Reinterpreting Ba Duan Jing From the Theories of the Eight Extra Meridians

Lee Chang-Chih May 10th 2005 www.kongfu.org All rights reserved

Abstract Interpreting traditional Chinese health-keeping regimes from the theories of meridians (Chinese medicine) helps learners to understand the correct ways of practice (forms) and the effects of the exercises. Many scholars have attempted to interpret Yi Jin Jing (易筋經) from the theories of the 12 meridian system, but there has yet been any literature available up-to-date attempted to explore Ba Duan Jin (八段錦) from the aspect of Chinese Medicine theories of meridians. In the development of Ba Duan Jin (八段錦), both sitting and standing forms have been found. Standing forms were developed into two schools (northern and southern styles) in the Qing Dynasty. The Northern School, said to have been passed down by Yue Fei (岳飛), has tougher forms, and the Southern School, claimed the lineage from Liang Shi-Chang (梁世昌), focuses on softer trainings. Quite a few verses1 has been passed down during the period from Song Dynasty to Qing Dynasty, but all standing forms have evolved from the passages recorded in The Chapter of Wonders, Pivot of Dao (道樞·眾妙篇, Dao Shu, Zong Miao Pian, Song Dynasty) and sitting style from the forms recorded in The Ten Books of Daoist Practices (修真十書 Xiu Zhen Shi Shu, Ming Dynasty ) or The Methods of Curing (活人心法, Huo Ren Xin Fa, Ming Dynasty). For the purpose of close study, we lock the focus on the standing forms of Ba Duan Jin. Placing the circulatory routes of the Eight Extra Meridians (奇經八脈) and the systems regulated by them at the background, we compare this meridian system to the
1 Translator’s note: in the past, formulae or directions of Chinese medicine or martial art training were often ingeniously woven into singing or chanting verses for easy learning.

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effects (main) and practice forms (secondary) of Ba Duan Jin in an attempt to find the relationships that associate with the intended effects and designs of the practice forms of this traditional health-keeping regime. In this research, we compared nine of the more representative Ba Duan Jin (八段錦) in the table below. From the verses below, we can see the development of Ba Duan Jin, but the forms of the exercises are not comprehensively stated. Nonetheless, the effects expected are indicated in most of the verses.
Form One Two hands holding up to the sky, Sanjiao enter into the mind Form Two

Pulling left and pulling right, open bows aim far behind

Lifting high with Single hand, keeping gallbladder and stomach in the hand

Form Four

Looking back to the heels internal injury clears

Shaking head and moving tail rids the internal fire

Form Six

Bending down, reaching the feet makes the kidney strong and sound

Form Seven

Folding fist, looking fierce boosting energy high and up

Form Eight

Clicking heels seven times a day keeps all diseases away.

In a reverse sense, interpreting Ba Duan Jin from such aspect also serves to introduce the concept of traditional theories of the meridians to Ba Duan Jin learners. Of course, this is only an attempt to initiate relevant discussions. We hope that better and more comprehensive studies will become available in the future. Well organized knowledge will not only provide learners an insight into the practices but also helps to prevent injuries.

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脈帶 脈帶 脈帶 脈帶

Form Five

維陰 維陰 維陰 維陰

Form Three

維陽 維陽 維陽 維陽 蹻陰 蹻陰 蹻陰 蹻陰 蹻陽 蹻陽 蹻陽 蹻陽 脈衝 脈衝 脈衝 脈衝 脈任 脈任 脈任 脈任 脈督 脈督 脈督 脈督

焦三理 天托手兩 雕射似 弓彎右左 舉單須 胃脾理調 瞧後往 傷七勞五 火心去 尾擺頭搖 腰腎固 足攀手兩 力氣增 目怒拳攥 消病百 顛七後背

Yang Wei

Yin Qiao

Yin Wei

Yang Qiao

Dai Mai
Chong Mai

Ren Mai

Du Mai

Meridians 3 .Keywords: Ba Duan Jin (Eight-Section Brocade). the Eight Extra Meridians.

