You are on page 1of 83

A Project Report On Business Exposure With references to Parle Products Pvt. Ltd. D Realization Media Pvt. Ltd. Pune.

Europa Locks, Bhosari , Pune. Volkswagen, chakan, Pune. Submitted to University of Pune By
BAGWAN MUSTAKIM FIROZ S.Y.B.B.M Roll no. 67 Under guidance of Prof. Aishwarya Patil Through Smt. Kashibai Navale College Of Commerce Erandwane, Pune-411004 (2012-2013)

I take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude and deep regards to my guide (Professor/Mentor Faculty Name) for her exemplary guidance, monitoring and constant encouragement throughout the course of this . The blessing, help and guidance given by her time to time shall carry me a long way in the journey of life on which I am about to embark. I also take this opportunity to express a deep sense of gratitude to Company Mentor Name, Designation, Company Name, for his/her cordial support, valuable information and guidance, which helped me in completing this task through various stages. I am obliged to staff members of (Company Name), for the valuable information provided by them in their respective fields. I am grateful for their cooperation during the period of my assignment. Lastly, I thank almighty, my parents, brother, sisters and friends for their constant encouragement without which this assignment would not be possible.

Place:- Pune Date:-


SR.NO NAME OF THE INDUSTRY 1. Parle Products Pvt. Ltd. 2. 3. 4. Realization Media Pvt. Ltd. Page

Europa locks

Friday, April 6, 2012

History of Parle

A long time ago, when the British ruled in India, a small factory was set up in the suburbs of Mumbai City, to manufacture sweets and toffees. The year was 1929 and the market was dominated by famous international brands that were imported freely. Despite the odds and unequal competition, this company called PARLE PRODUCT, survived and succeeded by adhering to his quality and improvising from time to time. A decade later, in 1939, Parle Product began manufacturing biscuits, in addition to sweets and toffees having already established a reputation for quality, the Parle Brand name grew in strength with this diversification. PARLE GLUCOSE and PARLE MONACO were the first brand of biscuit to be introduced which later went on to become leading name for great test and quality. That time only one building was having in VileParle where they were making production and any other process. Then gradually that company expanded in many buildings and today that company located in 14 Akers area. That time they were transporting their products only by cycle. HOW PARLE MADE BISCUITS AFFORDABLE TO ALL? Biscuits were very much a luxury food in India, when Parle began in production in 1939. Apart from Glucose and Monaco biscuits Parle did offer a wide variety of brands. However, during the Second World War, all domestic biscuits production was diverted to assist the Indian Soldiers in India and the Far East. Apart from this, the shortage of Wheat in those days, made Parle decided to concentrate on the more popular brands, so that that people could enjoy the price benefits. Thankfully today, theres dearth of ingredients and demand for more premium brands is on the rise. Thats why Parle now have wide range of biscuits and mouthwatering confectionaries to offer. STRENGTH OF PARLE BRANDS Over the year, Parle has grown to become a multi million dollar company. Many of the parle Products biscuits or confectionaries, are market leaders in their..

on a one-to-one basis, and promote our belief of fun and health for the whole family Since 1929, Parle Products, with its wide platter of biscuits and sweets is also actively engaged in changing and uplifting the social face of India. As part of its Corporate Social Responsibility Policy, Parle is keenly involved in the overall development of the younger generation, with a focused endeavor to build the New Face of India and spread happiness and joy all over. Some of our best habits, as we said, are also our oldest. Many of them date back to the last decade of the 19th century. It was in the 1880s that the late Mohanlal Dayal came to Bombay from his village Pard ,I in the district of Surat, to work as a dusting boy at a silk merchants. What a long way that bright little boy came! First, the hard apprenticeship and the graduation to Master Cutter, then the elite tailoring establishment that eventually developed into a wholesale business to finally, the new business in confections and biscuits. Always, the accent was on selfsufficiency. Mohanlal Dayal was not just a progressive and astute businessman. He never gave in to the sense of indifference that often comes with the commercial outlook. All through his life, he was deeply conscious of his duties towards society and the community. He built the Shri Mohanlal Dayal Prasuti Graha and General Hospital in Pardi, which is maintained through charity trusts set up by him. The Shri Mohanlal Dayal Sanatorium and Hostel at Matunga in Bombay is another such institution. In his memory and after his example, his sons have donated significant sums to set up the Chauhan Institute of Science at Vile Parle. Parle Centre of Excellence, as an institution, is dedicated to enriching the lives of people by conducting various cultural programs across all regions to facilitate the all round development of children. Every year, Parle organizes Saraswati Vandana in the state of West Bengal during the festival of Saraswati Puja, inviting schools from all across the state to participate. The event is one of much fanfare and celebration, keeping alive the culture and traditions. The involvement in cultural activities has seen the inception of Golu Galata in Tamil Nadu, held during Navratri. It provides all the members of a household a platform to showcase their creativity and be judged by eminent personalities. Thousands of families participate and celebrate the occasion on a grand scale. These events give us a chance to interact with children

The Industrial visit was held considering certain aims and objectives to know following points regarding the industry:Companys Background Companys Management Companys Product Production Process And Techniques Quality Management Techniques Marketing and Distribution Strategies Safety Techniques

With the above points we could explore the different modes and means of production process at each and every stage also a brief study over quality management could b done.

The original Parle company was split into three separate companies owned by the different factions of the original Chauhan family:

Parle Products, led by Vijay, Sharad and Anup Chauhan (owner of the
Melody, Mango Bite, Poppins, Monaco and KrackJack)

brands Parle-G,

Agro, led by Prakash Chauhan and his daughters Schauna, Alisha and Bisleri, led

Nadia (owner of the brands such as Frooti and Appy)


Parle Agro
Parle Agro commenced operations in 1984. It started with beverages, and later diversified into bottled water (1993), plastic packaging (1996) and confectionary (2007). Frooti, the first product rolled out of Parle Agro in 1985, became the largest selling mango drink in India.
Separation from the parent company

The original Parle group was amicably segregated into three non-competing businesses. But a dispute over the use of "Parle" brand arose, when Parle Agro diversified into the confectionary business, thus becoming a competitor to Parle Products. In February 2008, Parle Products sued Parle Agro for using the brand Parle for competing confectionary products. Later, Parle Agro launched its confectionery products under a new design which did not include the Parle brand name. In 2009, the Bombay High Court ruled that Parle Agro can sell its confectionery brands under the brand name "Parle" or "Parle Confi" on condition that it clearly specifies that its products belong to a separate company, which has no relationship with Parle Products.

Parle Agro brands

Parle Agro Pvt. Ltd operates under three major business verticals:

Beverages fruit drinks, nectars, juice, sparkling drinks Water packaged drinking water Foods confectionery, snacks

Parle Agro also diversified into production of PET preforms (semi-finished bottles) in 1996. Its customers include companies in the beverages, edible oil, confectionery and pharmaceutical segments.


Citra was a clear lemon and lime flavoured soda sold in India in the 1980s and early 90s. Launched in 1985, Frooti was India's only beverage sold in a Tetra Pak packaging at the time. It went on to became the largest selling Mango drink in the country.



Appy Classic was launched in 1986 as an apple nectar and originally available in a white tetra pack with an apple and leaf graphic. As of 2011, it comes in black tetra packaging. It was the first apple nectar to be launched in India.
Appy Fizz

Launched in 2005, Appy Fizz is Indias first sparkling apple drink available in a champagne shaped PET bottle.
Saint Juice

Launched in 2008, Saint Juice is available in three variants Orange, Mixed fruit, Grape and Apple. At the time of its launch, its USP was "100% juice with no added color, sugar or preservatives".

LMN was launched in March 2009, as non-carbonated lemon drink (nimbu paani or lemonade)

Launched in 2008, Grappo Fizz is a sparkling grape juice drink. Credited with creating the sparkling fruit drinks category in India[Grappo Fizz is along the lines of existing product Appy Fizz. Water: Parle Agro has launched BAILLEY packaged drinking water.


Mintrox mints (launched in 2008), hard mint candy available in 2 flavors Buttercup candies (launched in 2008), hard boiled candy; it is targeted at kids and adults alike. Buttercup Softease, a toffee available in 4 flavors Softease Mithai, a toffee available in 3 flavors


Hippo (launched in 2008), baked snack available in seven flavors

From oven the hot biscuits are placed on the COOLING CONVYOR, which is 260 feet long and the biscuits continues to run on it for 5 to 7 minutes so that the biscuits become cool and all the moisture that biscuits contain gets evaporated. And because of the above reason the factory has S FLOW LAYOUT in the factory. The conveyor continues to move to COUNTING UNIT where biscuits are counted and seen that it is going on properly or not. The conveyor continues till the biscuits reach the STALKING TABLE at which the biscuits are packed in very orderly manner.

From cooling conveyor sum biscuits are diverted through AUTO FEEDING MACHINE to another stalking machine where packing is done.

From stalking table the biscuits are moved on conveyor to MULTI PACK WRAPPING MACHINE were 16 biscuits are packed into a regular parle g wrapper so that the weight of 16 biscuits comes up to 100 grams.

Then 24 packets of parle g biscuits are packed into a POLY BAG And after packing it into poly bag it is sent to SEALING MACHINE where it is sealed,

Then it is sent to CORRUGATE BOX SECTION in which 6 poly bags are placed and Then the boxes are kept on conveyor and sent to DISPATCH SECTION from where the biscuits are sent to various places in India and all over the world.


The basic things that are involved in the manufacturing process are mainly MIXING MOULDING BAKING COOLING PACKING All the above processes simultaneously helps in the manufacturing of product

RAW MATERIAL: Wheat flour Sugar Partially hydrogenated edible vegetable oils Invert syrup Leavening agents (503 Baking powder) Milk solids Salt Emulsifiers (E 322 or E 471 or E 481) and Dough conditioners (E 223) and contains added flavors.

The raw material is mixed in certain proportion, to get the best quality of biscuits. All the ingredients are tested in laboratory so that no low quality of raw material is used in manufacturing process. The raw material is tested for their acidic value, moisture it contains, and quality of milk powder. Inventory The inventory of the company that is the raw material is of a week. They store such inventory in store room and then is sent for testing in laboratory and after testing it is sent for production. Shifts There is nearly 10,000 employees working in the company and are working in three shifts.35, 000 tones of biscuits are manufactured in a day of one particular product, and there are such nine product manufactured in the factory.

Wastage There are two type of wastage in factory. First is the waste materials fallen on ground. Such waste material is of 1% which is marginal and acceptable which goes into total waste. Second types of waste are the biscuit collected in tray of the multipack wrapping machine, since these biscuit are broken they are not packed and sold to the customer but collected in other tray and sold as broken pieces and sold for less price for cattle feeding.

Loose Biscuits On the stalking table one to two rows of baked biscuits are kept aside for selling it as loose biscuits. They are normally assumed to be damaged biscuits but they are not damaged or broken but company keep such loose packets of biscuits to sell it to the local people for marginal rate of 33 Rs / kg.




