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Fragments, Run ons Ramage Chapter 3

ENG 102
1 PM

Epic Rap Battles of History


How is this clip an example of a classical argument? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l3w2MTXBebg

Fragments
A sentence is a group of words that has three elements: Subject Verb And a Complete thought A fragment seems to be a complete sentence but it lacks either a Subject Verb Or a complete thought.

Fragments
What are the two basic ways to correct sentence fragments? Add what is missing (subject, verb, or both)
Attach fragment to sentence before or after it

Fragments
What are the five trouble spots that signal possible fragments? A word group that begins with a(n) Preposition

Spotting Fragments
A word group that begins with a preposition
I pounded as hard as I could. Against the door.

*correct by joining* I pounded as hard as I could against the door.

Spotting Fragments
What are the five trouble spots that signal possible fragments? A word group that begins with a(n) Preposition Dependent word

Spotting Fragments
A word group that begins with a dependent word
Since I moved. I have eaten out every day.
Common Dependent words: after, although, as/as if/ as though, because, before, how, once, since, that, unless, while, until, etc.

*Correct by joining*

Since moving, I have eaten out every day.

Spotting Fragments
What are the five trouble spots that signal possible fragments? A word group that begins with a(n) Preposition Dependent word -ing verb form

Spotting Fragments
A word group that begins with an -ing form verb
I ran as fast as I could. Hoping to get there on time.

*Correct by joining* I was running as fast as I could, hoping to get there on time. *correct by adding missing elements* I was running as fast as I could. I was still hoping to get there on time.

Spotting Fragments
What are the five trouble spots that signal possible fragments? A word group that begins with a(n) Preposition Dependent word -ing verb form to and a verb

Spotting Fragments
A word group that begins with to and a verb
Cheri got underneath the car. To change the oil.

*correct by joining* Cheri got underneath the car to change the oil. To change the oil, Cheri got underneath the car. *correct by adding elements* Cheri got underneath the car. She needed to change the oil.

Spotting Fragments
What are the five trouble spots that signal possible fragments? A word group that begins with a(n) Preposition Dependent word -ing verb form to and a verb an example or explanation

Spotting Fragments
Word groups that are examples or explanations
Freecycle.com recycles usable items. Such as clothing.

*correct by joining*
Freecycle.com recycles usable items such as clothing.

Ex. 3.1 Sentence Fragments


1. There are older and more valuable manuscripts. Than the Voynich. There are older and more valuable manuscripts than the Voynich. 2. However, there is none more mysterious. The Voynich still puzzling scholars many years after its discovery. However, there is none more mysterious. The Voynich is still puzzling scholars many years after its discovery.

Ex. 3.1 Sentence Fragments


3. This manuscript was written in a code. So far unable to solve it. This manuscript was written in a code. So far no one has been able to solve it. 4. Because the origins of the manuscript are unclear; the puzzle is doubly difficult. Because the origins of the manuscript are unclear, the puzzle is doubly difficult.

Ex. 3.1 Sentence Fragments


5. No one knows. What country it came from. No one knows what country it came from. 6. Therefore, it very hard to determine the language the code represents. This makes decoding it even more troublesome. Therefore, it is very hard to determine the language the code represents. This makes decoding it even more troublesome.

Ex. 3.1 Sentence Fragments


7. Handwriting specialists can only guess at its age. It may date back to the Middle Ages. correct 8. The writing does not resemble. Any letters that can be traced to a known alphabet. The writing does not resemble any letters that can be traced to a known alphabet.

Ex. 3.1 Sentence Fragments


9. The manuscript which contains many beautiful illustrations. Of plants, people, and other seemingly unrelated images. The manuscript contains many beautiful illustrations. It depicts plants, people, and other seemingly unrelated images.

Ex. 3.1 Sentence Fragments


10. Because the Voynich manuscript is such an intriguing mystery. That some scholars might actually be disappointed to learn all of its secrets. The Voynich manuscript is such an intriguing mystery that some scholars might actually be disappointed to learn all of its secrets.

Run-ons

Run-Ons
1. Whats another name for a sentence? Independent clause 2. What term describes two complete sentences joined without any punctuation? Fused sentence All of us went to the movies Jack and Joan did not stay long.

