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ENGL0205 RESEARCH PAPER: SAANTHI SILK. ARUNAS TEXTILE.

ASSIGNMENT 2- COMPARATIVE RESEARCH

ENGL0205

GROUP MEMBERS: KYLENE WEE JO YEEN | 0309355 NURUL JANNAH MASTURAH BINTI JAILANI | 0310210 KEE TING TING | 0310019 MOK LING | 0306356

KYLENE WEEE JO YEEN | 0309355. NURUL JANNAH MASTURAH BINTI JAILANI | 0310210. KEE TING TING | 0310019. MOK LING | 0306356

ENGL0205 RESEARCH PAPER: SAANTHI SILK. ARUNAS TEXTILE.

Textile Shop Research Paper

KYLENE WEEE JO YEEN | 0309355. NURUL JANNAH MASTURAH BINTI JAILANI | 0310210. KEE TING TING | 0310019. MOK LING | 0306356

ENGL0205 RESEARCH PAPER: SAANTHI SILK. ARUNAS TEXTILE.

Outline 1. Abstract 2. Introduction to Textile i. History of Textile i. First Discoveries of Textile ii. Textile History in India

3. Manufacturing of Textile i. The Types of Textile Production

4. Textile in Malaysia i. ii. iii. iv. Introduction to Textile in Malaysia Textile Shop (1) : Saanthi Silk Textile Shop (2): Arunas Textile Comparison between Saanthi Silk and Arunas Textile

5. Appendix i. References ii. Interview Questions iii. Pictures

KYLENE WEEE JO YEEN | 0309355. NURUL JANNAH MASTURAH BINTI JAILANI | 0310210. KEE TING TING | 0310019. MOK LING | 0306356

ENGL0205 RESEARCH PAPER: SAANTHI SILK. ARUNAS TEXTILE.

Abstract This study examined the types of traditional trades in Klang Textile shops; Saanthi Silk and Arunas Textile. Students were required to travel to Klang and interview the people in their chosen field, Textile Shops. Minor problems that were faced that day included textile shop businesses that were only five to ten years old whereas the required number of years that the business must be had to be over twenty years old. No problems occurred that day as the interviews were successful. The research on Textile shops were furthered with the help of published sources and online articles and journals. In conclusion, this research was successful in obtaining information about Textile Shops.

KYLENE WEEE JO YEEN | 0309355. NURUL JANNAH MASTURAH BINTI JAILANI | 0310210. KEE TING TING | 0310019. MOK LING | 0306356

ENGL0205 RESEARCH PAPER: SAANTHI SILK. ARUNAS TEXTILE.

Almost as old as Human Civilization, that was when the first textiles were found. In 500BC, textile was discovered in Egypt. (fibre2fashion, 2013) Cotton was found in India in 3000BC and silk, from China in 1000BC. (fibre2fashion, 2013) The discovery and constant development of culture led China into discovering the spinning silk method and the weaving method was discovered by Egypt. (fibre2fashion, 2013) Then, in the 18th and 19th centuries, they discovered the wonders of machineries and discovered various synthetic fibres such as nylon and polyester. (fibre2fashion, 2013) With the discovery of technology, it created a broader market for textile products and slowly led to newer and improves sources of natural fibre. (fibre2fashion, 2013) In India, textile is one of the earliest discoveries that came into existence. It occupies 14% of the total Industrial production and contributes to almost 30% of the total exports. (fibre2fashion, 2013) It is also the second largest employment generator, after agriculture. (fibre2fashion, 2013) Indian textile has a rich heritage and the origin of textiles in India traces back to the Indus Valley Civilisation, where the people used ordinary cotton to make their own clothes. (fibre2fashion, 2013) The earliest of Veda; the most ancient scriptures, Rigveda has fictitious information about textile, and most of the information about textile, referred to weaving. (fibre2fashion, 2013) On the other hand, Ramayana and Mahabharata, the Indian historical poets, described that in ancient India, the fabrics were rich and stylized garments worn by the nobles, while simple and ordinary fabrics were worn by the common people. (fibre2fashion, 2013) Not only does the contemporary Indian textile reflect on their rich history, but they also cater to the requirements of the modern times. (fibre2fashion, 2013) Besides that, there are many ways of producing textile. The types of textile production include dyeing, printing, resist dyeing and painting, weaving and embroidery. (Sadar.M, Guy.J and Kumar.R, 2013) The production of textile mainly consists of fabrics, such as cotton, silk and wool. These are the three materials in which textile are woven. (Sadar.M, Guy.J and Kumar.R, 2013) Cotton comes from the cotton plant that is vastly planted in many regions of India but each of which produces a different grade of cotton. Silk, on the other hand comes from the wild silk moths, found in the central and the northeastern parts of India. (Sadar.M, Guy.J and Kumar.R, 2013) They are also very much different from silk that comes from China. (Sadar.M, Guy.J and Kumar.R, 2013) Fleece, is collected from mountain goats, which are raised in the cold regions of India, Kashmir, Ladakh and the Himalayas. The fleece collected from mountain goats are then spun into wool. (Sadar.M, Guy.J and Kumar.R, 2013)

