky) is given, thus if control is necessary, it must
be in transmission and distribution. Artificial lighting is practically independent of
location, climate or even of the building fabric; day lighting, however, strongly
depends on the externally given conditions and its control is only possible by the
building itself.
2. What do you mean by the nature of light?
Ans: What we perceive as light, is a narrow wavelength band of electromagnetic
radiation from about 380 to 780 nm (1 nanometer = 10 -9m). This energy radiation
shows dual characteristics: it consists of energy particles - photons - but also
shows transverse wave motion properties
3. Howthe intensity of light is measured?
Ans: The intensity of a light source: is measured in units of candela (cd). This is the
basic assumed and agreed unit in the international system (defined as the
intensity of a 1/60 cm
2
uniformly emitting black body radiator at the melting point
temperature of platinum) - all other units are derived from this.
4. What do you mean by illumination?
Ans: Illumination (symbol, E}is measured as the amount of flux falling on unit area, i.e.
im/m
2
which is the lux, the unit of illumination in the international system.
Luminance (symbol: L) is the measure of brightness of a surface.
5. What are the different purpoSe of light?
Ans: The purpose of lighting is two fold:
a. practical- to facilitate the performance of a visual task and ensure visual comfort
b. artistic - to create certain emotional effects
6. How the units of Luminance are derived?
Ans: Units for its measurement can be derived in two ways:
1. If a light source of 1 cd intensity has a surface area of 1 m
2
(1 cd is distributed over
1m2) its luminance is 1 cd/m2. this is the official SI unit
2. If a completely reflecting and diffusing surface (r = 1.00) has an illumination of 1
lux, its luminance is 1 asb(apostilb)
The two units measure the same quantity arid directly convertible - 1 cd/m
2
=
3.14asb.
7. What are the various sources by which a light can reach in a building?
Ans: If we consider a point inside a building, light may reach it from the sun in the
following ways
a. diffused or skylight through a window or opening.
b. externally reflected light (by the ground or other buildings) , through the same
windows
c. internally reflected light from walls, ceiling or other internal surfaces
d. direct sunlight, along a straight path from the sun, through a window to the given
point
8. Give the condition of light in different climates.
Ans: In warm-humid climates the sky is typically overcast, with a luminance often
exceeding 7000 cd/m2. the proportion of diffused or skylight is predominant and
the very bright sky viewed from a moderately lit room can cause discomfort glare.
In composite climates wide variations occur in natural lighting, between overcast
and clear sky conditions.
9. How we can characterized the hot dry desert climate?
Ans: Hot-dry desert climates are characterized by strong direct sunlight from cloudless
skies. Direct sunlight is usually excluded from buildings for thermal reasons. The
sky is typically of a deep blue color and its luminance may be as low as 1700
cd/m2 notenough to ensure adequate day lighting.
10. What is the source of day light?
Ans: The ultimate source of daylight is the sun, from which we receive a large amount
of thermal radiation together with the light. In bright sunshine the illumination is
around 100 klux (100000 lux), the intenSity of thermal radiation is likely to be about
1 kW/m
2
<::"
Oi'r\ _ ~ 7
SECTION D
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
O. 1 What is the role of day lighting in building science?
Ans. If the building envelope is thought of as a barrier between the internal controlled
environment and the external, undesirable conditions, it must be realized that it
should be a selective barrier, or rather a filter, which excludes the unwanted
influences whilst admits those which are desirable. One such desirable effect is
daylight.
Perhaps the most important communication channel of man with his environment
is vision. The eye is stimulated by light reflected from objects, thus light is a
prerequisite of seeing. Light can be produced artificially (e;g. electric light), but if it
is available - 'free of charge' - it should be utilized.
In artificial lighting the light source itself is under the designer's (user's) control. In
day lighting the source (sun and sky) is given, thus if control is necessary, it must
be in transmission and distribution. Artificial lighting is practically independent of
location, climate or even of the building fabric; day lighting, however, strongly
depends on the externally given conditions and its control is only possible by the
building itself.
The ultimate source of daylight is the sun, from which we receive a large amount
of thermal radiation together with the light. In bright sunshine the illumination is
around 100 klux (1 00000 lux), the intenSity ofthermal radiation is likely to be about
1 kW/m2. In climates where the heat balance is negative, i.e. overheating is not
likely, thermal considerations will rarely restrict the amount to be admitted in the
tropics. The admission of an abundant quantity of daylight will be accompanied
by radiant heat which is probably excessive. Thus the 'filter' function of the
envelope will be even more important. We must attempt to exclude radiant heat
while admitting daylight. Where this cannot be done, thermal considerations will
restrictthe amount of light which can be admitted. This means thatthere must be a
fundamental di'fference in approach to day lighting design,
0.2 Discuss aboutthe nature of light in detail?
Ans. What we perceive as light, is a narrow wavelength band of electromagnetic
radiation from about 380 to 780 nm (1 nanometer = 10 -9m). This energy radiation
shows dual characteristics: it consists of energy particles - photons - but also
shows transverse wave motion properties. The wavelength determines its colour.
Light containing all visible waves is perceived as white. The human eye's
sensitivity varies with the wavelength; it is greatest around 550 nm (yellow) as
shown by Figure 4.1 .
1.0 i :::ao< >''t:
0-81 II In 1\
c - cones,photopie wiaion1
c:>e I I II \I 't
R • AXIl. cotl:lpic vision
()4 I ! .( i I " \:1
<>2i IJ' ';1 1'1\
fMIIra... 10 IQU8I energies
...... .=:? i-=-attf
o 500 AIOO In
700 600
Figure 4.1 Spectral sensitivity of the eye
Q.3 What are the various photometric quantities of light?
Ans. The intensity of a light source is measured in units of candela (cd). This is the
basic assumed and agreed unit in the international system (defined as the
intensity of a 1/60 cm
2
uniformly emitting black body radiator at the melti ng point
temperature of platinum) all otherunits are derived from this.
The flux (or flow) of light (symbol: F) is measured in lumens (1m). One lumen isthe
flow of lightemitted by a U I ~ i t intensity (1 cd) point source, within a unit solid angle.
As the surface of a sphere subtends at its centre 4n (= 12.56) unit of solid angle, a
1 cd point source will emit a total of 12.561m in all directions.
Illumination (symbol, E) is measured as the amount of flux falling on unit area, i.e.
im/m2which is the lux, the unit of illumination in the international system.
Luminance (symbol: L) is the measure of brightness of a surface. Units for its
measurement can be derived in two ways:
1 . If a light source of 1 cd intensity has a surface area of 1 m
2
(1 cd is distributed over
1m2) its luminance is 1 cd/m2. this is the official 81 unit
2. If a completely reflecting and diffusing surface (r = 1.00) has an illumination of 1
lux, its luminance is 1 asb(apostilb)
The two units measure the same quantity and directly convertible- 1 cd/m2 =
3.14asb.
Q.4 What is the purpose of lighting? How will you measure visual efficiency to support
lighting?
Ans. The purpose of lighting is two fold:
a. practical - to facilitate the performance of a visual task and ensure visual
comfort
b. artistic - to create certain emotional effects
For practical purposes we need to measure visual efficiency, as this strongly
depends on lighting. It can be measured on its three facets:
'i?
cr'/",. ':l 7
1
1. visual acuity, or sharpness of vision, measured as the reciprocal of the visual
angle p (expressed in minutes) subtended at the eye by the least perceptible
detail. For example, ifthe least perceptible detail subtends an angle of 2' the acuity
will be
1 1
=---
0.5
2
P
2. contrast sensitivity (cs), measured as the ratio ofthe least perceptible luminance
difference (L2-L 1) to the lower of the two luminance;
3. visual performance, i.e. the time required for seeing, expressed as the number of
characters perceived per second or on any comparative scale
\
cs = ~ - ~ X 100(%)
~
Q.5 What is the source of day light? How light can reach in a building?
Ans. The ultimate source of daylight is, the sun, but the light arriving at the earth from
the sun may be partly· diffused by the atmosphere and the locally prevailing
atmospheric conditions will determine howthis light will reach a building.
It we consider a point inside a building, light may reach it from the sun by the
following ways (Figure 4.2)
a. diffused or skylightthrough a window or opening
b. externally reflected light (by the ground or other buildings), through the same.
windows
c. internally reflected lightfrom walls, ceiling or other internal surfaces
d. direct sunlight, along a straight path from the sun, through a window to the given
point
ext......, reIIttted liFt c • :or skylighl It "" ... inlemally reflected light
Figure 4.2 Daylight entering a building
0.6 What is the role of climate in light? Discuss in detail
Ans. In high latitude moderate climates, where the sky is typically overcast, the whole
ofthesky hemisphere acts as a light source. Direct sunlight may occur, but cannot
be relied on. The sky itself has a luminance sufficiently high to provide lighting in
normal rooms. On the basis of many observations the commission International
de I' Eclair age (CIE) has established the luminance distribution of a typical
overcast sky, as varying according to the function:
ly=Lh x(1+2xsiny)
Where Ly = luminance at y altitude angle
Lh = luminance at the horizon
Thus the zenith luminance (L z) =3 x L h [75].
Hot- dry desert climates are characterized by strong direct sunlight from
cloudless skies. Direct sunlight is usually excluded from buildings for thermal
reasons. The sky is of a deep blue color and its luminance may be as low as 1700
cd/m2 - not enough to ensure adequate day lighting. This clear sky usually has the
highest luminance near the horizon and the lowest luminance at right angles to
the sun. The bare, dry sunlit ground and light colored walls of other buildings will
reflect much light which will be the main. source of indoor day lighting. It may,
however, also be the source of glare, when these strongly lit light surfaces are
within the visual field. Light dust suspended in the air may create a haze and
increase the apparent sky brightness up to 10000 cd/m
2
, but the frequent heavy
dust andsand- storms can reduce it to below 850cd/m2.
In warm-humid climates the sky is typically overcast, with a luminance often
exceeding 7000 cd1m
2
• The proportion of diffused or skylight is predominant and
the very bright sky viewed from a moderately lit room can cause discomfort glare.
In composite climates wide variations occur in natural lighting, between overcast
and clear sky conditions.
0.7 What do you mean by daylight factor concept? What are the various factor which
contribute to the day light factor?
Ans. Due to the variability of out-door lighting levels it is difficult (and perhaps meaning­
less) to calculate interior lighting in photometric illumination terms. However, in a
given building, at a certain point the ratio of the illumination to the simultaneous
out-door illumination can be taken as constant. This constant ratio, expressed as
a percentage, is the daylightfactor (DF):
DF= Eix100(%)
Eo
Where Ei = illumination indoors, at the point taken
Eo =illumination out-doors from an unobstructed sky hemisphere
1
2
3
j
Q.8
~ .
Ans.
. ':'.
Q.9
Ans.
The daylight factor remains constant only under over-cast sky conditions when
there is no direct sunlight. Thus three components will contribute to the daylight
factor:
sky component (SG)
externally reflected component (ERG)
internally reflected component (IRG)
Thus: DF=SC+ERC+IRC
What do you mean by scalar illumination and illumination vector?
Lighting conditions are usually described, measured or specified in terms of
illumination on a given plane, most often the horizontal 'working plane' (taken at
desk or bench height), but possibly a vertical or inclined plane. In other words, we
usually speak of 'planar illumination.'
This, however, does not describe all the luminous qualities of a space. Even if the
illumination on a horizontal plane is adequate, the vertical surfaces may remain
dark, if the visual task is two dimensional, and qualities other than the planar
illumination must be considered.
Scalar illumination (mean spherical illumination) is the average illumination
received on the surface of a small sphere from all directions. It is denoted as Es
and measured in lux. It measures the total quantity of light present regardless of its
direction.
The illumination vector is a composite quantity having both magnitude and
direction. Its magnitude is the maximum difference in illumination between two
diametrically opposed pOints on the surface of a small sphere (denoted LlEmax
and measured in lux). Its direction is given by the diameter connecting the two
points between which its magnitude is measured. This direction is defined in
terms of two angles: one horizontal (from a reference direction) and one vertical
(from a horizontal up) .
The vector/scalar ratio is a measure of the directionality of light and a good
indicator of its modeling qualities.
When LlErnax = 4, we have a completely mono-directional light. In practice this
Es
value is always less than 4. A value of 0 would indicate a perfectly diffuse omni­
directional lighting.
Explain the design sky concept in buildings which will ensures adequate daylight
in all conditions of lighting?
When the daylight factor for a given point has been established it can be
converted into an illumination value, ifthe out door illumination is known.
--
--
· For example, if DF = 8% and EO 6000 lux
DF= Eix100
Eo
8= Ei x100
6000
E, = 8 x 6000 = 480 lux
100
By statistical evaluation of long- term illumination records an out-door illumination
Level (Eo) can be established for a given location, which is exceeded in 90% (or
85%) of the time daylight hours (the ninetieth or eighty fifty percentile illumination
level). This is taken as the design sky' illumination value for the particular location.
With this the above calculation can be reversed and used as a basis of design,
according to the following steps:
1 established required illumination level, E,- e.g. 300 lux
2 ascertain local 'design sky' illumination, Eo e.g. 9000 lux
3 calculate necessary daylight factor:
DF = 300 x 1 00 = 3.33%
9000
4 manipulate the design variables (window size, etc.) to achieve this daylightfactor
This method ensures that the required indoor illumination level will be reached or
exceeded in 90% of the time. The remaining 10% of the time is likely to occur in
short spells, fairly rarely, when human adaptability may be relied on: the visual
task may be taken closer to a window or artificial lighting may be used. To provide
for such rare occurrences would be uneconomical and unduly restrictive,
resulting in excessive lighting most ofthe time.
Some typical 'design sky' illumination values (in lux) are:
London lat. 52°- 5000
Hobart lat. 43°-5500
Sydney lat. 33°- 8000
Brisbane lat. 27°- 10000
Darwin lat. 1 0°- 15000
Nairobi
lat. 1
0
_ 18000
0""''' ')7
, ~ ,
UNIT - 5 : ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING
SECTION A
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. Which type of com ponent is found by using the nomograms?
"':':4'
a. sky component
b. externally reflected component
1
c. internally reflected component
d. all the above
2. Which type of component is found by using the daylight protractors?
a. sky component
b. reflected component
c. absorbent component
d. all the above
3. Total quantity of light present regardless of its direction represents:
a. scalar illumination
b. vector illumination
c. both (a) &(b)
d. noneoftheabove
4. The illumination vector is a composite quantity having:
a. direction
b. magnitude
-
. '.
c . both direction and magnitude
d. neither direction nor magnitude
5. In which a current is passed through a tungsten filament is:
a. Incandescent lamps
b. Fluorescent lamps
c. Both of above
d. Noneoftheabove
Answer Key
1. b I 2. a I 3. a I 4. c 1
5
. a I
SECTION B
TRUE FALSE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Scalar illumination (or mean spherical illumination) is the average illumination
received on the surface of a small sphere from all directions.
2. The vector/scalar ratio is a measure of the directionality of light and a good
indicator of its modeling qualities.
3. The illumination vector is a composite quantity having magnitude only.
4. Incandescent lamps, in which a current is passed through a tUilgsten filament,
which will thus be heated and its light emission will be due to thermo­
luminescence
5. Incandescent lamps have a luminous efficiency of 10 t016Im/w, whilstfluorescent
lamps give 40 t070 Im/w.
Answer Key
1. T 2.T 3.F 4.T S.T
58 eco 3.7
SECTION C
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1. What do you mean by Scalar Illumination?
Ans: Scalar illumination (or mean spherical illumination) is the average illumination
received on the surface of a small sphere from all directions. It is denoted Es and
measured in lux. It measures the total quantity of light present regardless of its
direction.
2. What is the role of vector / scalar ratio?
Ans: The vector/scalar ratio is a measure of the directionality of light and a good
indicator of its modeling qualities.
When liE
max
= 4, we have a completely mono- directional light. In practice this
Es
value is always less than 4. A value of 0 would indicate a perfectly diffuse omni­
directional lighting.
3. What does an illumination vector represents?
Ans: The illumination vector is a composite quantity having both magnitude and
direction. Its magnitude is the maximum difference in illumination between two
diametrically opposed pOints on the surface of a small sphere (denoted liEmaxand
measured in lux). Its direction is given by the diameter connecting the two points
between which its magnitude is measured.
4. Give the values of illumination for some general situation.
Ans: The following values (in lux) can provide some general guidance.
• casual seeing 100
• ordinary tasks, medium detail (e.g. wood machining, general office work) 400
• severe, prolonged tasks (e.g. fine assembly, Silk weaving) 900
• exceptionally severe takes (e.g. Watch making) 2000-3000
5. What are the different types of electric lamps used in electric lighting?
Ans: Two types of electric lamps are most generally used in electric lighting:
a. Incandescent lamps, in which a current is passed through a tungsten filament,
which will thus be heated and its light emission will be due to thermo­
luminescence
b. Fluorescent lamps, in which an electric discharge place between two electrodes
59 BCO - 3.7
through low pressure mercury vapor (mixed with some auxiliary gases) and the
excited gas molecules emit an ultraviolet radiation.
6.
Ans:
Under what conditions, it is advisable to use fluorescent tubes?
If it is decided to use PSALI (permanent supplementary artificial lighting of the
interiors) in a hot-dry climate, the heat produced by electric lighting will increase
the indoor temperature. It is therefore advisable to minimize such heat production
by using fluorescenttubes.
7.
Ans:
Give some detail about incandescent lamp with example.
Incandescent lamps have a luminous efficiencyof10t016Im/w, whilst fluorescent
lamps give 40 t070 Im/w. Thus to achieve the same output, a much lesser lamp
wattage will be necessary with fluorescentthan with incandescent la.mps.
For example, a 200 w incandescent lamp may give about 2500 1m, but a 40 w
fluorescent tube will give almost the same output (the ballast coil1necessary to the
latter would give a load of about 8 w, thus the total circuit wattage Would be 48 w).
8.
Ans:
What do you mean by term Glare?
Glare (g) is a function of luminance ratio:
G =fL
1
~
WhereL
1
= the higher luminance value
~
= the lower luminance value
(f indicates 'function of ')
9.
Ans:
Give the comparison of values of illumination for different countries for different
conditions.
A comparison of recommendations in various countries.
50-150 150-130 USSR'"
Hungary* 150-300 300-500
600 2000-3000 UK
1500 5000-10000 USA
60 BCQ - 3.7
.,;
SECTION 0
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q. 1 Discuss in detail about illumination Quantity?
Ans. The eye responds to a range of illumination levels extending over a million orders
of magnitude:
from 0.1 lux (full moonlit night) to 100000 lux (bright sunshine)
Practical situations and various activities (thus various visual tasks), detailed
illumination requirements are given in publication. The following values (in lux)
can provide some general guidance.
casual seeing 100

