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CHAPTER 2 ATOMS, MOLECULES, AND IONS

2.7 First, convert 1 cm to picometers. 1 cm × 0.01 m 1 pm × = 1 × 1010 pm 1 cm 1 × 10−12 m 1 He atom 1 × 10 pm
2

? He atoms = (1 × 1010 pm) ×

= 1 × 108 He atoms

2.8

Note that you are given information to set up the unit factor relating meters and miles. ratom = 104 rnucleus = 104 × 10 cm × 1m 1 mi × = 0.62 mi 100 cm 1609 m

2.11

For iron, the atomic number Z is 26. Therefore the mass number A is: A = 26 + 28 = 54

2.12

Strategy: The 239 in Pu-239 is the mass number. The mass number (A) is the total number of neutrons and protons present in the nucleus of an atom of an element. You can look up the atomic number (number of protons) on the periodic table. Solution: mass number = number of protons + number of neutrons number of neutrons = mass number − number of protons = 239 − 94 = 145

2.13

Isotope No. Protons No. Neutrons Isotope No. Protons No. Neutrons No. Electrons (a)
23 11 Na

3 2 He

4 2 He

24 12 Mg

25 12 Mg

48 22Ti

79 35 Br

195 78 Pt

2 1
15 7N

2 2
33 16 S

12 12
63 29 Cu

12 13
84 38 Sr

22 26
130 56 Ba

35 44
186 74W

78 117
202 80 Hg

2.14

7 8 7 (b)
64 28 Ni

16 17 16

29 34 29

38 46 38

56 74 56

74 112 74

80 122 80

2.15 2.16

The accepted way to denote the atomic number and mass number of an element X is as follows:

where,

A ZX
A = mass number

MOLECULES.19 CHAPTER 2: ATOMS. AND IONS Z = atomic number .

53 g/cm3) Au (19. CO. You can find this on a periodic table. S8.23 The following data were measured at 20 °C. (a) (b) (c) (d) Li (0. CO2. This is a polyatomic molecule that is a compound. AND IONS 20 (a) 2. This is a diatomic molecule that is a compound. It is not a compound.) (a) (b) Metallic character increases as you progress down a group of the periodic table. (a) (d) H2 and F2 (b) H2O and C12H22O11 (sucrose) Na+ 11 10 Ca2+ 20 18 HCl and CO (c) S8 and P4 2. Metallic character decreases from the left side of the table (where the metals are located) to the right side of the table (where the nonmetals are located). NO. The number of electrons in an ion is equal to the number of protons minus the charge on the ion.CHAPTER 2: ATOMS. moving down Group 4A. they should have similar chemical properties. For example. MOLECULES.32 There are more than two correct answers for each part of the problem. N2. SO2 2. they should have similar chemical properties.29 2.30 2. they should have similar chemical properties. (Tellerium is a metalloid whose name ends in ium. (a) (b) (c) (a) (b) (c) This is a polyatomic molecule that is an elemental form of the substance. This is a diatomic molecule that is a compound. H2 NH3. electrons Al3+ 13 10 Fe2+ 26 24 I− 53 54 F− 9 10 S2− 16 18 O2− 8 10 N3− 7 10 2.24 F and Cl are Group 7A elements. P and N are both Group 5A elements.21 186 74W (b) 201 80 Hg Helium and Selenium are nonmetals whose name ends with ium. the nonmetal carbon is at the top and the metal lead is at the bottom of the group.22 2. protons No.98 g/cm3) Hg (13. It is not a compound.4 g/cm3) H2O (0.3 g/cm3) Os (22.6 g/cm3) Te (6.86 g/cm3) Pt (21.24 g/cm3) K (0.34 The atomic number (Z) is the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of an element.33 Ion No. number of electrons (ion) = number of protons − charge on the ion .31 Elements: Compounds: 2. 2. This is a polyatomic molecule that is a compound. Na and K are both Group 1A elements.6 g/cm3) 2. This is a polyatomic molecule that is the elemental form of the substance.