KYLENE WEEE JO YEEN | 0309355. NURUL JANNAH MASTURAH BINTI JAILANI | 0310210. KEE TING TING | 0310019. MOK LING | 0306356

ENGL0205 RESEARCH PAPER: SAANTHI SILK. ARUNAS TEXTILE.

The most common dyes used on the fabrics are red, black, blue, violet, green and yellow. They are obtained naturally, from plants. Red dyes are taken from alizarin-producing plants. (Sadar.M, Guy.J and Kumar.R, 2013) Black dyes are obtained by mixing indigo with acidic substances like tannin, while indigo is obtained from processed indigo plants, to create different shades of blue. (Sadar.M, Guy.J and Kumar.R, 2013) Green and purple can be obtained by layering yellow, which is from turmeric, or red dyes of blue cloth. Out of the three fabrics, cotton must be prepared to receive the dyes. Mordant, a fixative agent, is used to bond the dye onto the fabric. (Sadar.M, Guy.J and Kumar.R, 2013) For printing, Mordant is used to create patterns on the fabric. (Sadar.M, Guy.J and Kumar.R, 2013) If it is drawn or stamped with wooden blocks onto the fabrics surface, the dye would stick to only where Mordant has been applied and the pattern appears after the cloth is washed. (Sadar.M, Guy.J and Kumar.R, 2013) Another production phase that is similar to printing would be resist dyeing, which is also known as Batik, by the Malay term. Resist dyeing works in the opposite manner to printing. Instead, one has to apply wax, and then apply the designing elements. (Sadar.M, Guy.J and Kumar.R, 2013)The cloth will then be immersed in a hot dye bath. The concentration of the dye, duration of immersion and number of dyes determines depth and the colour shade of the cloth. The colour will then be revealed when there is contact with air. (Sadar.M, Guy.J and Kumar.R, 2013) On the other hand, another way of producing textile is painting. Here, it is a multistep process for creating designs. (Sadar.M, Guy.J and Kumar.R, 2013) The cloth is soaked in starch and buffalo milk and then dried in the sun. The red, black, brown and violet portions of the designs are outlined with Mordant, and then placed in a bath of alizarin. (Sadar.M, Guy.J and Kumar.R, 2013)Wax is used to cover the cloth, except for the parts that are to be dyed blue, and is placed in an indigo bath. (Sadar.M, Guy.J and Kumar.R, 2013)After that, the wax is scrapped off and the areas that are to be yellow or pale green are hand painted. (Sadar.M, Guy.J and Kumar.R, 2013) The last way of producing textile is weaving and embroidery. (Sadar.M, Guy.J and Kumar.R, 2013)Patterns can be created with weaving, but often with silk. The fabric is woven with a raised pattern using gold or silver thread. (Sadar.M, Guy.J and Kumar.R, 2013) Embroidery is a decorative needlework pattern that is sewn onto the fabric. Not only that, embroidery is one of Indias specialties while producing textile. (Sadar.M, Guy.J and Kumar.R, 2013)

KYLENE WEEE JO YEEN | 0309355. NURUL JANNAH MASTURAH BINTI JAILANI | 0310210. KEE TING TING | 0310019. MOK LING | 0306356

ENGL0205 RESEARCH PAPER: SAANTHI SILK. ARUNAS TEXTILE.