ordinary tasks, medium detail (e.g. wood machining, general office work) 400


severe, prolonged tasks (e.g. fine assembly, Silkweaving)

exceptionally severe taks (e.g. Watch making)
1001 '7..... ".,.
..!!:

J :%0mw_M,_
• 2 10 20 tOO 100'000 "000 ....
IP..-cen'ltG":
I:

.-1=
.i
".' .
-
Contr_,
\
2000-3000
1=
.......... Iuml...nc.
I'\.

-
1..........-...
-

] 000 o. • 10 tOO >0000_'
A_reo- lumo..._ of "ltau.1 fietd
'I .:t


• 10
......
lit •
Illumi...tion
1
t "
20 .0 _ eotOO.20 ....
IN - not...... A - ••ti1il....tiC -vel
J
Figure 5.1 visual efficiency
As it can be seen from the graphs in Figure 5.1 , visual efficiency increases with the
increase of illumination but the curve flattens out at higher levels. The 'law of
diminishing returns' applies. The decision regarding the level to be adopted
depends, to a large extent on socio-cultural and economic factors- in other words
61 BCO- 3.7
900
on 'how light we can afford'. A comparison of recommendations in various
countries is rather revealing.
drawing officers exceptionally
(fairly server tasks) Severe tasks
lux lux
USSR*
Hungary*
UK[76]
USA[86]
50-150
150-300
600
1500
150-130
300-500
2000-3000
5000-10000
Q.2 How the luminance ratio is decided for different visuall:ields?
Ans. With stationary head and eyes the visual field of an average person extends to
180
Q
horizontally and 120
Q
vertically. Within this the 'central field' is limited to 2°
and the immediate 'background' extends to about 40Q.
Visual comfort and efficiency can be ensured by the control of luminance
distribution within the visual field.
The luminance ratios should be:
Central field: background: environment
5: 2 :1
but 10: 3 :1 should in no case be exceeded, as this may create glare.
The eye will adjust itself to the average luminance of the visual field
(adaptation) .With large contrasts this may lead to loss of seeing the less luminous
areas (under-exposure) and discomfort caused by the bright areas
(overexposure) .
Glare may also be caused by a saturation effect, even without any contrast, when
the average luminance exceeds about 25 000 cd/m
2
(80000 asb).
"
The magnitude of glare can be indicated by the terms 'discomfort glare' (in a less
severe case) and 'disability glare' (in a severe situation).
Q. 3 What are the various types of electric lamps used for artificial lighting? Explain.
Ans. Two types of electric lamps are generally used in electric lighting:
1 Incandescent lamps, in which a current is passed through a tungsten
filament, which will thus be heated and its light emission will be due to
thermo-luminescence
2 Fluorescent lamps, in which an electric discharge take place between two
electrodes through low pressure mercury vapor (mixed with some auxiliary
gases) and the excited gas molecules emit an ultraviolet radiation. This is
62 BCO - 3.7
absorbed by the fluorescent coating on the inside of the glass tube and re­
emitted atvisiblewavelengths.
Incandescent lamps have a luminous efficacy of 10 t016Im/w, while fluorescent
lamps give 40 t070 Im/w. thus to achieve the same output, a much lesser lamp
wattage will be necessary with fluorescent than with incandescent lamps.
For example, a 200 w incandescent lamp may give about 2500 1m, but a 40 w
fluorescent tube will give almost the same output (the ballast coil necessary to the
latter would give a load of about 8 w, thus the total circuit wattage would be 48 w).
Or, to put it another way: the total emission of energy from the two lamps is
distributed as follows:
\
Incandescent: 5% light 95% heat
\
Fluorescent: 21 % light 79% heat
From a thermal point of view the totallarnp wattage is taken into account as a heat
gain. The bulk of the energy emitted is heat, but even the emitted light, when
incident on surfaces in the room, will be converted into heat. With fluorescent
lamps the circuit wattage must be taken into account, not just the tubes, as the
ballast also produces heat.
If it is decided to use PSALI(permanent supplementary artificial lighting of the
interiors) in a hot-dry climate, the heat produced by electric lighting will increase
the indoor temperature. It is therefore advisable to minimize such heat production
by using fluorescent tubes. In a critical situation it may be worthwhile to separate
the ballasts from the lamps and put them into an isolated and independently
ventilated space. This would save the 8 w heat gain with each 40 w fluorescent
tube, giving a reduction of some 17% inthe heat gain dueto lighting.
Q.4 Explain the lumen method for general lighting.
Ans. When a room is illuminated by many lamps and fittings other method would lead
to a very lengthy and cumbersome calculation. If the fittings are positioned in a
regular array, an entirely different, much simpler method can be followed, based
on the concept of utilization factor (UF).
This is simply the ratio of the total flux received on the working plane (Fr), to the
total flux emitted by all the lamps (F,)
For example, if all lamps together emit 10000lm, and a plane 0.8 m high over the
whole of the room receives 50001m, the utilization factor is:
UF =Fr =5000 =0.5
F, 10000
The illuminations will, of course, bethe flux received divided by the area (A). If the
room is 50 m
2
, the illumination is:
E = 5000 = 1OOlux (Im/ m2)
50
Given the UF, we can use it in two ways
1 If we knowthe lamps' output, we can calculate the illumination:
E = F,xUF
A
2 If we know what illumination we get, we can find the lamp output necessary
to achieve this:
F,=AxE
UF
r
So the method can be used either as a checking tool or, directly, as a design tool.
The critical step is to establish the value of the UFo This will depend on the
geometrical proportions ofthe room, the mounting height ofthe lamp, on surface
reflectance's and on the type of fitting used. Values of UF can be found in fitting
catalogues in specialist publications where the method is also fully described. For
general guidance it can be stated that its value ranges:
For downward direct lighting 0.4 to 0.9
For diffusing fittings 0.2toO.5
For indirect lighting 0.05toO.2
A further allowance should be made for dirt on the fitting or deterioration of lamp
output: the UF should be multiplied by a maintenance (MF) usually taken as O.B.
Q.5 Explain the term glare in electric lighting in detail.
Ans. Glare (g) is a function of luminance ratios:
G = F ~
.; !
~
Where L1 = the higher luminance value
~ = the lower luminance value
(F indicates 'function of ')
On the basis of experiments two factors have been identified:
a glare is increased with the increase ofthe apparent area ofthe glare source,
measured as a visual angle (in steradians).
b glare also depends on the position of the glare source in relation to the
direction of vision, as expressed by a position index (p)
The function, i.e. the nature, of this dependence is specified by the empirical
formula:
0(""'1""\" ')-,
.,;
g = ~ 1.6
X
'¥O.8
I 1.6
'-2 X P
where g =glare constant
L1 = luminance of glare source (cd/m2)
~ luminance of environment (cd/m2)
'¥ = area of glare source (m2 = steradians)
p = position index
,
m
2
To describe the 'glairiness' of an electric light installation, the concept of glare
index (G) has been devised:
Limiting glare index values are included with recommended illumination levels. It
has a value between 10 (for the most critical visual task) and 28 (for a non-critical
situation), in increments of 3. this limiting glare value should not be exceeded by
the installation.
The IES report describes the theoretical basis and gives a detailed method for the
calculation of glare index, providing all the necessary data in tables and graphs.
Q. 6 What are the various internally reflected components IRC?
Ans. Internally reflected component:
1 Find the window area and find the total room surface area (floor, ceiling and
walls, including windows) and calculate the ratio of window to total surface
area. Locate this value on scale A of the monogram
2 Find the area of all the walls and calculate the wall to total surface area.
Locate this value in the first column of the small table (alongside the
monogram)
3 Locate the wall reflectance value across the top of this table and read the
average reflectance at the intersection of column and line (interpolating, if
necessary, both vertically and horizontally)
l\Iote. The table assumes a ceiling reflectance of 0.70 and a floor reflectance of
0.15.
4 Locate the average reflectance value on scale B and lay a straight- edge
from this point across to scale A (to value obtained in step 1)
5 Where this intersects scale C, read the value which gives the average IRC if
there is no external obstruction
6 If there is an external obstruction, locate its angle from the horizontal,
measured at the centre of window, on scal e 0
7 Lay the straight- edge from this point on scale 0 through the point on scale C
...
and read the average IRCvalue on scale E
Due to the deterioration of internal finishes, a 'maintenance factor' should be
applied to the IRC value thus obtained, either an average factor of 0.75 or one of
the following:
Clean
Dirtv
Clean
Dirty
Clean
Clean
Dirty
Dirty
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
The minimum IRC can be obtained by multiplying the average IRC value thus
obtained, by a conversion factor, depending on the average reflectance:
Average reflectance conversion factor
0.3 0.54
0.4 0.67
0.5 0.78
0.6 0.85
The OF will thus be obtained as a sum of SC= IRC , but it may be necessary to
multiply this by the product ofthe three further correction factors: GF, FF and 0:
Q. 7 What are the artificial skies? What are their types?
Ans. As the out- door illumination is constantly changing, it has been necessary to
construct' artificial skies', i.e. a lighting arrangement which simulates the
illumination obtained from a sky hemisphere, under day lighting studies can be
carried out on models. Two basic types of such artificial skies exist, the
hemispherical and the rectangular (mirror) type (Figure 5.2)
The hemispherical one has the advantage of close visual resemblance to the real
sky. This makes it a useful tool forteaching and demonstration purposes.
The rectangular type has all lamps above a diffusing ceiling and all four walls are
lined with mirrors. This creates an advantage over the hemispherical one: an
apparent horizon is developed at infinity, thus the interior illumination in a model
will more precisely follow the real situation.
Models used can be oftwo types:
1 For quantitative studies the models need not be realistic, shades of grey can
be substituted for actual colors (with appropriate reflectance) and a scale of
1 :20 may be sufficient
66 Beo - 3_7
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - - - - - ~ ~ ­ ...... .... --­
..
2 For qualitative studies, i.e. for the assessment of lighting quality (as well as
quantity), a more realistic model be built, visually sufficiently representative
and furniture a scale of 1 : 10 would normally be necessary
For measurements of 'day lighting' in models, it is usual to establish a grid of
approximately 1 m and measure the illumination at each of the grid points. On this
basis Sioux lines (or daylight contours) can be constructed by interpolation.
Diffuser
Aeftedor
LIFt ICJUI'WI at high ..,.. •
bIhind <fiffuIinJI inner dome
Hemispherical artifical skies
0iffuIer
.....
Ught ICJUI'WI .. low 1M
inaide of dome ~
- - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - ­
\ .ll
~ ~ ,
---........... - .......
------- ..........
~ ~ - . : . : : - ; - - - - - - - - :
LitJht tcMa'CIIf IbCM diffllling CIIiIW1g.
WIlls IinId Wth mirrors
Figure 5.2 Artificial skies
The various calculation methods are largely developed by using model studies
under artificial skies. Now, even if such calculation methods are available, for
more complex or non-typical building situations it will still be useful to carry out
model studies under artificial skies at an early stage ofthe design.
Q. 8 How the daylight predictions can be done with the help of protractor?
Ans. The daylight prediction technique developed by the BRS is based on the
calculation ofthe three components of the daylight factor, separately.
The sky component (sc) and the externally reflected component (ERC) are found
by using the daylight protractors, while the internally reflected component (IRC) is
estimated with the help of set of nomograms.
There are two series of protractors, one for a sky of uniform luminance and one for
a CIE sky luminance distribution. In high latitudes, under predominantly overcast
sky conditions, series 2 protractors should be used, but series 1 protractors must
be used for the prediction of the sky component under a clear sky, tropical
conditions.
Each series consists of five protractors, to be used for various glazing situations,
as explai ned bythe following tabulation, giving the numbering of the protractors:
series 1 series 2
Vertical glazing
Horizontal glazing
Slope 30
0
to horizontal
Slope 60
0
to horizontal
uniform sky
1
3
5
7
CIEsky
2
4
6
8
Unglazed openings 9 10
Each protractor consists of two scales: 'A' giving an initial reading (from sections
of the room) and 'B' giving a correction factor (from plans). The initial reading
would give the sky component for infinitely long windows, but for a window of
finite length (width) a correction factor (scale B) must be applied.
Protractor 2 is illustrated in Figure 5.3
Figure 5.3 Building Research Station daylight protractor n02
Qf""f""\ ') 7
~ R
UNIT - 6: ACOUSTIC AND SOUND INSULATION
SECTION A
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. The walls ofthe hall built for music concerts should:
(a) absorb sound
(b) transmit sound
(c) reflects sound
(d) amplify sound
2. Sound wave offollowing frequency are audibleto human being:
(a) 5 Hz
(b) 25000 Hz
(c) 6000HZ
(d) 50,000 Hz
3. Which one is not an essential characteristics of a musical note:
(a) Loudness
(b) Quality
(c) Pitch
(d) Resonance
4. Sound travels in air as:
(a) Transverse waves
(b) Longitudinal waves
(c) Electro magnetic waves
(d) None ofthe above
5. Which ofthe following represents an elastic wave?
(a) Sound waves
(b) Light waves
(c) X rays
(d) Radio waves
Answer Key:
1. a 2.c 3.d 4.b 5.a
SECTION B
TRUE FALSE TYPE QUESTION
1. The term 'absorption coefficient' is used normally fo indicate all the sound that is
not reflected (that is, it includes the part actually absorbed and that which is
transmitted) .
2. Sound waves are the traveling waves and longitudinal in nature.
3. The source of sound is most often some vibrating solid body.
4. When sound waves traveling in one medium strike the surface of a rigid body,
they are sent back to the same medium.
5. Earthquakes can be detected by the waves travel through different kinds of rocks.
Answer Key:
1. T 2.T 3.T 4.T 5.T
SECTIONC
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1 . What are the different areas of acoustics?
a) The handling of wanted sound, i.e. creating ofthe most favorable conditions
for listening to a sound we want to hear: room acoustics
b) The handing of unwanted sound, i.e. the control of noise
2. What are the acoustics requirements of a room or hall?
Ans. For obtaining good hearing effects in a public building , the following
requirements are necessary:
,
a) The sound should be sufficiently loud and uniform throughout the hall.
b) Sound of each syllable should soon decay so that successive sounds do
j not overlap each otherfor clear hearing.
c) The echoes present should not be more than necessary for maintaining
continuity.
d) There should be no undesirable focusing of sound, nor there should be
formation of silence zones any where in the hall.
e) The tone (quality) may not change due to reinforcement of any of the
overtones of complex sound.
3. What do you mean by absorption co-efficient?
Ans: The term 'absorption coefficient' indicate all the sound that is not reflected (that is,