learners get to know “why” such exercises were designed and “what” effects are expected. There have been many attempts made to interpret Yi Jin Jing (易筋經) 2 with the twelve meridian theories. Nov. 4 2 . Ba Duan a. c. Certainly. Mar. b. also translated as Eight-Section Brocade) is a treasure of therapeutic Chinese Qi Gong. Study of Yi Jin Jing and the Meridians. Some literatures have been passed down or found documenting the forms and effects of the exercises. 26. E Generation Health-Keeping Exercises – Yi Jin Jing. The New Health-Keeping Exercises – Introduction to Bodhidharma Yi Jin Jing. 1st. and “Effects” must all be in place to make a regime complete. we expect to laid out a set of principles for the designs of the forms and provide a set of guidelines for learning as well as teaching. we take the initiative to open up the possibilities.26. Ba Duan Jin (八段錦) has been passed sown for generations. Ba Duan Jin ( 八 段 錦 . A learner or a trainer must know not only “How” but also “Why”. but there has yet any attempts of such studies on Ba Duan Jin (八段錦). also translated as Eight-Section Brocade) consists of eight sections. yet there has rarely been any writings touching on the topic of the fundamentals of the designs. Research Method Ba Duan Jin (八段錦) has been through a long history of development and well documented in verses as it has traditionally been for martial art trainings. it is rather difficult to interpret the effect mechanisms of any exercise regimes from either modern medicine or Chinese meridian theories. In general. Recordings of Qi channeling and health-keeping exercises have been found as early as in the ancient scripture of The Internal Medicine of Emperor Huang (黃帝內經. 15th 2000. Traditional health-keeping regimes are highly compatible with traditional meridian theories.8. In view of which. A Brief Introduction to Ba Duan Jin Ba Duan Jin (八段錦. 2003. Aug. From which. Jiu Si Publisher. Huang Jie-Liang. master thesis.Lee Chang-Chih. just as the twelve forms of Yi Jin Jing (易筋經) matches the number of the Twelve Meridians (Main Meridian System).Foreword The ancient exercise regimes. Li Jia-Wei. “Theories”. the elements of “Forms”. But. Different versions of the verses have been found.. which matches the number of the Eight Extra Meridians (Secondary Meridian System). and most of them record the forms and expected effects of the exercises. Mentor Publisher. We do not know whether the eight sections of Ba Duan Jin were originally designed based on the Eight Extra Meridian System. 2004. Huang Di Nei Jing). what we are attempting here is to associate the forms and the expected effects with the theories of the meridians. Through organizing Ba Duan Jin into a set of new theoretical basis.

In the early hours.cn/home/js/2004-09-18/57498. the expected effects are indicated in most verses. but the forms of the exercises are not comprehensively stated. Liao. for it is easy to learn with good effects. The number of forms in a set range from a single form to tens or as many as a hundred. claimed the lineage from Liang Shi-Chang (梁世昌).tiyuren. it has been taught and learned and passed down. Both sitting and standing forms have been found in the history of Ba Duan Jin (八段 錦). Quite a few verses has been passed down during the period from Song Dynasty to Qing Dynasty. he is often found breathing and massaging. the scale of the liberal-sense Ba Duan Jin would be too large as to inhibit effective comparison. Major sports activities and organizations in the Song. Song Dynasty). we can see the development of Ba Duan Jin. Ming Dynasty ) or The Methods of Curing (活人心法.sport. Huo Ren Xin Fa. The following is collection of nine most representative Ba Duan Jin Verses. Sets Ba Duan Jin forms are not always limited to the number of eight. nevertheless. focuses on softer trainings. Standing forms were developed into two schools (northern and southern styles) in the Qing Dynasty. Song Dynasty) and verses of the sitting style from the forms recorded in The Ten Books of Daoist Practices (修真 十書 Xiu Zhen Shi Shu. and therapeutic purposes.Lin Jian Zi Qi The New Health-Keeping Illustrated. we place our focus on the eight verses of Ban Duan Jin for analysis and comparison based on the theories of the Eight Extra Meridians (奇 經八脈). lived a simple life. preventive. liberally saying.Jin has eight sections called Jin (錦. The Northern School. Late Qing Dynasty Lou Jie. Standing Forms of Ba Duan Jin. but all verses for the standing forms have evolved from the passages recorded in The Chapter of Wonders. Quoted from 4 Ceng Zao. all exercise regimes designed for such purposes are part of the Ba Duan Jin system. they are all exercise regimes designed for health-keeping. For generations. Emperor's Chief Secretary. The Collection of Daoist Scripture . Therefore. He spent a large portion of his time in his mediation room practicing Daoist Monk’s exercises expanding like a bear and stretching like a bird. The Secret to Health. Brocade). According to Hong Mai's (洪邁) Yi Jian Zhi (夷堅志. and Yuan Dynasties http://www. has tougher forms. Nonetheless. Ming Dynasty). we will make a comparison on the nine collected verses. The Verses In the following section. From the verses. This passage reveals that Ba Duan Jin has been developed and practiced since the Song Dynasty as a general health-keeping regime3. Zhenghe Seventh Year.. Li Shi-Ju.org. and the Southern School. practicing the so-called Eight-Section Brocade (Ba Duan Jin). Dao Shu. Jin. Pivot of Dao.html 5 .php?id=1153&nowmenuid=52&cpath=0034:&catid=34 4 3 http://jsqg. Pivot of Dao (道樞·眾妙篇. The Chapter of Wonders. said to have been passed down by Yue Fei (岳飛). and. However.com/news_detail. Chen Yuan-Jing compiled. Zong Miao Pian. The name “Ba Duan Jin” has been found as early as the Northern Song Dynasty.