Hide & seek

Hide & seek bourbon

Parle Marie



Kaccha mango bite

Mango bite

Parle wafers





As part of its marketing initiative, Parle Products has recently adopted a major pricing strategy whereby a 5 kg Parle-G Atta will be Pillsbury atta are priced at Rs 104, and, Kissan Annapurna at Rs 102, in similar capacity available to consumers and, along with Parle-G biscuit pack for free at Rs 90. However, competitors, .

Parle-G is available in Europe, UK, USA, Canada, etc. In Canada, it is sold by Zehrs, Food Basics, Loblaws, etc for only 99 cents for a 418 gram pack. Parle-G or Parle Glucose biscuits, manufactured by Parle Products Pvt Ltd, are one of the most popular biscuits in India. Parle-G is one of the oldest brand names as well as the largest selling brand of biscuits in India. For decades, the product was instantly recognized by its iconic white and yellow wax paper wrapper with the depiction of a young girl on the front. Counterfeit companies have attempted to recreate and sell lower quality products of similar names with virtually identical package design

It has 70% market share in India in the glucose biscuit category followed by Britannia, Tiger (17-18%) and ITC's Sunfeast (8-9%). The brand is estimated to be worth over Rs 2,000 crore (Rs 20 billion), and contributes more than 50 per cent of the company's turnover (Parle Products is an unlisted company and its executives are not comfortable disclosing exact numbers). Last fiscal, Parle had sales of Rs 3,500 crore (Rs 35 billion). It also is popular across the world and is starting to sell in Western Europe

Product strategy: Core benefit- the core benefit of biscuit is to satisfy hunger of the consumer. Basic product- in the second level, the basic product is biscuits. Expected product- the consumers expect the product to have a good taste and also give nutrition. Augmented product- Parle biscuits increase a persons energy levels. o Potential product- in the future Parle could come up with different products.

The extensive distribution network, built over the years, is a major strength for Parle products. Parle biscuits & sweets are available to consumers, even in the e most remote places and in the smallest retail outlets. Parle has nearly 1,500 wholesalers, careering to 4,25,000 retail outlets directly or indirectly. A two hundred strong dedicated field force services there wholesalers and retailers. Additionally, there are 31 depots and C&F agents supplying goods to the wide distribution network. Parle constantly endeavor at designing products that provide nutrition and fun t o the common man. Most Parle offerings are in the low and mid-range price segments. This is based on their understanding of the Indian consumer psyche. The Value for money positioning helps generate large sales volumes for the products. However, Parle Products also manufactures a variety of premium products for the up-market, urban consumers. And in this way, caters a range of products to a variety of consumers


Low profit margin. Decrease in weight per biscuit. Bulk purchase of raw material. Reduced wastage- 1% of the 115 TONES Increased productivity. Availability in remote places. Avoid sophisticated packing. 100g pack costing Rs 4 has net weight of 93.5g from Jan2008. Parle-G has seen the variation in sales due to increase in price. By mere 50 paisa in 1995.

by Ramesh Chauhan All three companies continue to use the family trademark name "Parle".


SWOT Analysis


Appeal to all income groups : The product is appealing to the consumers as the target audience is basically kids. This product is suitable to all Income group. Low and mid range price Segments: The pricing of the product is of low and mid range so as it suits every ones pocket Value for money: Value for money allows all age group to enjoy parle products at fullest Strict cost control at every point in supply Chain: It reaches 2.5 million outlets, including villages with a population of 500 people

Parle havent raised price since 1994

Its a brand that has held its price line at Rs 4 for 25 years now the price was last raised in 1994 by 25 paisa. So, its not for nothing that Parle-G is the worlds largest-selling biscuit by volumes. Not that the company didnt try to raise prices to offset the overall hike in costs. Three years ago it did so, but quickly rolled it back after volumes fell sharply and consumers wrote to lodge their protest. We want to cater to the masses and have consciously tried not to increase the price. Parle-G is available for Rs 50 a kg. There are very few food items that are available for Rs 50-60 a kg, says Pravin Kulkarni, general manager (marketing), Parle Products. Parle is, of course, not doing it for charity. Soaring input prices meant it opted for reducing the weight of the biscuit than increasing the price first from 100 gm to 92.5 gm in January 2008, and then to 88 gm in January this year in line with other biscuit-makers and FMCG players. Regular customers would have noticed the number of biscuits in a pack come down from 16 to 15 even as each biscuit became lighter, but they seemed to understand the cost pressures on the firm. The gamble paid off: Parle was able to sustain its volumes.

Strict cost control at every point in its supply chain also helped Parle entered into forward contracts with suppliers, outsourced production, increased the number of manufacturing locations to 60 and consolidated buying. Raw material costs account for 60 per cent of the total costs in this segment and packaging costs (plastic films) account for 20-25 per cent of this. Nirmalaya Kumar, professor of marketing at London Business School, feels its a very smart strategy. At this price point, price becomes more important than the weight of the biscuit. Its very interesting and similar to the dollar stores in the US, he says. But price is not its only USP. What makes the Parle G brand tick is also that it has been positioned on the health platform (a single pack of biscuit offers 450 calories). Its earlier punchline was Parle-G: swadh bhare, shakti bhare (full of taste and energy). Currently, the brand uses two punchlines. Parle-G: G for Genius and Hindustan ki Taakat (the countrys strength). The brand, says Kulkarni, meets different needs of customers: calories (energy), nutrition and value-for-money enough reasons why Parle-G enjoys close to 70 per cent market share in the glucose biscuit category and probably has the deepest reach. It reaches 2.5 million outlets, including villages with a population of 500 people, on a par with Unilevers Lifebuoy, ITCs cigarettes or mobile pre-paid cards. Its also one of the few FMCG brands in the country, whose customers straddle across income segments. The brand is estimated to be worth over Rs 2,000 crore (Rs 20 billion), and contributes more than 50 per cent of the companys turnover (Parle Products is an unlisted company and its executives are not comfortable disclosing exact numbers). Last fiscal, Parle had sales of Rs 3,500 crore (Rs 35 billion). Competition has, of course, been trying to wean away customers from Parle. Britannia relaunched its Glucose-D biscuit as Tiger in 1995 and boasts of 17-18 per cent share, while ITCs Sunfeast glucose has captured 8 -9 per cent, according to industry sources. Even Levers had forayed into this segment in 2003 and launched a glucose biscuit branded as Modern, after it acquired the bakery business of Modern. There are strong regional brands, including Priya Gold (west), Cremica (north) and Anmol (east). But they still have their work cut out.

Almost all of our products are market leaders and as recognition of their quality, have won us 111 gold, 26 silver and 4 bronze Monde Selection medals since 1971 . Parle Products Pvt. Ltd. is a US $ 1 Billion conglomerate started in India in 1929. We manufacture and market biscuits and confectionaries. We have state-of-the-art machinery with automatic printing and packaging facilities. Our biscuit baking oven is the largest of its type in Asia. Over the decades, the efforts of our Research & Development wing have made the repertoire of our products grow manifold. In biscuits, Parle Products has offerings in glucose, milk, sweet and salted cream, wafer crme, cumin seed and cheese categories. In confectionery, we have a range of toffees and hard-boiled candies available in chocolate, mint, cola, and tropical fruit flavors. Some of these are double layered toffees and center filled candies. They are packed in rolls or pillow packs, or have a single or double twist wrapping. Almost all of our products are market leaders and as recognition of their quality, have won us 111 gold, 26 silver and 4 bronze Monde Selection medals since 1971. Parle enjoys a 40% share of the total biscuit market and a 15% share of the total confectionary market, in India.

The immense popularity of Parle Products in India was always a challenge to our production capacity. Now, using more modern techniques for capacity expansion, we have begun spreading our wings and we are going global. Parle biscuits and confectionaries are fast gaining acceptance in international markets, such as the Middle East, Africa and South East Asia. The more sophisticated economies like U.S.A., UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand are also relishing Parle products. As part of the efforts towards a larger share of the global market, Parle has initiated the process of getting ISO 9000 certification. The Parle name symbolizes quality, health and great taste. And yet, we know that

constantly innovating and catering to new tastes has built this reputation. This can be seen from the success of its new brands such as Hide & Seek, Mangobite etc. Today, the Parle brands have found their way into the hearts and homes of people all over India and abroad. The Parle biscuit brands, such as, Parle-G, Monaco, Krackjack, Marie Choice, Hide & Seek and confectionery brands such as Melody, Poppins, Rolacola, Mangobite enjoy a strong imagery and appeal amongst consumers across the world.

This has resulted into Parle-G being the Worlds Largest Selling Biscuit.


Realization media pvt. Ltd. is engaged in producing audio and providing services to the consumers with regard to their requirements of music. Cpml is one of its division which provide training courses on audio recording. Realization media pvt. Ltd. is private held industry ehich located in pune. It was an media production industry. Realization media is founded in 2009 n Jeevan Vaishampayan and Shreedhar Deshpande are the fonder of this industry. Jeevan Vaishampayan is Managing Director of realization media. Shreedhar Deshpande is the cofounder of realization media and Head instructure at CPML. This industry is specialized in marketing and distribution of music audio. The company size is very small it is upto only 1-10 employees. Realizations Media Pvt. Ltd. Media Production services such as: 1.Studio Services (Recording, Voice Overs, Dubbing, Mixing) - AVID Pro Tools ICON HD 3 system 2.Indias 1st School for AVID advanced Pro Tools Training and Certifications 3.Audio Book Publications. At Realizations,they work on : 1. Marathi Audio Books Publication 2. Studio Services (Recording, Mixing etc) 3. Paperback book publication 4. Ad films/ Documentaries 5. Corporate presentations 6. Content development CPML is a division of Realizations Media Pvt Ltd. We are Avid Authorized Training Partner in India teaching 100-level, 200-level and 310I ICON courses. We also conduct a short course focusing on commercial audio recording in addition to Pro Tools training.

CPML is a division of Realizations Media Private Limited, an organisation engaged in providing highest knowledge and training in media studies. Centre for Professional Media Learning (CPML) offers a comprehensive professional audio-video, still photography, music production and Pro Tools training in partnership with world's biggest pro audio-video manufacturers like Avid, McDSP, Sonnox. We help students to get most updated knowledge with specialized courses in audio engineering, music production, and sound designing. Features: - India's first AVID authorized training partner for Pro Tools Training and Internationally recognized Certifications - India's first training facility with the most updated music recording and mixing platform equipped with Pro Tools|HDX system - India's first training provider for offering 32-channel ICON D-Control ES in 5.1 surround sound environment to our students This course is intended for everyone those who wish to make a career as Audio Engineer or Sound Engineer in entertainment industry. In the due period of course, we will take students very close to commercial audio production in professional environment. The training programme details out various studio engineering theories, methodologies, workflows and skills important to become successful Audio Engineer, Producer or an industry professional. Courses we conduct: Certificate Course in Audio Recording: This course is intended for everyone those who wish to make a career as Audio Engineer or Sound Engineer in Entertainment Industry. In the due period of course, we will take students very close to commercial audio production in professional environment. The training details out various audio engineering theories, methodologies, workflows and skills, which are important to become successful Audio Engineer, Producer or an Industry Professional. Course Contents:
Physics of Sound (Characteristics of SoundWave, Mixing Consoles Microphones and Microphone Techniques Dynamics and Effects Processing Recording, Editing and Mixing Mastering Techniques Studio Environment Issues Pro tools training(Avid Certificate User Exame) Studio hours for Self-Practice & Final Project

Decibles, ADSR, etc.)