Nonmetal-nonmetal compounds are usually molecular. the simplest whole number ratio of the atoms in Na 2S2O4 is NaSO2. Keep in mind that if a metal can form cations of different charges.42 (a) CN (b) K+ 19 18 CH Mg2+ 12 10 (c) Fe3+ 26 23 C9H20 Br− 35 36 (d) Mn2+ 25 23 P2O5 C4− 6 10 (e) Cu2+ 29 27 BH3 Strategy: An empirical formula tells us which elements are present and the simplest whole-number ratio of their atoms. CsCl. Roman numerals are used to specify the charge of the cation. CCl4. the simplest whole number ratio of the atoms in Al 2Br6 is AlBr3. In the Stock system. the molecular formula and the empirical formula are the same. contains the simplest whole number ratio of the atoms present.46 Compounds of metals with nonmetals are usually ionic. the molecular formula and the empirical formula are the same. 2. C2H4 2. In this case.41 2. The molecular formula as written. Can you divide the subscripts in the formula by some factor to end up with smaller wholenumber subscripts? Solution: (a) (b) (c) (d) Dividing both subscripts by 2. the alkaline earth metals ( +2). our reference for the names of cations and anions is Table 2. Ionic: Molecular: NaBr. The molecular formula as written. .48 Strategy: When naming ionic compounds. we need to use the Stock system. Ag+. protons No. B2H6. MOLECULES. Cd2+. and Al3+.21 CHAPTER 2: ATOMS. Dividing all subscripts by 2. In this case. Nonmetal-nonmetal compounds are usually molecular. AND IONS Ion No. CH4. contains the simplest whole number ratio of the atoms present. N2O5. BaCl2.44 2. electrons 2.43 2. K2Cr2O7. The metals that have only one charge in ionic compounds are the alkali metals ( +1). Compounds of metals with nonmetals are usually ionic. KCl SiCl4.45 The molecular formula of glycine is C2H5NO2.47 (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) sodium chromate potassium hydrogen phosphate hydrogen bromide (molecular compound) hydrobromic acid lithium carbonate potassium dichromate ammonium nitrite 2. The molecular formula of ethanol is C2H6O.3 of the text. Ionic: Molecular: LiF. NF3 (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) phosphorus trifluoride phosphorus pentafluoride tetraphosphorus hexoxide cadmium iodide strontium sulfate aluminum hydroxide 2. Zn2+. ICl. BaF2.

the alkaline earth metals (+2).49 (a) (f) RbNO2 BCl3 (b) (g) K2S IF7 (c) (h) HBrO4 (NH4)2SO4 (d) (i) Mg3(PO4)2 AgClO4 (e) (j) CaHPO4 Fe2(CrO4)3 2. The correct name is potassium hypochlorite. then no subscripts are necessary. because the charge is known. the Ti ion has a +4 charge. Compare this to sodium oxide in part (l). the name is based on the nonmetal. and Al3+. AND IONS 22 When naming acids. Since each of the four chloride ions has a −1 charge (total of −4). If the charges of the cation and anion are numerically equal. potassium permanganate (e) cesium chlorate (f) hypoiodous acid This is an ionic compound in which the metal can form more than one cation. Cd2+. Since the oxide ion has a −2 charge. For oxoacids. ClO2− silver carbonate This is an ionic compound in which the metal can form more than one cation. iron(III) oxide This is an ionic compound in which the metal can form more than one cation. The correct name is titanium(IV) chloride. Since each chloride ion has a −1 charge.7 of the text.50 Strategy: When writing formulas of molecular compounds. The correct name is sodium peroxide. the name is based on the polyatomic anion. Ag+. Hypochlorite is a polyatomic ion with one less O atom than the chlorite ion. Solution: (a) This is an ionic compound in which the metal cation (K +) has only one charge. the Fe ion has a +2 charge.3 of the text). The correct name is iron(II) oxide. the prefixes specify the number of each type of atom in the compound. The correct name is iron(II) chloride . When writing formulas of oxoacids. The O22− ion is called the peroxide ion. You can determine that each oxygen only has a −1 charge. see Section 2. no subscripts are necessary in the formula. you must know the names and formulas of polyatomic anions (see Table 2. For more detail. the subscript of the cation is numerically equal to the charge of the anion. Use a Roman numeral to specify the charge of the Fe ion. These metals are the alkali metals ( +1). the Fe ion has a +2 charge. Keep in mind that Roman numerals specify the charge of the cation. . Cyanide has a −1 charge. not the number of metal atoms. the charges are numerically equal. Solution: (a) The Roman numeral I tells you that the Cu cation has a +1 charge. binary acids are named differently than oxoacids. Remember that a Roman numeral is not needed for some metal cations. Since. sodium hydride (k) lithium nitride (l) sodium oxide (b) (c) (d) (g) (h) (i) (j) (m) This is an ionic compound in which the metal cation (Na +) has only one charge. For binary acids. The correct formula is CuCN. 2. Zn2+. When writing formulas of ionic compounds. and the subscript of the anion is numerically equal to the charge on the cation. Charges of common cations and anions are listed in Table 2. because each of the two Na ions has a +1 charge.3 of the text. MOLECULES.CHAPTER 2: ATOMS. Each oxygen has a −1 charge. Use a Roman numeral to specify the charge of the Ti ion. Use a Roman numeral to specify the charge of the Fe ion.