keeping gallbladder and stomach in the hand Lifting the gallbladder. gallbladder and stomach in check Form Four Looking back and looking 5 Deng Zhong-Shan. 6 焦 也者焦 擎 天碧把手 焦三理 天托手兩 三理 度一托仰 焦三順 托仰首昂 三治以 舉上掌仰 》法 樂安 人真呂《 之》旨秘 》記午 身 修 記廣林 子導 引子劍靈 事《 編靚元陳 》篇妙眾 功 立錦段八 藏道《代明 宋南 樞道 《著慥曾 述傑婁代清 》錦 段八 說圖 宋南 身保出新《末清 (Southern Song Dynasty ( Encyclopedia. open bows aim far behind and right bows rings left 胃腎 矣胃脾其 舉 臂單憑鼎 舉單須 胃脾理調 通西 托單肝東 胃西兼 托單脾東 安以所 托獨西東 East lifting for ( ) Lifting high with Single hand. Sanjiao enter into the mind Form Two Left for liver.Form One Lifting arms and turning Palms to the sky. right for lungs. The names of the Ba Duan Jin forms are identical to the original copy. fully strung to shoot an owl. Form Three Single hand up east and west. East lifting for gallbladder passing all the way to the west for the stomach west holding up for the stomach like a wine glass single-handed 調 矣勞傷其 橫 肩半向劍 瞧後往 傷七勞五 傷七 顧回勞五 調傷七 顧回勞五 理以所 顧而複返 Looking back and looking Looking back to Looking back and looking the heels internal injury clears across the shoulders forward. which was again gifted to Deng Zhong-Shang’s father. Channeling. fully strung to shoot an owl. Left for liver. Fully strung right for lungs. Pulling left and pulling right. Sanjiao enter into the mind stretching up to the sky Lifting upward puts Sanjiao in order Qing Dynasty 5 ) 雕 焉 鳴 右左弓雕 雕射似 弓開右左 射如 肺右肝左 雕射如 肺右肝左 雕射如 肺右肝左 Left for liver. ( Southern Song Dynasty ( Ming Dynasty ( · · ) ( · ) · ) ) Holding head Two hands Hands and lifting palms to the sky. Taiyuan: Shanxi Science and Technology Publishing( 2005.2 ) was republished in 1927. right for lungs. The original author of this book said that this book was bough by Zuo Zong-Tang and gifted to Deng Zhong-Shan in the 7th Year of the Guangxu Period. internal Sword sweeps 」社版出術技學科西山:原太, 說圖錦段八武文本祕,山鍾鄧「 . The Unpublished Copy of Ba Duan Jin Illustrated. fully strung to shoot an owl. Sanjiao enter into the mind Holding and holding up to the sky.

Swerve like flying sky head and tail. Stand proud like a horse reaching the feet makes the kidney strong and sound Shaolin Temple 8 7 寺林少 。矣 。挑 腰其治 以所,足 雙指 納咽津漱 其攀 以手右左 Wundang Daoist Temple . the way to the heart goes afresh. internal injuries disappear. 36 make the peace boosting energy high and up swallows ” Swallowing Reaching feet with left and right hands smoothes over ailments at the waist saliva. Form Five Pointing to the sky head and tail. Shaking head Sweep the tail like a fish. five organs in check Flicking ears. flicking hands left and right Form Seven Sweep the tail like an eel rid the ailments at the heart Form Eight Quoted from 臟 矣藏五其 捷 猿如縱擒 火心去 尾擺頭搖 心通 尾擺魚遊 氣心通 尾擺魚鱔 通以所 天朝小大 Sweep the tail like an eel. clicking scull sound and sound Bending down. all five organs are cared. looking fierce clicking teeth. ailments at the waist go away roaring tiger 六 矣疾之心 急 燕飛同更 力氣增 目怒拳攢 十三 鼓天鳴次 臟五安 天朝小大 祛以所 尾之鱔擺 Pointing to the Folding fist. forward.forward. and moving tail like an ape smooth air goes into the heart. flicking fingers up and down The Bureau of Sports. internal injuries disappear. China Liang Shi-Chang Edited (Qing 。敲 成 功告馬立 腰腎固 足攀手兩 頭後 耳掩手兩 ” Covering ears side by side. injuries disappear. rids the internal fire Moving swift 腰 手其挑 獰 虎似嚴威 消病百 顛七後背 於理 足雙攀手 腰於定 腳搬手兩 右左, 氣補津咽 Rotate waist. Clicking heels seven times a day keeps all diseases away Fierce like a bend for the feet Bending for the feet. Form Six Swallow saliva for Qi flow.