Duration: 4 months (alternate 3 days in week & 2 hrs. of session)

This course is enriched with best theoretical and practical knowledge of Recording, Editing, Mixing and Mastering of Audio. This educational programme has enormous potential to create professionals in Audio and Music. Certificate Course in Music Arrangement & Production: Arranging music is an art of creatively expanding already written composition. It includes musical development of a composition giving an existing melody a musical variety. With our recognized and experienced experts, we have designed an intensive training program in Music Arrangement which will help you learn and understand what you would able to do in your music. When it comes to arranger, emphasis is given to understanding with the written composition and how it must be represented to audience. Our aim with this program is to achieve that remarkable sense of structuring music around composition while giving justice to composer's work. Your instructor will help you develop this understanding and demonstrate various techniques to achieve it. Course Contents: Music Theory Staff Notations Swar and Raagas Scales and Chords Time Signatures and Rhythms Understanding Melody and Harmony Introduction to Musical instruments and genres Understanding a process of music composing and arrangement Understanding the process of Orchestration Understanding various industry standard music production software programs like Pro Tools and Logic.

This course is enriched with best theoretical and practical knowledge of arranging and producing Music. Course Duration: 6 months (5 days in a week & 2 hrs. of session) Contact: Centre for Professional Media Learning (CPML) A division of Realizations Media Pvt. Ltd. is a professional Avid Learning Partner (ALP). Centrally located in city, we are Indias first training facility with the most update audio recording and mixing platform equipped with Pro Toolshxd systems . we provide a learning environment that easily fit to your schedule. We strongly believe in experiential learning thats why our learning program are entirely project and assignment based. To master the art of audio engineering, what all you need is a long practice on industry grade platform under appropriate guidance and thats exactly we offer at CPML.

Process of Sound Recording :

The process of cpml is recording, mixing, editing, mastering, etc Sound is a mechanical wave that is an oscillation of pressure transmitted through a solid, liquid, or gas, composed of frequencies within the range of hearing. Sound also travels through plasma. The term studio recording means any recording made in a studio, as opposed to a live recording, which is usually made in a concertvenue or a theatre, with an audience attending the performance. More on 'Studio Recording Sound design is the process of specifying, acquiring, manipulating or generating audio elements. It is employed in a variety of disciplines including filmmaking, television production, theatre, sound recording and reproduction, live performance, sound art,postproduction and video game software development. Sound design most commonly involves the manipulation of previously composed or recorded audio, such as music and sound More on 'Sound Design' Pro Tools is a digital audio workstation platform for Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X operating systems, developed and manufactured by Avid Technology. It is widely used by professionals throughout the audio industries for recording and editing in music production, film scoring, film and television post production, musical notation and MIDI sequencing. Pro Tools can run as standalone software, or More on 'Pro Tools' An audio engineer, also called audio technician, audio technologist, recording engineer, sound engineer, sound operator, or sound technician, is a specialist in a skilled trade that deals with the use of machinery and equipment for the recording, mixing and reproduction of sounds. The field draws on many artistic and vocational areas, including electronics, acoustics,psychoacoustics, and music. An audio More on 'Audio Engineering' Audio post production is the general term for all stages of production happening between the actual recording in a studio and the completion of a master recording. It involves, sound design,sound editing, audio mixing, and the addition of effects. More on 'Audio Post Production'

In electronics a mixer or frequency mixer is a nonlinear electrical circuit that creates new frequencies from two signals applied to it. In its most common application, two signals at frequencies f1 and f2 are applied to a mixer, and it produces new signals at the sum f1 + f2 and difference f1 - f2 of the original frequencies. Other frequency components may

Mastering, a form of audio post-production, is the process of preparing and transferring recorded audio from a source containing the final mix to a data storage device (the master); the source from which all copies will be produced (via methods such as pressing, duplication or replication). Recently, the format choice includes using digital masters although analog masters, such as audio tapes, are In audio recording, audio mixing is the process by which multiple recorded sounds are combined into one or more channels, most commonly 2-channel stereo. In the process, the source signals' level, frequency content, dynamics, and panoramic position are manipulated and effects such as reverb may be added. This practical, aesthetic, or otherwise creative treatment is done in order to produce a mix that is Professional audio, also 'pro audio', refers to both an activity and a type of audio equipment. Typically it encompasses the production or reproduction of sound for an audience, by individuals who do such work as an occupation like live event support, using sound reinforcement systems designed for the purpose. (By contrast, consumer audio is usually confined to the reproduction of sound in the home.)

The Basic sound Recording

Decide what music to record Original or Cover tunes If you are recording music that you have written, then all you have to do is decide which songs to record. If you are recording music written by others then you have a couple of things to consider: Song rights To record and release someone elses music (thats doing a cover) you need to purchase a mechanical reproduction license. These are easy to get contact the artists publisher. Typically you pay a small amount per song per unit. For instance: if you record 3 songs by the latest star and you sell 500 CDs you may pay $0.10 x 3 songs x 500 = $150.00 Getting the background music You may need to locate sheet music for the song. If you cannot locate sheet music but you have a recording you can hire a musician to listen to the recording and reproduce it in the studio (which will typically cost more). Your studio can often help locate a musician suitable to do this. You may be able to find a pre-recorded backing track without the lead vocal. Give this to your studio engineer to merge with your singing. Record the instruments and singers There are many different ways to approach recording and to a large degree the best choice is different for different artists.

Backing tracks An economical way to record a singer is to purchase backup tracks pre-recorded music without a lead vocal. Your studio engineer transfers the backup track into his recording system, records the singer, and then blends them together into your final product. While economical, you have no option to change any part of the music to better suit the singer and the final sound is not quite as realistic as having a real band. Studio musicians A studio musician is a player or singer with strong skills and significant experience in the recording studio. Being a good live player does not mean that you can be a good studio musician. While it can be costly to hire a studio musician, you will save money on studio time the studio musician will do an excellent job and do it in less time. Self-accompanying It is a rewarding experience to play your own instruments for a recording. Depending on your skill level and experience it can also drive you crazy. Be prepared to play over and over and over again to get it just right. After all, YOU have to live with the recording for the rest of your life. The Process Some musicians will rehearse a piece until they know it so well that they can play the whole thing without the other players in their group. They will then send one player into the recording booth at a time, record their part, the next player goes in after, listens to the first part on headphones and plays his part and so on. Other groups must have all the players in the same room at the same time (the Rolling Stones do this) because they have a real energy when playing together and they don't want to lose it in the recording process. And then there are various in-between approaches, where certain key players play at the same time and others play later. There is a balancing act when recording and the two sides that compete with each other are: Capturing the "live" energy vs. Clean tracks of each instrument and ability to fix mistakes

Some professional studio musicians are so talented that, as a group, they can go through a song 3-4 times and one of them will be close to perfect. Then there is the rest of us who need to rely on being able to re-do certain parts. We have to live with this recording for the rest of our lives and having to hear that same mistake over and over again it just too much to bear!

One other note, having instruments recorded individually means that you will not hear the other instruments in the background of the track. For instance, if I play my guitar and sing at the same time the microphone for my voice will also pick some of the guitar and the microphone on the guitar will also pick of some of my voice. If I hit a wrong note either singing or playing and want to go back and fix it, well, I can, but I may still hear a "ghost" of the bad note coming through on the other track. Mix the recording Recording various instruments and voices on separate tracks (multi-tracking) provides flexibility, allowing one to re-do mistakes in one part without having to play all the other parts over again. If the bass player hits a wrong note, he can just replay that section by himself while listening to the other pre-recorded parts on headphones. The recordings that you buy in the stores (or download from the Internet) are not in a multi-track format. They are in a 2-track (stereo) format, one track for each ear. Mixing is the art of blending multiple tracks down into 2 tracks. When budgeting time for a recording project, allow a similar amount of time for mixing as you do for the actual recording. Mastering the mixed-down recording Mastering can be described as putting the "finish" on a recording. The final mix is smoothed by balancing the low, midrange, and high parts of its sound, making it ready for radio-play and pressing CDs. When producing an album, mastering also allows the songs to be placed in a specified order and balances the volumes of each song to make sure the listener of the final product does not have to turn the volume up and down while listening. The mastering process can often make or break a recording - this is not an area to skimp (or skip!) Duplicate the final product for distribution Once your project is mastered you are ready for mass production. If you are releasing a CD this means that besides duplicating you need to think about printing an album cover, CD inserts, and CD cases and possibly shrink wrapping. There are many small duplicating companies that will do short-run duplicating onto CD-Rs, allowing you to manufacture your final product in small batches as needed.


Following are the typical phases of the recording process: PRE-PRODUCTION During this stage, all the initial decisions are made regarding the recording. What is the purpose of the recording (i.e., demo for shopping or submission, indie release, song for download sales, just for fun, etc.)? What style of music will you be recording? Who will be playing what instruments, or what sounds will you use for the recording? Where will you record, mix and master the recording? Where is the budget coming from, and/or how will you raise the money for the project? How many songs will you be recording, and who will be involved in the writing? Will you need to hire musicians to play on the recording or will you and/or your band perform everything? When do you need to complete the recording by? SOUND SOURCE SELECTION This does not have to be a formal process, but is nonetheless an important part of the project recording process. Everything that happens down the line in terms of the quality of the recording will be influenced by the sound source selection. Sound sources include the brand and model of instruments, the quality of the samples, and the caliber of the soft synths and virtual instruments. Of course, the vocals are an important sound source, so the quality of the vocalist counts as well. Use sound sources of low quality, and you will be paying the price the rest of the way. Great sounding sound sources (performed and recorded well, of course) will make it much easier to mix the songs later on. SELECTION OF PERFORMERS Naturally, if you are either in a band or performing as a solo artist, you will most likely pick yourself or your band members to play all the instruments and handle all the performances. The selection of the performers is the next most important thing after the sound source selection. Great sounding (high-quality and well maintained) instruments played with passion by great performers can overcome even a bad recording. Therefore, put your ego aside and get the best performers to perform on the recording. If you consider yourself the best performer by virtue of the fact that it is your music and you a unique passion for the performance and understand the songs the best, then that can also be a valid argument for performing the songs yourself.