the charges are numerically equal. The correct formula is PbCO3. Since. has a −1 charge. so the charge of the cation is +2. The law of multiple proportions requires that the masses of sulfur combining with phosphorus must be in the ratios of small whole numbers. (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) 2.51 The number of protons = 65 − 35 = 30. it doesn’t form molecules. Na is an alkali metal. The Greek prefixes tell you the number of each type of atom in the molecule.52 Changing the electrical charge of an atom usually has a major effect on its chemical properties. The two electrically neutral carbon isotopes should have nearly identical chemical properties.53 11 5B G: 19 9F 2. AND IONS (b) (c) (d) (e) Strontium is an alkaline earth metal. has a −3 charge. Since. has a +1 charge and the polyatomic ion phosphate. Oxide has a -2 charge. The correct formula is HI(aq). You need two iodide ion to balance the +2 charge of Hg22+. The Roman numeral II tells you that the Pb cation has a +2 charge. Species with more protons than electrons will have a positive charge. Species with more electrons than protons will have a negative charge. Iodide has a −1 charge. The element that contains 30 protons is zinc. B. NaCl is an ionic compound. four phosphorus atoms combine with three. 2. The polyatomic ion chlorite. the charges are numerically equal. the subscript of the cation is numerically equal to the charge on the anion. Hydroiodic tells you that the anion of this binary acid is iodide. has a −2 charge. It only forms a +1 cation. seven. To balance the charge. and ten sulfur atoms. and the subscript of the anion is numerically equal to the charge on the cation. Remember that (aq) means that the substance is dissolved in water. The correct formula is Na2(NH4)PO4. ClO 4−. Perchloric tells you that the anion of this oxoacid is perchlorate. Zn. .55 Yes. the subscript of the cation is numerically equal to the charge on the anion. CO32−. The correct formula is P4S10. C. no subscripts are necessary in the formula. A. There are two fewer electrons than protons. E. Since the charges on the cation and anion are numerically different. ClO 2−. G. D. This is a molecular compound.23 CHAPTER 2: ATOMS. NH4+. If the atom ratios are in small whole number ratios. It only forms a +2 cation. The symbol for this cation is Zn2+. MOLECULES. The polyatomic ion carbonate. (a) (b) (c) (d) (a) (b) Species with the same number of protons and electrons will be neutral. respectively. The polyatomic ion ammonium. F. The correct formula is SnF2. The correct formula is HClO4(aq). I −. this cation exists as Hg22+. The Roman numeral I tells you that the Hg cation has a +1 charge. The Roman numeral II tells you that the Hg cation has a +2 charge. Since the charges on the cation and anion are numerically different. The correct formula is Sr(ClO 2)2. However.54 2. The correct formula is Hg2I2. 2. you need 2 Na+ cations. The correct formula is HgO. For the three compounds shown. and the subscript of the anion is numerically equal to the charge on the cation. no subscripts are necessary in the formula. PO43−. Fluoride has a −1 charge. that is (c). 3− + 2+ 81 − A: 10 B : 14 C: 39 D: 66 E: 35 F: Br 5B 7N 19 K 30 Zn Does this refer to hydrogen atoms or hydrogen molecules? One can’t be sure. then the mass ratios must also be in small whole number ratios. The Roman numeral II tells you that the Sn cation has a +2 charge.