it includes the part actually absorbed and that which is transmitted). The
absorption coefficient is denoted by a: it is a decimal fraction- a non dimensional
quantity.
4. What are the various sources of sound?
Ans: The source of sound is some vibrating solid body (e.g. a string or a sheet) which in
turn generates vibrations in the air, but it may be generated by vibrations of a
gaseous medium, such as the air in a whistle orflute.
5. What are the different types of sound waves?
Ans: Sound waves are the traveling waves and longitudinal in nature. Sound waves are
mechanical waves and they need a material medium for their propagation.
Audible sound waves are ranging from 20 Hertz to 20000 Hertz. Sound waves
having frequency less than the 20 Hertz are called the infrasonic and the sound
waves having frequency more than the 20000 Hertz are called ultrasonic.
6. What do you mean by absorption?
. Ans: Absorption (A) is the product of the absorption coefficient and area of a given
surface (s): A = axs
It is measured by the 'open window unit', which is the absorption of a I m2 opening
having an absorption coefficient of 1. (Le. zero reflectance).
7. What is the effect of providing opening in building?
Ans: In many cases opening must be left for some reason, such as for ventilation. A
ventilating duct may also pierce the noise insulating airtight envelope. These
present a special problem which cannot be solved in a positive way, but can only
be indirectly ameliorated by the use of absorption.
8. What is the effect of sound in a room?
Ans: Sound incident on the surface of a solid body (e.g. a wall) is partly reflected, partly
absorbed (converted into heat) and partly transmitted to air on the opposite side.
The term 'absorption coefficient' is used normally to indicate all the sound that is
not reflected (that is, it includes the part actually absorbed and that which is
transmitted) .
9. What is reflection of sound waves?
Ans. When sound waves traveling in one medium strike the surface of a rigid body,
they are sent back to the same medium. This phenomenon is known as reflection
of sound waves. Reflection of sound waves plays an important role in a number of
phenomena such as echo, roaring ofthunder, reverberation in buildings, musical
note heard on plaCing a shell near the ear etc. it also finds applications in horns,
speaking tubes and sound boards.
10. Give the range of frequencies of infrasonic, audible and ultrasonic and mention
one use of each ofthem.
Ans: a) Infrasonic -7frequency is below 20 Hz
Use: to drill holes in rocks.
b) Audible sound -7 frequency range 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz.
Use: means ofcommunication.
c) Ultrasonic -7 frequency above 20,000 Hz.
Use: Sonar in navigation and finding depth ofsea.
SECTION D
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESITONS
1. Give the different uses of sound waves.
Ans: Following are the various uses of sound waves:
(i) Geologists use the knowledge of sound waves to locate the oil reservoirs
inside the earth surface.
(ii) Earthquakes can be detected by the waves traveling through different kinds
of rocks.
(iii) Sound waves are used in sonar, which can explore the sea bed and the
entire sea.
(iv) Bats uses the sonar waves to detect the obstacles in their path.
(v) Sound waves obey the rules of reflection so they produce echo. Echoes' are
used in medical fields.
(vi) Ultrasonic sound are used for examining the prenatal scanning.
(vii) Ultrasonic waves can be used to sterilize the delicate and costly
instruments. In this process the instrument is suspended in the liquid and
the ultrasonic waves pass through the liquid, which makes the liquid
particles in the high frequency vibrations so that the surface of the
instrument gets cleaned.
(viii) Ultrasonic waves are used to detect the flaws and cracks in the metal
sheets.
(ix) Sound waves are used to remove the congestion in lungs. There is a simple
medical instrument called lung flute, which break up mucus in the chest
cavity.
(x) Sound waves escaping from the Sun's interior surface create lot of hot
gases, which powers the chromospheres.
(xi) Ultrasonic waves are used in the diagnostic sonography, in which we can
detect the body structures and the internal organs of the human body. We
can detectthe tumors by use of the ultrasonic waves.
Q2. Define reverberation, reverberation time, absorption of sound waves and co­
efficient of absorption.
Ans: Reverberation and Reverberation Time
The. persistence of audible sound even after the source has ceased emitting
sound is called reverberation.
7"l Dr-r\ "J"
If the reverberation of a sound pulse persists so long as to prolong the sound while
several successive pulses are produced, the intelligibility will suffer, leading to
poor acoustic conditions.
The time required for the sound intensity (watts per square meter) to decrease by
a factor of one million so that it reaches the threshold of audibility is called the
'reverberation time'.
If the reverberation time is too short, musical notes are isolated from one another
and the music is 'thin'. If, on the other hand, the reverberation time is too long, the
sounds from earlier notes clash with the notes being played. For a medium-sized
auditorium, the reverberation time should be of the orde,r of 1 to 2s. Symphony
hall in Boston, one of the finest concert halls in the world, has a reverberation time
of 1.8s when it is fully occupied.
The reverberation time depends on the
• volume ofthe concert hall and
• the nature of the reflecting surfaces.
The larger the volume, the longer it takes for sound traveling at approximately 345
m/sec, to traverse the distances between the reflecting walls. When surfaces
exposed to sound waves are highly absorbent, the rate of energy absorption by all
surfaces quickly becomes equal to the rate of energy production by all sources,
thus the reverberation time becomes smaller.
Absorption and Co-efficient of Absorption (a)
The dissipation of sound energy into other forms of energy and ultimately into heat
is called absorption of sound waves.
The main causes of absorption of sound by a material are its porosity and flexible
vibrations. When sound waves fall on flexible materials. The material is set into
vibration and the damping force comes into play which dissipates the incident
sound energy into heat.
The absorption coefficient 'a' of a material is defined as the ratio of the absorbed
acoustic intensity to that incident on it.
. ~ = a
.. I
The absorption coefficient may vary from 0 (no absorption) to 1 (complete
absorption). The following table gives some typical absorption coefficients of
different materials. These are average values for the audible sound range at
normal incidence. In general, the absorption coefficient varies with frequency,
usually being greater for higher frequencies.
Material
Absorption coefficient, a
Open window
1.00
Marble 0.01
Painted wood 0.03
Carpets 0.15toO.20
Brick wall 0.03
Draperies(heavy) 0.5
Draperies(light) 0.2
Ordinary plaster 0.02
Concrete floor 0.02
Cushion 0.2
03 What are the different types of mechanical waves? Explain in detail.
Ans: There are two types of/mechanical waves.
1. Transverse wave,
2. Longitudinal wave.
1. Longitudinal waves: In longitudinal waves, the medium particles vibrate in
the direction of motion of waves. For example- when one end of spring is tied to a
hook in a wall and the other end is moved forward and backward, then every turn
of the spring oscillates parallel to the length of the spring and longitudinal waves
travel through the spring.
VIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIL
111111111111111111111111
(b)
Propagation of sound waves in air
Figure 6.1
75 BCO - 3.7
A wave motion in which the particles of the medium oscillate about their mean
positions in the direction of propagation ofthe wave, is called longitudinal wave.
Sound waves are classified as longitudinal waves. Let us now see how sound
waves propagate. Take a tuning fork, vibrate it and concentrate on the motion of
one of its prongs, say prong A. The normal position of the tuning fork and the
initial condition of air particles is shown in the fig 6.1 (a). As the prong A moves
towards right, it compresses air particles near it, forming a compression as shown
in fig (b). Due to vibrating air layers, this compression moves forward as a
disturbance. As the prong A moves back t6 its original position, the pressure on
its right decreases, thereby forming a rarefaction. This rarefaction moves forward
like compression as a disturbance. As the tuning fork goes on vibrating, waves
consisting of alternate compressions and rarefactions spread in air as shown in
fig (d). The direction of motion of the sound waves is same as that of air particles,
hence they are classified as longitudinal waves. The longitudinal waves travel in
the form of compressions and rarefactions. '
2. Transverse waves: In transverse waves, "medium particles vibrate in the
direction perpendicular to the direction of motion of waves." For example, when
one end of a horizontal rope is tied to a hook and the other end is moved up and
down, then transverse waves travel in the rope along its length.
A wave motion, in which the particles of the medium oscillate about their mean
positions at right angles to the direction of propagation of the wave, is called
transverse'wave.
These waves can propagate through solids and liquids but not through gases,
because gases do not possess elastic properties. Examples of these waves are:
vibrations in strings, ripples on water surface and electromagnetic waves.
In a transverse wave the particles of the medium oscillate in a direction
perpendicular to the direction of propagation as shown in the figure 6.2.
Crest
Trough
Trough
Particles of the medium oscillate in a direction perpendicular
to the direction of propagation
Figure 6.2
76 BCO - 3.7
Thus, during their oscillations, the particles may move upwards or downwards
from the plane passing through their mean positions. The uppermost point ofthe
wave, i.e., the position of maximum positive displacement is crest and the lowest
point, Le. the position of maximum displacement is called trough. Thus in a
transverse wave crests and troughs appear alternatively.
04. Explaintheterm acoustic in detail.
Ans. The science of sound acoustics can be broadly divided into two major areas:
1 The handling of wanted sound, Le. creating ofthe most favorable conditions
for listening to a sound we want to hear: room acoustics
2 The handing of unwanted sound, i.e. the control of noise
The former is a rather specialized task. The control of noise is, however, closely
related to other factors influencing the design.
In tropical climates, even if today the given noise is much less than in the highly
industrialized regions of moderate climates, tomorrow's problems will be no less
severe. When this stage is reached, the designer's task will be much greater in the
tropics than in moderate climates, for several reasons:
a A greater part of life in the tropics goes on out-of-doors, where noise control
is not possible, as opposed to the predominantly indoor living of moderate
climates
b There will be a conflict between thermal and aural requirements, especially
in warm-humid climates, where the building is of lightweight construction
with large openings, therefore it cannot effectively control noise penetration
In tropical climates the design of building will be strongly influenced by noise
considerations. Noise control performance will depend on planning and basic
design decisions, rather than on constructional details. Remedial measures will
rarely be possible. Far greater foresight and skill will be demanded of the
designer. He will have to possess a much clearer understanding of noise
problems and the means of their control, than his colleagues operating in
moderate climates.
0.5 What do you mean by term sound? What are the various medium conveying the
sound?
Ans. Sound is, strictly speaking, the sensation caused by a vibrating medium acting on
the ear, butthe term is usually applied to the vibration itself.
The source of sound is some vibrating solid body (e.g. a string or a sheet) which in
turn generates vibrations in the air, but it may be generated by vibrations of a
gaseous medium, such as the air in a whistle or flute.
The medium conveying it to the ear can be gas (air) or a liquid, in which the
vibrations are transmitted as a longitudinal wave motion, i.e. successive
compressions and rarefactions of the molecules. Figure 6.3 shows how these
77 BCO -3.7
longitudinal waves are represented graphically by a sine curve. If the conveying
medium is a solid body, the vibration may be transmitted as lateral wave motion
(an actual sine-curve type movement).
-otinvbodv + ~ I ~ ~ I Iillli lllllL(
Amplitude
. ~ . ,
.. ~ . . . - .- . ! ­
..i...-- ----.-- -.----. - - -­
,,= velocity - mls
I - frequency - Hz
~ ... W8Y8tength -. ITt
Figure 6.3 Sound waves
The wavelength (or the frequency, which is the number of waves per unit time)
. determines the pitch of the sound, Its strength is indicated by the amplitude of the
sine curve.
Some typical frequencies (in Hz):
bottom note of bass singer 100
top note of soprano singer 1200
range of grand piano 25 to 4200
top note of piccolo 4600
(1 Hz, i.e. one Hertz = one wave per second)
a.6 What do you mean by wave length? What are the various quantities which
describes wave motion?
Ans. The wave motion can be described in terms ofthe following three quantities:
A=wavelength (m) see figure 6.3
f =frequency (Hz) number of vibrations per second
v = velocity (m/s)
The relationship between these quantities is v =f x A:
Therefore if any two are known, the third one can be calculated/found.
The value of v is constant for a conveying medium of a given density. As the
density of air changes rapidly ,with temperature, the velocity of sound also varies
with airtemperature. Some typical velocities in various media (in m/s) are:
airat -20°c 319.3
331.8
78 BCO - 3.7
20°c 343.8
30°c 349.6
(for rough calculations taken as 340 m/s)
gases: hydrogen 1284
oxygen 316
carbon dioxide .
259
liquids: water 1437
sea-water 1541
petrol 1166
solids: steel 6100
timber (pine) 5260
brick 3650
Q.7 Explain the term power intensity related to the sound ?
Ans. The output of a source is measured asthe rate of energy flow (Le. power) in units
ofwatt(w)
The average output of some sources (in watts) is:
jet airliner 10000 (10
4
)
pneumatic 1
50kw axial fan
I
0.1
(10.
1
)
Large orchestra 0.01
(10.
2
)
Conversational speech 0.00001 (10'
5
)
In a carrying medium (e.g. in air) the 'strength' of sound is usually measured as
intensity, that isthe density of energy flow rate through unitarea, inw/m.
When a pOint source emits sound (or any other form of energy) uniformly in all
directions in a free field, it is spreading over the surface of a sphere of increasing
radius. The same amount of energy is distributed over a larger and larger area,
therefore the intensity will decrease. At a distance of d meters from the source it
will be:
1= W (asthesurfaceofthesphereis4nd
2
) m/w
2
4nd
2
W is the source power in watts
This is known as the inverse square law.
79 BCO·3.7
0.8 What is the effect of sound in a room? How absorption and transmission
coefficients are taken care in room?
Ans. Sound incident on the surface of a solid body (e.g. a wall) is partly reflected, partly
absorbed (converted into heat) and partly transmitted to air on the opposite side
(figure 6.4). The term 'absorption coefficient' is used normally to indicate all the
sound that is not reflected (that is, it includes the part actually absorbed and that
which is transmitted). The absorption coefficient is denoted by a: it is a decimal
fraction- a non dimensional quantity.
,
2

