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Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 7

Integumentary System and Body Temperature
The integumentary system includes the skin, accessory structures, and subcutaneous tissue that covers the body, protects the internal organs, and plays an important role in the regulation of body temperature


Structures: Organs of the Integumentary System
A. Skin 1. Called the cutaneous membrane or integument 2. Has two layers, an outer layer called the epidermis and an inner layer called the dermis 3. The epidermis has five players. This germinativum is the layer which subdivision takes place. The outer layer is the stratum corneum and consists of flatten, dad, keratinized cells 4. The dermis lies on the subcutaneous tissue 5. Skin color is determined by many factors, some genetic, some physiologic, and some caused by disease. Melanin causes skin to darken. Carotene causes kin to appear yellow. The amount of blood in the skin affects skin color (e.g., flushing) as does the appearance of abnormal substances such as bilirubin (jaundice) and a low oxygen content (cyanosis) B. Accessory Structure of the Skin 1. The location of the hair determines its function. Eyebrows and eyelashes protect the eyes from dust and perspiration 2. Main parts of a hair: shaft, root, and follicle 3. Hair color: determined by the amount and type of melanin 4. Nails are thin plates of stratified squamous epithelial cells that contain a hard form of keratin 5. Two major exocrine glands: sebaceous glands and sweat glands 6. Sebaceous glands secrete sebum (lubricates hair and skin). In the fetus, these glands secrete vernix caseosa, a cheeselike substance that coats the skin of a newborn 7. Two types of sweat glands (sudoriferous glands): apocrine glands and eccrine glands (especially important in temperature regulation) 8. Modified sweat glands: mammary glands secrete milk and the ceruminous glands secrete ear wax C. Subcutaneous Tissue 1. Anchors the dermis to underlying structures 2. Acts as an insulator; it prevents heat loss


Regulation of Body Temperature (Thermoregulation)
A. Heat Production

convection. shock. Heat produced by metabolizing cells constitutes the body temperature 2.. Physiological Effects 1. and third-degree burns 2. Heat loss occurs through radiation.g. Normal body temperature: set by the body’s thermostat in the hypothalamus 4. When Skin is Burned A. and evaporation 3. also first-. Classified according to the thickness of the burn (partial. inability to regulate body temperature. loss of function. Most of the heat (80%) is lost through the skin 2. Heat loss 1.. Heat is conserved by vasoconstriction and produced by shivering III. Short-term effects (e. conduction. full). Long-term effects (e.g. The rule of nines is a way to evaluate burns . Classification of Burns 1.Anatomy & Physiology Chapter 7 1. second0. Shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis B. infection) 2. fluid and electrolyte losses. scarring. Heat: lost through sweating and vasodilation. and cosmetic and emotional problems) B.