Run-Ons
2. What term describes two complete sentences joined without any punctuation? Fused sentence All of us went to the movies Jack and Joan did not stay long. 3. What term describes two complete sentences joined by only a comma? Comma splice All of us went to the movies, Jack and Joan did not stay long.

Run-Ons
4. What are the five ways to correct run-ons? Add a period All of us went to the movies. Jack and Joan did not stay long. Add a semicolon All of us went to the movies; Jack and Joan did not stay long. Add a semicolon, a conjunctive adverb, and a comma All of us went to the movies; however, Jack and Joan did not stay long.

Run-Ons
4. What are the five ways to correct run-ons? Add a comma and a coordinating conjunction All of us went to the movies, but Jack and Joan did not stay long. Add a dependent word Although all of us went to the movies, Jack and Joan did not stay long.

Grammar Tasks
Week 3 Write three sentence fragments.

Write three comma-splice run-ons. Write three fused run-ons.

Ramage Chapter 3

What is the classical structure of an argument?


Introduction Attention grabber
Memorable

scene, illustrative story, startling statistic

Explanation of issue and needed background Thesis

What is the classical structure of an argument?


Presentation of writers position Main body of essay
Presents

& supports each reason in turn Each reason is tied to a value/belief held by the audience

What is the classical structure of an argument?


Summary of opposing views Response to opposing views Refutes opposing views Shows weaknesses in opposing views Concedes to some strengths

What is the classical structure of an argument?


Conclusion Summarizes argument Leaves strong last impression Calls for action or relates topic to larger context of issues

What are the three kinds of persuasive appeals?

Logos Ethos Pathos

Define logos

Quality of message Logic of argument Guiding Questions:


How

can I make the argument internally consistent and logical? How can I find the best reasons and support them with the best evidence?

Define Ethos

Credibility of writer Conveyed through writers investment in claim, fairness to alternative views, authors tone, style, attention to grammar and mechanics Guiding Questions:
How

can I present myself effectively? How can I enhance my credibility and trustworthiness?

Define Pathos

Values and beliefs of intended audience Often associated with emotional appeal
Imaginative

sympathies

Guiding Questions:
How

can I make the reader open to my message? How can I best appeal to my readers values and interests? How can I engage my reader emotionally and imaginatively?

How to Identify an information question

Examine purpose in relationship to audience Teacher to learner

Hope audience gains new information, knowledge, or understanding

How does a diesel engine work? Why is a diesel engine more fuel efficient than a gasoline engine? What is the most cost-effective way to produce diesel fuel from crude oil?

How to Identify an Issue question

Examine purpose in relationship to audience Advocate to decision maker or jury


Audience

must make up its mind on something and must weigh different points of view

Should the present highway tax on diesel fuel be increased?


Pg. 63

What factors do rational arguments require?


1. reasonable participants who operate within the conventions of reasonable behavior 2. potentially sharable assumptions that can serve as a starting place or foundation for argument
If either factor is missing, the result is a pseudo argument.

How is a pseudo-argument created?

No possibility for listening, learning, growth, or change by audience Lack of shared assumptions or common ground
Bible

interpretations Personal opinions Opera is boring Pg. 65

Epic Rap Battles of History


How is this clip an example of a classical argument?

Shakespeare Vs. Seuss Discussion


www 1. Which character had the best argument? Who do you think won? 2. What were some of the arguments made by the winner? 3. How did the winner refute his opponents arguments? 4. What were some of the opponents key arguments?

For Wednesday...

Watch the assigned video clips Answer the questions listed on the previous slide. Think of two other characters who should battle.

Video Clip Assignments


Easter Bunny vs. Genghis Khan; Michael Jackson vs. Elvis Presley Brittany Altmeyer, Ashley Berkich, Leah Liberi, Angelia Bianchi, Kaila Crivello, Sarah Csider Batman vs. Sherlock Holmes; Steve Jobs vs. Bill Gates Shawn Fahey, Chris Gallick, Alex Gola, Luke Kail, Emily Knorr, Danielle Delrosso Steven Hawking vs. Einstein; Mr. Rogers vs. Mr. T Mark Nath, Bob Perrin, Shaye Rainey, Brian Richards, Allayna Schneider, Casey Stewart Moses vs. Santa; Mario Bros. vs. Wright Bros. Kody Torok, Paige Wagner, Chris Wolowicz, Nate Sharp, Doug Woodin, Cody DeCarlo, Elias Luhatwa