~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Figure 6.4 Airborne sound tr'!'nsmissions
r+a+t=1
r = reflected
a =absorbed
t = transmitted
For room 1 : 'absorption coefficient' = a + t
(all that is not reflected: 1 r)
For room 2: 'transmission coefficient' = t
(r + a is nottransmitted)
When the sound is in an enclosed space, reflection will occur from the bounding
surfaces: the reflected part will reinforce the sound within the space and the
remainder will be lost for the system.
Absorption (A) is the product of the absorption coefficient and of the area of a
given surface (s):
A=axs
It is measured by the 'open window unit', which is the absorption of a I m
2
opening
having an absorption coefficient of 1. (Le. zero reflectance).
In an enclosed space, even from a single source, there will be a complex pattern of
interreflected sound, which is usually referred to as 'reverberant sound'. Thus at
80 BCO - 3.7
--
any point in the space the total sound received will consist of two parts:
a the direct component
b the reverberant component
Q.9 What is the role of absorption in a building? How they are used in ventilators?
Ans. In many cases opening must be left for some reason, such as for ventilation. A
ventilating duct may also pierce the noise insulating airtight envelope. These
present a special problem which cann9t be solved in a positive way, but can only
be ind i rectly ameliorated by the use of absorption.
---"-YgIIa
-tll--ilt-t-i--- - ~ f O t ......
_0_1__....
-
Figure 6.5
The method is based on the follow principles:
1 The air is passed through not only an opening, but a length of duct
(minimum length 1 m)
2 The duct is curved or shaped in such a way that there is no direct straight
line path left for the sound
3 As the shape induces multiple sound reflections within this duct, all internal
surfaces are lined with a highly absorbent material
To further increase the number of reflections and the total absorbent surface
, available, absorbent baffles can be placed inside the duct.
81 BCO 3.7
4
Q10. What is Sabine's formula for reverberation time? Explain.
Ans. Sabine's formula for reverberation time .Prof. w.e. Sabine on the basis of his
experiments found that reverberation time of a room or hall depends upon the
volume ofthe hall and absorbing powers of various surfaces inthe hall.
Sabine and others derived the relation for the standard period of reverberation i.e.
the time that the sound takes to fall in intensity by 60 decibels or to one millionth
(10.
6
) of its original intensity afl:erthe source is stopped, is given by
t = 0.16Vseconds
caS
where, t = Reverberation time in seconds
V = The volume ofthe room in cubic metres
S=The area of the absorbing surfaces in square metres
a =The co-efficient of absorption
and, caS = Total surface absorption.
= Sum of the products of the co-efficient of absorption and areas of the
corresponding surfaces.
Thus if A 1 ,A2 ....... An are the co- efficient of absorption of the various surfaces
inside the hall and S1 , S2 .....Sn are the respective areas ofthe surfaces, then
caS = a1S1 + a2S2+ ..... anSn.
A hall may contain several types of surfaces with different absorption co-efficient.
82 BCO - 3.7
UNIT· 7 : NOISE AND VIBRATION CONTROL
SECTION A
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. The unwanted or undesired sound is called:
a. Music
b. Acoustics
c. Noise
d. Noneoftheabove
2. At what level, sound becomes physically painful?
a.. SOdB·
b. aOdB
c. 100dB
d. Alltheabove
3. Who are the victims of increasing noise pollution caused in the world:
a. Humans
b. Animals
c. Plants
d. All the above
4. What is the effect of noise on ear?
a. Temporary Deafness
b. Permanent Deafness
c. Both (a) & (b)
d. None of the above
5. Causes of noise pollution are:
a. Road Traffic
b. Railways
c. Aircraft
d. All the above
Answer Key:
1. c 2.b 3.d 4.c S.d
83 sco - 3.7
SECTION B
TRUE FALSE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. Noise can be defined as an L.:nwanted or undesired sound.
2. Newton is the standard unitfor measurement of sound.
3. Even single exposure to noise of 80 dB can lead to rupture of ear drum and
permanent deafness.
4. By rotating the job between the workers working at a particular noise source or
isolating a person, the adverse impacts can be reduced.
5. Aircraft noise can be reduced to some extent by design of quieter jet engines.
Answer Key:
1. T 2.F 3.F 4.T S.T
84 BCO 3.7
SECTION C
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1. What is noise? What are its units?
Ans: Noise can be defined as an unwanted or undesired sound. Decibel is the standard
unit for measurement of sound. Usually 80 db is the level at which sound
becomes physically painful. And can be termed as noise. Humans, animals,
plants and even inert objects like buildings and bridges have been victims of the
increasing noise pollution caused in the world.
2. What are the major sources of noise in different societies?
, Ans. The major noise sources in an industrialized society are:
1
a} road traffic
b) railways
c} aircraft, particularly airports
d} industry: factories, workshops, etc.
e} office machines (typewriters, teletype, accounting machines, etc.)
f) people in residences: conversation, singing, music, radio, records, TV, etc.
g} motorized appliances in general use (lawn mowers, portable tools, kitchen
implements, etc.)
3. What is the effect of noise on ear?
Ans: Effects on the Ear
• Deafness
• Temporary Deafness: This perSists for about 24 hours after exposure to loud
noise.
• Permanent Deafness: Repeated or continous exposure to noise of around
100 dB results in permanent hearing loss. Even single exposure to noise of
160dB can lead to rupture of ear drum and cause permanent deafness.
4. What is the role of noise in the design of the building?
Ans: The design of the building incorporating the use of suitable noise absorbing
material for wall/door/window/ceiling will reduce the noise levels. The reduction in
noise levels for various frequencies and the A-weighted scale are shown.
Variations in spectrum shape may change the A-weighted value by as much as
+/-3dB.
85 BCO - 3.7
5. How can we minimize the usage of protective equipments and worker's exposure
to high noise level?
Ans: The usage of protective equipment and the worker's exposure to the high noise
levels can be minimized by-
Job rotation: By rotating the job between the workers working at a particular noise
source or isolating a person, the adverse impacts can be reduced.
Exposure reduction: Regulations prescribe that, noise level of 90 dB (A) for more
than 8 hr continuous exposure is prohibited. Persons who are working under
such conditions will suffer from occupational health hazards. The schedule of the
workers should be planned in such a way that, they should not be over exposed to
the high noise levels.
6. How the noise from aircraft can be reduced?
Ans: Aircraft noise can be reduced to some extent by design of quieter jet engines,
. which was pursued vigorously in the 1970s and 1980s. This strategy has brought
limited but noticeable reduction in urban sound levels. Reconsideration of
operations, such as altering fljght paths and time of day runway use, has
demonstrated benems for residential populations near airports. FAA sponsored
residential retrofit (insulation) programs initiated in the 1970s has also enjoyed
success in reducing interior residential noise in thousands of residences across
the United States.
7. Write a note on:
a. Air craft Noise
b. Noise ·from railways
c. Construction noise
Ans: a. Air craft noise: - Now-a-days , the problem of low flying military aircraft has
added a new dimension to community annoyance, as the nation seeks to
improve its nap-of the- earth aircraft operations over national parks,
wilderness areas, and other areas previously unaffected by aircraft noise
has claimed national attention over recent years.
b. Noise from railways: - The noise from locomotive engines, horns and
whistles, and switching and shunting operation in rail yards can impact
neighboring communities and railways workers. For example, rail car
retarders can produce a high frequency, high level screech that can reach
peak levels of 120 dB at a distance of 100 feet, which translates to levels as
high as 138; or 140 dB atthe railways worker's ear.
c. Construction noise:- The noise from the construction of highways, city
streets, and buildings is a major contributor to the urban scene .
Construction noise sources include pneumatic hammers, air compressors,
86 BCO - 3.7
bulldozers, loaders, dump trucks (and their back-up signals), and
pavement breakers.
8. What isthe effect of noise of 65 dBAand 90 dBA level?
Ans:

