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Passive Filters-Potentialities

and Limitations

J.C. Das, PE, Sr. MlEE Staff Consultant Amec Inc. Atlanta, Georgia
Abstract: New topologies f o r harmonic mitigation a n d active filters have come a long way and these address the line-harmonic control a t the source. These mitigate some of the disadvantages of passive filters, however, for non-liner loads above 1 MW the passive filters a r e an economical choice. T h e p a p e r discusses two types of filters: hand pass filters a n d damped filters, which are commonly applied. The operation of these filters is described with respect t o the design a n d system limitations. T h e operating constraints are then superimposed. T h e development of this approach shows that there a r e design limitations a n d large system changes or modifications can result in higher distortion or even damage to filters in extreme cases. The constraints a n d limitations that a designer faces in implementing a n effective filter design with modern tools of harmonic analysis, measurements a n d system analysis a r e discussed. The paper shows that in most distribution systems it is practical a n d economical to implement passive filter designs, provided the required safeguards a r e considered.
INTRODUCTION

Most distribution systems require reactive power compensation to improve the power factor. save demand charges or to release additional active power from existing equipment or for voltage support, i.e., the reactive power support required to arrest the voltage drop on loss of a plant generator. The non-linear loads are increasing, i.e., pulp and paper mill distribution systems invariably have ASD (adjustable speed drive systems), which may form a considerable percentage of overall plant load. When power capacitors are used for reactive power compensation, it becomes necessary to turn them in to filters to escape harmonic resonance problems with one of the load-generated harmonics. It is not uncommon to apply passive filters in Mvar range and filters totaling some tens of Mvar in a large installation may he required. An improvement in power factor from 0.85 to 0.9 for a system demand of 100 MVA requires approximately IO Mvar of compensation. Passive filters have been extensively used to simultaneously meet one or more objectives and also meet the requirements of IEEE Std. 519 with respect to TDD (total demand distortion) at PCC (point of common coupling)[l]. Passive filters have also been extensively used in HVDC systems, arc-furnace installations, and SVCs (Static var compensators) to name a few more applications. Fig. 1 shows common type of passive filters. their configuration, U-X and Z-T plots. The single tuned

(ST) filter. also called low-pass filter or hand-pas filter is most commonly applied, however one filter may not be adequate to filter effectively all the troublesome harmonics. Two single tuned filters will have characteristics identical with double band-pass filter. The 2-T plot of a second-order high pass filter (a first order high-pass filter consists of a series resistor and capacitor and no parallel branch is not used) shows that the minimum impedance of this type of filter in its passband is higher than that of a single-tuned band-pass filter. A high-pass filter will allow a percentage of a11 harmonics above its notch frequency to pass througb. This may result in large rating at fundamental and large losses in the resistor. The filter is commonly applied fnr higher frequencies and notch reduction. The composite filter consists of two branches of band-pass filters and a parallel branch of high-pass filter for higher frequencies. This configuration is commonly applied to arc-furnace loads. The filter types shown in Fig I are generally adequate for industry applications. The other filter types are third order-damped filter and recently introduced type C filter, applied to transmission systems. The characteristics of passive filters are described in [2-6]

RELATIONS IN A SINGLE-TUNED FILTER

Fig. 2 shows a ST filter in a distribution system and Fig. 2(b) shows the equivalent circuit. The filter and the equivalent Thevenin system impedance are in parallel and the harmonic current injected at a node through , impedance Z divides into the filter and the system impedances:

Where is the injected harmonic current, Is is the current in the system and I , is the current in the filter. The harmonic voltage across the filter impedance Z , should equal the harmonic voltage across the equivalent Thevenins impedance Z,.

I,Z,

= IAZS

(2)

Z is the equivalent impedance of the utilitys source and , the distribution system as seen from the point of application of the filter. Therefore:

0-7803-7931-4~03/$17.00 0 2003 IEEE

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Table 7. hive H u m o n i c Filtem Con~purption, and Zw Plots R*X