WRITING once the pre-production is complete; the writing process can proceed efficiently. Time isnt wasted trying to figure out all the things that have already been covered in the pre-production stage, and instead everyone can focus on writing the best songs they can possibly come up with for the recording. REHEARSAL not all bands have the time or patience to rehearse prior to their recording. Nevertheless, it is a crucial part of the process because this is where you can discover different ways to perform the song; including what the right key is, how the tempo feels, etc. Often, this part is combined with the writing process. Some performers use the recording process to rehearse, which is a waste of time and money. RECORDING This is the stage where the actual recording happens. Important decisions will be made regarding the best ways to capture the sounds. This is where an experienced and/or knowledgeable engineer plays a crucial role. Unless you already have the sounds in your computer, or on tape (e.g., from samples, soft synths, and/or virtual instruments), there are only three ways to record a sound; either by microphone, or via direct injection (DI), or a combination of the two. The quality of your microphones and DI boxes are extremely important to the final results, along with the mic-pres, additional processors (e.g., compressor, de-esser, EQ, etc.), and A/D converter. Of additional importance is sound of the room in which you are recording, the maintenance of the equipment being recorded, along with mic placement, the quality and length of mic cables, the techniques used by the recording engineer, among other things. Along with great sound sources and great performers (and performances), getting the recording right will carry you into a great sounding mix and master. EDITING Once everything is recorded, additional editing can be done in order to get the recording to sound perfect (if perfection is what you are after) and get the tracks ready for mixing. Some musicians prefer to leave the recording exactly as it was recorded for a more authentic and natural sound. For others, additional work is needed in order to piece together the perfect lead vocal take, create a powerful guitar solo, tune a voice or instrument, fix drum timing, apply time stretching to a track, adjust an early or late take, cut and paste background vocals from one chorus to another or replace a word sung in the wrong place, and so on. Editing the tracks into their final form allows the mixing process to be just about mixing, instead of spending valuable time editing.

MIXING The mixing stage is the stage where you take all the individual tracks that have been recorded (e.g., vocals, guitars, bass, kick, snare, keyboard, flute, violin, samples, etc.) and apply processing (e.g., volume levels, panning, compression, EQ, reverb, chorus, delay, flange, phaser, gating, etc.) in order to make everything sound as good as possible. This stage allows the most flexibility in manipulating the sounds, since processing can be applied to each individual track as necessary. Bad decisions made here will negatively affect the next stage (mastering). Any problems you have with the mix should be taken care of at this stage, and not left to be addressed later during the mastering stage where it becomes much more difficult, if not impossible to fix things. It is infinitely easier to focus in on a problem area, whether it is volume, tone, or character, and manipulate it using volume and panning as well as processing like compression, EQ, expansion, chorus, gating, etc., during the mixing stage. The final result of the mix is that all the individual tracks are mixed from multiple tracks down to two (2) tracks as a stereo mix. MASTERING The mastering stage is the stage where you take the mixed 2-track source and apply any additional processing that might be necessary and create a master suitable for replication. It can be said that good mastering creates a more finished product that appears to have more sheen, heft, depth, punch, and clarity than the mix alone. Generally speaking, the processing applied during mastering is mainly high-quality equalization, compression, the occasional multi-band processing (compression, expansion) if necessary, stereo enhancement/correction, noise removal, and volume maximizing (limiting). All processing applied during mastering will affect the entire mix, unlike during mixing, where each track is processed individually. Some processes typically applied during the mixing stage (e.g., chorus, delay, flange, phaser, etc.) are not normally applied during the mastering stage, unless in moderate amounts for special effect. In addition to signal processing, some other important things take place during mastering; like sequencing the songs into the correct order, selecting the correct length of space (silence or room noise) in between each song, inserting metadata (ISRC, UPC, title, artist, copyright info, etc.), assuring no errors are on the final master, supplying a master (or more accurately, a pre-master) to the replicating plant suitable for replication, etc. Mastering will almost always make the mix sound better. However, the quality of the mix will greatly affect the quality of the master. Some things cannot be fixed in the mastering stage, and should more suitably be dealt with at the mixing stage (or even further back, depending on the issue). IN CONCLUSION This is a general description of the different phases of the recording process, from conception to completion. The important thing to remember is that the more attention you pay to each phase in

the process, the better (more professional) the final master will sound. Do not wait until the very final stage to try and correct all the mistakes made or shortcuts taken along the way.


Featured Categories in Pro Recording Mixers Unpowered Mixers Analog Mixers Digital Mixers Powered Mixers Mixer Accessories Studio Monitors Headphones Multitrack Recorders Players Complete Studio Bundles GigaSolo Studio GigaHome Producer GigaPro Studio Suite Recording Bundles Signal Processors Harmonizers and Vocal Processors Other Signal Processors Microphone Preamps Multi-Effects Processors Signal Processor Accessories Microphones Stand-Mount Condenser Microphones Handheld Dynamic Microphones Dynamic Instrument Microphones Handheld Condenser Microphones Microphone Accessories Shotgun Microphones Lavalier Microphones Wireless Systems Transmitters & Receivers Ribbon Microphones

Realization Media Pvt. Ltd. is the private held industry which is engage in providing services to the entertainment industry. The service which provide by this industry is audio production recording and training regarding audio engineering. CPML is one of its division which provide training courses of audio recording. The realization media company is located in PUNE. The process of recording music is selecting source, writing, recording, editing, mixing, mastering, etc. This industry is specialized in marketing and distribution of music audio. The company size is very small it is upto only 1-10 employees. Realizations Media Pvt. Ltd. Media Production services such as: 1.Studio Services (Recording, Voice Overs, Dubbing, Mixing) - AVID Pro Tools ICON HD 3 system 2.Indias 1st School for AVID advanced Pro Tools Training and Certifications 3.Audio Book Publications.


The EUROPA story began 20 years ago when Dr.P.A.JOSHI an R & D engineer educated in Germany {Dr.Ing (Germany) Doctorate in Mechanical Engineering, B.E. (Mechanical)} founded this Company in the Cultural and Industrial city of PUNE. Since then, WELMADE LOCKING SYSTEMS PVT.LTD has grown in stature and has already carved an enviable niche for itself in the Indian market place. Backed by world class techonology and driven by dedicated team of 200 dynamic professionals (25% involved in Design and Development), the company manufactures international standard products which have been appreciated in trade fair like the KOLN TRADE FAIR held in Germany.



Founded in 1984 by Dr. P.A Joshi [B.E. (Mech), Dr.Ing (Germany)]. 200 qualified, dynamic and dedicated personnel, of which over 25% are involved in R&D. Customized product range and multi-faceted security solutions through state-of-the-art facilities : 3D Modelling, CAD CAM Interfaces, CNC machines, extensive AUTOMATION, Electrophoretic lacquering and ERP Software. Constantly INNOVATING to design and manufacture Locks with best-inclass features meeting Global Function, Finish & Load (strength), Life (warranty) Standards. The largest number of Patent and Design Registration applications (in the last 5 years) Received Hari Malini Joshi Prize and Parkhe Award from MCCIA, Pune for Outstanding Product Design. The EUROPA range of locks were widely appreciated in the International Hardware Trade Fair held at KOLN, Germany. Dr. P.A Joshi, founder of the company, was requested to provide services as the International Consultant for Global Mapping of Lock Technology by UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization), Vienna, Austria in 2003. He was deputed by UNIDO to visit and study over 25 Lock Factories in Germany, Switzerland, Spain, France, UK, Italy, Hong Kong, China and Taiwan. Selected by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs- HOLLAND as one of 20 worldwide participants (from the Building Materials Sector) for a 15 day seminar on Exports to Europe in Rotterdam, Holland


The europa locks is basically a company that provides the utility products for security purpose and ensures Anti-theft Engineering. The different product are been established by Welmade Locking System also it ensures maximum level of security for the customers requirement

Expert Lock fitting by EUROPA trained Technicians Installation for Dimple Key Door Locks and Cylindrical Locks on Free*/Chargeable basis. Retrofitting and Installation on steel, double and special doors possible: Retrofit (replacement of existing lever Night Latch by EUROPA Dimple key Door Lock Lock by using a special adapter) Warranty: All EUROPA products covers Warranty of 3 to 15 years depending upon various prodcuts. Emergency Services: Besides moving into a higher tech gear, EUROPA is also trying to establish new standards of service in this industry. The aim is to provide greater customer satisfaction through attending Emergency situation.


KEY DUPLICATION: Virtually impossible, only by manufacturer MFG. PROCESS: Computerised CNC M/c COMBINATION: Millions SECURITY: 14 Locking Pins with Micron accuracy : UNPICKABLE MATERIAL: Nickel Silver alloy (rustproof) for high wear resistance, self lubrication, long life TECHNOLOGY: Latest, 3rd Generation (1st Generation: Lever, 2nd Generation: Pin Tumbler & 3rd Generation: Dimple Key) KEY DUPLICATION: Within 48 hours from Company (refer warranty card)


Common Key Set Locks : (for 2 or more locks) Same combination and

key interchangeable i.e. any key can open any lock in that set. The MASTER Keying system becomes necessary mainly for large Residential, Commercial, Industrial and Institutional use. One key allows the authorised person to operate a group of Locks : each individually or differently keyed. Such a system is a combination of keys and cylinder mechanisms that must be detailed at the design stage to meet the client's needs and cover any possible extensions in future.
Master Key: MK

All individual locks of 1 set will have separate combinations and noninterchangeable keys. The master key is the only key which can open all locks in that set e.g. 1 Master Key for all rooms on one floor.
Grand Master Key: GMK typically kept with hotel manager which shall open rooms

on all floors of 1 wing of a hotel.

Great Grand Master Key: GGMK For all wings i.e. the entire hotel.


Europa Door Locks:

This lock is used in main entrance doors in residences and institutions .These are also used for steel and double doors .They have a thicker heavy duty 3 brass bolts which ensure solid protection against crowbar attack. They use dimple keys which are impossible to duplicate. These locks have a patented lockable knob which is first of its kind in India .

Europa Solido 3 Ton Lock :

These types of locks are used in homes offices and lockers. They have a brass shell and hardened thicker shackle around 12 mm with 270 overlap and a narrow throat to prevent crowbar entry .The inner body is made of stainless steel fully welded rustproof chassis. The outer body is made of brass shell. It is a high precision 11 pin lock and keys can have up to million combinations

Europa shutter lock :

These type of locks are used in shops go downs , store rooms ware houses. These locks are ideal for multiplexes, supermarkets, big warehouses with multi user systems. The lock consists of heavy m8 bolts for fastening strength and extra flange for welding purpose . They have an armoured interlocking dead bolt cover .they have a reinforced screw and rivet assembly and heavy duty rivets for load bearing. .They have a hardened anti drill bush which makes them

Europa jemmy proof door lock :

These locks are used for sliding doors, folding doors, centre opening doors, steel doors, grill doors and for single leaf entrance and balcony doors .They have a unique vertical 2 point inter locking latch bolt cum dead bolt with taper for auto latching. They have a dead locking model with 2 dead bolts .they are operated by key from outside and knob from inside. They are corrosion proof locks

Europa feather touch:

These locks are used in key management system for bungalows and for internal doors of homes bedrooms, bathrooms, hotel rooms institutions and offices. They have a unique feather touch press button operation. They have thicker virgin material for better strength.

Europa night latch:

These types of locks are used for main entrance doors shops offices banks requiring very high security. These locks have a brass latch bolt with safety clip attached to it to prevent accidental closing of the door.

Europa Lock Features:

KEY DUPLICATION : Virtually impossible ,only by manufacturer MFG PROCESS : Computerized CNC M/c COMBINATION : Millions

: 14 locking pins with micron accuracy : UNPICKABLE MATERIAL : Nickel silver alloy (rust proof) for high wear resistance ,self

lubrication, long life TECHNOLOGY : Latest ,3rd generation


Locks come in grades, from low-security to high-security. A low-security lock is generally made from cheaper materials, and its parts can be massproduced. A company that manufactures low-security locks may have two or three available models, and keep in stock the parts needed to customize them. Beyond low-security, the lock manufacturer is generally what is called an original equipment manufacturer, meaning that they make the parts for their locks as well as the final products. This kind of manufacturer may keep only the most basic and common parts in stock, and most of its orders require custom design.