65 dBA up to this level noise or unwanted sound may create annoyance,
but its result is only psychological (nervous effects). Above this level
physiological effects,·such as mental and bodily fatigue, may occur.
• 90 dBA many years of exposure to such noise levels would normally cause
permanent hearing loss.
9. Under what condition inverse square law is applicable?
Ans: The inverse square law is applicable only to free field conditions, where there is no
\
obstruction, no splid objects from which the sound could be reflected. Open air
conditions approximate the theoretical free field.
10. Howwe can protect our cars from the noise?
Ans: Equipment like earmuffs, ear plugs etc. are the commonly used devices for
hearing protection. Attenuation provided by ear-muffs vary widely in respect to
their size, shape, seal material etc. Literature survey shows that, an average noise
attenuation up to 32 dB can be achieved using earmuffs
87 BCO 3.7
SECTION 0
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTION
0.1 What do you mean by the term noise? What is the affect of noise in our daily life?
Ans. Hearing is one of man's important communication channel, perhaps only second
to vision. But, whilst the eyes can be shut when there is too much light or an
unwanted scene to view, the ears are open throughout life to unwanted noises as
well as to wanted sounds. Protection, if necessary, will have to be provided in the
environment.
Noise is the term used for any unwanted sound, thus the definition of noise is
subjective. One man's sound is another man's noise.
In rural life sounds rarely become noise: partly because they provide a sense of
participation in the social life of the community and partly because they hardly
ever reach intolerable levels. Urbanization brings about a rapid increase of noise
sources (industry, traffic, aircraft, radio, etc.) but also a change in social attitudes:
in a village one knows everyone else, every sound originates from a known
source and conveys some meaningful information; but a town is full of strangers
and un-identified nOises, for which we have little tolerance. The low density of
rural areas ensures a greater distance between noise source and listener, thus
reducing the disturbance, while in high density towns there are more potential
noise sources in a given area also the distances between sources and listeners is
much less.
As the noise sources multiply, the problems increase and defensive measures
must be followed.
0.2 What are the various effects of noise of different levels? Explain in detail.
Ans. Noises of various levels, may produce both psychological and physiological
effects:
• 65 dBA up to this level noise or unwanted sound may create annoyance,
but its result is only psychological (nervous effects). Above this level
physiological effects, such as mental and bodily fatigue, may occur.
• 90 dBA many years of exposure to such noise levels would normally cause
permanent hearing loss.
• 100 dBA with short periods of exposure to this noise level, the aural acuity
may be impaired temporarily, and prolonged exposure is likely to cause
irreparable damage to the auditory organs.
• 120 dBA causes pain.
• 150 dBA causes instantaneous loss of hearing.
88 BCO - 3.7
The acceptable level of noise depends not only on objective, physical factors but
also on subjective, psychological factors. Whether a noise is disturbing or not
depends on the state of mind or expectation of the listener. In a sleeper train the
monotonous noise, even at 70 to 80 dBA, will not be disturbing; but in a quiet
home ,if the listener is badly 'tuned; even the ticking of a clock at 20 dBA may
cause great annoyance.
Noise may adversely affect concentration, particularly if the noise or unwanted
sound has some information content.
Furthermore, as habits, expectation and attitudes depend on the socio-cultural
environments, the noise tolerance of people may vary with the kind of society of
which they are a part.
0.3 Discuss in detail about the noise in free field with the help of suitable example?
Ans. The inverse square law is applicable only to free field conditions, where there is no
obstruction, no solid objects from which the sound could be reflected. Open air
conditions approximate the theoretical free field.
According to the inverse square law, every doubling of the distance will decrease
the intensity to one quarter. Due to the logarithmic relationship, in sound level this
will correspond to a reduction of 6 dB for every doubling of the distance,
regardless of the magnitude of intensity, e.g.:
Asound at 1 kmfrom source: I' = 0.01 w/m2
At 2 km: I" =0.0025w/m
2
N' = 1010g 10.
2
= 1010g 10
10
= 10x10 = 100dB
10.
12
N' = 1010g 25x 10.
4
=1010g (25x 10B) = 10(1.4 +8) =94dB
10.
12
or:
Speechat2m: I' =10-8W/m
2
at4 m: I =25x 10·
10
W/m
2
N' = 1010g to-8 = 10 log 10
4
= 10 x 4 = 40dB
10.
12
1\1' = 1Olog 25x 10.
4
=1 Olog (25 x 10
2
) 10(1.4 +2) =34 dB
10.
12
Distance also affects sound by the molecular absorption ofenergy in the carrying
medium. This molecular attenuation in air is only significant for high frequency
sounds. For every 300 m distance this reduction is:
89 BCO - 3.7
1 dBat 1000 Hz
40 dB at 9000Hz
Hence loud noises from a great distance (e.g. thunder) are heard at a lower pitch
than from nearby: the higher frequency components have been filtered out by the
air.
Q.4 What are the various means of noise control? Discuss in detail?
Ans. From the point of view of a building whi9h is to be designed, it is useful to
distinguish:
a) external noises
b) internal noises
Against external noise the following means of protection are available to the
designer
i. distance
ii. avoiding zones of directional sound
iii. screening
iv. planning: using non noise- sensitive parts ofthe building as barriers
v. positioning of openings away from the noise source
vi. noise insulating building envelope
Against noises generated within the building, the deSigner can take the following
measures:
i. reduction atsource
ii. enclosing and isolating the source, or use of absorbent screens
iii. planning: separating noisy spaces from quiet ones, placing indifferent
areas in between
iv. placing noisy equipment in the most massive part of the building (e.g. in a
basement)
v. reduce impact noises by covering surfaces with resilient material
vi. reduce noise in the space where it is generated by absorbent surfaces
vii. reduce airborne sound transmission by airtight and noise insulating
construction
viii. reduce structure borne sound transmission by discontinuity
90 BCQ - 3.7
0.5 What are the various requirements for control ofthe noise?
Ans. Statutory requirements for noise control are few and far between in tropical areas.
The choice is left to the designer, but this also increases his responsibility.
Today, noise sources are less and generally noise level is lower than in
industrialized societies. Human tolerance is greater; aural privacy requirements
are less exacting.
So for both reasons the requirements for noise control performance are less. This
is just as well, because the available means of noise control are also less effective.
In the future the noise is likely to increase. The improving standard of living and
changing social patterns will bring about an increased demand for aural privacy.
Then the designer will face a very serious challenge, a problem much greater than
the problems in moderate climates.
The shelter, the building envelope, should give a satisfactory performance in
controlling heat and light, as well as sound. In tropical climates the aural and the
thermal requirements may clash. The contradiction cannot be resolved in
physical terms.
Firstly: rural and thermal factprs must be weighted. The relative importance of
good thermal and good aural conditions must be established. Clearly this will be
a function of building use. Generally in the tropics thermal factors will outweigh
sonic ones, unless the activity housed imposes strict aural requirements (as in a
lecture room). Time and duration exposure condition may help this weighting,
e.g. if the out-door is noisy all day, and overheating occurs only after 15.00 hours,
the noise control requirement may become more important than the thermal
control.
Secondly: the economic implications must be considered in relation to the
weighted requirements. To continue the above example: if an inexpensive
shading device could overcome the afternoon overheating, both aural and
thermal requirements would be satisfied. If , however, it is found that thermal as
well as aural comfort can only be ensured by full air conditioning, the cost of such
an installation must be weighed against the benefit of full comfort and indeed,
against the capital available for investment.
0.6 What are the major sources of noise in different societies?
Ans. The major noise sources in an industrialized society are:
a. road traffic
b. railways
c. aircraft, particularly airports
d. industry: factories, workshops, etc.
91 BCO- 3.7
e. office machines (typewriters, teletype, accounting machines, etc.)
f. people in residences: conversation, singing, music, radio, records, TV, etc.
g. motorized appliances in general use (lawn mowers, portable tools, kitchen
implements, etc.)
All these can occur in tropical conditions, but perhaps to a lesser extent. In rural
areas there seems to be no significant noise problem, but in an urban situation
noise can be as bad in the tropics as anywhere. Most of the tropical areas are in
developing countries, where urbanization i ~ gathering momentum. At present the
ratio of urban to rural areas is much less than in more industrialized societies, but:
1. urban areas themselves present the same problems
2. with rapid urbanization tomorrow's problems may be the same even on a
national scale
The car ownership rate is much less than in western Europe, but traffic density in
towns can reach the same level. The railway network may not be as dense, but
near railways the problems are the same. At some major airports the density of air­
craft movements reaches the level of secondary airports in Europe (e.g. Nairobi is
about the same as Manchester), but this is rapidly increasing.
There is little heavy industry and even ifthere is, it is normally positioned with more
foresight than in Europe away from noise sensitive areas therefore industrial
noise is usually better contained.
The noise generated by people is probably higher than in Europe, due to more
open air activities, more uninhibited behavior, love for music, etc.
Q.7 What do you mean by multilayer construction? Give the constructional detail with
the help ofdiagram.
Ans: Where substantial noise reduction is required, but the use of massive
construction is impracticable (e.g. for windows)- two or more layers of light
construction could be used to advantage. The greatest resistance to sound
transmission is provided at the surface of the wall material. (The magnitude of this
depends on the difference in density between air and the material.) if the same
amount (thickness) of material is used in two independent layers, rather than in
one, TI will be double- provided no vibration is transmitted directly between the
two layers. This ideal case will never be reached in practice, but it can be
approached if there is no rigid connection between the two (or more) layers and
even the edge fixings or supports are flexible.
Figure 7.1 shows some practical constructional details. Faultless workmanship,
hence strict supervision, is essential, as the slightest fault (for instance mortar
droppings) can defeatthe purpose ofthe effort and expense.
92 BCO - 3.7
CiGnn 1m" 1011\

.. ,", ....