Filter Typo
Band-Paaa Hih-Pass
Double-Band-Pass
Compaih

Fig. I . Types of passive filters

And
Tnnsfomu

Where A, andZfl z l , =complex , quantities, which 1, + A,, are P A [ (4) determine the distribution of the harmonic current in the filter and the system impedance. The equations could have been written in terms of admittances too. A properly designed filter will have A, close to unity, typically 0.995 and the corresponding As for the and system will be 0.005. The impedance angles of As may be of the order of -81 and -2.6 , respectively. This shows that the system impedance plays an important role in the filtration process. For infinite system impedance, the filtration is perfect; all the harmonic current will flow in the filter impedance. Conversely, for a system of low impedance, i.e.. a stiff system, most of the harmonic current flows into the system and little in to the filter. In case of no filtration all the harmonic current passes on to the system. In a ST filter, the inductive and capacitive reactance should be equal at the resonant frequency:

=[ z.rzf

m l !Qad$r EquIY.Int + o e & r *

Non-linur 1o.d

1 ,

Fig. 2. Lumped distribution system rsd its equivalent circuit f01 harmonic injection

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shown. Curve B is for R=10 ohms, X e 500 ohms, Q= 50. These two curves have the same asymptotes. V2Mc gives the reactive power output of a capacitor. In the presence of a filter reactor it is given by:

4 4

VZ

X , In2 -X ,

-2.1

6P m M

n2 -~ x(reactive power without reactor) n z -1


(12)
Thus, the presence of a series reactor increases the reactive power output of the capacitor. This is so because the voltage drop in the reactor is added to the capacitor voltage and the voltage at the junction of capacitor and reactor rises:

Fig. 3. Asymptotes and pass-band of a ST filter Where 4 is the tuned frequency in radians. It is given by:

n=

If X, is the reactance of the capacitor or filter reactor at its tuned frequency:

V, = V + V , = V + j o L ( V l ( j 0 L - l l j o c ) )

- n2 -n2 -1
(13)

(7)

Q gives the quality factor of the tuning reactor:

The reactive power output of a ST filter tuned to 4.85f is therefore approximately 4% higher than wirhorrt the reactor. The harmonic loading on the capacitor is given by:

It determines the sharpness of tuning. The pass band is bounded by frequencies at which:

I ~ X -I:v' n 2 , n S X , n 2 -1

(14)

And the fundamental frequency loading of the filter reactor is:

IZ, = f i R

(9)

w-w, 6= W"

(10)
RELATIONS IN A SECOND ORDER FILTER

The plot of the impedance is shown in Fig. 3. The sharpness of tuning is dependent on R as well as X, and reducing these can reduce the impedance of the filter at its resonant frequency. The asymptotes are at:

The characteristics of a second order high pass filter are shown in Fig. 1. It has a low impedance at the comer frequency. The sharpness of tuning in the high-pass filter is reciprocal of ST filters.

The edges of the pass band are at ? 1/2Q and width = 1/Q. fig 3, curve A is for R=5 ohms and XF In 500 ohms, Q= 100, with asymptotes and pass band as

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The reactor loading at fundamental frequency can be calculated assuming that current through the parallel resistor is zero.

At harmonic h, the harmonic current divides into the resistance and inductance. The inductive component of the current is:

..,I""

+p

The harmonic loading is, therefore:

Fig. 4. Distribution system for predominantly drive system loads

the example with

AN EXAMPLE OF FILTER DESIGN

Fig. 4 shows a simple system, where the 6-pulse drive system load is 77% of the total load. This may not be very practical distribution system but interesting from the point of view of passive filter design and application. When the non-linear load is more than 30% of the total load demand, a careful analysis is required for control of TDD
S ~ e p : Esrimare Harmotric currenr injection I

Fig. 5(a) is the ideal textbook waveform, fig 5(b) is waveform with commutation angle, 5(c) with ripple content and S(d) is a discontinuous waveform due to large delay angle control. The harmonic injection from each of these waveforms will be different. As the delay angle increases, the harmonic generation increases, but at the same time the component of fundamental frequency current also decreases. A worst-case scenario is chosen for the analysis, For the example, a gating angle 1' is considered. Then 5 using the following expression from [I], the overlap angle is 12.25'.

This may not be always easy. The harmonic injection spectrum will depend upon: ( I ) topology of the drive system and the harmonic producing loads. 6pulse current converters are common for drive systems and much literature [l,2.7,81 provides estimation of harmonic spectrum from these sources. A voltage-source converter with diode front-end may give an entirely different harmonic spectrum, i.e., the typical values of 5Ih and 71h harmonics in this type of converter are 64.5% and 34.6% respectively as compared to 17.94% and 11.5% in current source converters. Arc furnaces, switched mode power supplies. PWM drive systems, slip-frequency recovery schemes, cycloconverters, each have their own harmonic spectrum [1,2]. (2) There is an interaction with the system impedance. This brings the necessity of specific modeling of a non-linear harmonic source with respect to system configuration. For simplicity, equivalent Thevnine's impedance can be derived at the point of harmonic cmrrent injection. (3) The harmonic spectrum varies with the operation. As an example consider Fig. 5 for the input ac waveform to a current-source converter.