Malaysia, on the other hand has constructed a museum to preserve the heritage and origins of Malaysias very own textile. According to The New Straits Time, it has been reported that when the festival of lights is round the corner, Little India in Klang will be flocked with many Indians who are eager to do some Deepavali shopping. Little India in Jalan Tengku Kelana is reported to be known as one of the hot-spots for Deepavali shopping. (New Straits Time, 2012) With reference to this article published by The New Straits Time, a research was conducted and two textile shops, Arunas Textile and Saanthi Silk, located in Jalan Tengku Kelana were chosen. Comparison studies between the two textile shops were made. Textile shops generally sell different types of fabrics for almost any kind of clothing mainly traditional clothing. A standard Indian costume is usually made from cotton or silk but with new trends settling in, clothings made from chiffon, georgette and satin are becoming more popular, especially for womens traditional costumes. Traditional saris, a garment usually draped over the body worn by women, despite the new arrival of fashion trends, are quite popular among the younger generation. Although most women only wear them for special occasions such as weddings and formal ceremonies, there are quite a few who wears saris as casual attire especially when the costumes are designed to suit any type of occasion. (Maynard, 2004) To keep up with the always-changing trends of fashion, Arunas Textile has to come up with different approaches to make sure that their products can be sold. Their supplies consist of common fabrics with chiffon as their bestselling textile. Arunas Textile, founded by a Hindu Malaysian named Aruna Salaam almost 30 years ago, started out as a typical textile shop and had begun to sell religious materials used by Hindus for their prayers. Soon, these materials became their main source of income instead of fabrics. Though they still gain profit from their textile, trading in an area where Hindus are a major community they have an obvious advantage from handling a business involving equipment for religious purposes as well as normal accessories like bangles. On the other hand, Saanthi Silk, established 50 years ago and currently owned by Mr. Selavaraju, only sells textiles. They offer a range of fabrics from cotton to georgette as well as ready-made clothes like the traditional Indian costumes. Unlike Arunas Textile, Saanthi Silk does not have the advantage that they posses by selling materials for Hindus religious practices like incense, statues and sculptures of Hindu deities. But because Saanthi Silk has been around for more than 5 decades, it is one of the oldest businesses in Klang and a regular shop for locals over the generations.

KYLENE WEEE JO YEEN | 0309355. NURUL JANNAH MASTURAH BINTI JAILANI | 0310210. KEE TING TING | 0310019. MOK LING | 0306356

ENGL0205 RESEARCH PAPER: SAANTHI SILK. ARUNAS TEXTILE.

Businesses around Klang are most busy during certain occasions and ceremonies involving customs or religion. Deepavali, or sometimes referred as Divali, is an example. (Fowler, 1997) Although it is a religious festival that is associated with happiness and prosperity, it celebrated by Hindus and non-Hindu Malaysians nationwide. Malaysia is well known for its diverse cultures, races and ethnicity that allowed Malaysians to celebrate different kinds of festivals. When Deepavali season arrives, Malaysians would celebrate it together with the Hindus. This gives textile shops specialising Indian traditional clothes opportunity to maximise their profits within that time period. However, Arunas Textile has the upper hand. While most customers visit Saanthi Silk for new clothes, they have fewer customers every year compared to Arunas Textile. Due to the limitations of selling only textile, Saanthi Silk tries to take advantage of the current fashion trends to attract a greater number of younger customers to purchase their items. Their designs, usually printed, have a variety of colours from bright to pastels. Fabrics with bright and lively colors tend to attract bold young customers, mostly in their teens or young adults, while soft pastels draws older customers including senior citizens and adults. Though there are differences in colour preferences by different age groups, traditional Indian costumes are generally very colourful. Saanthi Silk ships their textile from North region of India. This part of India monopolizes types of silks, muga and eri. Back in the middle ages, different types of silks were used to separate those with a social status from the others. The muga was weaved exclusively for noblemen while the eri was made for commoners. In modern times, silks can be bought and worn by anyone of any age. With the primary intention of fashion, silk has become popular among women due to the smoothness and softness of the texture. (Ghosh
and Ghosh, 1995)

Arunas Textile, on the contrary, receives their supplies from Bombay and Chennai. Unlike Saanthi Silk, their textiles were designed by hand without any help from technology. Their main customers are usually small businesses and vendors who help them sell and promote their products in different locations. Their concentration on religious objects is because of the high demand for it. Hindus have an obligatory worship that is practiced daily called puja. Fragrance from incense sticks is offered to deities to honour them. Arunas Textile offers these incense sticks so the worshippers can perform their religious practices at the temple or in their own houses. (Fowler, 1997)

KYLENE WEEE JO YEEN | 0309355. NURUL JANNAH MASTURAH BINTI JAILANI | 0310210. KEE TING TING | 0310019. MOK LING | 0306356

ENGL0205 RESEARCH PAPER: SAANTHI SILK. ARUNAS TEXTILE.