The process begins with the manufacturer assessing the customer's specifications. The customer orders a lock to fit a certain size door for example, and asks that the locks can be opened with a master key. The lock manufacturer then comes up with the best design for that customer's needs. In some cases, a customer may have purchased locks in the past from one company, and now wants more identical locks from a different manufacturer, who promises to make them more economically. Then, the lock manufacturer examines the customer's original locks and goes through what is known as a reverse engineering process. The manufacturer's design team figures out from the existing lock how to make their product match it. In many cases, the customer's first lock company has patented aspects of its lock construction. The second manufacturer may not duplicate it without infringing the other company's patents. So, the designers "design around" the first company's product, producing a lock that will match the customer's originals and serve

the same purpose, but using different mechanisms. Medium and high security locks in most cases go through this design stage, making the production of locks a time-consuming process. A reputable manufacturer making anything but low security locks may take from eight to 12 weeks to produce locks for an order, from the time the specifications are given to when the locks are packed and shipped.

The key

2 For the standard five-tumbler key lock, the key is made first. The lock manufacturer buys key blanks and cuts the ridges, or combinations, in each key. Each key has five bumps on it that are cut to different levels. These levels are designated by numbers. A low cut is one, next up is two, then three. In many cases, there are only four levels, though some manufacturers

May use as many as seven. A five-tumbler key lock with four levels in the key yields four to the fifth power, or 1024, different possible combinations of ridges in the key. The five ridges are listed by the height of each level, yielding what is called the combination for the key. A key with the combination 12341 is cut with the first ridge at level one, the second at two,

the next at three, and so on. The lock manufacturer chooses the combinations from a random list and cuts each key differently.

Internal mechanisms

The internal mechanisms are made next. These have been designed to fit this particular lock order, and the machinery that makes them may have to be re-tooled or reset. Because the tiny interior parts, specifically the pins, must be manufactured to exceedingly fine tolerances, the machinists may make a trial run before starting a big job. Then the machines may be re-set if necessary. The machining of small brass parts takes many steps. They may be cast, then grooved, ridged, jeweled, and polished. Precision tools handle these jobs, cutting the metal to within tolerances of plus or minus 0.001 of an inch

Other parts

The manufacturer also makes the other parts of the lock. The cylinder, or plug, that the key fits into, guard plates, washers, the bolt or cam, and the casing, are all made according to design specifications, by die-casting and then further machining. The number of parts varies with the design of the lock, but even a small and relatively simple lock may have thirty separate parts, and some of these parts require multiple toolings. The process of making the lock components can take several weeks.


When all the parts are ready, the locks are assembled by hand. Lock workers sit at well-lit tables with a kit of the pieces of the lock in a bin, and the key on a stand in front of them. An experienced worker can tell the combination of the key just by looking at it. The worker first fills the plug, or cylinder, of the lock with the pins that correspond to the combination of the key. The worker inserts a tiny spring and then the lock pin, using a small tool called an assembly pick to hold the small parts. The assembly pick has a small screwdriver on one end and a point on the other, and the worker uses it to prod the delicate parts in where they belong.

Final steps
Once a lock is fully assembled, the worker checks it with the key to make sure it works. It may pass to a quality control station at this point, and then be dusted or polished. Workers package the completed locks and box them for shipment
Quality Control

The most important aspect of quality control in lock manufacturing is ensuring that the tiny machined parts are the exact sizes specified. For a new custom order, the machinists usually produce trial samples of the parts, and each one of these may be inspected and measured manually, using precise gauges. If all seems to be going well, the machinists will run the rest of the order, and then perhaps one of every 500 or 1,000 parts is checked.


Founded: Founders: Type: Headquarters: Industry: Products: Area served: Revenue: Operating income: Profit: Employees:

May 28, 1937 Ferdinand Porsche, Adolf Hitler Public Company Wolfsburg, Germany Automotive Cars, Trucks Worldwide 113.8 billion (2008) 6.61 billion (2008) 4.68 billion (2008) 369,928(2008)

Vehicle brand companies AudiBentley motors ltd. Bugatti automobile Subsidiaries: LamborghiniSeatSkoda autoScaniaVolkswagen passenger car Volkswagen commercials vehicles

FOR VEHICLE TIME LINE TABLES, SEE: VOLKSWAGEN (TIMELINE), 193745: People's Car project becomes Kbelwagen

Model of Porsche Type 12 (Zndapp), Museum of Industrial Culture, Nuremberg Volkswagen was originally founded in 1937 by the Nazi trade union, the German Labour Front (Deutsche Arbeitsfront) In the early 1930s German auto industry was still largely composed of luxury models, and the average German rarely could afford anything more than a motorcycle. As a result only one German out of 50 owned a car. Seeking a potential new market, some car makers began independent "peoples' car" projects Mercedes' 170H, Adler's AutoBahn, Steyr 55, Hanomag 1,3L, among others. (Volkswagen")Also, in Czechoslovakia, the Hans Ledwinka's penned Tatra T77, a very popular car amongst the German elite, was becoming smaller and more affordable at each revision. Ferdinand Porsche, a well known designer for high end vehicles and race cars, had been trying for years to get a manufacturer interested in a small car suitable for a family. He felt the small cars at the time were just stripped down big cars. Instead he built a car he called the trend was not new, as Bla Barnyi is credited with having conceived the basic design in the middle 1920s. Josef Ganz developed the Standard Superior (going as far as advertising it as the "German the "Volksauto" from the ground up in 1931, using many of the ideas floating around at the time and several of his own, putting together a car with an air-cooled rear engine, torsion bar suspension, and a "beetle" shape, the front hood rounded for better aerodynamics (necessary as it had a small engine)

In 1933, with many of the above projects still in development or early stages of production, Adolf Hitler got involved, demanding the production of a basic vehicle capable of transporting two adults and three children at 100 km/h (62 mph). He wanted his German citizens to have the same access to a car as the Americans. The "People's Car" would be available to citizens of the Third Reich through a savings scheme at 990 Reichsmark (US$396 in 1930s dollars)about the price of a small motorcycle (the average income being around 32RM a week). Despite heavy lobbying in favour of one of the existing projects, it soon became apparent that private industry could not turn out a car for only 990RM. Thus, Hitler chose to sponsor an all-new, state-owned factory using Ferdinand Porsche's design (with some of Hitler's design constraints, including an air-cooled engine so nothing could freeze). The intention was that ordinary Germans would buy the car by means of a savings scheme ("Fnf Mark die Woche musst du sparen, willst du im eigenen Wagen fahren" "Five marks a week you must put aside, if you want in your own car to ride"), which around 336,000 people eventually paid into. The savings of these 336,000 people were seized by the Russians in 1945 when they captured Berlin. Prototypes of the car called the "KdF-Wagen" (German: Kraft durch Freude "strength through joy"), appeared from 1936 onwards (the first cars had been produced in Stuttgart). The car already had its distinctive round shape and aircooled, flat-four, rear-mounted engine. The VW car was just one of many KdF programs which included things such as tours and outings. The prefix Volks ("People's") was not just applied to cars, but also to other products in Germany; the "Volksempfnger" radio receiver for instance. On 28 May 1937, the Gesellschaft zur Vorbereitung des Deutschen Volkswagens mbH (sometimes abbreviated to Gezuvor was established by the Deutsche Arbeitsfront. It was later renamed "Volkswagenwerk GmbH" on 16 September 1938.


The automobile industry has changed the way people live and work. The earliest of modern carswas manufactured in the year 1895. Shortly the first appearance of the car followed in India. Asthe century turned, three cars were imported in Mumbai (India). Within decade there were totalof 1025 cars in the city.The dawn of automobile actually goes back to 4000 years when the first wheel was used for transportation in India. In the beginning of 15th century, Portuguese arrived in China and theinteraction of the t wo cultures led to a variety of new technologies, including the creation of awheel that turned under its own power. By 1600s small steam-powered engine models wasdeveloped, but it took another century be fore a full-sized engine-powered vehicle was created.Brothers Charles and Frank Duryea introduced the actual horseless carriage in the year 1893. Itwas the first internal-combustion motor car of America, and it was followed by Henry Fords first experimental car that same year.One of the highest-rated early luxury automobiles was the 1909 Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost thatfeatured a quiet 6-cylinder engine, leather interior, folding windscreens and hood,and an aluminum body. Chauffeurs usually drove it and emphasis was on comfort and stylerather than speed. During the 1920s, the cars exhibited design refinements such as balloontires, pressed-steel wheels, and four-wheel brakes. Graham Paige DC Phaeton of 1929 featuredan 8-cylinder engine and an aluminum body.The 1937 Pontiac De Luxe sedan had roomy interior and rear-hinged back door that suited moreto the needs of families. In 1930s, vehicles were less boxy and more streamlined than their predecessor was.The 1940s saw features like automatic transmission, sealed-beam headlights, and tubeless tires. The year 1957 brought powerful high-performance cars such as Mercedes-Benz 300SL. It was built on compact and stylized lines, and was capable of 230 kmph (144 mph).This was theI n d i a n a u t o mo b i l e h i s t o r y, a n d t o d a y mo d e r n c a r s a r e g e n e r a l l y l i g h t , aerodynamically shaped, and compact.

Facts & Figures

The automobile industry in India is on an investment overdrive. Be it passenger car or two-wheeler manufacturers, commercial vehicle makers or three-wheeler companies - everyone appears to be in a scramble to hike production capacities. The country is expected to witness over Rs 30,000crore of investment by 2010.Hyundai will also be unmasking the Verna and a brand new diesel car. General Motors will belaunching a mini and may be a compact car.Most of the companies has made their intentions clear. Maruti Udyog has set up the second car plant with a manufacturing capacity of 2.5lakh units per annum for an investment of Rs 6,500Crore (Rs 3,200 Crore for diesel engines and Rs 2,718 Crore for the car plant itself).Hyundai and Tata Motors have announced plans for investing a similar amount over the next 3years. Hyundai will bring in more than Rs 3,800 Crore to India.Tata Motors will be investing R s 2,000 Crore in its small car project. General Motors will be investing Rs 100 Crore, Ford about Rs 350 Crore and Toyota announced modest expansion plans even as Honda Siel has earmarked Rs 3,000Crore over the next decade for India - a sizeable chunk of this should come by 2010 since the company is also looking to enter the lucrative small car segment..Talking about the commercial vehicle segment, Ashok Leyland and Tata Motors have eachannounced well over Rs 1,000 Crore of investment. Mahi ndra & Mahindras joint venturewi t h I n t e r n a t i o n a l Tr u c k s i s expected to see an infusion of at least R s 500 Crore. I n d u s t r y performance in 2008-09The Indian automotive market managed to stand up to the vagaries of the economic meltdown to show slightly growth during fiscal 2008-09. Overall vehicle sales at 97.23lakh grew 0.71 per cent from 96.54lakh units in 2007-08.When major automotive markets reported a 30-40 per cent decline, only a handful of countries ma n a g e d t o s h o w g r o wt h . A f e w mo n t h s a g o , I n d i a wa s l o o ki n g a t n e g a t i v e g r o wt h b u t h a s turned around. It is actually better than expected. P a s s e n g e r v e h i c l e s a l e s a t 1 5 .5 1 l a k h r e g i s t e r e d f l a t g r o wt h wh i l e c o m me r c i a l v e h i c l e s a l e s showed a 21 per cent drop. SIAM Has a positive outlook for the current financial year. While it foresees a 7-8 per centgrowth for the commercial vehicle segment, the industry body predicts a 3-5 per cent growth for passenger vehicles The passenger vehicle market has weathered the downturn largely due to market leader MarutiSuzuki which holds 48 per cent of the market. The compact

car giant clocked 7.22lakh units for 2008-09. Closest rival Hyundai Motor India sold 2.44lakh cars, a growth of 13 percent. Most premium carmakers saw volumes shrink last fiscal. Toyota Kirloskar Motors numbers fell1 5 p e r c e n t t o 4 6 ,8 9 2 u n i t s wh i l e F o r d I n d i a s s a l e s we r e d o wn 1 7 p e r c e n t t o 2 7 ,9 7 6 u n i t s . Honda Siel Cars India also saw a 17 per cent drop at 52,420 units while General Motors India was down 8 per cent to 61,526 units.Among commercial vehicle makers, all major players saw substantial fall in volumes. Market leader Tata Motors with a 60 per cent plus share, showed 22 per cent drop in numbers at 2.34lakh units while Ashok Leyland showed 37 per cent drop at 47,632.Eithers sales volume fell 37 per cent at 17,341 units and Force Motors was down 28 per cent at7,819 units. The freig ht movement is unlikely to improve this fiscal which will impact truck sales.