. U

=cos-'[cosa-(x~ X,)I,]-a +

(20)

Where X , and X , are the system and transformer reactance's in per unit on converter base and Id is per unit current on a converter base. The harmonic spectrum, ignoring ripple content is calculated analytically or graphically from [ 1,2] and gives the following order of harmonics in terms of fundamental current: Table1
Harmonic Spectrum of 6-pulseLoad, Fig. 4

"

% I8

13

6.5 4.8 2.8

1.5 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2

On a simplified basis, assuming trapezoidal waveform, large delay angle and small overlap angle the harmonic spectrum can be calculated from the expression:

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The load flow shows a flow of 5.279 M W and 3.676 Mvar from the 115 kV system. A I200 kvar capacitor bank at 4.16 kV bus will reduce the reactive power input from the 115 kV source to 2.44 Mvar, and give an overall power factor of 0.91 approximately.

Srep 3, Ascertain Shorr-circuit level and load demand ar PCC


T o calculate the permissible TDD, short-circuit level at PCC and the load demand over a period of 15-minutes or 30-minutes is required [I]. For this example; 4.16 kV bus is considered as the PCC, the short-circuit level is 36.1 kA, the load demand =So0 A, the ratio IdIr = 45, and the permissible IEEE TDD distortion limits are as shown in Table 2.
Srep 4, Conduct harmonic analysis srudy

Fig. 5(a) Ideal waveform of B 6-pulse current source convener, ( b ) Waveform with commutztion angle, (c ) waveform with ripple conlent. (d) discontinuous waveform due lo large delay angle c0"trol.

1, - 1 sin(hpLl2) sin(hz/3) I h hpl2 nl3


Table I terminates at 31" harmonic. Harmonic analysis can be carried out to 49'h harmonic. A small percentage of non-characteristic harmonics, i.e., 2"' , 3". 4" ,... are also generated. There effect is further discussed. In a running plant, an on-line measurement of harmonics forms a reliable basis of study [9].

Srep2: Conducr loadflow and establish need for reactive power coriipeiisarioo.
For conducting the load flow study, an estimate of the power factor of the non-linear and linear loads is required. For linear loads the phase angle between the voltage and current is called the power factor angle, for non-linear loads, the phase angle between the fundamental component of voltage and current is called the displacement angle and displacement factor is cosp. The power factor is ratio of total power input to total volt-amperes, which considers harmonics. With commutation retard and phase angle the power factor is given by [I]:
E d

It is not the intention to divulge in to the details of the harmonic modeling of system components and the procedure for carrying out the study [1,2,3,10-161. In the frequency domain analysis, the harmonic spectrum is ascertained and represented by an equivalent Norton's circuit. The harmonic current flow is calculated in small steps, i.e., 2 Hz, covering the entire spectrum and the system impedances are recalculated at each frequency, considering higher frequency effects. During steady state the harmonic currents are considered as being produced by ideal sources, which operate without repercussion. Fig. 4 shows that the non-linear loads are lumped and this simplified approach can give rise to errors. It is erroneous ro as~umethat when all rhe harmonics from sources spread our in a distribution system are cophasial, rhe most conservative resulrs will be obrained [ 6 ] . It is necessary that the harmonics are modeled with their appropriate phase angles. The phase angle of the current sources are function of supply voltage and are expressed as:

Where is the phase angle obtained from fundamental frequency load flow solution, and e,,,,,,,,,,,, is the typical phase angle of harmonic current source spectrum. When there is only one source the phase angle of harmonics is not important. The harmonic analysis is conducted using a digital computer based commercial harmonic analysis program. Most programs will calculate harmonic current flows, harmonic voltages, TDD, KVT, IT factors, perform sensitivity analysis and have varying capabilities of modeling frequency dependent system components

PF=-

-3 _-

&ELIL

n , / -

Ref. [ I ] may be seen for explanation of symbols and details of this expression. Using this and related expressions, the operating power factor of the non-linear load is calculated as 0.83.