com/wdjhb/wdys_show. like a pillar .chinashaolintemple. looking fierce 山當武 crane 局 總育體 家國國中 Dancing in the field like a fairy Holding tall and high. bending bows aim far behind Pulling left and pulling right.asp?ID=1085125464951 8 星摘月觀 焦三利 天托手兩 焦三理 天托手兩 焦三理 天托手兩 。 詳不 者 作但。 錦段 》 八《錄附的》說 圖經 筋易《編 所 昌世梁代清 7 Two hands Two hands Two hands Looking at the moon. keeping Standing in the wind like a towering tree gallbladder and stomach in the hand 舞起鶴仙 瞧後往 傷七勞五 瞧後往 傷七勞五 瞧後往 傷七勞五 Looking back to Looking back to Looking back to the heels internal injury clears the heels internal injury clears the heels internal injury clears 天擎柱一 力氣增 目怒拳摺 火心去 尾擺頭搖 火心去 尾擺頭搖 Shaking head and moving tail rids Shaking head and moving tail rids Folding fist.Dynasty). keeping gallbladder and stomach in the hand Lifting high with Single hand.html http://zh. keeping gallbladder and stomach in the hand Moving hands high and low. Yi Jin Jing Illustrated – Appendix Ba Duan Jin. reaching for the stars holding up to the sky.wikipedia.org.htm http://www. Sanjiao enter into the mind holding up to the sky. mends Sanjiao in no time 盼右顧左 雕射如 弓開右左 雕射似 弓彎右左 雕射似 弓彎右左 Pulling left and pulling right.com/chinese/data/2005/1111/article_144.cn/home/tp/2004-10-11/57527.org/wiki/%E5%85%AB%E6%AE%B5%E9%94%A6 http://www. author unknown 9 6 Form One Form Two Form Three Form Four Form Five 6 7 8 9 http://jsqg. bending bows aim far behind Pulling left and pulling right. open bows aim far behind Looking left.sport. Sanjiao enter into the mind holding up to the sky.chinawudang. looking right 風迎樹古 手雙運 胃脾理調 舉單須 胃脾理調 舉單須 胃脾理調 Lifting high with Single hand.

In the following table. Bending down. The Internal Medicine of Emperor Huang). there are eight extra meridians.10 P.11 P220~244). The Methods of Acupuncture edited. Yangqiao. Taipei. Why is it so? There are Yangwei. Folding fist. Drilling into the ground reaching the feet Clicking heels Clicking heels makes the kidney strong and sound seven times a day keeps all diseases away keeps all diseases away Form Seven Folding fist.com/zongjiao/daojiao/020. Lifting head and moving tail rids the internal fire Open up the tails like a swallow looking fierce boosting energy high and up Form Eight looking fierce boosting energy high and up Bending down. 155 ( 1989. Shi-Yi Publishing. Tainan. Nov. and Dai Mais (meridians). they are called the Eight Extra Meridians. 1989.tianyabook. 9 11 編重 訣要法心 灸刺,仁宏楊 考脈八 經奇 」。也 脈八 經奇曰 故,經 於拘不皆 ,者 脈八此 凡,脈 之帶有, 任有 ,督有 ,衝有 ,蹻陰有 , 蹻陽有, 維陰 有,維 陽有: ?也何, 經二 十於拘 不,者 脈八奇有脈 : 曰 難 七 十 二『 10 門無地恨 田歸球抱 腰腎固 膝盤手兩 腰腎固 足攀手兩 尾展燕紫 火心去 尾擺頭提 力氣增 目怒拳攥 力氣增 目怒拳攥 消 病諸 點起後背 、 消 病百 顛七後背 腰腎固 足攀手兩 局書中正:北台 消 病百 顛七後背 , 局書一世:南台, 學科灸針,三維黃 . These eight meridians are in a system apart from the main twelve meridians.the internal fire the internal fire boosting energy high and up reaching the sky Form Six Bending down. Du. Nan Jing Ben Yi) and The Methods of Acupuncture (刺灸心法)12. The Science of Acupuncture. Yinwei. Zheng Zhong Publishing. p. 220 – 224 ( 1987. In The Classics of Medical Problems (難經本義. there are also Chong. Ren. 1987.htm 12 Huang Wei-San.154 155) and Yang Hong-Ren. P. 154. reaching the Rolling a ball into the field Clicking heels reaching the feet makes the kidney strong and sound seven times a day keeps all diseases away knees makes the kidney strong and sound A brief introduction to the Eight Extra Meridians (奇經八脈 奇經八脈) 奇經八脈 The Eight Extra Meridians have been documented as early as in the scriptures of Lingshu and Suwen (靈樞 and 素問. therefore.” 10 The Study of the Eight Extra Meridians (奇經八脈考) 11 by Li Shi-Zhen has more detailed discussions on the Extra Eight Meridian System. the Twenty-Seventh Problem asked. “Outside of the twelve meridians. The Study of the Eight Extra Meridians ( ) http://www. and Yinqiao. Nan Jing Ben Yi). we will make a brief summary of the Eight Extra Meridians based on The Classics of Medical Problems (難經本義. Oct.