VW Type 82E

Erwin Komenda, the longstanding Auto Union chief designer, part of Ferdinand Porsche's hand-picked team developed the car body of the prototype, which was recognizably the Beetle known today. It was one of the first to be evolved with the aid of a wind tunnel, in use in Germany since the early 1920s. The cars were put through many rigorous tests, and achieved a record-breaking million miles of testing before being deemed finished. The building of the new factory started 26 May 1938 in the new town of KdFStadt, now called Wolfsburg, which had been purpose-built for the factory workers. This factory had only produced a handful of cars by the time war started in 1939. None were actually delivered to any holder of the completed saving stamp

books, though one Type 1 Cabriolet was presented to Hitler on 20 April 1938 (his 49th birthday). War meant production changed to military vehicles, the Type 82 Kbelwagen ("Bucket car") utility vehicle (VW's most common wartime model), and the amphibious Schwimmwagen which were used to equip the German forces. As was common with much of the production in Nazi Germany during the war, slave labor was utilized in the Volkswagen plant. The company would admit in 1998 that it used 15,000 slaves during the war effort. German historians estimated that 80% of Volkswagen's wartime workforce was slave labor. Many of the slaves were reported to have been supplied from the concentration camps upon request from plant managers. A lawsuit was filed in 1998 by survivors for restitution for the forced labor. Volkswagen would set up a voluntary restitution fund.

Volkswagen factory with its own power station

1945-1948: British Army, Major Ivan Hirst, unclear future The company owes its post-war existence largely to one man, British Army officer Major Ivan Hirst, REME. In April 1945, KdF-Stadt, and its heavily bombed factory were captured by the Americans, and subsequently handed over to the British, within whose occupation zone the town and factory fell. The factories were placed under the control of Oldham-born Hirst. At first, the plan was to use it for military vehicle maintenance, and possibly dismantled and shipped to Britain.

Since it had been used for military production, and had been in Hirst's words a "political animal" rather than a commercial enterprisetechnically making it liable for destruction under the terms of the Potsdam Agreementthe equipment was in time intended to be salvaged as war reparations. (Allied dismantling policy changed in late 1946 to mid 1947, although heavy industry continued to be dismantled until 1951.) Hirst painted one of the factory's cars green and demonstrated it to British Army headquarters. Short of light transport, in September 1945 the British Army was persuaded to place a vital order for 20,000. The first few hundred cars went to personnel from the occupying forces, and to the German Post Office.

Some British Service personnel were allowed to take their VW Beetles back to the United Kingdom when they were demobilised, and one of the very first Beetles brought back in that way (UK registration number JLT 420) is still owned by Peter Colborne-Baber, the son of the original proprietor of the UK's first official Volkswagen Importer, Colborne Garages of Ripley, Surrey. In the Industrial plans for Germany, the rules for which industry Germany was to be allowed to retain in the post-war period were set out. German car production was set at a maximum of 10% of the 1936 car production numbers. By 1946 the factory was producing 1,000 cars a month, a remarkable feat considering it was still in disrepair. Owing to roof and window damage, rain stopped production and new vehicles were bartered for steel required for more production. The car and its town changed their Second World War-era names to "Volkswagen" and "Wolfsburg" respectively, and production was increasing. It was still unclear what was to become of the factory. It was offered to representatives from the American, Australian, British, and French motor industries. Famously, all rejected it. After an inspection of the plant, Sir William Rootes, head of the British Rootes Group, told Hirst the project would fail within two years, and that the car "is quite unattractive to the average motorcar buyer, is too ugly and too noisy If you think you're going to build cars in this place, you're a bloody fool, young man. The official report said "To build the car commercially would be a completely

uneconomic enterprise".In an ironic twist of fate, Volkswagen would manufacture a locally built version of Rootes's Hillman Avenger in Argentina in the 1980s, long after Rootes had gone bankrupt at the hands of Chrysler in 1978the Beetle outliving the Avenger by over 30 years. Ford representatives were equally critical. In March 1948, the British offered the Volkswagen company to Ford, for free. Henry Ford II, the son of Edsel Ford, traveled to West Germany for discussions. Heinz Nordhoff was also present, and Ernest Breech, chairman of the board for Ford Motor Company. Henry Ford II looked to Ernest Breech for his opinion, and Breech said "Mr. Ford, I don't think what we're being offered here is worth a damn!"[5] Ford passed on the offer, leaving Volkswagen to rebuild itself under Nordhoff's leadership. In France, Citron started the 2CV on a similar marketing concept. Meanwhile, in Italy, the Fiat 500 "Topolino" was developed.

1948 onwards: Icon for West German regeneration

1949 Volkswagen "split rear window" Sedan

Cabriolet (Volkswagen 1953) Volkswagen Type 2 (T1)

An original 1300 Deluxe, circa 1966. From 1948, Volkswagen became a very important element, symbolically and economically, of West German regeneration. Heinrich Nordhoff (18991968), a former senior manager at Opel who had overseen civilian and military vehicle production in the 1930s and 1940s, was recruited to run the factory in 1948. In 1949 Major Hirst left association with the company, as it had now been re-formed as a trust, controlled by the West German government, and the government of the State of Lower Saxony. Apart from the introduction of the Volkswagen Type 2 commercial vehicle (van, pick-up and camper), and the VW Karmann Ghia sports car, Nordhoff pursued the one-model policy until shortly before his death in 1968. Volkswagens were first exhibited and sold in the United States in 1949, but sold only two units in America that first year. On its entry to the U.S. market, the VW was briefly sold as a "Victory Wagon". Volkswagen of America was formed in April 1955 to standardise sales and service in the United States. Production of the Type 1 Volkswagen Beetle increased dramatically over the years, e total reaching one million in 1955. Volkswagens in Canada Canadian Motors Limited brought in their first cars on 10 July 1952. (shipping order 143075) The order consisted of 12 vehicles, (3) model 11C, a black, green, and sandcolothr (3) 11GS, a chestnut brown and two azure blue, (2) 24A-M51 in red, (1)21A in blue, (1) 23A in blue, (1) 22A beige

color, and one Ambulance. Volkswagen Products were seen in Canada for the first time at the Canadian National Exhibition in August 1952 and were accepted enthusiastically. (at least one bus from this order still exists, currently in France undergoing restoration) The first shipment of cars for Volkswagen Canada reached Toronto in early December 1952. (At least one beetle from this first shipment still exists, travelled across Canada by VW Canada on their 60th Anniversary in 2012) By 1955 sales were on a basis that warranted the building of the fine Volkswagen plant on a 32-acre (130,000 m2) site on Scarboro's Golden Mile. To this, a 60,000square-foot (5,600 m2) building with administration, showrooms, service, repairs and parts, an addition of 60,000-square-foot (5,600 m2) was built in 1957, with storage for $4,000,000 of parts. (See 1959 Canadian Register of Commerce & Industry held in the Western Libraries at the University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario.) Sales soaredthanks in part to the famous advertising campaigns by New York advertising agency Doyle, Dane Bernbach. Led by art director Helmut Krone, and copywriters Julian Koenig and Bob Levinson, Volkswagen advertisements became as popular as the car, using crisp layouts and witty copy to lure the younger, sophisticated consumers with whom the car became associated. Even though it was almost universally known as the Beetle (or the Bug), it was never officially labelled as such by the manufacturer, instead referred to as the Type 1. The first reference to the name Beetle occurred in U.S. advertising in 1968, but not until 1998 and the Golf-based New Beetle would the name be adopted by Volkswagen Although the car was becoming outdated, during the 1960s and early 1970s, American exports, innovative advertising, and a growing reputation for reliability helped production figures surpass the levels of the previous record holder, the Ford Model T. On 17 February 1972 the 15,007,034th Beetle was sold. Volkswagen could now claim the world production record for the most-produced, single make of car in history. By 1973, total production was over 16 million. To commemorate its passing the Ford Model T's record sales mark and its victories in the Baja 1000 Mexican races from 1967 to 1971, Volkswagen produced its first limited-edition Beetle. It was marketed as the "Baja Champion SE"[15] in the United States and the "Marathon" Superbeetle in the rest of the world. It featured unique "Marathon Blau" metallic blue paint, steel-pressed 10-spoke 15-inch (38 cm) magnesium-alloy wheels, a commemorative metal plate mounted on the glovebox and a certificate of authenticity presented to the original purchaser..

196173: Product line expansio

An original and unmodified 1963 VW Type 3 Notchback.

VW expanded its product line in 1961 with the introduction of four Type 3 models (Karmann Ghia, Notchback, Squareback) based on the new Type 3 mechanical underpinnings, and again in 1969 with the larger Type 4 (411 and 412) models. These differed substantially from previous vehicles, with the notable introduction of monocoque/unibody construction, the option of a fully automatic transmission, electronic fuel injection, and a sturdier powerplant. Volkswagen added a "Super Beetle" (the Type 113) to its lineup in 1971. The Type 113 differed from the standard Beetle in its use of a MacPherson strut front suspension instead of the usual torsion bars. Also the nose of the car was stretched 2 inches (51 mm) to allow the spare tire to lie flat, and the combination of these two features significantly increased the usable front luggage space. Despite the Super Beetle's (marketed outside North America as the VW 1302, later 1303) popularity with Volkswagen customers, purists preferred the standard Beetle with its less pronounced nose and its original torsion bar suspension. In 1973, Volkswagen introduced the military-themed Type 181, or "Trekker" in Europe, "Thing" in America, recalling the wartime Type 82. The military version was produced for the NATO-era German Army during the Cold War years of 1970 to 1979. The US Thing version only sold for two years, 1973 and 1974, thanks at least in part to Ralph Nader's automobile safety campaigns.