solid carbon dioxide NaCl. HBr. chloric acid. perchloric acid. is an example of a binary Group 6A acid while HCN. sulfuric acid (Group 6A). sodium chloride N2O. it is unnecessary to specify the charge of magnesium with a roman numeral. nitric acid and H3PO4.CHAPTER 2: ATOMS. HClO2. hydrobromic acid. Making a table: Nonmetals Halogens Oxygen Nitrogen 1A Metals MX M2O M3N 2A Metals YX2 YO Y3N2 Aluminum AlX3 Al2O3 AlN 2.61 Group 1A metals form M+ ions. contains both a Group 4A and 5A element. carbonic acid (Group 4A). hydrochloric acid.58 (e) (f) (g) (h) CaO. and aluminum) and nonmetallic elements. hydroiodic acid. HClO3. hydrocyanic acid. chlorous acid: HClO. 2A. Hydrosulfuric acid. and the halogens form X− ions. calcium hydroxide NaHCO3. Aluminum forms an Al 3+ ion. nitrous oxide CaCO3. In general the transition metals. the actinides and lanthanides have variable charges. AND IONS 24 2. sodium bicarbonate Mg(OH)2. HCl. boric acid (Group 3A). Oxygen forms an O2− ion (oxide). HNO3. H2CO3.63 . Group 2A metals form Y2+ ions. hydrofluoric acid. calcium oxide Ca(OH)2. Can other isotopes of sodium have different atomic numbers? The binary Group 7A element acids are: HF. 2. magnesium hydroxide 196 79 Au 222 86 Rn 2. The mass number plus the chemical symbol identifies a specific isotope of Na (sodium) while combining the atomic number with the chemical symbol tells you nothing new.57 Since alkaline earth metals always have a +2 charge in their compounds. Oxoacids containing Group 7A elements (using the specific examples for chlorine) are: HClO4. calcium carbonate 11 5B 54 2+ 26 Fe 31 3− 15 P 2. and H2SO4. Examples of oxoacids containing other Group A-block elements are: H3BO3.60 Ionic compounds are typically formed between metallic (especially Groups 1A.59 Symbol Protons Neutrons Electrons Net Charge (a) (b) 5 6 5 0 26 28 24 +2 15 16 18 −3 79 117 79 0 86 136 86 0 2. (a) (b) (c) (d) CO2 (s). MOLECULES.62 The symbol 23Na provides more information than 11Na. HI. 2. H2S. phosphoric acid (Group 5A). hypochlorous acid. Nitrogen forms an N3− ion (nitride).56 The species and their identification are as follows: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) SO2 S8 Cs N2O5 O O2 molecule and compound element and molecule element molecule and compound element element and molecule (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) O3 CH4 KBr S P4 LiF element and molecule molecule and compound compound element element and molecule compound 2.