up to Qing Ming (bottom part of the eyes) and then into the eyes. Main regulating the whole body. At the back of the throat. 2. 4. 3. goes 10 . Ailments of Chong Mai are sudden thrush of Qi. 4. 2. therefore. Ren Mai starts from the kidney and Ailments of Ren are mostly internal problems. As it passes the upper lips. therefore. all yang meridians meet. it is called the Sea of Yang Mai 1. 3. It then flows on the surface layer to the throat. Chong Mai starts in the kidneys. which move along the lips and gums. At the throat. Chong main units the innate Qi and the 1. system in the body. it is called the Sea of Yin Mai. the two branches converge at the philtrum.Meridian Circulatory Routes Symptoms Regulated Function Du Ren Chong 。剛督之 脈陽 為總, 路脈督 明申是此 ,鄉同等 篡莖 腎絡, 膂循入 腰抵脊挟 ,場髆肩 項下 出還, 腦絡入 顛交額上 ,陽太絡 眥內 合始, 下央中 目兩繫上 ,當唇環 頤上 喉入, 氣腹接 衝會腎屬 ,行元關 上直 任會, 裏腹循 者陰少至 。 海之脈陽 。 厥 而 強 ,方臀別 後之 篡繞, 器陰循 絡之子男 稱故,脈陽身一督總 脊 , 病 為 之 督 ,疆孔溺繫入子女,央中骨腹少脈督 Ailments of the Du Du Main is a Yang Main are resolved by strong spine. the Ren mai divides into two branches. Du mai continues to the nape of the neck and from here enters the brain. Du mai starts from the kidneys and enters the perineum. passes posterior and goes up to Guanyuan. 。 聚 瘕 。傳名 海脈 陰督交 ,明晴 至目入面 為 子 女 , 疝 七 循,間頤 上明 陽足過 ,已漿 承唇口絡 。海之脈陰 為 子 男 ,結 苦 內 別。嚥喉至腹循外浮,脈衝會行上內 稱故,脈陰身一任統 其 , 病 為 之 任 循,關上裡腹陰會,下極中於起脈任 。乖為不 海曰 之名, 絡經諸 腑臟佈分 。海之脈 ,懷身衝 任督 合會, 散而中 胸至氣大 經稱故,氣穀之天後 。 急 裏 而 ,街胸上 臍挟 並相, 氣真之 天先於並 與 氣元之 天先領統 氣逆 , 病 為 之 衝 ,衝來氣 氣宗 天後, 街氣腹 於起脈衝 脈督 脈任 脈衝 Ren mai connects the entire Yin mai 1. moves to the Perineum and forward to the pubic region.

it is well deserved to call it a sea. 2. acquired Qi from food. Chong mai branches reach all organs. sub-meridian of the leg Shaoyin meridian. 3. where it separates into two branches. therefore. It travels on the Yang side. therefore. sub-meridian of the leg Taiyang meridian. 1. and then eyes. It then moves up along the thighs. 3. Yangqiao starts from the inner side of the heels. governing 11 . thrusting yang Qi and weak yin Qi. 1. Ailments of Yangqiao are caused by over This is a 2. sides of the body. and then brains. Dai mai is part of the leg Shaoyin point. It goes upward in the yin (inner) side of the thighs into the perineum. throat. One branch goes up fro the back to the center of qi and the other goes up to the naval and up to the chest. it is a yang meridian. Ailments of Yangqiao are caused by over This is a 2. cheeks. The flow disperses in the chest to meet the Du mai. Dai Yangqiao Yinqiao 。經 陽之右左身一主,脈 。 急 陽 而 緩 。經陽太 眥內 目屬, 頄頸入 肩循脅從 別之陽 太足屬本 陰 , 病 為 蹻 陽 ,行踝外 陽三 合上, 中跟於 起脈蹻陽 。經 陰之右左身一主,脈 。 急 陰 而 。明睛至 喉咽 至上, 腹胸入 股陰循上 別之陰少足屬本 緩 陽 ,病 為 蹻 陰 ,行踝內別之陰少,中跟於起亦蹻陰 。中水坐 若 ,溶 溶 腰 , 滿 。行身繞脅季於起,帶屬椎四十腎合 。脈 諸束約主 腹 , 病 為 之 帶 ,經陽太 走別 膕上, 脈經陰 少足脈帶 Regulates the meridians. 4. 1. governing the left and right side the yang meridians. 4. thrusting yin Qi and weak yang Qi. It goes out to the heels and up to Sanyang. 3. th 脈帶 脈 蹻陽 脈 蹻陰 mai are mostly water retention at the abdomen and waist. into the sides of the necks.down to the Uterus. Yinqiao starts from the middle section of the feet. Ailments of the Dai 2. therefore. it is called the Sea of Meridians. chest. Along the Du mai. It then starts again to circulate the body. It goes up along the yang side (outer side) to the 14 spine at the kidney area and up to the Jixie point (on the side of the ribs).