1974: From Beetle to Golf

Volkswagen Passat (19731977 model)

Volkswagen was in serious trouble by 1973. The Type 3 and Type 4 models had sold in much smaller numbers than the Beetle and the NSU-based K70 also failed to woo buyers. Beetle sales had started to decline rapidly in European and North American markets. The company knew that Beetle production had to end one day, but the conundrum of replacing it had been a never-ending nightmare. VW's ownership of Audi / Auto Union proved to be the key to the solution with its expertise in front-wheel drive, and water-cooled engines which Volkswagen so desperately needed to produce a credible Beetle successor. Audi influences paved the way for this new generation of Volkswagens, known as the Passat, Scirocco, Golf and Polo. First in the series was the Volkswagen Passat (Dasher in the U.S.), introduced in 1973, a fastback version of the Audi 80, using many identical body and mechanical parts. Estate/wagon versions were available in many markets. In Europe, the estate/wagon version dominated in market share for many years. In spring 1974, the Scirocco followed. The coupe was designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro. Based on the platform of the not yet released Golf, it was built at Karmann due to capacity constraints at Volkswagen. The pivotal model emerged as the Volkswagen Golf in 1974, marketed in the United States and Canada as the Rabbit for the 1st generation (19751985) and 5th generation (20062009). Its angular styling was designed by the Italian Giorgetto Giugiaro). Its design followed trends for small family cars set by the 1959 Mini the Golf had a transversely mounted, water-cooled engine in the front, driving the

front wheels, and had a hatchback, a format that has dominated the market segment ever since. Beetle production at Wolfsburg ended upon the Golf's introduction. It continued in smaller numbers at other German factories (Hanover and Emden) until 1978, but mainstream production shifted to Brazil and Mexico. In 1975, the Volkswagen Polo followed. It was a re-badged Audi 50, which was soon discontinued in 1978. The Polo became the base of the Volkswagen Derby, which was introduced 1977. The Derby was for all intents and purposes a threebox design of the Polo. After a second model generation, the Derby was discontinued in 1985, although the bodystyle lived on in the form of the polo classic/polo saloon until 1991.

199199: Moving upmarket

The 2000 Volkswagen Golf GL, in North American form In 1991, Volkswagen launched the third-generation Golf, which was European Car of the Year for 1992. The Golf Mk3 and Jetta arrived in North America just before the start of 1994 model year, first appearing in southern California in the late spring of 1993. The sedan version of the Golf was badged Vento in Europe, but remained Jetta in the U.S. The late 1990s saw a gradual change in perception of the company's products with Audi having elevated itself into the same leagueas BMW and Mercedes-Benz, Volkswagen moved upmarket to fill the void left by Audi; with SEAT and the further addition of the Czech car maker koda being acquired in the late 1990s, now occupying what was once VW's core market.

This move upmarket was continued with the Golf Mk4, introduced at the end of 1997 (and in North America in 1999), its chassis spawned a host of other cars within the Volkswagen Groupthe Volkswagen Bora (the sedan called Jetta in the U.S.), New Beetle, SEAT Toledo, SEAT Len, Audi A3, Audi TT, and koda Octavia. The other main models have been the Polo, a smaller car than the Golf, and the larger Passat for the segment above the Golf. The Scirocco and the later Corrado were both Golf-based coups.

The Volkswagen New Beetle

1994, Volkswagen unveiled the J Mays-designed Concept One, a "retro"-themed concept car with In a resemblance to the original Beetle, based on the platform of the Polo. Due to a positive response to the concept, a production version was developed as the New Beetle, based on the Golf's larger platform. Volkswagen's fortunes in North America improved once the third-generation Golf and Jetta models became available there. Marketing efforts included Trek bicycles with accompanying bicycle racks on the 1996 Jetta sedan. The introductions of the New Beetle and the fifth-generation Passat were a major boost to the brand. In the UK, Volkswagen's market share grew throughout the 1990s. In 1990, the Golf was Britain's 12th most popular car with nearly 50,000 units sold The Mk3 Polo achieved similar success in the mid 1990s, but in 1999 the Mk4 Golf was Volkswagen's first ever entrant in Britain's top 10 list of most popular new cars. In the late 1990s Volkswagen, under CEO Ferdinand Pich, acquired the three luxury brands Lamborghini (through Audi), Bentley/Rolls-Royce, and Bugatti.

Audi's plans for Lamborghini included a small supercar later to be named the Gallardo, and a new halo vehicle, the Murcilago, and later the Reventon limited edition halo car. In late 2008, a 4-door saloon for the Lamborghini brand was shown in the form of the Lamborghini Estoque concept. Shortly after its takeover in 1998, Volkswagen was forced to relinquish control of the Rolls-Royce brand after a conflict of interest with BMW who supplied the British company with engines. A compromise was reached where the Volkswagen Group would retain R-R's sister brand Bentley and the Crewe factory, while BMW re-established a new Rolls-Royce motor company. Volkswagen Tiguan

Volkswagen long resisted adding a utility vehicle to its lineup, but it finally relented with the introduction of the Touareg in the early 2000s, sharing major components with the Porsche Cayenne and Audi Q7 sport utility vehicles. Though acclaimed as a fine handling vehicle, the Touareg has been a modest seller at best. Some automotive analysts blame the Touareg's absence of a third-row seat, the relatively poor fuel economy, and the high vehicle mass. VW plans to add a compact SUV with styling influences from its "Concept A" concept vehicle. On 20 July 2006, VW announced that the new vehicle would be called the Tiguan. Since the discontinuance of the T4 in 2003 and decision not to bring the T5 to the US market, it was ironic that Volkswagen lacked a van in its North American lineup considering that VW was a major player in the development of the class with its original Transporter. The firm did however launch a rebadged DaimlerChrysler named the Volkswagen Routan for the U.S. and Canadian markets in 2008. Owing to technical difficulty adapting the Polo to meet North American vehicle regulations, VW presented in 2006 the "Iroc" as a concept of the proposed 2009 Scirocco as a potential new small model.

In September 2006, Volkswagen began offering the City Golf and City Jetta only for the Canadian market. Both models were originally the Mk4 Golf and Jetta but were later replaced with the Brazilian versions of the Golf Mk4 and Bora. Volkswagen's introduction of such models is seen as a test of the market for a subcompact and, if successful, may be the beginnings of a thriving subcompact market for Volkswagen.

Volkswagen Passat NMS The VW 1L will be available in 2010, in limited numbers.The 1L is a lightweight two-person vehicle made out of a magnesium frame covered by an unpainted carbon-fiber skin. Every component of the vehicle is intended to reduce the vehicle's weight. Aluminum brakes, carbon-fiber wheels, titanium hubs, and ceramic bearings all contribute to the vehicle's light weight of a mere 290 kg.To reduce the weight even further, and to increase the aerodynamics of the vehicle, there are no rearview mirrors. Instead, the car is equipped with cameras that display visual information to the driver through the internal LCD screen. The car is extremely fuel-efficient, each gallon of fuel will take you over 235 miles (378 km). The fuel tank holds just 1.7 gallons, making the entire travel distance capability about 400 miles (640 km) per tank. Its top speed is 120 km/h (75 mph), which although not very fast is a welcome tradeoff for the huge savings in fuel consumption.

In 9 December 2009, Volkswagen AG and Suzuki reached a common understanding to establish a close long-term strategic partnership. Volkswagen will purchase 19.9% of Suzukis issued shares.

In May 2011 Volkswagen inaugurated the Volkswagen Chattanooga Assembly Plant in Tennessee. The plant will produce cars specifically designed for North America beginning with the Volkswagen Passat NMS. Production is scheduled to begin in early 2011 and is expected to end more than five years of losses in the world's largest auto market. The Volkswagen Passat NMS, the North American and Chinese version of the Passat, won the 2012 Motor Trend Car of the Year. The Volkswagen Golf won the 2013 European Car of the Year.

Group Strategy 2018
Our Strategy 2018 focuses on positioning the Volkswagen Group as a global economic and environmental leader among automobile manufacturers. We have defined four goals that are intended to make Volkswagen the most successful and fascinating automaker in the world by 2018:

Volkswagen intends to deploy intelligent innovations and technologies to become a world leader in customer satisfaction and quality. The goal is to increase unit sales to more than 10 million vehicles a year; in particular, Volkswagen intends to capture an above-average share of the development of the major growth markets. Volkswagen intends to increase its return on sales before tax to at least 8% so as to ensure that the Groups solid financial position and ability to act are guaranteed even in difficult market periods. Volkswagen aims to become the top employer across all brands, companies and regions; this is necessary in order to build a first-class team.

We are focusing in particular on the environmentally friendly orientation and profitability of our vehicle projects so that the Volkswagen Group has the right products for success even in more challenging economic conditions. At the same time, this will mean that capital expenditure remains at manageable levels. Our attractive and environmentally friendly range of vehicles, which we are steadily and judiciously expanding, and the excellent position enjoyed by our individual brands in the markets worldwide, are key factors allowing us to leverage the Groups strengths and to systematically increase our competitive advantages. Our activities are primarily oriented on setting new ecological standards in the areas of vehicles, powertrains and lightweight construction. Our modular toolkit system, which we are enhancing on an ongoing basis, allows us to constantly improve production efficiency and flexibility, thus increasing the Groups profitability. In addition, we want to expand the Volkswagen Groups customer base by acquiring new, satisfied customers around the world. In addition, we aim to increase satisfaction among our existing customers. We shall continue the measures we are currently taking to improve our productivity and quality regardless of the economic situation and without any time limit. Key elements include standardizing processes in both the direct and indirect areas of the Group and reducing throughput times in production. Together with disciplined cost and investment management, these efforts play a major role in ensuring that we reach our long-term profitability targets and safeguard solid long-term liquidity.

European Car of the Year

Volkswagen has produced three winners of the European Car of the Year competition: 1992 - Volkswagen Golf 2010 - Volkswagen Polo 2013 - Volkswagen Golf
Shortlisted models

Several models have been shortlisted, including the:

1971 - Volkswagen K70

1975 - Volkswagen Golf 1982 - Volkswagen Polo 1984 - Volkswagen Golf 1989 - Volkswagen Passat 1995 - Volkswagen Polo 1997 - Volkswagen Passat 1998 - Volkswagen Golf 2004 - Volkswagen Golf 2006 - Volkswagen Passat 2009 - Volkswagen Golf 2012 - Volkswagen up!

Volkswagen has become a large international corporation from where it started and expanded to different worldwide markets and countries. The world headquarters of Volkswagen are located in its home country in Wolfsburg, Germany. Volkswagen AG, owned by the Volkswagen Group, is situated with other car manufacturers including Audi, SEAT, Lamborghini, Bentley, Bugatti, Scania, and Skoda. Volkswagen is currently Europe's largest automaker. For a long time, Volkswagen has had a market share over 20 percent. In 2010, Volkswagen, posted record sales of 6.29 million vehicles, with its global market share at 11.4%. Volkswagen's core markets include Germany and China. After overtaking Ford in 2008, Volkswagen became the third largest automaker in the world. As of 2012, Volkswagen is the second largest manufacturer worldwide behind GM. Volkswagen has aimed to double its US market share from 2% to 4% for the year 2014, and is aiming to become, sustainably, the world's largest car maker by 2018.