II .: IUb
:",.'
..... .,
',' > '9
Figure 7.1 Double skin floor and walls
Placing an absorbent material in the cavity would reduce the build-up of
reverberant sound within the cavity, thus it would further improve the TI value.
Windows are weak points in the building envelope from the noise insulation point
of view (same as thermally). Their performance can, however, be improved by:
a. ensuring airtight closure by using gaskets
b. using double (or triple ) glazing, where each pane with its frame is
independent ofthe other
c. placing absorbent material on the reveals, butthis will only be effective ifthe
reveal, i.e. the distance between the two panes, is at least 150 mm, but
preferably 200 mm
QS. Discuss the various steps to control the noise pollution.
Ans: .. Following are the various steps to control noise pollution:
:' 1. The first approach has been to reduce noise at source. Design and
fabrication of silencing devices and their use in aircraft engines, trucks,
cars, motorcycles, industrial machines and home appliances would be an
effective measure. Protection to workers can be provided through wearing
devices such as earplugs and earmuffs.
2. Making a change in design and operation of machines, vibration control,
sound proof cabins and sound-absorbing materials can reduce it.
93 BCO -3.7
3. It can get reduced by prescribing noise limits for vehicular traffic, ban on
honking of horns in certain areas and planning main traffic arteries,
industrial establishments, amusement areas, residential colonies, creation
of silent zones near schools and hospitals and redesigning of building to
make them noise proof. Other measures can involve reduction of traffic
density in residential areas giving preferences to mass public transport
system.
4. Control of Indoor noise. Where outdoor noise levels have been hlgh, the
following methods can be applied for reducing their effect.
a. Locate the building as far as possible from noise source. The noise level
drops about6dB each time the distance is doubled.
b. Trees and shrubs may be planted in front of the building to provide some
absorption ofthe sound.
c. Locate non-critical areas such as corridors kitchens, bathrooms, elevators
and service spaces in the noisy side and critical areas each as bedrooms
and living spaces on the quiet side.
d. Back to back bathrooms or toilets should be avoided unless they are
effectively sound isolated. Bathrooms, kitchen and laundry rooms should
not be adjacent to the floor.
e. Bathroom walls, floor and ceiling should be sound insulated using
construction of high sound insulation glasses.
1. Noisy toilets, is bettered by quiet siphon jet type flush toilets should be
installed to reduce the noise from the source. Commode seats with double
siphon system are now available and may be adopted wherever possible.
5. Road Noise. Vegetation buffer zones must be created in different parts of
the city. Efforts should be made for roadside plantations.
6. An urgent need for legislation to control noise pollution. We have seen that
in India, in absences of a specific legislation for control and prevention of the
noise pollution, one has to seek provisions from various branches of law
and regulations. There has been no doubt that the available provisions in
various branches of law are adequate, unscientific and crude. In most of the
developed countries specific legislations have been made and' scientific
methods for investigation of noise pollution have been invented. The
science of"audiometer and other branched related to sound have been
developed and it becomes comfortable to device various legal provisions to
control and prevent noise pollution.
09, What are the various effects of noise pollution?
Ans: Following are the various effects of noise pollution:
94 BCO - 3.7

Deafness, temporary or permanent, is one of the most prevalent effects of
noise pollution. Mechanics, locomotive drivers, telephone operators etc all
have their hearing impairment.

The first and foremost effect of noise is a decrease in the efficiency in
working. Research has proved the fact that human efficiency increases with
noise reduction.

Too much of noise disturbs the rhythms of working, thereby affecting the
concentration required for doing a work. Noise of traffic or the loud
speakers or different types of horns divert the attention, thus causing harm
in the working standard.

Fatigue caused is another effect of noise. Due to lack of concentration,
people need to devote more time to complete their task, which leads to
tiredness and fatigue.

NOise, pollution acts as a stress invigorator, increasing the stress levels
among people.

Sometimes, being surrounded by too much of noise, people can be victims
of certain diseases like blood pressure, mental illness, etc.

Noise pollution indirectly affects the vegetation. Plants require cool &
peaceful environmentto grow. Noise pollution causes poor quality of crops.

Animals are susceptible to noise pollution as well. It damages the nervous
system ofthe animals.