certain relationships still exist. Notes Yangwei and Yinwei flow over the body. 2. regulating all internal meridians. Yangqiao merges 12 。 持收 自 能不溶溶,志 失然悵則,維 相自能不陽 也 陰 , 陰 於 維維 陰 者 經 諸 溉 灌 流 環 能 不 畜 溢 ,陽於維維陽 ,身於絡維,者維陰維陽 Yangwei flows on the yang side and Yinwei at the yin side. Hou and Xi points meet with Du Mai at the center of the neck. only they are not connected into a circulatory loop. to the nipples. only Yin and Yang are not connected into a circulatory system. Yangwei starts from the leg Taiyang Ailments of yangwei are mostly chills and fever. and chest.the left and right side the yin meridians. 。 經之裏在 。 痛 心 。任於會 陰諸 絡維, 結喉上 乳至腹循 身一主,脈陰諸繫維 苦 , 病 為 維 陰 ,賓築穴行上踝內,陰少足起脈維陰 脈維 陰 Yinwei 1. up to the prominentia laryngea. The chapter of The Methods of Acupuncture (刺灸心法) in the book Encyclopedia of Medicine (醫宗金 鑑) states. Although the Eight Extra Meridians are in a different system from the main twelve meridians. The meridians merge into the area of stomach. It reaches the Back. heart. “the Chong Mai converges into the Gong and Sun points and the Yinwei flows into Neiguan. Lin and Qi located on the Dan Jing (Gallbladder Meridian) connect to the Dai Mai and the Wai and Guan points meet Yangwei. Connects all yang point and move on the yang side (outer side) of the legs. meridians. neck. Yinwei starts from the leg Shaoyin Ailments of Yinwei are mainly heart problems. and ends at Ren. . It then moves along the abdomen. point (middle section of the foreleg) and the goes up along the inner thighs into the Zhubing point (side of perineum). shoulders. governing all meridians at the surface. 。 經之表在 。 熱 寒 。場督會 陽諸 絡維, 頭面項 肩背胻從 身一主,脈陽諸繫維 苦 , 病 為 維 陽 ,疆門金下之踝外,陽太足起脈維陽 脈維 陽 Yangwei 1. The relationships are indicated in the verses about the eight joining acupuncture-points to the eight meridians. the meridian meets at the center of the eyes. 2. Yinwei connect all yin meridians. and then face and converges to Du.

we know that Ba Duan Jin probably have been passed down by Daoist Monk Zhong Li-Quan (鍾離權) or Song General Yue Fei (岳飛). and the second is the relationship between the order of the forms and the Eight Extra Meridians. please . 13 」。嚨 喉 膈海照 蹻陰。系 肺行脈任 缺列。通 亦絡蹻 陽脈申。頸 眥內 脈督谿後 。 逢關外 銳目維 陽。脈帶 連經膽 泣臨 。同 總下維陰 關內。 胸心胃 脈衝孫公「 13 This only a rough translation.at Shen and Mai points. Lie and Que points extend into the Du Mai along the Lung Meridian. the first is the relationship between the exercise forms and the effects. we will make a side-by-side reference to compare the Eight Extra Meridians to the Twelve Meridian System The Eight Extra Acupuncture The Twelve Notes Meridians Points Meridians 後溪穴 Houxi 手 太 陽 小 腸 經 通於陽蹻脈 Du Hand Taiyang Connects to Small Intestine Yangqiao Meridian 列缺穴 Lieque 手太陰肺經 Hand 通於陰蹻脈 Ren Taiyin Lung Connects to Meridian Yinqiao 公孫穴 Gongsun 足 太 陰 脾 經 Leg 通於陰維脈 Chong Taiyin Spleen Connects to Meridian Yinwei 臨泣穴 Linqi 足 少 陽 膽 經 Leg 通於陽維脈 Dai Shaoyang Connects to Gallbladder Yangwei Meridian 申脈穴 Shenmai 足 太 陽 膀 胱 經 通於陽蹻脈 Yangqiao Leg Taiyang Connects to Urinary Balder Yangqiao Meridian 照海穴 Zhaohai 足 少 陰 腎 經 Leg 通於陰蹻脈 Yangqiao Shaoyin Kidney Connects to Meridian Yinqiao 外關穴 Waiguan 手 少 陽 三 焦 經 通於陽維脈 Yangwei Hand Shaoyang Connects to Sanjiao Meridian Yangwei 內關穴 Neiguan 手 厥 陰 心 包 經 通於陰維脈 Yinwei Hand Jueyin Connects to Pericardium Yinwei Meridian Discussion Based the above table. Issue One Tracking back in history. Ba Duan refer to other documents for more precise interpretations. Yinqiao merges into Zhao and Hai points at the throat. we proposed two issues for further discussion.”13 In the following table.