Both shops advertise themselves as much as they can to attract as many potential customers as many as possible. It is a marketing tool that helps to sell the products verbally and non-verbally. (Koekemoer and Bird, 2004). Advertising can create awareness amongst potential customers to bring a certain product to their attention and interests. Over the years, methods of advertising have changed with the development of technology that influences the extent of advertising and the cost of it. Arunas Textile and Saanthi Silk have different approaches to advertising and marketing of their products. Publicizing is important for both textile shops in order to make their products more known. A popular way of advertising in Malaysia is through the media. The main obstacle that they have to go through is the budget constraint due to it being one of the most expensive methods of marketing. (Yu, 1999) Each shop has a different advertising budget. New shops have smaller budget constrain thus it is difficult for them to advertise themselves through the media. Shops that have been around for a while tend to have a bigger financial plan that allows them to spend more on advertising and promoting their products. (Trehan and Trehan, 2008). Arunas Textile concentrates on advertising through electronic media such as television and online advertisements. They promote themselves on television as commercials in between channels or product placement. Product placement is a method for the shops to publicize their products by having said products used by actors in a television series or movie. It is an effective way to garner the viewers attention and interests when their favourite characters wear a certain brand. Any products that have been used in the series or movies will be stated in the credits of the show, giving information to the viewers of the brand or shops name. With their considerable budget limit, theyve decided to focus on broadcast advertising due to its popularity. On the other hand, Saanthi Silk, who chose media advertising as well, has a bigger budget that grants them a wider selection to advertising methods than Arunas Textile. Astro, a famous Malaysian broadcast television, is used by Saanthi Silk to have their commercials played in between television series. Although their main attention is on broadcast advertising but they also carry out printed advertising. They have ads on the daily newspaper, Tamil Malaysia and magazines. Although some traditional costumes like the saris managed to return to the fashion world, thanks to Bollywood actresses dressing up in bright glittering saris that exhibits the Indians pride in weaving and embroidery, Indian textile shops hope that other traditional costumes would return to its former glory as well. They will try to refine the old costumes to catch up with the current fashion trends and make sure that they can achieve their aspirations.

KYLENE WEEE JO YEEN | 0309355. NURUL JANNAH MASTURAH BINTI JAILANI | 0310210. KEE TING TING | 0310019. MOK LING | 0306356

ENGL0205 RESEARCH PAPER: SAANTHI SILK. ARUNAS TEXTILE.

Arunas Textile is hoping to open an online blog shop so they can reach customers who cannot come to their shop in Klang or international customers who are interested in their products. It can also serve as online advertising for the shop. In addition, by providing an online service, they can cut down costs to hire workers and use the money they have on advertising or promotions. Saanthi Silk, however, has a very stable business over the decades and had gained a great number of regular customers so they have no plans on changing their methods of trading. In conclusion, Indian textile is plentiful in heritage that reflects its rich history. The fabrics can be produced in several methods such as dyeing, printing, resist dyeing and painting, weaving and embroidery. Arunas Textile and Saanthi Silk, textile shops that are considered to be among the oldest in Klang, sell a variety of fabrics to cater the locals preferences and the current fashion trends. While Saanthi Silk had their products mass produced, Arunas Textile designed their fabrics by hand and their praying materials became their primary source of income. Although both shops have different ways to publicize themselves, their objective is similar and that is to gain potential customers. In the future, Arunas Textile plans to expand their business more by opening an online shopping blog that allows them to reach to customers who are not local. However, Saanthi Silk would continue doing their business as it is due to its stable trading.

KYLENE WEEE JO YEEN | 0309355. NURUL JANNAH MASTURAH BINTI JAILANI | 0310210. KEE TING TING | 0310019. MOK LING | 0306356

ENGL0205 RESEARCH PAPER: SAANTHI SILK. ARUNAS TEXTILE.

References : Author, A., & Author, B. (Year). Title of the webpage. Retrieved from http://... Kavitha, N. ( http://www.fibre2fashion.com/industry-article/8/728/textile-industry-inindian-scenario1.asp

Sardar, Marika. "Indian Textiles: Trade and Production". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/intx/hd_intx.htm (October 2003)

Guy, John. Woven Cargoes: Indian Textiles in the East. New York: Thames & Hudson, 1998. Kumar, Ritu. Costumes and Textiles of Royal India. London: Christie's Books, 1999. http://thestar.com.my/metro/story.asp?sec=central&file=/2012/11/1/central/12239394 Maynard, M. (2004). Dress & Globalisation. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Ghosh, G. K. & Ghosh, S. (1995). Indian Textiles: Past and Present. New Delhi: APH Publishing Corporation.

Fowler, J. (1997). Hinduism: Beliefs and Practices. Great Britain: Sussex Academic Press.

Koekemoer, L & Bird, S. (2004). Marketing Communications. South Africa: Juta and Co. Ltd.

Trehan, M. & Trehan, R. (2008). Advertising and Sales Management. New Delhi: V.K. Publications.

KYLENE WEEE JO YEEN | 0309355. NURUL JANNAH MASTURAH BINTI JAILANI | 0310210. KEE TING TING | 0310019. MOK LING | 0306356