Noise indirectly weakens the edifice of buildings, bridges and monuments.
It creates waves, which can be very dangerous and harmful and put the
building in danger condition.
Q10. What is noise pollution? Discuss some detail aboutthis.
Ans: Noise pollution is excessive, displeasing human, animal or machine-created
environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life.
The word noise comes from the Latin word nauseas, meaning seasickness.
The source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly construction and
transportation systems, including motor vehicle noise, aircraft noise and rail
noise. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side
industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential
area.
Indoor and outdoor noise pollution sources include car alarms, emergency
service sirens, mechanical equipment, fireworks, compressed air horns, grounds
keeping equipment, barking dogs, appliances, lighting hum, audio entertainment
systems, electric megaphones, and loud people.
95 BCO - 3.7
Q11: What are the effects of noise on human health
Ans: Noise effects are both health and behavioral in nature. The unwanted sound is
called noise. This unwanted sound can damage physiological and psychological
health. Noise pollution can cause annoyance and aggression, hypertension, high
stress levels, tinnitus, hearing loss, sleep disturbances, and other harmful effects.
Furthermore, stress and hypertension are the leading causes to health problems,
whereas tinnitus can lead to forgetfulness, severe depression and at times panic
attacks.
Chronic exposure to noise may cause noise-induced hearing loss. Older males
exposed to significant occupational noise demonstrate significantly reduced
hearing sensitivity than their non-exposed peers, though differences in hearing
sensitivity decrease with time and the two groups are indistinguishable by age 79.
A comparison of Maaban tribesmen, who were insignificantly exposed to
transportation or industrial noise, to a typical U.S. population showed that chronic
exposure to moderately high levels of environmental noise contributes to hearing
loss.
High noise levels can contribute to cardiovascular effects and exposure to
moderately high levels during a single eight hour period causes a statistical rise in
blood pressure of five to ten pOints and an increase in stress and vasoconstriction
leading to the increased blood pressure noted above as well as to increased
incidence of coronary artery disease.
Noise pollution is also a cause of annoyance. A 2005 study by Spanish
researchers found that in urban areas households are willing to pay
approximately four Euros per decibel per year for noise reduction.
96 BCQ - 3.7
UNIT - 8 : INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS
SECTION A
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1 . The origin of intelligent buildings and building management system started in:
a. 1"960's
b. 1970's
c. 1980's
d. 1990's
2. Which sector helps in starting the concept of intelligent buildings?
a. Construction Sector
b. Industrial Sector
c. Food Sector
d. None ofthe above
3. Building automation network includes:
a. with lower-level controllers
b. input!outputdevices
c. a user interface
d. all the above
4. Primary and secondary bus used for building automation can be:
a. BACnet,
b. optical fiber,
c. ethernet,
d. all the above
5. Wireless open mesh standard system provides:
a. interoperability,
b. allowing users to mix-and-match devices
c. provide integration with other compatible building control systems.
d. All the above
Answer Key:
1.b 2.b 3.d
4.d I s!l
97 BCO 3.7
SECTION B
TRUE FALSLE TYPE QUESTIONS
1. The origins of intelligent buildings and building management systems have roots
in the construction sector.
2. The concepts and applications were then adapted, developed and modularised
during the 1980's.
3. Most building automation networks consist of a primary and secondary bus.
4. Some newer building automation and lighting control solutions use wireless
mesh open standards.
5. Digital outputs are used to open and close relays and switches.
Answer Key:
1. F 2.T 3.T 4.T S.T
98 BCO - 3.7
SECTION C
SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1.
Ans:
When and how the concept of Intelljgent Buildings came into picture?
The origins of intelligent buildings and building management systems have roots
in the industrial sector in the 1970's, from the systems and controls used to
automate production prqcesses and to optimise plant performances. The
concepts and applications were t h e ~ adapted, developed and modularised
during the 1980's, enabling transferability of the technology and systems to the
residential and commercial sectors.
2.
Ans:
What is the use of primary and secondary building automation system?
Most building automation networks consist of a primary and secondary bus which
connect high-level controllers (generally specialized for building automation, but
may be generic programmable logic controllers) with lower-level controllers,
input/output devices and a user interface(also known as a human interface
device).
3.
Ans:
What is the application of wireless mesh open standard?
Some newer building automation and lighting control solutions use wireless mesh
open standards (such as ZigBee). These systems can provide interoperability,
allowing users to mix-and-matGh devices from different manufacturers, and to
provide integration with other compatible building control systems.
4.
Ans:
What is digital outputs? Give Example.
A digital input indicates if a device is turned on or not. Some examples of an digital
input would be a 24VDC/AC signal, an airflow switch, or a volta-free relay contact
(Dry Contact).
Digital outputs are used to open and close relays and switches. An example would
be to turn on the parking lot lights when a photocell indicate it is dark outside.
5.
Ans:
What are the different types of automatic fire alarm system? Discuss in detail.
Automatic fire alarm system design is divided in three forms:
• regional fire alarm system,
• central fire alarm system and
• alarm system control center
99 BCO - 3.7
6. What is the use of analog inputs?
Ans: Analog inputs are used to read a variable measurement. Examples are
temperature, humidity and pressure sensor which could bethermistor,4-20 mA, 0­
10 volt or platinum resistance thermometer (resistance temperature detector), or
wireless sensors.
7. What is the function of building management systems?
Ans: The function of building management systems is central to 'Intelligent Buildings'
concepts; its purpose is to control, monitor and optimise building services, eg.,
lighting; heating; security, CCTV and alarm systems; access control; audio-visual
and entertainment systems; ventilation, filtration and climate control, etc.; even
time &attendance control and reporting (notably staff movement and availability).
8. What is the function of analog outputs?
Ans: Analog outputs control the speed or position of a device, such as a variable
frequency drive, a I-P (current to pneumatics) transducer, or a valve or damper
actuator. An example is a hot water valve opening up 25% to maintain a set point.
100 BCO - 3.7
SECTION 0
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
1. What are intelligent buildings? Explain.
Ans: The field of intelligent buildings, intelligent homes, building management systems
(BMS) encompasses an enormous variety of technologies, across commercial,
industrial, institutional and domestic buildings, including energy management
systems and building controls. The function of building management systems is
central to 'intelligent buildings' concepts; its purpose is to control, monitor and
optimise building services, eg., lighting; heating; security, CCTV and alarm
systems; access control; audio-visual and entertainment systems; ventilation,
filtration and climate control, etc.; even time & attendance control and reporting
(notably staff movement and availability). The potential within these concepts and
,
the surrounding technology is vast, and our lives are changing from the effects of
Intelligent Buildings developments on our living and working environments. The
impact on facilities planning and facilities management is also potentially
immense. Any facilities managers considering premises development or site
relocation should also consider the opportunities presented by Intelligent
Buildings technologies and concepts.
The origins of Intelligent Buildings and Building Management Systems have roots
in the industrial sector in the 1970's, from the systems and controls used to
automate production processes and to optimise plant performances. The
concepts and applications were then adapted, developed and modularised
during the 1980's, enabling transferability of the technology and systems to the
residential and commercial sectors.
2. Explain building automation network in detail.
Ans: Most building automation networks consist of a primary and secondary bus which
connect high-level controllers (generally specialized for building automation, but
may be generic programmable logic controllers) with lower-level controllers,
input/output devices and a user interface(also known as a human interface
device).
The primary and secondary bus can be BACnet, optical fiber, ethernet, ARCNET,
RS-232, RS-485 or a wireless network.
Most controllers are proprietary. Each company has its own controllers for specific
applications. Some are designed with limited controls: for example, a simple
packaged Roof Top Unit. Others are designed to be flexible. Most have
proprietary software that will work with ASHRAE's open protocol BACnet or the
open protocol LonTalk.
Some newer building automation and lighting control solutions use wireless mesh
101 BCO - 3.7
open standards (such as ZigBee). These systems can provide interoperability,
allowing users to mix-and-match devices from different manufacturers, and to
provide integration with other compatible building control systems.
Inputs and outputs are either analog or digital (some companies say binary).
Analog inputs are used to read a variable measurement. Examples are
temperature, humidity and pressure sensor which could be thermistor,4-20 mA,
0-10 volt or platinum resistance. thermometer (resistance temperature detector),
or wireless sensors.
A digital input indicates if a device is turned on or not. Some examples of a digital
input would be a 24VDC/AC signal, an airflow switch, or a volta-free relay contact
(Dry Contact).
Analog outputs control the speed or position of a device, such as a variable
frequency drive, a I-P (currentto pneumatics) transducer, or a valve or damper
actuator. An example is a hot water valve opening up 25%to maintain a setpoint.
Digital outputs are used to open and close relays and switches. An example would
be to turn on the parking lot lights when a photo cell indicate it is dark outside.
3. Discuss in detail aboutthe Alarms and Security System in Buildings.
Ans: Many building automation systems have alarm capabilities. If an alarm is
detected, it can be programmed to notify someone. Notification can be through a
computer, pager, cellular phone, or audible alarm.
• Common temperature alarms are: space, supply air, chilled water supply
and hot water supply.
• Differential pressure switches can be placed on the filter to determine if it is
dirty.
• Status alarms are common. If a mechanical device like a pump is requested
to start, and the status-input indicates it is off. This can indicate a mechanical
failure.
• Some valve actuators have end switches to indicate if the valve has opened
or not.
• Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide sensors can be used to alarm if levels
are too high.
• Refrigerant sensors can be used to indicate a possible refrigerant .Ieak.
• Current sensors can be used to detect low current conditions caused by
slipping fan belts, or clogging strainers at pumps.
At sites with several buildings, momentary power failures can cause hundreds or
thousands of alarms from equipment that has shut down. Some sites are
programmed so that critical alarms are automatically re-sent at varying intervals.
102 BCO - 3.7
For example, a repeating critical alarm (of an [uninterruptible power supply] in 'by
pass') might resound at 10 minutes, 30 minutes, and every 2 to 4 hours there after
until the alarms are resolved.
Security systems can be interlocked to a building automation system. If
occupancy sensors are present, they can also be used as burglar alarms.
4. What is the scope of project of intelligent building? What is its purpose?
Ans: Project Scope: One of the first attributes in an intelligent design is to carefully
evaluate the current and future use of the project. This starts by clearly identifying
the purpose and needs of the targeted building occupants. This process will vary
depending on whether it be an owner occupied or a commercial development.
For an owner-occupied building, surveys and focus groups can be held with the
building occupants, analyzing and prioritizing their needs to select proper project
features. For a commercial development, the project target market needs to be
identified and attributes designed to suit. For example, an office building might
target technology companies that would benefit from an urban environment,
high-speed network access, and 24/7 availability.
Project Purpose: It is important to realize, however, that few projects are used as
originally envisioned. A good intelligent design should incorporate flexibility to
allow for easy change. Examples of this type of design characteristic include CLA
(communications, life safety, automation), structured cabling design, and open
spacewith movable or demountable partitions. An intelligent building needs to be
designed to meet the needs of initial occupants and be flexible to meet the needs
of future occupants.
5. What are the various points to be kept in site selection and integration of intelligent
buildings?
Ans: An intelligent design begins by looking at the site as it integrates with the
community. Is this a location that is a new "green field" location, or a reuse of an
existing "brown-field" site? Can the project be sited for maximum solar efficiency?
How will it fit in with community land and space planning? Does it integrate with
existing (or planned) public transportation?
Site integration and impact are critical for environmental impact, and strongly
affect how the building occupants interact with the building. At a macro scale,
community integration is determined by community space planning and zoning
regulations. An intelligent building should go beyond that with consideration as to
how this fits in with the community's needs, transportation, and amenities. The
combination of the two makes the building more marketable with a lower impact
on the environment.
103 BCO - 3.7
6. Write a note on energy efficiency in intelligent buildings.
Ans: Until recent years, energy efficiency has been a relatively low priority and low
perceived opportunity to building owners and investors. However, with the
dramatic increase and awareness of energy use concerns, and the advances in
cost-effective technologies, energy efficiency is fast becoming part of real estate
management, facilities management and operations strategy. The concepts are
also now making significant inroads into the domestic residential house building
sectors.
For lighting, energy savings can be up to 75% of the original circuit load, which
represents 5% of the total energy consumption of the residential and commercial
sectors.
Energy savings potential from water heating, cooling, or hot water production,
can be up to 10%, which represents up to 7% of the total energy consumption of
the domestic residential and commercial sectors.
Experiences from studies in Austria suggest potential heating and COOling energy
savings are up to 30% in public buildings. Even allowing for the fact that buildings
used in the study may have been those with particularly high energy usage, the
figure is an impressive one .. (Source: EU2 Analysis and Market Survey for
European Building Technologies in Central & Eastern European Countries ­
GOPA) .
. 7. Give the different example of Intelligent Building with their detail.
Ans: Following are the examples of Intelligent Buildings, which are built:
• The Sunset Millennium Building in Hollywood, Calif. - The 20-year-old
building tackled the problem of an inefficient carbon monoxide monitoring
system by installing 41 LonWorks sensors to keep its fans from running
continuously. Previously, the building owner was paying about $242,000 to
,
keep the fans for the monitoring system running 24x7. LonWorks has
helped reduce the electricity consumption by 90 percent.
• Connolly Middle School in Tempe, Ariz. - Built in 1972, the school
adopted a climate control retrofit that was automated with LonWorks,
providing more control over temperatures, carbon dioxide levels and so on.
The system saved an estimated $58,000 in electricity costs in the first six
months.
• 1120 Vermont Ave. in Washington, D.C. - The 20-year-old Northwest
building was outfitted with 700 programmable controllers that are linked to
the LonWorks network management tool to control the chillers, pumps,
cooling towers, boilers and generators inside. The annual savings in energy
consumption is $500,000.
104 BCO - 3.7
8. Discuss the detail of Connolly Middle School, an intelligent Building.
Ans: Connolly Middle School, built in 1972, is typical of many schools of this era that are
struggling with the management of aged mechanical systems pieced together
with an array of add-ons and repairs. Connolly Middle School was not providing
the comfort and air quality desired for a learning environment nor did they meet
the energy efficiency expectations of a modern facility.
The School's campus consjsts of 184,034 sq ft of conditioned spaces arranged in.
6 separate buildings. Each building h a ~ separate mechanical systems including
centrifugal and reciprocating chillers along with multi-zone, VAV and constant
volume air handling units all served with electric heat. Control systems were
comprised of a mixture of pneumatic and stand alone DDC. Without any
centralized control and monitoring, the aged HVAC system was running
ineffiCiently resulting in numerous comfort complaints.
In an effort to streamline the process and to ensure that the School received a
solution that met their needs and budget, the school's management elected to
pursue a design build process with a selected group of HVAC contracting firms.
This acquisition process provided for a quick and thorough assessment of the
facility's needs with detailed proposals, allowing them to make the best choice of
contractor and BAS solutions.
The School management selected the proposal of Source Refrigeration & HVAC,
a Distech Controls Open System Dealer. The solution focused on the air side
system and controls as the areas that would provide the greatest improvement in
environmental air quality and comfort and reduction in energy consumption. The
evaluation of the central chillers, cooling towers and pumping systems,
concluded that these systems, other than lacking good control, were baSically
solid, efficient systems. Source Refrigeration & HVAC thus designed a system
retrofit that entailed the replacement and modernization of ali of the air side
equipment, including: .
• Installation of 60 VAV boxes
• Installation of an energy recovery wheel to precondition the outside air
• Repairs and cleaning of AHUs and ductwork
• Valve replacement and repair
• Installation of variable frequency drives on all major AHUs
The building automation system installation using Distech Controls
easyCONTROLS LONWORKS® solution comprised a total of 650 points and 112
controllers. The control system included:
• Central plant control using ECU-88, EC-12 (LOI\IMARK® certified
programmable controllers)
105 BCQ - 3.7
• AHU control using EC-12 and EC-8 and EC-67 (LONMARK certified
programmable controllers)
;. 85 VAV controls using EC-VAV-L (LOI\JMARK certified configurable
controllers)
• Rooftop unit control using EC-RTU-L (LOI\JMARK certified configurable
controllers)
• BTU meters
• Lonwatcher LONWORKS network managementtool
• Programming using LNS® based plug-in for configuration and custom
programming
• User interface Web browser access as well as scheduling, trending, alarm
management and normal user adjustments using an Echelon® i.LON®
100 .
. There were several key factors required for the control system that the BAS
solution delivered on, such as:
• Provide for programming flexibility to insure that the necessary sequences
could be obtained
• The ability to monitor and control the C02 levels for air quality and energy
efficiency
• Provide for precise comfort levels with user adjustment
• Web browser access and control to all points within the system with a
custom designed, simple to use interface
• Provide a completely open system from controllers to software tools
BENEFITS Connolly Middle Schools now has the exceptional environment
air quality the students need for learning and a substantial reduction in