AND IONS 2. They do not have a strong tendency to form compounds. and Au are fairly chemically unreactive. oxygen difluoride (c) (f) Na2S.73 Cation Mg2+ Sr2+ Fe 3+ 2+ Anion HCO3− Cl− NO2− ClO3 Br I − − Formula Mg(HCO 3)2 SrCl2 Fe(NO2)3 Mn(ClO 3)2 SnBr4 Co3(PO4)2 Hg2I2 Cu2CO3 Li3N Al2S3 Name Magnesium bicarbonate Strontium chloride Iron(III) nitrite Manganese(II) chlorate Tin(IV) bromide Cobalt(II) phosphate Mercury(I) iodide Copper(I) carbonate Lithium nitride Aluminum sulfide Mn Sn Co 4+ 2+ Hg22+ Cu+ Li+ Al3+ 2. Helium. P and N are both Group 5A elements. and argon are chemically inert. aluminum fluoride (b) (e) B2O3.65 Mercury (Hg) and bromine (Br2) F and Cl are Group 7A elements. This does not violate the law of definite proportions.67 2. Rn Cu. (a) (d) NaH. scientists did not know of the existence of isotopes. neon. All isotopes of radium are radioactive.74 (a) Br PO43− − CO32− N3− S2− (b) Rn (c) Se (d) Rb (e) Pb . sodium sulfide SrCl2.68 2. Cl2. You should expect the charge of the metal to be the same (+2). Na and K are both Group 1A elements. they should have similar chemical properties. they should have similar chemical properties. It is a radioactive decay product of uranium-238. strontium chloride 2. Radium itself does not occur naturally on Earth. This makes them specially suitable for making coins and jewelry.66 2.72 2. diboron trioxide OF2. Ne. Ag. He. Xe.71 2. N2. that you want to last a very long time.70 2. F2. sodium hydride AlF3.69 2. MOLECULES. they should have similar chemical properties. O2. The mass of fluorine reacting with hydrogen and deuterium would be the same. Magnesium and strontium are also alkaline earth metals.25 CHAPTER 2: ATOMS. H2. When the law of definite proportions was formulated. MgO and SrO.64 2. Kr. The ratio of F atom to hydrogen (or deuterium) is 1:1 in both compounds. Ar.

04 × 10−13 cm)3 = 1.86 × 10−8 cm)3 = 2.70 × 10−23 cm3 The above results do support Rutherford's model.75 (a) Rutherford’s experiment is described in detail in Section 2.18 × 10−37 cm3 3 3 (b) The density of the nucleus can now be calculated. d = m 1.2 of the text.0020 × 10−26 g 1 electron The volume occupied by the electrons will be the difference between the volume of the atom and the volume of the nucleus. The mass of 11 electrons is: 11 electrons × 9. and the volume occupied by these electrons.CHAPTER 2: ATOMS.71 × 10−4 g/cm 3 V 2. Rutherford estimated the number of protons (based on electrostatic interactions) in the nucleus.82 × 10−23 g = = 3.18 × 10 cm To calculate the density of the space occupied by the electrons. Assuming that the nucleus is spherical. the volume occupied by the nucleus is insignificant compared to the space occupied by the electrons.70 × 10−23 cm3 As you can see. . MOLECULES. it is clear that most of the atom is empty space. Comparing the density of the nucleus with the density of the space occupied by the electrons also supports Rutherford's model.1095 × 10−28 g = 1.18 × 10−37 cm3) = 2. From the average magnitude of scattering. d = m 3. The density of the space occupied by the electrons can now be calculated.70 × 10−23 cm3 3 3 Velectrons = Vatom − Vnucleus = (2. we need both the mass of 11 electrons. Comparing the space occupied by the electrons to the volume of the nucleus. The volume of the atom is calculated as follows: 186 pm × 1 × 10−12 m 1 cm × = 1.24 × 1014 g/cm 3 −37 3 V 1. the volume of the nucleus is: V = 4 3 4 πr = π(3. Rutherford also proposed that the nucleus was a dense central core with most of the mass of the atom concentrated in it.0020 × 10−26 g = = 3.86 × 10−8 cm 1 pm 1 × 10−2 m Vatom = 4 3 4 πr = π(1.70 × 10−23 cm3) − (1. AND IONS 26 2. The volume of the nucleus was calculated above.