154). By such. Nov. back of years. P. Rather. 28-29 ( 1987. 1989. there would be no specified orders or relationships of interconnection. It is rather difficult for us to get the complete picture of how the forms are practiced from the verses. we see that some of the practice forms are arranged in different orders. Shi-Yi Publishing. they are interconnected through the twelve meridians. The Methods of Acupuncture edited. Instead.11 P28 29). For easy reference.10 P. and shoulders. we place the main focus on the effects and use the practice forms as secondary references. cheeks. we use the most commonly adopted version (edited by the Bureau of Sports. 1987. for this research. 、 ,局書一世:南台, 編重訣 要法 心灸刺,仁宏楊 局書中 正:北台 學科灸 針,三維黃 焦 三理 天托手兩 . China) to interpret the relationships to the meridians and practice forms. which follow the order of the twelve meridians? Different from the twelve meridians. Zheng Zhong Publishing. p. 154 1989. neck. Tainan. Issue Two From the verses. we will not discuss the history or attempt to categorize the practice forms. 14 三 理調, 身全通暢 以 可展舒 下上作動 式招此,經焦三陽少 肩 手於屬穴關外而,脈 、頸、頰。後 。 身於 ) 、 維陽於通穴關外 耳、眥銳目 絡維(會陽諸於起 Eyes. therefore. we will focus on the effects and the possible relationships between the effects to the Eight Extra Meridians. Sanjiao Zhuyang and connects all 14 ( 15 Huang Wei-San. standing. the Eight Extra Meridians do not govern specific organs. Does it mean that the orders are closely connected to the theories of the Eight Extra Meridians. soft. therefore. and hard trainings. Taipei. Oct. Therefore. we compiled related information into the following table. Yang Hong-Ren. Ba Duan Jin Forms Eight Extra Meridians Circulatory Routes and Acupuncture points of the Eight Extra Meridians14 Converging points 15 Brief Description Form One Yangwei Two hands Starts from holding up to the sky.Jin comes in forms of sitting. like the orders of Yi Jin Jing forms. The Science of Acupuncture. neither are they connected.

and crosses the Chong Mai Form Three Yinwei Lifting high with Single Starts from the converging point of all yin hand. 。 當獨可 關內疾 瘧。病胸 結解不 寒傷 。當 難勢痛腹 急裏。 痛心並疼脅女婦 。膀 脅橫硬 堅塊積。 酒於 傷膈下 難食。 肛脫及瀉 泄鳴腸 。脹痞 多胸心滿中 ,局 書一世:南台, 編 重訣要 法心灸 刺,仁宏楊 雕 射似 弓彎右左 舉 單須 胃脾理調 17 . throat. The Methods of Acupuncture edited. p. the Yinqiao meridian matches this form. this form regulates lung functions. Nov. heart. Form Two Yinqiao Pulling left and pulling right. therefore. up to the throat. The left and right pulling exercises massage the lungs and liver. and diaphragm. According to the documentations. goes up along the inner angles. Shi-Yi Publishing. Yinqiao passes the lungs. Tainan. 17 。配相式 招此與脈蹻陰,效功 的 摩按有 都肝與肺 於對作動的弓開,臟 肺 過通好 剛也脈蹻 。 脈衝貫交 陰,能功的肺理調可 。膈胸 、喉 ,喉咽至行上,踝 式 招一這 文古照依 咽、係肺 內循, 中跟於起 Lungs. therefore. up and down stretching exercises of this form relaxes the full body and cares for the Sanjiao.11 P28). 1987. keeping 16 ( Yang Hong-Ren. 28 1987. 是也穴該,脈維陰於 達通也穴關內,知可 歌 治主穴 關內維陰 由,病疾的部腹胸主 。 身於 ) 胃脾經行循脈維陰 胸、心、胃 絡維(交陰諸於起 Stomach. and chest 15 。焦 The Waiguan point connects to the Yangwei16 meridian.enter into the mind meridians The Waiguan point is part of the Hand Shaoyang Sanjiao Meridian. open bows aim far behind Starts from the middle section of the heels.

neck. therefore. According to the Verse about Yinwei and Neiguan point. Eyes.” Neiguan point is also an acupuncture point for abdominal illnesses. shoulders. small intestine. and bladder Looking backward indeed promotes blood circulation of the Yangqiao Meridian. Form Four Yangqiao Looking back to the heels internal injury clears Starts from the middle of the heels and goes along the outer ankle and up to Fengci. this form matches the Yinwei meridian. “Neiguan point connects to the Yinwei Meridian. and turning back stimulates the Gauhuang point on the Taiyang Urinary 16 。配相穴 維陰與式招該故,穴 要 等病疾 部腹療治 。配相 脈蹻陽與式本故,係 關 的當相 有經胱膀 陽太與脈蹻陽,傷七 勞 五與損 虛治以可 穴該, 穴 肓膏「的 」 。胱膀 上 經胱膀 陽太激刺 、 腸小、肩 以時身轉而,血氣脈 、項頸、耳 。池風入行上,踝 蹻 陽進促 瞧後眼以 、眥內目 外循, 中跟於起 瞧 後往 傷七勞五 . ears. The Yinwei Meridian circulates the spleen and stomach and regulated the organs in the chest and abdomen.gallbladder and stomach in the hand meridians and covers the whole body.