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4a. Harmonic analvsis wirhour cauaciror bank: The harmonic current distortion without capacitors is shown in row 2 of Table 2. The harmonic distortion limits at SIh, 7Ih, ll'h 131hharmonics exceed the permissible limits and and also the total TDD is 19.57% versus the maximum permissible value of 8%. This result could be expected, because of higher percentage of non-linear load 46. Harmonic analvsis wirh caDaciror bank In step 2 1200 kvar capacitors are required for reactive power compensation at bus 3 in Fig. 4. A capacitor bank is formed from the individual capacitor cans of certain standard sizes, in series and parallel combinations, i.e., a 500 kV capacitor bank will require I 4 series groups of 21.6 kV for a grounded wye connection, the number of parallel units in each series group depending upon the required kvar. The formation of banks and the alternative bank connections are discussed in Ref.[l7]. Sometimes, a higher than the rated voltage is selected on the capacitor cans, (a), to account for increase in voltage at the junction of capacitor filter reactor. (13), (b) to account for system overvoltages and (c) to consider increase in rms voltage on the cans due to harmonic loading. Consider that cans of 200 kvar, rated voltage 2.77 kV are selected in ungrounded wye configuration, one series group per phase. Then three cans per phase give a kvar of 450.42 per phase, i.e., a three-phase kvar of 1351.3 at the operating voltage of 4.16 kV. The capacitive reactance is 12.788 ohms per phase and the capacitance= 2.074E-4 F. The results of harmonic analysis are shown in row 3 of Table 2. The calculated parallel resonance frequency is 822-825 Hz (a step of 3 HZ was used in the calculation), maximum impedance angle 89.64'. and minimum impedance angle 45.34'. Thus, the amplification of 13'h harmonic current is apparent in Table 2. The distortion at this hannonic is 50.5% and the overall TDD= 57.25%. If a voltage-time curve is plotted, it will be highly distorted. Thus adding the capacitors has increased the harmonic distortion.
4c. Harmonic analvsis wirh capacitors sized eliminate resonance.
to

will shift the resonance to around 900Hr. As the load does not generate this frequency, resonance can be escaped. The harmonic analysis in row 3, Table 2 confirms this. Though the distortion at 13Ihharmonic is reduced, yet the distortion at number of lower harmonics exceeds the permissible limits and total TDD is at unacceptable level of 30.86%. Thus, sizing or relocating the capacitors in distribution syslem rarely succeeds due to: The resonant frequency will swing with respect to the switching: conditions. The required reduction in harmonic distortion at all the required frequencies can 'rarely be achieved, especially when the non-linear loads form a considerable percentage of load demand.

Srep 5: Design a harmoriicfilrer


5a. Form a ST 5'" harinoiiic f i l r q : Form a SIh harmonic

filter by tuning to 4.71h harmonic. A tuning frequency below 3 % to -10% of the harrnonic to be filtered is selected to consider detuning effects as explained in step 6. From (7) a series reactor of L=1.53 mH is required. Arbitrarily choose X I R ratio of the reactor = 40 at fundamental frequency. The results of the calculation are shown in row 4 of Table 2. 'The 7.25% distortion at SIh harmonic almost meets the requirements of 7%. the distortion at 7'h and Illhharmonics and total TDD exceed the limits. The parallel resonant frequency is between 266-268 Hr, and the series resonant frequency is 282-284 Hz. The resonance is nor eliminated, it shifts to a frequency below the tuned frequency and is given by:

f,,=-27c

'J

(L, + L ) C

And the resonance peak has its own value of Q'given by:

Sometimes an attempt is made to size and locate the capacitors so as to eliminate resonance. The resonant frequency can be placed at a harmonic or its fraction, which is not generated by the load. The resonant frequency can be estimated from (6). which can be written is more convenient form as:

A kVA,, ,, fF .
f
kvarc

(24)

5b. Add 7"' harmonic ST f i l r e c The splitting of 1350kvar capacitor bank is tried to form two equal parallel ST filters, one tuned to ~ 4 . as before and the other 7 tuned to n=6.7. Table 2, row 5 ;shows that lab harmonic distortion is reduced, while the SIh harmonic current flow increases, giving rise to increased distortion. This can be expected, as the size of the SIh filter has been reduced. TDD exceeds the limits. Sc. Effect of tuninp frequency: A sharper tuning closer to 5th harmonic is tried and the filttx reformed for the same capacitor size and n= 4.85. The results are shown in row 6 of table 2. The SIh harmonic distortion is considerably reduced for the same size of filter bank.