energy and maintenance cost. The energy savings forthe first 6 months was
over $58,000, a 34% reduction of historical costs
9. Why Intelligent Buildings are safer than Conventional Buildings?
Ans: Intelligent buildings are safer than conventional buildings Insurance companies
will recognize that certain intelligent building features reduce operational risks
related to water leakage,
flooding, and fire. In addition, early detection and automated responses can
minimize secondary impact of water and fire damage. This should be reflectedin
lower property and casualty insurance premiums than for comparable,
conventional buildings.
The combination of wireless sensors and real-time monitoring permits managers
106 BCO 3.7
to detect and respond to problems as they occur In conventional buildings,
problems such as leaking toilets may go unreported for extended periods, and
damage compounds.
This can cause secondary damage if a problem occurs when the facilities staff is
unavailable, such as during evenings, weekends, or holidays. In a connected
building, if the system detects a leak, direct digital controls such as an automated
ball valve upstream of the problem could shut off water to that zone. Wireless
environmental monitoring systems could also track dampness and temperature
in parts of buildings where conditions-could lead to mold growth. RFIDs can be
equipped with sensors to detect the volatile organic compounds that are
produced as mold forms.
The combination of wireless sensors and a BAS allows managers to promptly act
on the information, reducing risk and associated remediation expenses. Similarly,
integrated BAS systems improve security and life safety functions. In event of a
fire, the BAS can initiate a sequence of operations to facilitate evacuation.
The BAS can signal the HVAC to stop delivering fresh air to the area and
pressurize the path of egress to clear it of smoke. The BAS signals the access
control system to unlock doors, and surveillance cameras give responders a live
feed. A building's digital signage can display realtime evacuation instructions in
case that a disaster or emergency affects exit routes. Motion sensors and lighting
control systems can also provide indirect information about occupancy s ~ a t u s in a
connected building. Lastly, when systems are converged on an IP network, it is
possible for a security system to easily transmit digital images or a live video feed
to police or emergency response personnel.
107 BCO - 3.7
BUILDING SCIENCE
(BCQ 3.7)
• Assume any missing data if necessary.
Date: 27th June 2009 Time: 2:00 PM to 5:00 PM Max. Marks: 100
Section A
• Choosethe correct or the best alternative in the following.
• Each question carries two marks.
1 . Which of the following are used as thermal insulating materials?
a.· slab insulations b. Loose fills
c. Insulating boards d. All ofthese
2. Among the sites being considered for a new main library are those adjacent to
the following areas or services. The most appropriate site is one that is adjacent
to
a. A residential neighbourhood are recreation facilities.
b. Churches and governmental offices
c. Public schools
d. . Shopping and public transportation
3. High water table, loose silt, rock, and expansive, collapsing, or organic soils
are examples of which ofthe following?
a. Site Problems that affect the materials that can be used to surface the
building
b. Site conditions that are frequently found and can be easily overcome
c. Subsurface conditions that affect site utilization
d. Site conditions that only affectthe depth offoundation to be used
4. Which of the following considerations has the greatest influence on the
decision in favor of a pre engineered structural system for a warehouse
facility?
a. Fire resistance b. Construction time
c. Support reactions d. Maintenance
.108 BCO - 3.7
5. To which of the following occupancies do the model codes ascribe the most
stringent lifesafety requirements?
a. Church b. Residence
c. Hospital d. Office building
6. According to model building codes, the time that materials or assemblies must
withstand exposure to a fire is called
a. Flame-Spread rating b. Fire-resistance rating
c. Critical radiantflux d. Flash point
7. Dilution ventilation is used to:
a. Control a contaminant at it source
b. Control fumes from lead fusing
c. Control low toxicity vapors
d. Control asbestos
8. In which way is a high performance building occupants environmentally
responsive?
a. Through controlling erosion
b. Resources are selected on lowest cost
c. Construction is minimized to the least amount of toxins to enter site.
d. Through keeping lights on only when needed
9. What should be the orientation of the kitchen in residential building as per the
sun diagram?
a. North b. North East
c. East d. None ofthe above
10. For energy efficient building what color of external surface paint you will prefer
foryour building
a. White b. Black
c. Grey d. All ofthese
Section B
• Choose True/False in the following.
• Each question carries one mark.
1 . Climate is the characteristic condition ofthe atmosphere near the earth's surface
at a certain place on earth.
109 BCO - 3.7
2. Skylights admit more light per unit area than windows, and distribute it more
evenly over a space.
3. Absorption capacity or Absorptivity is NOT the fraction of radiant energy incident
which is absorbed.
4. Ventilation is the process of supplying or removing air, by natural or mechanical
means to and from a space
5. Albedo paint is having the heighest reflectanc.e value
Section C
• Answer any five questions out of eight questions.
• Each question carries five marks.
1. Explain in brief absorption coefficient and reflection coefficient.
2. How sound can be measured? Explain in brief.
3. Differentiate between Acoustics and sound insulation
4. Write briefly the various factors that affect Climate.
S. How does climate influence the human settlement?
6. How does ventilation affect human health?
7. Explain Steps required to be taken to control vibration in an industrial building.
8. Explain briefly working of microprocessor controlled automatic ventilator.
Section 0
• Answer any five questions out of eight questions.
• Each question carries,ten marks.
• Maximum limit 300 words per question.
1. What is reverberation? How is reverberation time calculated?
2. How do you compare the effectiveness of different acoustical material? Write a
short note on different types of sound absorbents.
3. What are the general principles or considerations underlying the noise control
and sound insulations in buildings? Describe in details.
4. What is the need of ventilation in buildings? Describe briefly the functional
requirements of a good ventilation system.
5. Explain requirement for energy efficient building. Explain briefly each and eve r y
component affecting the energy efficiency ofthe building.
110 BCO 3.7
6. What do you understand by intelligent building? How the concept of intelligen
building can be used to minimize the effect of earthquake?
7. What are the different types of vibration controls for a residential build ing? Explain
briefly.
8. Explain briefly building standards for design of auditorium for industries.
111 BCO - 3.7
BUILDING SCIENCE
(BCQ 3.7)
. • Assume any missing data if necessary.
Date: 24th Dec 2009 Time: 2:00 PM to 5:00 PM Max. Marks: 100
Section A
• Choose the correct or the best alternative in the following.
• Each question carries two marks.
1 . The total load created by rainfall on a long-span roof is influenced by which
ofthe following.
I area ofthe roof II. size ofthe roof drains
III. rainfall rate IV. distance to the roof drains
(a) I and II only (b) I and III only
(c) II and IV only (d) I, II, III, and IV
2. Which of the following material requires the greatest allowance for thermal
expansion and contraction when used in the construction of a building?
(a) Cast iron (b) Wrought iron
(c) Mild steel (d) Aluminum
3. Which of the following facilities would be in Seismic Hazard Exposure Group
III?
(a) Day-Care center (b) Emergency vehicle garage
(c) Police station (d) Office
4. Mechanically regulated smoke control is accomplished by employing fans
and dampers. If it is to be an effective means of preventing the spread of smoke,
which ofthe following must be true in case offire?
I. Exhaust dampers in the fire zone change from normal to fully open.
II. Supply dampers in the fire zone change from normal to fully close.
III. Supply fans serving the fire zone increase their speed.
(a) I and II only (b) I and III only
(c) II and III only (d) I, II, and III
112 BCO - 3.7
5. Economizer- cycle equipment conserves building energy by
(a) Using outdoor airto cool the building
(b) Using capacitors to increase the power factor
(c) Reducing artificial lighting as daylight increases
(d) Reducing ventilation air quality when building occupancy drops.
6. Which of the following is true concerning fire- retardant treatment of wood?
(a) It is a requirement for heavy ti mber construction.
(b) It reduces flame spread rating
(c) It makes the wood noncombustible.
/
I
(d) It increases wood strength.
7. A tool that enables a team to identify, explore and graphically display the
possible cause of an accident or hazardous conditions is:
(a) A fishbone diagram (b) An affinity diagram
(c) A matrix diagram (d) An interrelationship diagram
8. The additional construction cost required to enhance structural systems and
components for seismic resistance is generally what percentage of the total
new building cost?
(a) 9% or less (b) 10%-15%
(c) 16%-20% (d) 21%ormore
9. What a sun diagram dose?
(a) Used for orientation ofthe building
(b) Gives energy requirement ofthe building
(c) Gives aspect ofthe building
(d) All the above
10. Dilution ventilation is used to:
(a) Control a contaminant at it source
(b) Control fumes from lead fusing
(c) Control low toxicity vapors
(d) Control asbestos
113 BCO - 3.7
Section B
• Choose True/False in the following.
• Each question carries one mark.
1. The Koeppen Empirical System is used for classification of climate which is based
on observations oftemperature and precipitation.
2. Absolute Ventilation Efficiency is a quantity which expresses the ability of a
ventilation system to reduce pollution concentration relative to the feasible
theoretical maximum performance.
3. Retrofit is the action of improving a building performance by increasing various
aspects for its deSign.
4. Sound isolation means developing design solutions that control the transfer of
undesirable sounds.
5. Intelligent Building can reduce the cost of energy in the building.
Section C
• Answer any five questions out of eight questions.
• Each question carries five marks.
1. Write short note on acoustical defects in the buildings.
2. Differentiate between acoustics and sound insulation
3. If apartment doors have improved sound insulation, as you suggest, does notthis
mean thatfire alarms are likely to be less audible? Justify.
4. Write in brief what general rules do you observe for natural ventilation in building?
5. What are the drawbacks of skylight?
6. What is green building?
7. What is automatic sensor dimmer? Explain briefly the working of automatic
sensor dimmer.
S. Explain briefly the working of airi'iltration system.
114 BCO - 3.7
Section D
• Answer any five questions out of eight questions.
• Each question carries ten marks.
1. What do you understand by the terms 'Acoustics' and 'Acoustics of a building'?
Where do you use the knowledge of acoustics and sound insulation in buildings?
2. Write down short notes on the following': (any four)
a. Cavity wall partitions
b. Floating floor construction
c. Continuous, semi-continuous and discontinuous construction
d. Suspended ceiling floor construction
e. Concrete floor with a floating concrete screen.
3. How do you classify the noises? Explain mode oftransmission ofthese noises.
4. Explain how you achieve the natural and artificial ventilation in building. Write a
brief note on the suitability ofthe two systems.
5. What is building management system? Explain briefly the different components of
the building management system.
6. What is anti sky lighting? Explain the working of it.
7. Explain briefly the use of construction and demolition waste for construction
purposes.
8. What is light pollution? Explain its cause and how to reduce it
115 BCO - 3.7
BUILDING SCIENCE
(BCQ 3.7)
• Assume any missing data if necessary.
Date: 30th June 201 0 Time: 2:00 PM to 5:00 PM Max. Marks: 100
Section A
• Choose the correct or the best alternative in the following.
• Each question carries two marks.
1. Orientation of building depends on
a. Architecture b. Climate
c. Structure d. None ofthe above
2. Coastal regions are hot and
a. Humid b. Cold
c. Warm d. None ofthe above
3. Air change per hourfor a toilet is
a. 2.0 b. 4.0
c. 6.0 d. None ofthe above
4. Energy content of brick masonry is about
3
a. 500KWh/m b. 700 Kwh/m3
c. 900 Kwh/m3 d. None ofthe above
5. Trombe walls have been extensively used in
a. Hot regions b. Cold regions
c. Humid regions d. None ofthe above
6. Acceptable noise level in a Classroom is
a. 10decibel b. 20 decibel
c. 35 decibel d. None ofthe above
116 BCO - 3.7
7. Hotels for night halts only are
a. Motels b. Cafeterias
c. Dharamshalas d. None ofthe above
8. Number of storeys in a high rise building are
a. 3 and above b. Sand above
c. 9and above d. None ofthe above
9. Expansion joints are provided at a distance of
a. 30m b. 50m
c. 80m d. None ofthe above
10. Occupant load or floor area for residential building is
a. 2.5 m
2
/ person b. 5.0 m
2
/ person
c. 12.5 m
2
/ person d. None ofthe above
Section B
• Choose True/False in the following.
• Each question carries one mark.
1. Sun rays are good disinfectants
2. Emergency entrance in a hospital should be preferred near elevators
3. In Tropical climates long walls should be placed towards the north and south
4. Space standard is directly related to the living aspect
5. Emergency lights shall not be provided in the staircase and corridors
Section C
• Answer any five questions out of eight questions.
• Each question carries five marks.
1 . What do you understand by conditions of comfort?
2. Write short note on artificial lighting in buildings.
3. Write short note on air conditioning.
4. Write short note on resonance.
5. Define Environmental Protection.
117 BCO - 3.7
6. What do you understand by "Green Rating System"?
7. What is the effect of "Cavity" in a building design? Explain.
S. Explain Fire Detection and Warning in buildings.
Section 0
• Answer any five questions out of eight questions.
• Each question carries ten marks.
1. Discuss in detail the orientation of buildings.
2. Describe various types of lifts with the help of sketch showing plan & section.
3. Explain voice and means of voice control.
4. What do you understand by Fire-grading of buildings, Explain?
5. What are eco'friendly buildings, Explain
6. What do you understand by Rain Water Harvesting and Buildin.g Planning?
7. Discuss in detail five requirements of Outdoor spaces in hot & dry climates
S. Discuss the three major climatic divisions of India.
118 BCO -3.7
I
24th December, 2010 Roll No. .......... .
THE INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS (INDIA)
BUILDING SCIENCE
(BCO 3.7)
Time: 2:00 PM to 5:00 PM Max. Marks: 1 00
Note:
• Each question carries equal marks in each section.
• Each Section should be answered at the same place and not at different
places.
• Assume data, if necessary.
Section A
20 Marks
• Choose the correct orthe best alternative in the following.
1 . Orientation of building depends on
a. Architecture b. Climate
c. Structure d. None ofthe above
2. Hedges should be away from buildings by about
a. 10 times oftheir height b. 20times oftheir height
c. 30 times oftheir height d. None ofthe above
3. Buoyancy gives rise to internal air movement in
a. Vertical direction b. Horizontal direction
c. Haphazard direction d. None ofthe above
4. Air change per hour for a toilet is
a. 2.0 b. 4.0
c. 6.0 d. None ofthe above
5. Surface-to-volume ratio is determined by the building
a. Material b. Form
c. Orientation d. None ofthe above
119 BCO - 3.7
6. Energy content of brick masonry is about
a. SOO KWh/m3 b. 700KWh/m3
c. 900 KWh/m3 d. None of the above
7. Thermally massive wall with vents at the top and bottom is known as
a. Arch wall b. Cavity wall
c. Trombewall d. 7S0 mm
8. Acceptable noise level in a Bedroom is
a. 10 decibel b. 30 decibel
c. SO decibel d. None ofthe above
9. The plot area minus the area due for open spaces is
a. Carpet area b. Covered area
,c. Balance area d. None ofthe above
10. Width ot primary or secondary paths in a stadium is
a. 1.2Sm b. 3.2Sm
c. S.2Sm d. None ofthe above
Section B
5 Marks
• Choose True/False in the following.
1. Bed rooms are required to be comfortable in the night
.2. In a room the blower should be at higher level and exhaust at lower level
3. Curtains on windows do not work as sun shading device
4 ~ Building form does not determines the airflow pattern around the building
S. Human figure is the standard to decide proportion in a building
Section C
25 Marks
• Answer any four questions.
1. Write short note on lighting & ventilation of rooms in different climates.
2. Write short note on fire zones.
3. Describe natural ventilation due to stack effect with the help of a diagram.
4. Write short note on artificial lighting in buildings.
120 Beo -3.7
5. Write short on escalators or moving stairs.
6. Write short on sleeping area in a house.
Section D
50 Marks
• Answer any four questions.
1. Explain in detail the general r e q u i r e m e ~ t of buildings for fire protection.
2. Discuss in detail the orientation of buildings.
3. Explain the concept of sun control and the use of shading devices with
appropriate diagrams.
4. Describe various types of lifts with the help of sketches showing plan and section.
5. Discuss in detail the bye laws for construction of a cinema building.
6. Discuss in detail the concept of anthropometry in building planning.
121 BCO - 3.7
03
Material Absorption coefficient, a
Open window 1.00
Marble 0.01
Painted wood 0.03
Carpets 0.15toO.20
Brick wall 0.03
Draperies(heavy) 0.5
Draperies(light) 0.2
Ordinary plaster 0.02
Concrete floor 0.02
Cushion 0.2
What are the different types of mechanical waves? Explain in detail.
Ans: There are two types of/mechanical waves.
1 . Transverse wave,
2. Longitudinal wave.
1. Longitudinal waves: In longitudinal waves, the medium particles vibrate in
the direction of motion of waves. For example- when one end of spring is tied to a
hook in a wall and the other end is moved forward and backward, then every turn
of the spring oscillates parallel to the length of the spring and longitudinal wave's
travel through the spring.
ylllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllllilL
V 111111111111111 1IIIIIlI(b)
Propagafionof sound waves in air
Figure 6.1
75
BCO - 3.7
A wave motion in which the particles of the medium oscillate about their mean
positions in the direction of propagation ofthe wave, is called longitudinal wave.
Sound waves are classified as longitudinal waves. Let us now see how sound
waves propagate. Take a tuning fork, vibrate it and concentrate on the motion of
one of its prongs, say prong A. The normal position of the tuning fork and the
initial condition of air particles is shown in the fig 6.1 (a). As the prong A moves
towards right, it compresses air particles near it, forming a compression as shown
in fig (b). Due to vibrating air layers, this compression moves forward as a
disturbance. As the prong A moves back to its original position, the pressure on
its right decreases, thereby forming a rarefaction. This rarefaction moves forward
like compression as a disturbance. As the tuning fork goes on vibrating, waves
consisting of alternate compressions and rarefactions spread in air as shown in
fig (d). The direction of motion ofthe sound waves is same as that of air particles,
hence they are classified as longitudinal waves. The longitudinal waves travel in
the form of compressions and rarefactions. '
2. Transverse waves: In transverse waves, "medium particles vibrate in the
direction perpendicular to the dire.ction of motion of waves." For example, when
one end of a horizontal rope is tied to a hook and the other end is moved up and
down, then transverse waves travel in the rope along its length.
A wave motion, in which the particles of the medium oscillate about their mean
positions at right angles to the direction of propagation of the wave, is called
transverse wave.
These waves can propagate through solids and liquids but not through gases,
because gases do not possess elastic properties. Examples of these waves are:
vibrations in strings, ripples on water surface and electromagnetic waves.
In a transverse wave the particles of the medium oscillate in a direction
perpendicular to the directi.on of propagation as shown in the figure 6.2.
Crest
Trough
Trough
Particles ot the medium oscillate in a direction perpendicular
to the direction ot propagation
Figure 6.2
76 BCO - 3.7

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