5 p129). Anatomical Physiology. 18 。脈帶合配示 招此以故,效功的脈 帶 動帶有 繞旋右左 作動招此且,似相意 之火心去與,症之熱 風旋頭赤眼治可,歌 治主穴氣臨脈帶,火 心退以 水腎強能 肩 故, 脈帶屬出,上 、頸、頰。後 。週 、 而經陰少足由脈帶 耳、眥銳目 一身迴,脅季於起 19 火 心去 尾擺頭搖 Starts from Jixie and circulate the body cross-section-wise. The Methods of Acupuncture edited. and shoulders. Tainan. Tainan.11 P31). Nov. 31 ( 1987. therefore. 1987. neck. 230 ( 1987. p. Dai mai moves up along the Leg Shaoyin Meridian20. it cares for the kidneys and eliminates the heat in the heart. Eyes.11 P230). This acupuncture point is often used for exhaustion and internal injuries18. May 1989. Form Five Dai Mai Shaking head and moving tail rids the internal fire 19 ~ Yang Hong-Ren. cheeks. therefore. According to the Dai mai therapy verse. Shi-Yi Publishing. 129 ( 1989. this form matches the Yangqiao Meridian. p. The Methods of Acupuncture edited. Nov. Taipei. back of years. Dai . 17 ,局 書一世:南台, 編 重訣要 法心灸 刺,仁宏楊 ,局書 一世:南台, 編重 訣要 法心灸刺,仁宏楊 。行身 繞 脅季於起 、帶 屬椎四 十腎合 、經陽太 走別 膕上、 脈經陰 少足脈帶 :歌行 循脈帶 :法心灸刺 ,所 究研藥 醫國中 立國:北台, 學理生 剖解精內 ,定國吳 Wu Guo-Ding. Shi-Yi Publishing.Bladder. 1987. National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine. 20 Yang Hong-Ren. p. There is a close relationship between the Yangqiao Meridian and the Taiyang Urinary Bladder Meridian.

It is similar to the therapies for heat in the heart. the up-lifting form matches the Chong Mai. heart. looking fierce boosting energy 21 。配 相脈衝與 行上其提式招,身全 於 充而行 並氣真之 腎天先與脈衝,街氣 於出,下腎於起絡大 之陰少與,海之經二 。散而中胸至,行 十脈衝,同相經腎與 上臍夾 ,經之明 位穴的部腹在脈衝 胸、心、胃 陽足並,衝氣於起 Starts from Inching and moves along the Leg Yangming Meridian. headache. it moves up to the naval and disperse in the chest. therefore. and diaphragm . 18 氣而,量力的田丹靠 要都力發拳出,力有 滿保就量力的田丹 。膈胸 、喉 足氣,海氣是就田丹 咽、係肺 。門幽 、谷通 、都陰、 關石 、曲商 、俞肓 、注中、 滿四、 穴氣、 赫大、骨橫 。舌絡 ,目入,面循,頤 上喉咽至,元關上 ,裏腹循,際毛上 以,下之極中於起 腰 腎固 足攀手兩 力 氣增 目怒拳攥 Lungs. Stomach. Form Six Chong Mai Bending down.mai therapies cure irritated eyes. Chong Mai is the sea of all meridians. and chest Acupuncture points connected by the Chong Mai are similar to that of the Kidney Meridian21. therefore. reaching the feet makes the kidney strong and sound Form Seven Ren Mai Folding fist. the effect of the left-right rotating form matches the Dai Mai. and heat. throat. Chong Mai flows along the innate Qi from the kidney into the whole body.

Eyes. All exercises of punches and force exertion train Dantian and gives energy. All punches or force exertions depend on the strength of Dantian. The energy at Dantian is the energy of a person. Ren Meridian passes through the Sea of Qi (Dantian). shoulders. Form Eight Du Mai Clicking heels seven times a day keeps all diseases away 。配相脈 督與式招此故,康健 體身人使,病百除消 以 可就脈 督好的和 調要只以所,過經所 脈督為海髓為腦,整 。胱膀 。腦於 屬入,府 調做統 系經神將 、 腸小、肩 是就也,脈督激刺以 、項頸、耳 風至上,裏脊於 可振輕下上式招此 、眥內目 並,腧之極下於起 Starts from the Yu point and enters the spine. and urinary bladder. into the throat. 消 病百 顛七後背 . and into the eyes. The 19 合配相脈 任以式招此以所,旺 神 足氣人 使,練訓 的 田丹加 增以可力 發拳出,過經所脈任 有 置位的 田丹與海 Starts from the kidney to the perineum into the abdomen. up to Guanyuan. along the cheeks. The up and down vibrating exercise stimulates the Du Meridian. this form matches the Ren Meridian.high and up Dantian is the Sea of Qi. neck. ears. it goes up to the Fengfu and enters into the brains. an adjustment to the neural system. small intestine. that is. therefore.

We take the initiative for creative studies and wish that better and more comprehensive studies will become available soon. of course.org E-mail:kongfu@tomor. Conclusion Interpreting the theories of Ba Duan Jin from the aspect of the Eight Extra Meridians is only one attempt out of numerous possibilities.Du Meridian flows into the sea of marrow.kongfu. but interpreting the traditional exercises with the meridian systems provides another aspect for relevant studies. http:// www. therefore.com 20 . therefore. The coincidence in the numbers of the meridians and the practice forms makes it convenient for comparison. that is the brains. or even energy science. immunology. we could discuss the issues with pathology. keeping the Du Meridian in tune will keep all disease away. this form matches the Du Meridian. the Twelve Meridian System is a good example. for knowing the background of any sports and exercises will help to not only enhance the effect but also prevent injuries. The topic of Chinese health-keeping regimes extends into a great extent.

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