Where kVA, is the short-circuit kVA and kvar, is the size of the capacitor. From (24). if the size of the capacitor bank is reduced, the resonant frequency will shift upwards. A capacitor bank of 1192 kvar at 4.16 kV, (500 kvar per phase formed out of 2.77 kV individual capacitor cans)

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3 d . Increase 5" filrer size: As the 51h harmonic is still .high, the 51h ST filter size is increased, formed with 400 !kvar of 2.77kV capacitors per phase. This brings the 5Ih
'harmonic distortion within permissible limits. but the 1lthand total distortion is still high, Table 2, row 7.

Step 6: ConsiderDe-runingEffecrs

Se. Add 11'' harmonic filrer: A 11' ST filter formed with 300 kvar capacitors/phase. n= 10.6, reduces the Illh :harmonic distortion. Table 2, IOW 8 shows that harmonic distortion at all harmonics is within acceptable limits, but the total TDD is 8.38, i.e., slightly higher than the permissible value of 8%.
5f Increase size of 5Ih and 7"ST filrers: the 5Ih and 71h harmonic filters are reformed with 500 kvar and 400kvar capacitors per-phase. The results in Table 2. row 9 show that the permissible distortion limits are met, throughout the harmonic spectrum and total THD at PCC is reduced 10 7.3%. Thus, a total of 1200 kvar of capacitors per-phase at

A ST filter is not tuned exactly to the frequency it is intended to suppress. Aging and temperature effects alter the filter reactor and capacitance values. The switching conditions and system changes also bring about detuning The reactors and capacitors for filters are specified to be of close tolerance components IO limit frequency drift. For industrial filters the tolerances are, generally: Capacitors: +5% and no negative tolerance Reactors: f 2% Also, each phase bank is formed so as 10 minimize the differences between the capacitance of phases. The same tolerance as on individual capacitor cans can also be applied 10 the overall assembly of each phase. Unbalances of the capacitance between each phase give rise to unbalance currents.

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The results on the calculation are shown in row IO of Table 2. The harmonic distortion at 5Ih hannonic and overall TDD of 11.3% exceeds the permissible limits. An obvious solution is to lower the design values of distortion, so that the increase in distortion due to detuning is still within the acceptable limits. This means that the size ofrhejilrers should be creased. An iteration with various sizes shows that the 5Ih , 7Ih , and Illh harmonic filters should be formed with 900, 600 and 300 kvar capacitors per phase (rated voltage 2.77 kV). The results of the calculations with no tolerance and with positive tolerance of 5% on the capacitors and 2% on the reactors are shown in rows I I and 12 of Table 2. Therefore, a much larger size is required following the above steps. Total three-phase kvar of the filter capacitors at rated voltages is 4054 kvar, while only 1200 kvar is required for reactive power compensation, This will make the overall power factor at I15 kV side approximately equal to unity.

I-

Step 7, Consider outage ofone ofthe parallel banks


Fig. 6 . Impedance modulus and,angle of three step ST fillet

Well-designed and protected capacitor filters are practically trouble free and require little maintenance. Yet an outage cannot be entirely ruled out. The most common outage will be that of a fuse failure of one of the capacitor-cans in a phase. Generally, it is not necessary to trip the entire bank on such an occurrence and the situation is alarmed. Depending upon the number of parallel cans per-phase, outage of a capacitor-can in one of the phases (each can protected with its own individual fuse) will give rise to an unbalance voltage and increase of voltage on the remaining cans, which can be monitored. If more than a certain number of capacitor-cans go out of service, the bank is tripped. For a continuous process plant, shutting down the process because of failure of a filter may not be warranted and the effect on harmonic distortion, when one o f the parallel filter banks is out of service must be considered. IEEE Std.. 519 allows 50% increase in the distortion limits on a short-time basis. This increased TDD limits during the repair time of the combination filter are considered in the following calculations, Table 2, rows 13, 14 and IS. The calculations show that:

Thus, it is only the outage (of 51h ST filter, which is a problem. An on-line standby 5Ih filter can be installed and switched automatically. This could be a more economical solution, rather than shutting the process facility.

Step 8: Consider rhe shired resonant frequencies.


Fig. 6 shows the impedance modulus and phase-angle plots for final 5Ih , lth harmonic filters. The and I shifted frequencies are:

1. 2. 3.

5Ih ST filter: 260-262 H z


71h ST filter: 368-370 Hz

II'h ST filter: 584-5861 Hz

I.

2.

3.

On outage of 5Ih filter bank, the 5Ih harmonic distortion is increased to 24.5%and the overall TDD is 24.8%. This exceeds the permissible 12% overall and 10.5% 5'' harmonic TDD. On outage of 7'h filter bank the TDD on all harmonics and overall TDD of 10.42% is acceptable. On outage of Illh filter bank, the overall TDD is 6.38%. .

If the shifted frequencies coincide with one of the characteristics, non-characteristics, or triplen harmonics present in the system, current magnifications at these frequencies can occur. The switching inrush current of a transformer is rich in even and third harmonics. As the transformers are switched in 'and out the harmonic current injections in to the filters'will increase, though this will last only for the switching duration of the transformers (approximately 0. I seco'nds). The repeated switching can increase the dynamic stresses on the transformers also. The magnified currents can give rise to large harmonic voltages and capacitor banks could also fail prematurely. The shifted resonant frequencies should be at least 30 cycles apart from the adjacent odd and even harmonics. An examination of the above shifted frequencies shows that this criexion is not met in every case. When considering detuning, it is necessary to check the efficacy of the final filter design for various switching conditions of the plant. These can also cause

194

detuning. The filter design, as discussed, is sensitive to the utility's source impedance.

Srep 9: Consider airernate jilfer design:


It is possible to design a single 5Ih ST filter to meet the IEEE distortion limits, however, this filter will be of much larger size. Similarly the high-pass filters with different values of Q can be tried, however these will of still larger size, compared to S T filters. There application is for higher harmonics and notch reduction [2, 61

system is expanded and more capacitors are to be added, a secondary resonant condition can be triggered depending upon the size of the existing capacitors, new capacitors to be added and the intervening impedance. If the secondary circuit has resonant frequency close to Ihe switched capacitor bank, the initial surge can trigger oscillations in the secondary circuits, and these can be much larger than the switched circuit and high overvoltages of the order of 3-8 times can be produced [ 19,201.The ratio of these frequencies is given by:

Srep

10:

Consider harmonic

loading

of power

(31)

capacitors.
The harmonic loading on the power capacitors is limited and the recommendations of an IEEE standard [IS]are as follows: Per unit kvar (calculated on the basis of fundamental and harmonic currents and voltages) should not exceed 1.35.

Where j$ is the coupled frequency, fm is the main circuit switching frequency, L, and C, are the inductances and capacitances of t h e secondary circuit and L, and C,, are the inductance and capacitance in the main circuit. If possible, a single strategy for location of the capacitors in a distribution system should be adopted rather than spreading these out at multi-voltage levels.
Step 12: Other Considerations

exceed 1.8 per unit:

h=l

The limits on rms voltage are given by:

V",,, I 1.1 =

K :
IF1

damaging to the synchronous generators. The reverse rotating 51h harmonic and the forward rotating 7'h harmonic will produce a 6lh harmonic in the generator rotor circuit. Similarly the harmonic pair Illh and 13Ih will produce lYh harmonic. The unbalance and the negative sequence capabilities of the generators can be exceeded 121.

VI,Z

112

(29)

V,, the crest voltage, the sum of randomly occurring voltages (including harmonics but excluding transients), which for conservatism may be considered cophasial. should not exceed
b=l,,,,

v,y 1.245 I

V,!

126. Consider 0 facror The WR ratio of the filter reactor at fundamental frequency determines the filter Q factor and Fig. 3 shows that sharper tuning can be achieved and pass-band reduced with higher Q's. However, in industrial filter design. it can be demonstrated that for Q > 20 to 100, the response is undistinguishable. Thus, the fundamental frequency active power loss and heat dissipation becomes a major consideration for large tiller reactors. The initial cost of high x / R filter reactors is another consideration and the initial investment needs to be viewed in terms of energy costs.
12C. Consider oresence of nearbv ,ion-liriear loads The utility's system may serve other customers from the same service. which mav have non-linear loads or power capacitors', These effect [he performance of Utility3s source impedance may exhibit a spiral shape characteristics with respect to harmonics, rather than being a single.valued
~~~~ ~~ ~ ~~

(30)

Ref [I8] 'ISo shows infrequent limits Of overvoltages and currents. computer programs calculate the loaddings on the harmonic filters and capacitors and flag overload These be calculated by longhand calculations also. None of the above limits are exceeded in the final design.

Step 1I : Consider Secondary Resnmrrce In a distribution system, there may exist powercapacitors for reactive power compensation, voltage support, or power factor improvement. When the

I2d. Consider all Dossible switchina conditions It is necessary to consider the filter Derformance with varying plant operating conditions.

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4. Unlike rotating machines (i.e. synchronous motors or condensers) power capcitors do not contribute to the short-circuit currents. 5 . A single installation can serve many purposes, i.e., reactive power compensation and power factor improvement, reducing TDD to acceptable limits, v o h g e support on critical buses in case of a source outage, reducing the starting impact and voltage drop of a large motor p1.221 6. When a choice is available between active and passive filters, the passive filters are more economical. No cost data is presented in this paper.

m:
1.

2.

3.

Fig. 7. Flow chM for the design of ST filters

A basic flow chart of the ST filters is shown in Fig. 7,though it does not show all the iterative processes.
LIMITATION AND POTENTIALITIES OF PASSIVE

FILTERS Based upon above discussions the limitations of passive filters can be summarized Poleniialities:
1.

6.

I.

2.

3.

Well-designed passive filters can be implemented in large sizes of Mvars of ratings and provide almost maintenance free service (there are no rotating parts). These are more economical to implement than their rotating counterparts, i.e., synchronous condensers. A fast response time of the order of one cycle or less (i.e., with SVC) can be obtained. which is important for correction of flickering voltage dips due to arc furnace loads.

8.

9.

Passive filters are not suitable for changing system conditions. Once installed these are rigidly in place. Neither the tuned frequency nor the size of the filter can be changed so easily. The passive elements in the filter are close tolerance components. A change in the system operating conditions can result in some detuning, though a filter design should consider operation with varying loads and utility's source impedance. The system impedance largely affects the design. To be effective, the filter impedance must be less than the !system impedance, and the design can become a problem for stiff systems. Outage of a parallel branch can totally alter the resonant frequency: result in overstressing of filter components and increase harmonic distortion. The parallel resonance Ibetween the system and filter (shifted resonance frequency) for ST or DT filters can cause an amplification of the noncurrent at characleristics and characteristics harmonics. A designer has limited choice in selecting tuned frequencies and ensuring adequate bandwidth between shifted frequencies and even and odd harmonics. Damped filters do not give rise to a shifted resonant frequency; houever, these are not so effective as a group of ST filters. The aging, deterioration, and temperature effects may increase the designed tolerances and bring about detuning, though these effects can be considered in the design stage. Definite purpose circuit breakers are required. To control switching surges, resistor switching, synchronous closing may be required. The switching, surges. their problems and mitigation is not diricussed in this paper. The grounded neutrals of wye-connected banks provide a low-impedance path for third harmonics. Third-harmonic amplification can occur in some cases. (:For industrial systems banks are ungrounded)

1.96

IO. Special protective and monitoring devices (not discussed) are required. I I . ST or DT filters are not possible to be employed for certain loads like cycloconveners or when power system has interharmonics (not discussed in this paper) [2] 12. The filters cameither be switched on or off. Thus, a stepless.control of reactive power with increase of load demand is not possible. The filter banks can be switched in and out with voltage, current or reactive power control. 13. The design may require increasing the size of the filters to control TDD ( Example in this paper). This may give rise to overvoltages when the banks are switched in and undervoltage when these are switched out. 14. A detuning may be brought in to play when consumers on the same utilitys service add power capacitors or filters in their distribution systems 1231.
CONCLUSIONS

J.C. Read. The Colcularions ofRectifier and Inverter Performance Choracrerisrics, IIEE. UK, pp. 495509. 1943 R.Yacamini, Power System Harmonics, Pan 2:

Measurements and Calculations, Power Engineeing Journal. 9(1), pp. 51-56, 1995 IEEE Task Force on Harmonic Modeling and
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The iterative process of passive filter design is illustrated through a step-by step calculation. There is need for further development of harmonic analysis software, akin to optimal power flow, with user selectable constraints and resulting design parameters. The industry has faced two distinct situations. The badly designed filters have failed or resulted in operational problems when the constraints of their applications are not realized. At the same time large passive filters are admirably in service and:have provided years of maintenance free and trouble free operation. The implementation of an overall successful system in a particular situation requires a careful analysis and application, including protection, switching overvoltage and transients, which have been mentioned and not described in detail.

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References
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