Worldwide presence
Volkswagen has factories in many parts of the world, manufacturing or assembling vehicles for local markets. Volkswagen has manufacturing or assembly plants in Germany, Mexico, Slovakia, China, India, Indonesia, Russia, Brazil, Argentina, Portugal, Spain, Poland, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and South Africa. Volkswagen also has a new plant in Chattanooga, Tennessee, United States. In 2011, Volkswagen was named in the top 25 largest companies in the world by the Forbes Global 2000. Volkswagen is setting up a new factory in West Java, Indonesia, which will be ready with production in mid-2013,. The investment is valued to $140 million into the new plant. The production will include transporters and multivans.

Worklife balance
Volkswagen agreed in December 2011 to implement a rule passed by the company's works council aimed at improving worklife balance by restricting company email functionality on the firm's BlackBerry smartphones from 6:30 pm to 7:30 am. The change was a response to employees' complaints about high stress levels at work and the expectation that employees would immediately answer after-

hours email from home. About 1,150 of Volkswagen's more than 190,000 employees are affected by the email restriction.

Relationship with Porsche, and the Volkswagen Law

Volkswagen has always had a close relationship with Porsche, the Zuffenhausenbased sports car manufacturer founded in 1931 by Ferdinand Porsche, the original Volkswagen designer and Volkswagen company founder. The first Porsche car, the Porsche 64 of 1938, used many components from the Volkswagen Beetle. The 1948 Porsche 356 continued using many Volkswagen components, including a tuned engine, gearbox and suspension. The two companies continued their collaboration in 1969 to make the VW-Porsche 914 and 914-6, whereby the 914-6 had a 6-cylinder Porsche engine, and the standard 914 had a 4-cylinder Volkswagen engine, and in 1976 with the Porsche 912E (USA only), and the Porsche 924, which used many Audi components and was built at an Audi Neckarsulm factory. Most 944s also were built there, although they used far fewer VW components. The Porsche Cayenne, introduced in 2002, shares its entire chassis with VW Touareg and Audi Q7, which are built at the Volkswagen factory in Bratislava. In September 2005, Porsche announced it would increase its 5% stake in Volkswagen to 20% at a cost of 3 billion, with the intention that the combined stakes of Porsche and the government of Lower Saxony would ensure that any hostile takeover by foreign investors would be impossible.[40] Speculated suitors included DaimlerChrysler, BMW, and Renault. In July 2006, Porsche increased their ownership again to 25.1%. On 4 March 2005, the European Commission brought an action against the Federal Republic of Germany before the European Court of Justice, claiming that the Volkswagen Law, which prevents any shareholder in Volkswagen from executing more than 20% of the total voting rights in the firm, was illegally restricting the flow of capital in Europe. On 13 February 2007, Advocate General Dmaso RuizJarabo Colomer submitted his opinion to the court, in which he supported the action. This again opened the possibility of a hostile takeover of VW and so on 26 March of the same year Porsche took its holding of Volkswagen shares to 30.9%. Porsche formally announced in a press statement that it did not intend to take over

Volkswagen, but intended the move to avoid a competitor taking a large stake and to stop hedge funds from dismantling VW. As expected, on 22 October 2007, the European Court of Justice ruled in agreement with Ruiz-Jarabo and the law was struck down. On 26 October 2008, Porsche finally revealed its plan to assume control of VW. As of that day, it held 42.6% of Volkswagen's ordinary shares and stock options on another 31.5%. Combined with the state of Lower Saxony's 20.1% stake, this left only 5.8% of shares on the market most of which were held by index funds who could not legally sell.[46] Hedge funds desperate to cover their short positions forced Volkswagen stock above one thousand euros per share, briefly making it the world's largest company by market capitalisation on 28 October 2008. By January 2009, Porsche had a 50.76% holding in Volkswagen AG, although the "Volkswagen Law" prevented it from taking control of the company. On 6 May 2009, the two companies decided to join together, in a merger. On 13 August, Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft's Supervisory Board signed the agreement to create an integrated automotive group with Porsche led by Volkswagen. The initial decision was for Volkswagen to take a 42.0% stake in Porsche AG by the end of 2009, and it would also see the family shareholders selling the automobile trading business of Porsche Holding Salzburg to Volkswagen. In October 2009 however, Volkswagen announced that its percentage in Porsche would be 49.9% for a cost of 3.9 billion (the 42.0% deal would have cost 3.3 billion). On 1 March 2011, Volkswagen has finalized the purchase of Porsche Holding Salzburg (PHS) a lucrative automobile distributor, for 3.3 billion ($4.55 billion)

MUSEUM: Since 1985, Volkswagen AG has run the Volkswagen AutoMuseum in Wolfsburg, a museum dedicated specifically to the history of Volkswagen. In addition to visiting exhibits in person, owners of vintage Volkswagens anywhere in the world may order what the museum refers to as a "Birth Certificate" for a set fee of 50this formal "Zertifikat" indicates basic information known at the time of manufacture (colors, options, port of destination, etc.).

Achievements of Volkswagen
In 1980, Volkswagen competed in the Paris-Dakar Rally with the Audi-developed Iltis, placing1st, 2nd, 4th and 9th overall. Volkswagen enlists Dakar Champion Jutta Kleinschmidt, the first female to win the Dakar in 2001, to help design and compete a Dakar Racer. In 2003, V W r e p l a c e d t h e A D A C Vo l k s w a ge n Lu p o C u p wi t h t h e n e wl y r e l e a s e d P o l o , t o become the ADAC Volkswagen Polo Cup. In 2004, Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles enter the European Truck Racing series with theVolkswagen Titan series truck - it became back-to-back champions for the 2004 and 2005 series. In 2003, he Hannover based team starts with a 2WD buggy named Tarek. It places 6th outright but took 1st in the 2WD and Diesel class .In 2004, VW enters the newly developed Race-Touareg T2, finishing 6th overall and 2nd in the Diesel class .In 2005, an updated RaceTouareg with slightly more power is entered, with driver Bruno Saby, finishing in 3rd overall and 1st in the Diesel class! In 200, Volkswagen released the most powerful Race-Touareg yet: the Race-Touareg 2. Fivevehicles enter, with driver Giniel de Villers finishing in 2nd place overall, and 1st in the Dieselclass. In 2009, Volkswagen won the 2009 Dakar Rally held in Argentina. VW's Touareg race modelsfinished 1st and 2ndWinner of numerous international awards and accoladesworldwide.2008February 20, 2008 - Volkswagen Tiguan is voted SUV of the year by "OFF ROAD" magazine ereaders January 29, 2008 Volkswagen receives award for increasing shareholder value January 29, 2008 Value champions 2008: Volkswagen Tiguan and Golf Estate January 24, 2008 Golf GTI is one of 10 Best Cars of 2008 January 18, 2008 - What Car? Award 2008: Double for Volkswagen January 17, 2008 - Prize for TSI and DSG: Yellow Angel 2008 Award for Volkswagens latest High-End .

Technologies2007 May 16, 2007 - Volkswagen models voted Company Cars of the Year April 20, 2007 - Volkswagen wins 10 gold at Fleet Awards 2007 March 27, 2007 - Multiple awards for Volkswagen advertising March 26, 2007 "Innovation of reason" 2007: Award for high temperature fuel cell from Volkswagen January 4, 2007 - Volkswagen unveiled the cleanest ever TDI engine.2006 September 12, 2006 - Volkswagen Ranks First in J.D. Power Environmental Study September 12, 2006 - Aerodynamic package makes Volkswagen Passat an eye-catcher - June 20, 2006 - Volkswagen receives environmental award from Federation of German Industries - March 2, 2006 Auto1 Award- The Passat is Europes Number One - January 20, 2006 - Passat Awarded Renowned What Car Trophy as Best Family Car January 19, 2006 The Passat is Germany's Favourite Car 2006-ADAC readers award Volkswagen the 'Gelber Engel' prize 2005 and 2004 May 23, 2005 - The Passat - receives five star rating - top result in the Euro NCAP crash test April 8, 2005 - The Golf - more than 25 awards worldwide March 23, 2005 - Volkswagen Phaeton moving ahead February 16, 2005 - The new Passat launched with four different engines January 30, 2004 - The Volkswagen Touareg an outstanding off-road vehicle International experts award prizes to the Volkswagen SUV -

Factory and Production Production that protects

our world
We make protection of our environment an integral part of our whole process from product planning and development to the recovery of end-of-life vehicles. So when we develop a new car we not only look at the whole life of the vehicle, but also at improving its final recovery. All the engineers involved in our development process use internal guidelines and in-depth information to help them create cars that are as recyclable as possible. In addition to avoiding the use of hazardous substances, we are also increasingly using recycled materials. We label the materials of all applicable vehicle components to help identification and subsequent recycling.

And when we've done all that we check the environmentally friendly properties of our new car in a recycling analysis. The details are given to recycling companies to ensure environmentally friendly recycling at the end of a vehicle's life .

India has emerged as one of the world's largest manufacturers of small cars. According to New York Times, India's strong engineering base and expertise in the manufacturing of low-cost, fuel-efficient cars has resulted in the expansion of manufacturing facilities of several automobile companies like Hyundai Motors, Nissan, Toyota, Volkswagen and Suzuki. In 2008, Hyundai Motors alone exported 240,000 cars made in India. Nissan Motors plans to export 250,000vehicles manufactured in its India plant by2011. Similarly, General Motors announced its plans to export about 50,000 cars manufactured in India by 2011. In September 2009, Ford Motors announced its plans to setup a plant in India with an annual capacity of 250,000cars for US$500 million. The cars will be manufactured both for the Indian market and for export. The company said that the plant was a part of its plan to make India the hub for its global production business. Fiat also announced that it would source more than US$1 billion worth auto components from India

Current Existing Dealers in India

Ludhiana - Prestige Motors, Lally Motors India Private Limited. Ahmadabad - Volkswagen Ahmadabad Auto mark Motors Pvt. Ltd. Bangalore - Elite Motors Pvt. Ltd Bangalore - Volkswagen Palace Cross. Chandigarh - Genuss Motors, Swami Automotives Pvt. Ltd. Cochin - Volkswagen Cochin Motors & Vehicles India Pvt. Ltd. Chennai - Volkswagen Chennai ABRA Motors Private Limited. Coimbatore - Volkswagen Coimbatore Ramani Cars Private Limited. Delhi - DD Auto world Private Limited. Delhi - Kashyap Vehicle Works Private Limited. Delhi West - Volkswagen Delhi West World class Automobiles Pvt. Ltd. Goa - Volkswagen Goa Caculo Automotive Pvt. Ltd. Hyderabad - Orion Motors. Jaipur - Volkswagen Jaipur Tanya Cars Pvt. Ltd. Kolkata - Volkswagen Kolkata OSL Exclusive Pvt. Ltd. Mumbai - Volkswagen Downtown Mumbai. Pune - Volkswagen Pune Vidyut Motors Pvt. Ltd.

1.Research methodology C.R. Kothari. WEBSITES: