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31 2010 , 4

, ,


:
5
MVHC-nn XyyAr an cyryyAnn 0rnn
cx an 1cnxnmnn arm, XyyAr an pov1o
.Bascaxan


13
OXV-wn ConryyAnn cx an nnc1n1y1wn
mnnxccn, xyyAr an pov1o
Kacnncvn EAapncAan EsnacAanonnn

29
XBYX-nn 0rnn cx a, vnmnnoAornn
cov1own cpcm mnnxnArccnn axnA1an,
pov1oan1 I.OmynoAp


36
IoAom1 anvnw xyyAr an aonAox, marnc1
H.Onomaa


42
HHIEI-wn Tor1ooA rc1rcx raawn
HA1nw cyraA1, xmxAnn xcA1cnn para,
xomyyn, pov1oan1 H.OnrccA






52
XyyAr an npccnn xccAcnrnn cypaAraanw 1aAan
,



72
VHX-wn 1amrwn raawn axnA1an,
xyyAr an pov1o, noqocco Y.Ba1xan


78
VAcwn oonxn novyown 1ycAax,
McpccAcA pn mnnxnArcc, cypaAraanw 1onnn
aaxnaA I.Ianaonr

81
HncAcAnn novyown raawn HA cpAAcx
axnAAaraanp xsnaA1 1annx xcA1cnn para,
xyyAr aaawn n1rcmxn1 aonAox H.Monxa1
A 84
Ynpccn xyyAnn cnn oqoon1, marnc1
.OnoornA

,

89
OXV-wn HH-nw VpnpAarwn avapomnn
ap+mnv1, arpaarnn pcp xyanpaa B.Opaa1a
95
Harpaarnn avapomnn Hrcnn cx an
1cnxnmnn arm, marnc1, arpaarnn pccAcrn
O.O1ron1ysa


102
XyyAr an npccnn xccAcnrnn Hrcn,
cpnn aacrnn cx an cov1own cpcm
mnnxnArccnn axnA1an, marnc1 P.BoAomaa

110
Marnc1 I.Tomoaa1a
115
Basn-OArn amrnn 0x an 1ycAaAaanw
1onnn omrooAorn T.Koc1o
100 121
123
Vol.31 December 2010 NO.4
CONTENTS
PAGE
Article

A Legal Entity as a Subject of a Criminal Crime:
Some Issues on Comparative Law 5
EayarsaIkIan.D, PI.D, LocIuror o DoarImonI o
CrImInaI Law, ScIooI o Law, NaIIonaI UnIvorsIIy o
MongoIIa
The Participation of Criminal Organizations in
the Election Campaigns 13
KrasInskII VIadIsIav VyacIasIavovIcI, PI.D,
ExorI o RussIan PubIIc InsIIIuIo o
EIocIoraI Law
To Prevent a Repeated Crime 29
OyunboId.O, PI.D candIdaIo, RosoarcIor o
CrImInaI Law and CrImonoIogy SocIor,
NaIIonaI LogaI InsIIIuIo
Legal Regulations on Private Pension Funds 36
Unurmaa.P, LLM, LogaI AdvIsor o
OoIomI Eank
Measures to Secure Safety for Penalty Institutions 42
OcIgoroI.Ts, PI.D candIdaIo,
Hoad OIco o EnorcomonI o CourI DocIsIons
Research Report

To Elaborate a Method on to Separate Disputes
Proceeded by Execution of Obligation
Regulated by Civil Code and Appropriation of
Property by Fraud 52
RosoarcI RoorI by NaIIonaI LogaI InsIIIuIo
Notes

Use of Legal Regulations of Foreign Countries on
Conflict of Interests Constructively 72
EaI]av, PI.D, AssIsIanI o SocroIarIaI o
SIaIo OroaI KIuraI (ParIIamonI) oo MongoIIa
Causes of Conflicts of Interests Stemming from
Social Morality 78
OanzorIg.O, LLM, Hoad o InormaIIon,
AnaIysIs and RosoarcI ConIro,
OonoraI ProsocuIor OIco
Practical Understanding of Prison and Jail 81
MunkIbaI.Ts, ProsocuIor o
MoIrooIIIan ProsocuIors OIco
The Constitutional Court of Austria 84
UnuborgII.Yo, LLM, AssIsIanI o
ConsIIIuIIonaI TsoIs (CourI) o MongoIIa
Issues on Changing the Term Inquiry and
Investigation Division Used in the Law on
Criminal Procedure of Mongolia 89
E.OdbaaIar, SIudonI o IIo Acadomy o ManagomonI,
MInIsIry o InIornaI AaIrs o RussIan FodoraIIon
Around the Family 95
OIgonIuya.O, LLM, LocIuror o DoarImonI o CIvII Law,
PoIIco Acadomy
A Historical Development of Principles of the
Civil Code of Mongolia 102
EoIormaa.O, LLM, RosoarcIor o CIvII and EconomIc
Law SocIor, NaIIonaI LogaI InsIIIuIo
Current Status of Torture in Mongolia and
its Reform 110
TumurbaaIar.O, LLM
Method of Proceedings in Mediation 115
KosIyor.T, AIIornoy o LogaI AId ConIor,
Eayan-UIgII AImag
The 100the Anniversary of the Justice Sector 121
Information 123

5


: *

CAnn op cx an xanAaanp
ooAorn cyrov1nn xcc oroxnn 1cAx,
cr xanyAara nr ocon ncmcrpcxnn
xccc xyyAnn c1rccpnn oAroA1wr
mnncc ann acx maapAara ran ana. Vr
acyypaAp aonxon nrcnn cx an pnccc
xanpax nr ynn py1arpaA1a 1opnr aonxon
mxcp ncxcmxAcrn, xanyarnaa ooAox
napnawr xyyAnn c1rccpnn roAAox maAryy
oAron ann accc nccn nr ooocroA oroop
cypAaanpwn xynrp mmxAcA1c xanpax
ccpcn oAoop araa nAcc.
XyyAnn c1rccpnr xynnn cx an
1opnr nn1nn cx an 1aAaac nr 1c
1ycmaa crnn cx an acnov1aa cypAan
1omrooAox nr onoAwn 1opnr nav1nvnn
an xoAorpoA1o.
Mnnn no cnc xyaAp XyyAnn c1rccp nr rcm1 xcrnn cyrov1
oAox onAor, npccAcAnr xaryyAcan crnn cx an pnccc
1omAon xayyAaxwr ooApox, aanm canaA, opAwr 1a xcn1c
xynaaAax, oonn canaar ncmcAcxnr aorcon mm.
Icm1 xcrnn cyrov1 a XyyAnn c1rccp rcccn xoo oAroA1
xooonpoo caAmr xoAoo1o. rcprnr
rcm1 xcrnn cApcxnn ncr cAomon1 rcxccccc nA crnn
xanyAara xAccx napna xn c1rccp rcx oArox snpaA ayyn
Enon, AHV-p nxcp pcArcccn apar.
l
Icm1 xcrnn cyrov1 nr rcm1 xccr Apccn nr mxcc no1Aorpcon
xn A c1rccpcp 1c 1ycmaa xynr xn nrcn, aAan 1ymaaA1an 1opnr
aryyAAara, 1o, yAcap n xamaaaA1a acyypaA rcprnr xAccn
aonmooox xanpAara n oAcon ana.
2

(Ya1nnw unIvorsIIaIos xam1an aryyAax,
or pcA) rcpcr nc 1omroonw anxnw ranaA nr Pomwn rnn
cx an xccrAccnp Collegia, Sodalicia accr oAroA1 ncn1cn
cxcAccn1c xoAoo1o 1aAaAapar. Oooo xcAcA, nrcnn
rArcc, 1ona monronn xanAaa anxAan n oAx cxAcx op rccc
xcAAnr ran ncrcccc yc, ox, noxoAoA, ar, qonp accr xcAccc
*
:

Simester A.P. Sullivan G.R.Criminal law.Theory and Doctrine. Oxford. Portland 2005. P.275 -282.
2
.. . .,
2002. .84.
-


,
.
[4(31)
6
pamnyyAx, cprcc nr Pomwn xyyAnypap aaacan cx a1 ocnw naap
aaxwn maapAarwr xanrax, xyyAr ocnw xanyAara xAccx aaAmr
noxoAoo xanrarpax axcc.
3
Xcpnnrcc xyyAnn c1rccp nxcnxpcc
nrcnn rArcc nrcnn cx an xanAaanw xamrnn npcnx1c
cyrov1 oroop nrcnn oAon ma1onaAAar xanyAara xAccx c1rccp
rcccn y1raa oron xccrAcrpcx nccn, opoo n cnc nr xcncc oAonn
XIX ayynw cxcn occ crnn cx an xcm xcmxcc oAx 1ycrarpax
oAcon mm.
B anx l6?0 onw 4anwn Opananc, l8l3 onw Bonawn xyyAr
aaawn nnnr accr 1xcn cx cynaAxnp vonoan, omnn oAon
apnA 1oc1c xyyAnn c1rccp rcm1 xccr1 xoAorpcon noxoAp xAccArcx
crnn oAon xa1yy nanp xanyAara xAccArcx npccAcAnr anxAan
pcnmAccn apar.
4
0x raawn cnc1omnn ayynw nnrAcAnn roAAox
onyyp oAox 4an, H1aAn, Ioman, Hnop, Ho1yraAn, BoArrn, Anc1n
accr nxcnx onw anxnw crnn xyyAnypap xyyAnn c1rccpnn
rcm1 xcrnn cyrov1 oAox npccAcAnr rcrcccn ymy cnc 1aAaax
nnc1n1y1 myyp 1ycrarpaar XX ayynw cAn x1cA sncan apar.
TcrncA AnrAn-Amonvnn cnc1omnn onyypap vonoan nr xyyAnn
c1rccp oAoxwn xynrp crnn xanyAara xAccArcx npccAcA,
aanmyyp 1yxan cx an cx cynaAxyypap 1ycraAaa oAcoo nxcc.
5

Hnmcc nr: AnrAnp XIX ayynw pynp occ vonoanp crnn
xanyAara xAccArcx acA canaar xAccn aonmooox oAcon oA AHV-
p xyyAnn c1rccpcp crnn sA onorpyyAax aaAmr npccAcAnr
l909 onw AHV-wn xynrp Ynpccn xyyAnn mxnn mnpnccc xAccn
aonmoon 1omrooAx axcc. Anc1aAnp l92l onp anx yr acyypaA
crnn xyyAr 1or1oomxnp 1ycrarpax apar.
AnrAn-Amonvnn onyypap xyyAnn c1rccp xn vonoayyp nr
nxcnnAcn cvoAornn oAon cpnn aacrnn rcm1 xcrnn cyrov1 oAox
nr oAon1oo oroop crnn xanyAarwr mxnn nav1nvnn on
ypaan xnA xccrAcx nccncc cnc nr oAon yAcwn rccc, xcAcAcc1
x1cA noAooAx, 1ycrarpax ncnnr xax oAno.
6

XyyAnn c1rccp rcm1 xccr Apccn ymy 1np A axnAAaraa
nr myyp xoAorpcon 1oxnoApoAp crnn xanyAarwr xAccArcx,
1cnAcn sA aanmnx oAomxnr xsaraaAax acA canaar l929 onw
Byxaoc1nn OAon VAcwn Konroccnn aonAomxnp 1ycrarpcan nr n.
TnnAcn l946 onw Hrmonornn noocc paxr OAon yAcwn mxnn
anm1 nnrpcp AAnnaa 1o, aacrnn raaa, yAc nr xyyAnn c1rccp
1opnr oAon yAcwn rcm1 xcrnn cyrov1 ax npccAcA, noxoAnr

.. . ., 2000 . 50-52 .
4
.. XVIII-
.. . .24-26.
5
International Encyclopedia of Comparative law. vol.VI. N.Y.987.
6
. .
. ., 2004. .409-4.
2010] 7
1omrooAcon nr xoxmwn 1xcnp mnpncAcx noAoo aAxcc. Enonwn
aonAoAnn l9?9 onw rcm1 xcrnn acyypAaax Tycra xooonw
aonAomxnp aAnnaa xyyAnn c1rccp cvoAornn rcm1 xcrnn cyrov1
oAoxwr onAon pyrpax, crnn sAaac anrnp ax oAoxrr
anxaayyAcan apar.
cc pyrpcan acA canaa, npccAcA HYB-wn l996 onw Kan1
oAcon Icm1 xcrccc yrpnnAcan ccrnAcx 1aAaax vonnon, Enonwn
aonAoAnn 1ycra xooonw 88,l8 1oo1 1or1ooA accr oonr nnnr
anm1ap 1ycrarpax ncnnr 1cmpcrAcx nr a1c. HAanrysa nanocnn
1opnr 1onn yc aryyAAara, Apnc, ax axyn raawn
yyy1a axnAAaraa rcm1 xcrnn ApcA oAx xynncan 1oxnoApoAp
nrcn, aaxnraanw ara xcmxccrcc xsaraaAarpaxr, xnp no1o
xoxnoA ynncan op aonxon vomnann aAan 1ymaaA1nwr crnn
xanyAarap 1a1canaa onron oAoxr oroop 1yxan aryyAAarap
nr sAwr mon apnA onoox oc1o rcccn aryyAra pccx anm1 nnrpcp
1ycraAaa oAxcc.
?

l990-ccp onooc cxAcn ayyn Enonwn onyyp xyyAnn c1rccp
rcm1 xcrnn cyrov1 oAox npccAcA, noxoAnr crnn xyyAr
1or1oomxpoo 1ycran mnncnAcn 1or1oox nxcc. l992 onp a1aAcan
4anwn 0rnn xyyAna 1yc onw 1xcnp anx ypaa 1oooc ycap
xyyAnn c1rccpcp crnn xanyAara xAccArcx oAcon ana.
Hnrcxpcc ncrprcc1, xyyAnn c1rccpnn snyy cx amrnn pnccc
rcm1 xccr Apccn, xoopyraa1, xyyAnn c1rccpnn ypnpAarap
amnr1a apaA oAroxop nnrAcrpccn oA...crnn xanyAara
xAccArcx ...
8
1yxa aaaxcc.
4anwn 0rnn xyyAnn l2l prcc aAnn 2-1 xyyAnn
c1rccpcp xAccArcx crnn xanyAarwr xynr xn, aAan 1ymaaA1anp
onorpyyAax sAaa oAyyAan 1ooox oAoxr rcx aaacnw pcc 1yxan
rcm1 xccr1 rc1rcrn a xam1an ooAornwn rcm1 ApApnr
sAran aaarAax xanyAarwr xam1ap nr xAccArcx oAox 1yxa orAccn
apar.
9
AHV-wn Toxac myx yAcwn 0rnn xyyAnn ? pyraa aAnn 22-
1 Konoan oAon acconan nr oocpoo sma ncrcn panyy amnr1a
apaA oAx anaxwn 1yAp xam1acan voAAorn, aonAoAoooo xcAcAcx
mnpncAcx aamaa xyyAnn c1rccpnn amnr connxAwr nAp acx
1opoxo xyyAr yc A axnAAaraar pcmxccn ,aonAocon, rc1rcccn
acrcc qoAonn (xnp rcm1 xccr) Apccn nr no1AorpnoA crnn sA
onoono
l0
rcx aaaxcc.
HnpoAanpwn 0rnn xyyAnn 5l prcc aAnn 2-1 0rnn
cx an aonnA (rcm1 xccr) raracan xyyAnn c1rccpcp crnn xccr
7
.. . ., ., 200. .72-75.
8
.. . . ., 999 . 78 .
9
. : ., 2002.
0
.. . . 2006.
, ,
[4(31)
8
crcx ymy crnn sA onoox, xyyArp aaacan crnn aAapAarwn
ara xcmxcc anax oAomx nccA11c oroop nnrcxpcc:
XyyAnn c1rccpcp oo1 nr;
XyyAnn c1rccpnn ypnpax aAan 1ymaaA1an ymy cx
xn cyrov1cp;
Xam1acan xanyAarwn accr xcAcccc conron xccrAcx
oAno
ll
rcx aaaxcc.
HcAanp, ann, Honorn accr oonp xcncc xyyAnn c1rccpnn
Apccn rcm1 xccr1 1yxan aryyAAarwn sma ncrcn aAan
1ymaaA1nwr crnn xanyAarap 1a1ax npccAcA axr noxoAp
1cx vomnann, vonoonp oo1 nr crnn sA xAccArcxcc
aoxnyyAcan ax axcc.
XyyAnn c1rccp rcm1 xcrnn cyrov1 ax npccAcA nr ncr 1aAaac,
crnn xyyAna xonrAocon rcm1 xcrnr 1yxan xyyAnn c1rccp
oonn nccc aonyp Apccn nr sma ncrcn aAan 1ymaaA1anp
xanyAara xAccArcx noxoAnr rcrcx apaA n oAcnoo; noroo
1aAaac, rcm1 xcrnn ApcA nr 1yxan aryyAAarap amnr1a, panyy
apaA n oAroxop myyp nnrAcrpccn ymy aanm 1oxnoApoAp aAan
1ymaaA1nw xAccx sA1a panxapaxrrcc xyyAnn c1rccp 1ycpaa
crnn xanyAara xAccx maapAara aaAmr n oAcon acrcc
1aAaAapar.
l2

4anwn nnrAcAnn (P.MoAr, A.En1m) xam1wn xanyAarwn
onoAoo oA xyyAnn c1rccp nr crnn xanyAarwn cyrov1 (rcm1
xcrnn cyrov1) oAoxwr noxoApAx y maA1raan, npccAcA
rcpcr1:
XyyAnn c1rccpcp amnr1a oAonn ycpap xoxnoA, parana
ynyyAcan ax;
XyyAnn c1rccpnn ncnn omnooc xnrpccn ax;
XyyAnn c1rccpnr 1oAooAox voAAorn, aonAoAnn xam1wn
mnpnccc yr ApAnr pcmxccn a canaanAan Apccn ax;
Vpnpax ymy cx xn aAan 1ymaaA1nw rcm1 ApcA1c
panxapaxr ymy 1ycpaa cApcxn1c ax acrnr
xamaayyApar axcc.
l3
XyyAnn c1rccpnn 1ooA oAon sna 1opnr c1a1yc, 1oAooAAnn
oAon xanyAarwn xcAc oo oo apraac xamaan crnn sAwn
1oAp xooonpoo sAraa1a apar. 4anap xyyAnn c1rccpnr
c1a1yc, cx cnccc nr xynnn a nn1nn rcx 2 npccn anrnAaAp ann
apcr a nn1pcc 30 ray 1ooA xcAc1c axap, Amonv1 aonAroo
nr ymy amnr oAox (nanocnn), 1cnAcn amrnn yc (nanocnn yc)

.. . . 2000.
2
Rassat M.L. Droit penal. Paris .987. .8. ...
990. .29-0.

Conte P, Maistre du Cnamdon P. Droit penal general Paris 998. p57.


l.
2.
3.

2010] 9
rcx sAran anrnAx 1yc 1ycap nr nn1pcc 20 maxam 1ooA oAron ann
apcr ana.
XyyAnn c1rccp nr rcm1 xcrnn (crnn xanyAarwn) cyrov1
ax noxoA xnrccp sA onorpyyAax npccAcAnr crnn xyyAnn
1opoxo aaaA1, nnc1n1y1 oAron 1or1oocon 35 oon apraac (npnn
cypaAraaraa) 4an (l992), AHV, 4nnAsnp (l995), AnrAn, BoArrn
(l999), Kanap, Xs1ap (l99?), Ho1yraAn (200?), Hnoa (2003), ann,
HaanA, Hav, HAanp, HcAanp (l998), Anc1aAn, AAxn (2004),
HnpoAanp (l9?6), Honorn (l99l), Ho1Aanp (200l) accr yAcaac rapna
noc1conaAnc1 onyypaac: HoArm (2002), 0c1on (2003), Vnra (200l),
Pymwn (2004), Xona1 (2003), CAononn (l999) accr oon, 1nnAcn
Aqnvnn onyypaac OABHV, 01non, Toro accr onwr cnp 1yxaAan
pyrpax oAno.
cc pyrpcan onyypwn 0rnn xyyAr oAon crnn xyyAr
1or1oomxnp xyyAnn c1rccpnn crnn xanyAarwn nnc1n1y1 myyp
a myyp yc apAaa xyyArnAan 1omrooAorpcon ana.
Hn1Acr xnmrnn 1rccmcA xanpAaraa
l4
ann ancA XyyAnn
c1rccpnn rcm1 xcrnn 1oApcp:
Xmc pcc cApcn 1ymnA1 xnx;
Xnn amr nacanp canaa1a a oAroomxr xaApax;
Xn 1ooAx1nn cccr rcm1 xccr Apcx;
XyyAr ycaa mancyyyyAax opnc 1aaax;
Xn xypaApaaAax, namaaAax, xnn namaanp ayynAax;
Xnn xynnn amrpaAp xaApax;
Komnrm1onn cAxcc, amnrAaA1, amyAr apaAp xaApax;
BaApaaanw AcrAcA aoxnon aryyAax;
Xyyamn monron 1cmpcr1, nc1 aac ApncAcx;
AxAwn aanp xnn amr nacanp amyA1a apaA y
oArox;
XopoAmo, amyAr axnAAaraanw xyam aonnx;
XyyAr ocnw aonmoooAr, raaa1, xyyAr ycaa anAra
anx;
XanAarn aryyAAarwr xyyan mcxAcx aamaa xyyAr ycaa
rccc xcAcA xnx;
Bycpwn oAon nanocnn nyy, nc xnpcp xaApax;
0voAornn 1cncA aAparpyyAax, xccAcn y onnnp no1o
xoxnoA ynyyAax;
McpccAcA, xoAoonw myram cAxccr rcm1ccx, xyyAr ycaa
amnrAax;
Tonn nyywr aapyyAax, npccnn amyAr apaAp
xaApax;
Xncnn amyAr apAwn c1anpa1, noxoAnr aonnx;
Hanar ymy c1anpa1 yc 1ccrpcxn rarax ycpap
xoxnoA ynyyAax rcx mc1.
4
.. . .,2007 .97-04.
, ,
[4(31)
10
XyyAnn c1rccpcp onorpyyAax crnn xanyAarwn xynrp
nxcnxpcc 1orox, cxnr xsaraaAax, A axnAAaraar nr aorcoox accr
sAwr xccrAcpcr ana. 4anwn crnn xyyArp aaacan canvaac
acxcp:
l. Xynr xn, aAan 1ymaaA1anp xAccArcx 1oryyAnac naap aax nr
5 paxnn nA 1oAo 1oryyAnr xyyAnn c1rccpcp onorpyyAax;
2. 5 xnAccc pccm xonx sA mn1rAcxcc (mnnnmym) rcm1
xccr1 xynr xn aAan 1ymaaA1an nm xann 1yxan aryyAAara
xoAorpon sA cpAcx noxoAp yr xyyAnn c1rccpnn A axnAAaraa
snyyAax cxnr aorcoox, xnnnr oArox;
3. 5 xnA x1cA sA mn1rAcxcc aAr1ona1nn rcm1 xcrnr
xyyAnn c1rccp Apccn noxoAp A axnAAaraar nr xsaraaAax,
1opoxo xyraaanp xonrAox;
4. Icm1 xcrnn aamaa oAcon oAoro, cp aAc 1ccrpcxnnr
xyaax rcx mc1. TnnAcn nov, xynraa rarax cxnr xsaraaAax,
xonr 1annx acrcc mxnn xsnaA1ap 5-aac pccmr xnA arpan
xsnax, xsnaA1ap aArax accr sAwn 1oAnr 1or1oocon apar.
4anap rcm1 xcrnn anrnAaA1aac xamaan xyyAnn c1rccpcp
50.000-250 cas x1cA onornn 1oryyAr onorpyyApar a 1oryyAr
1oAx napaxr xyyAnn c1rccpnr aAapan 1a1an yyArapar.
l5
BoArrn, ann, 4an, HcAanp accr aanm oonp xynnn xyyAnn
c1rccpccc rapna nn1nn cx an xyyAnn c1rccp oAon ny1rnn oooo
ypnpax ocnw aryyAAara rcm1 xcrnn cyrov1 oApor nav1nv n.
Xann Hav, Xs1ap, Yn1na, MoApan, Honorn, 0c1onn accr oonp aonxon
xynnn cx an xyyAnn c1rccp 1c 1ycmaa anAxaanw vomnannyp
crnn xanyAara xAccx cyrov1 oAproooo onAor1o.
Hcnann, Hnon, AAann, Anc1n accr oonp xyyAnn c1rccpnn rcm1
xcrnn cyrov1 ax mnnxnr xyyArnAaar (xAccn aonmoooor)
oAonn 1yxan xyyAnn c1rccpnn rcm1 xcrnn paranwr
vomnann ypnpax aAan 1ymaaA1an 1oAooAon xAccx ymy aanm
1oxnoApoAp crnn aAapAarwn (xoonro xyaax, A axnAAaraa
cxAcx aonmooAnr 11rcAacx, xomAyyAax, xamraaAaA1 1or1oox,
n1mxAcx) ara xcmxccr (sA nm) xccrAcpcr ax. XyyAnn c1rccp
rcm1 xcrnn cyrov1 ax ac ncr maAryy onAor nr yr xyyAnn c1rccp
xyyAr ocnw paryy cn aryyAarpcan axwn pcc crnn xyyAr
1or1oomxnp aaacan noxoApnr cn xanracan axap omnno.
Bn Enonwn aanm oon, Ooc, Vvan, BoAoyc, Kaaavc1an
oAon MonroAp xyyAnn c1rccp rcm1 xcrnn cyrov1 ax mnnxnr
rcrcx nccn oroop aonxon nrcnn cx an xccnp, aanm
1oxnoApoAp aaxnraanw cx an xynrp xanyAara xAccx (crnn
yc) snpAwr aoxnyyAan 1or1oox nxcc.
CAnn 20 xnAp noc1conaAnc1 onyypap xyyAnn c1rccpcp
5

,
. .,.2007 . 84 .
2010] 11
xAccArcx aaxnraanw xanyAarwn xcmxccr ncmcrpAcx, aanm
1oxnoApoAp xyyAnn c1rccpcp xAccArcx crnn xanyAarwn
noxoA, oAomxnr cypaAx 1ooon, crnn xyyArpaa ncmcA1,
oonAoA1 oyyAax aamaa cx an oqomwn mnnx1c aonmor
oonAoA1p xnrpcx cxAccp ana. Hnmcc nr, Vnra 200l onp,
Yn1na 2000 onp, HoArm 2002 onp, Pymwn 2004 onp, 0c1onn 200l onp,
CAononn l999 onp 1yc 1yc oonAoA1, mnncnAcA1nr xncncc cprcc
oonp xyyAnn c1rccpnr rcm1 xcrnn cyrov1 rcx 1ooox oAcon a
crnn xanyAara xAccArcx onnn noxoA ncrcn1 pxcc.
Bax accAnn nnrmnn xanAaa cn ncn1cn, 1oAonmoor,
1or1no1o xorxAnn onnn n oAx napaar oonp rcm1 xcrnn
mnnc 1oAp paAp xcAccc omnx, rcm1 xccr Apcrn cyrov1nn
xcc oroxnn, rcm1 aan Ann coor noAooAAnr 1or1oon anx
crnn cx an amnr1a moxannam cApcx amxaar apraac
pcn aAan 1ymaaA1nyyp 1opnr xyyAnn c1rccp sA aanmnx oAomx
n oAcoo apar axcc.
BaraAr onnn (yc , araa, raawn xoc, yramaA) oxnpyyAax,
monro yraax, nnr xyyAr ycaa ocrox, aax accAnn onnnp
myparaa ocoApox oAomxnr xaax, panraa nooxox, mononoAr
1or1oox, xyyAr ycaa Anona oArox, xyyAna aonmoooor noxoAp
xyyAr yc araa anAra anx, raaa cacmmnx, 1a1naaac aaAcxnx,
xyyamn a1aAraa anm1 pAx accA anax, accA 1oAoxooc canaa1a
aaAcxnx, aaAnAan mcxAcx aamaa ycpwr 1ooorpAx rccc xcAcA
xnx, xyyAr yc, xyyamn a1aAraa anm1 rarax orox accr oAon
rcm1 xcrnn cacn xoAorporn nr aAan 1ymaaA1an a xyyAnn c1rccp
xoown pynp cacnrpcx, cx an xnpAnn nora1nn xamaaAaac
oAx sA aanmnx, xanyAaraac myA1ax noxoA nr asnpaa ppcr
ana. ccx apaA noc1conaAnc1 onyyp 1opnr MonroA VAcwn
xynrp n opn1 aA oAcnwr rcrcx arar mm.

l. XyyAnn c1rccpcp crnn xanyAara xAccArcx npccAcA,
noxoAnr crnn xyyArpaa cx an nnc1n1y1 oAron 1omrooAx,
crnn cx an aoxnyyAaA11a oArocon rapaapwn aanm onw
1ymAarwr ca1a rnarn cypAax, cnc 1aAaa 1ocoA xo1oAo
oAoncyyAx, cypaAraanw oAon axAwn xcccr aryyAx axnAAan
pnr 1ooox nr mana onw xynrp nyxaA an xoAorpoA1o rcx
acx ana;
2. Opoo AnnAx y MonroA VAcwn crnn xyyAnr oonAon
mnncnAcx oqomwn xccnp cvoAornn, cpnn aacrnn aanm
1opoxo 1oAnn rcm1 xccr Apccn ymy 1np xoAorpcon
xyyAnn c1rccpcp crnn xanyAara (1orox, A axnAAaraar
aorcoox) xAccArcx npccAcAnr mnncc 1omrooAcon aaaA1wr
, ,
[4(31)
12
crnn xyyArp ncmx oyyAax.;
3) 0voAorn, raaa, canx, 1ocnnn oAon ax axyn cccr rcm1
xcrnn raaA1, nAAcA1 oAon mxcc mnpncAcrpccn apaAp
cAnn 20-25 xnAnn apAaa nx cn 1anpaA1, cypaAraa
xnx, xyyAnn c1rccp1c xoAorpcon aaxnraanw aonAnn
oAon rcm1 xcrnn mnnx1c ApAnn maA1raan noxoA, 1c,
xanpAarwr vnmnnoAorn, crnn cx an 1aAaac nr 1ocAnn
xcmxccnp cypaAx, prncA1, canaA oAoncyyAax;
4) XaryyAcan crnn cx a cypAaAwr pcmxnx, xorxAcx
1aAaa ponn1o ara xcmxcc anax, cnc nnrAcAnn nom, cc1rAnr
xam1an rarax, 1yxan nnrAcAcc cpcm mnnxnArcc, cypaAraanw
axAwr npcnxxAcx nr a1c mm.
XyyAnn c1rccpnn cx an apAwr oAonconry oArox xccnp
xyyAnn c1rccp rcm1 xcrnn cyrov1 oAox aaAmr npccAcA,
noxoAnr cx an 1opoxo aoxnyyAaA11a oArox, aaxnraanw
aonAnn cApcxn xcmxccnccc xc1cccn aanm rcm1 ApAnr
rcm1 xccr1 1ooox oAox noxoAnr opn1oroo cypaAx, crnn
cx an nnrAcAnn aonmor, mnpnc1c oonAoA1 xnx maapAara
npnn omno 1yAran ana.
13



- ,

OXV-wn cpnn aacar paxr 1onn aoxnyyAax cr mcpcrpcx
cyAax ma1anp snarpcan cpnn aacrnn xanAaanw xorxnA, aax accAnn
xanAaar aoxnyyAax maapAara1a cx an aoxnyyAaA1r noxoA
apaA, xyyAr yc ara, xccrccA amnrAax aamaa 1onn omnnr oron
xccrcc xynrnnAx cxcAccn accr nnrcm, cpnn aacar, yAc 1onn
A snyyp aoxnon aryyAaA11a Acr, rcm1 AcrAcApnn (BBIB)
1oAooAAnr cpnn aacrnn xanAaanp oAnoo 1a1an ooAyyAax,
Acmx nx xcmxccnn ax axyn A axnAAaraanp rcm1 AcrAcApnn
xsnaA1 aaxmaa 1or1oxop xccn.
l

Amnr, oAoroo 1or1moA ocrox, xAcx rcccn rcm1 AcrAcApnn
canaa, aonAro, cmcAacA, oocwn yAc 1onn noxoA apAaac myyp
xamaaaA1a aAan ocnw a paAp cpnn aacrnn A axnAAaraa, rcm1
xccr1npnn xynnn amyAr apaA, amnr connxoAoo xanrax
rcccn xccA, cmcAacA accr nr crnn o1onnn noAoo xn
xmc (1oAroAornnp)-nr oocpnn a cyyr, cx mcpAcc xyyAr
ocnw oArox, cxxAcx, pccp 1nmnnp yAc 1onn mnpnc raraxap
npcnx1c ooAox canaa aonArwr n oArocon.
cc pypcan rcm1 canaa, aonAro, amnr connxoAoo xccrxAcx
1aa1a aam cynar nr OXV-p snarppar conryyAnn vomnann1 axnAp
BBIB oronoo ooAox snpaA mm.
BBIB conryyAnn vomnannp axnAp ooAoxpoo 1onn cx
mcpcA, aacarAaAwr ra1aa anax, yAmaa 1onn oAon oon ny1rnn
conryyAr1 aryyAAaryypwn arccc rcm1 AcrAcAnn xyyAr yc amnr
connxoAp 1or1moA AnAcx noxoA pAcx aAcwn aonAro aryyApar
onAor1o.
Vr aonAropoo xcxnn 1yAp aoxnon aryyAaA11a Acr, rcm1
AcrAcA nr xcp xcpcn xc1nn aonA1yypwr mnpncAcx maapAara1a
apar.
BBIB conryyAnn vamnann1 axnAp ooAox xc1nn aonA1yyp nr:
a. yAc 1onn;
. cpnn aacrnn rcccn xoo 1ooA1c.

, ,
, ,
. , ,
() .
[4(31)
14
BBIB-nn 1oAoonn xmcnr 1onn cx mcpAnn oAon oon
ny1rnn aryyAAarap conrox1o xoAorpyyAan BBIB yAc 1onn
aonA1yypap paaaxwr xamaayyAaA aoxnno
2
:
ny1rnn aaxnraanw aryyAAarwn conryyAr1 aAan 1ymaaAwr
BBIB amnr, connxoAp nnAcn amnrAax aonAroo 1cprccnn
aAan 1ymaaAwn cx mcpAnr oAx anax;
xoAoonw oAon c ny1rnn 1onn cx mcpAnn
aryyAAaryypwn 1cp BBIB-nn amnr connxoAp nnccn cx
an xcm xcmxccnn av1 a1AyyAax, yAc 1o, aaxnraanw oAon
ycap aAan ocnw mnpnc raryyAaxap nnrAcrpccn Aon xnpcr
naAamon1wn oAon c ny1rnn 1onn pccp aryyAAarap 1ycAax
Acr aryyAax;
conryyAr1 aAan 1ymaaA1nyyp oAon naAamon1wn rnmnn
xaApamr paxan cx sma oAx anax.
BBIB-wn 1oAooAoA oAcon xmcnr 1onn cx mcpAnn oAon oon
ny1rnn aryyAAarap conrorpox1o xoAorpyyAan BBIB-nn cpnn
aacrnn xc1nn aonA1yypap paaaxr aonA1yypwr xamaayyAna:
1xn cp, A xopAox xoonro, aaa, AnnArccnn aax accAnr
BBIB amnr connxoAp nnAcn xyyAr ycaa xynaax;
amnr, oAor nx1c 1ocon pAcrn 1onn omnn1 Apncnn
raaa, c1a1ornn an xoAorpoA1o cpnn aacrnn caAa (anAra,
1Am cnnm xn, yyA yyxan oAoAox ax Apnc, anv, accA
canxrnn aryyAAaryyp)-1 xsnaA1aa 1or1oox;
xyyAr ycaa ncmcA1 xonroAoA1, noAooAoA1 cpAcx (cvcno1-
nmno1wn rArcc, 1a1na, cx, Anona, aonmooAnn A
axnAAaraa, vno1);
xyyAr ycaa accA ann BBIB-wn amnr, connxoAp nnAcn
1ocnnn xoonrnr aayyAax.
BBIB conryyAnn vamnann1 axnAp ooAox or aonA1wr 1onn
cx mcpAnn 1oAoo conryyAnn noxoAp 1cmcA snyyAx y crnn
rcm1 xccr1npnn conrocon ara, xccrcAcc 1opoxoAno.
BBIB-nn rnmp conryyArp cA1rcx, xccrxAcx snap yAc
1onn 1cmcAp xAccn aonmooorpcon, xyyAr ocnw aryypaac rapna
paaaxr onomo aryypwr amnrAapar:
yAc 1onn nam, 1cprccnn c ny1rnn caAa, raaa, xcA1cnn
ypnpAara, conryyAnn xooonw para, rnmp, mrn, xyyAr
caxnyAax aryyAAaryypwn axnA1nyyp, cc1rAnpnr xaxyyArpax
(aAan 1ymaaA1an ymy aoxnon aryyAaA11a rcm1 Arnn
2

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,
.
- ,
, .
- .

2010] 15
connxox y o+ov1yypwr xaxyyArpaxap nn1 rcm1 xccr Apcx
oAcon oAorwn 3,2-wraayyAparoAoxnrnav1nvaacxaarpax
ana. OXV-wn XoAoonw XyAwn Tonn ymwn oAon 1onn
cxmcpAnnxyyAr1or1ooxaryyAAaryypwnrnmpnr (pony1a1)
xynr 1cnAcx ymy nonononaAr 1or1oAooroo conrox arwr
ncn1Ax amrpaAp xccrxAccn n noxoA apAwr aanmwn
xynrp or1 oonnAx napaar. Vrp omno nr BBIB-wn rnmp
oocpnnxsnaA1wr1or1ooconny1arpcncrc1ymyncrmanpa11a,
oAon manpa11a 1yxan 1orooc ccxA yAc 1onn namyypwn
xarcaaA1ap raracan cyypAaac conrorpox acan oA opoo yAc
1onn A sn paxr namwn xccA xaxyyAnn caAcx a cyyr,
cr Acmx nx xcmxccrcc occon);
conrornpwr xaxyyArpax;
namwn axnA1nyyp, conryyAnn xooonw rnmp, cc1rAn,
mrnpcp cApcn paam1 maxaA1 aAcx;
ncnn, napnaAar aAan 1ymaaA1an, xyyAr caxnyAax
aryyAAaryypwn axnA1nyypwr (xcrnn) xoAorpoAp oyyAan
(vomnomo1ans) paam1Aax, cxmccApcc oyyAax;
conrornpwr nc pcnmnrnnn 1ccnnn xccrcAcc conryyAnn
xccrnn xooonw ayypap aAapan xrcx canaA orAcx;
cp xoonro yc1rax (a cyy, 1ccnnn xccrccA , nrcpnr
xAccn anax a oAon nc pcnmnrnpnn conryyAnn m1a);
yAc 1onn ocoApornnp oAoop 1cprccnn rc Ann rnmp,
capan 1oAnn xmc1 xn xccrAcx (aAAara Apcx x1cA)
3
.

BBIB-nn conryyAnn vamnann1 axnAp ooAox aonA1wr
xccrxAcxnrcrnno1onnn1oAooAoAoAconxmcnnarccc
conryyAnnnoxoApcx1onncxmcpAnn1oAoox1cmcApamnrAax
y araac aonxon xamaaaA1a yc oroop np aanm mnpncAcx
xnnnaAnoAooAno.ccpypcanaonA1yypwrxccrxAcxaxAwr
xonronnAox, xnpcA, cxmccA1c oAropor xnnn aAcnr 1yc 1yc
sAraxcaAraxaxmaapAara1a.
ConryyAnn vamnann1 axnAp ooAox aonA1wr xccrxAcx
axAwr xonronnAox, yAc 1o, cx a, ma1onaA-1oxnnvnn, aoxnon
aryyAaA1wn,acAcy1AwnxnnnaAcnrncAccpanxoAorpoA1o
oAoxwrpypaxoAno.
VAc1o,cxanxnnnaAcnryAconw1onn1crn,OXV-wn
cy+ov1yypwn onpo aAan 1ymaaA1nyypwn aApaa, onoor 1onn cx
mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn oooo ypnpax ocnw aryyAAaryypwn rcm1
snpaApan1axAsn1a1cmcxxccAaonrrapAwrxocAyyAan
xamaayyApar. 0rnn o1onooc raaA1a c1rccpp aAr xcpnncc

, 2006
. 2006 0 20-

!

, ,
[4(31)
16
1onn aanm cx xcmxcc, ny1rnn aacar aaxnraanw aryyAAaryypwn
nnr rnr opn1 amrpaAp xccrxAccp cxcAccn ana.
4

BBIB-wn raaA1a nc pcnmnrnnp oocwn ap 1mnn aanm
nnrmnn Acr, AcrAcAnn amnr, connxoAwr nAcxnAx, oAon
nn1nn arccc pcmxAcr ann nappar oAcon ana.
5
Hnrmnn acA
opoA canraac OXV-wn 44 cy+ov1wn xo1 cyynn oAon xopoo, 1ocronw
ap nrcpnn pynp snyyAcan Bx nn1nn canaA acyyArap ooAcon
nrcp yAc oon paxr cmx xymwr BBIB-ccc raaA1a xmc 1or1oox
napna rcx accn ana. Vnn nr rcm1 xccrnp nA pcr xyam1a,
1cprccnn onnnp cmx xyam nA aonxnApor rccncc 1aAaAaxcc.
AcyyArap ooAcon nrcpnn 2% nr crnn o1onnn 1oAooAoA
oAcon xmc ncnn, mypara, amrpaAwn asAar 1ymAara1a,
yxaan1a, orcon amAaA1aa noAAx nappar (1cp na amrpaAwn
nann, mnnnnr nA can oAropor, yAc 1onpnr opnoA 1cp
roA 1oAon cmx xyam1a ax nappar rcx xanyAcan nr 1oxnoApAwn
aA nm mm.).
6

VAc 1o, cx an xnnn aAcnn oo ncr cApcxn xcccr nr
1onn cx mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn oooo ypnpax aryyAAaryypap
BBIB-nn 1oAooAoA oAcon xmc conrorpox oAoxop nccc yrpnnAan
ccrnAcx cx an xcm xcmxccnn pn1c xsaraaAaA1 axr
araa snpaA mm. 0cn cynaAxAarpax y ccxA mopon aaaA1wn
ma1anp maArarpax y c1rccpp conryyArp nc pcnmnrncc 1rcrpcn
conrorpox oAaomr apar. Onoornn xnnn 1oroApo AnnAx y
conryyAnn 1yxa xyyAr 1or1oomxnp conryyArp nc pcnmnrn BBIB-
1c xoAoo1o 1aAaa rc1rcx axAwn myramaa anarpcan nyxaA an
xoAorpoA1o mcpcc, mcpccAcA oonr araa nr 1yxan nc pcnmnrnnr
1rcxccc 1a1raAaax (nc pcnmnrnnn xarcaaA1aac-aamnp HH
rcx), nc pcnmnrnnr xarcaaA1aac xacax, nc pcnmnrnnn 1rcAnr
xnnnr oArox ccxA nc pcnmnrnnr 1rcxnr xomAyyAax
npccAcA oAoxr rcx aaacnwr oxon 1cmpcrAcx nr nyxaA mm.
?

4
,
5

,
, ,
. ,
. , , 5-8 -
; 5 ;
; 5
. 5-40 (
/ ) . (. ,
) .. . .: , 2006. . 42.
6
. . - ? /bd.fom.ru/report/map/projects/, .
2004.08.0. 48.
7
-
()- - 8.24 , 76 ,
- ()- 44, 9-
, - 9, 84 .
2010] 17
ConryyAn vamnann1 axnAp ooAox BBIB-nn aonA1wr
xccrxAcxcp ma1onaA-1oxnnvnn xnnn aAc nyxaA cr
rc1rcpcr. Hcr 1aAaac, oon ny1rnn oAon c ny1rnn 1ocnnn
xomcpoA, noroo 1aAaac BBIB Acmx nx xcmxccnn ma1onaAAar
asAar, cp xoonro1c apaA nr 1onn cx mcpAnn aryyAAaryypwr
BBIB-1c xam1an axnAAax ccpcA 1oAx, aamnp crnn
o1onnxnooc cpnn aacrnn xamaaaA1a oAroxop noAooAx ana.
BBIB monro canxrnn xynr sma ncrcn acyypaAr ax,
oocpnn cacmmnA, xsnaA1ap aAr xcpnncc xoAoo oAcon ax Apnc,
canxrnn aryyAAaryyp1a ax nr conryyAnn vamnann1 axAwn
roA nnccn 1c1rcrn, canxxAcrncc ooAox, mx, conryyAnn
xooo, xyyAr caxnyAax aryyAAara, xcnAcA mcpccAAnn xccrcAnn
A axnAAaraanp xsnaA1 1annx oron oAomxnr pApcr
ConryyArp cA1rcx, snyyAax snap rcm1 AcrAcAnn amnr, connxoAwr
nAcxnAcrn AcrAcAp ap, nrcpnn nnrcm-xanramxnn an
xoAorpoA1o acyypAwr mnpncAcx cAcn apaA, y napnaaa oAon1aa
xayyAx nappar. TyxaAaA, mnnc aam 1annx, aacax, caxyyAax,
cAxnn II panp ooAorn-panpap aonyAcan pycraAwn xomoo,
cama aryyAax, xxpnn 1orAoomwn 1aAa anx, yAc onw cpnn
aacrnn xo1oAo, npccnn 1crAcx 1ocApnr xccrxAcxcp
ooAoxwr cmcAapcr. Hnrccncc nrcpnn sAanrysa cmacr, Arp
spyycwn 1aAaxaAwr xAccx nappar.
Boxnon aryyAaA1wn xnnn aAc oA rcm1 Acr, AcrAcAnn
conryyAnn vamnann1 axnAp ooAox aonA1wr amxnA11a
xccrxAcx snpaAp 1yc poxom oApor. BBIB-ccc raaA1a nc
pcnmnrnpnn ar canxxnA1 ca1a ax, conryyAr aoxnon aryyAax
mcrcxAnn, napnaAar oAoncon xnnnr conrox, cAcAcx oron
oAox1o ax, cmx cr1c ypnpAarwn 1or1oAoo1o ax accr nr
aoxnon aryyAaA1wn xnnn aAccp xamaaaA1a mnnxp mm. 0mx
cr1c ypnpAarwn 1or1oAoonw mnnxccc pypnaA pcnmAx y
aonA1 opn1o, 1opoxo ax, xnp cy1Awr aracraxap nnrAcrpccn
ax, cr paaAranawn xynaanAaA1, xa1yy aaxnarpax oc, xsnaA11a
ax, rc1rcrnpnn xanAan xanyAara onpo ax accr oAno.
8

0rnn o1onnn 1oAooAoA oAcon xmc conryyArp amxnA1
raraxap acA cy1Awn xnnn aAc yAam nx an xoAorpoA1o oAx
ana. ConryyAnn nav1nvaac xaaxap OXV-wn xcpcn myxnn ap
nrcpnn nnrmnn yxamca1 conryyAr1 aAan 1ymaaAp BBIB-nn
1oAooAoAAooc 1onn cx mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn aaxnraanw oooo
ypnpax ocnw aryyAAaryypap conrorpcon ccxA crnn o1onooc
raaA1a nc pcnmnrnpcp xAcnr apaA rarax, oonpox, 1aA
8
2002 4
2,%
, .
, ,
[4(31)
18
aacax apaA axnrAarpax oAcon. OXV-wn xcp xcpcn myxnp crnn
o1onnn 1oAooAoA oAcon xmc1 nrcpnn arccc xnpAcA
aApcrana.

0rnn o1onnn cooA, pcr xasr (xnnxnAAnr


1axnn m1cx, ycpwn xoAc, xnnr moAxnx snpaA, nnrcmp xam
xcm xcmxccaan A, mon1c 1orAoom, c1rccp r xcAAcr (xaron),
pAcr xaaaA, xon, mnnccc, xyAranpwn c1rccp xcA1c pyy)-nn
mnnx opo 1y1mwn amrpaAp ncn1cn oocwn nnrmnn 1opoxo
Acr1 1or1moA mopox ana.
l0
Icm1 xcrnn noAooAAnr nnrcmp,
sAanrysa, aaAyy onxnn pynp ncmcrpAcxcp BBIB npcnx1c
pcmxAcr aApcr. BBIB-nn cx cncccc canxxnx, 1nn
noAoon po A axnAAaraa snyyApar cno1wn pyryAan, cov, vAy,
noAoo1 araa onroAcx 1onp, monnn cnrccnn raayyp oAon1aa
1oxnoAppor. XyAran-pwn cc1rcx xoAoonw 1onn cx mcpAnn
oAon aaxnraanw aryyAAaryypap x1cA raaa anaap ana.
TnnAcn BBIB conryyAnn vamnann1 axnAp ooAox aonA1yypwr
xccrxAcxcp xnpcA ynyyApar xnnn aAcnr 1ycraAan ann acx
nr a1c. Ynp:
aoxnon aryyAaA11a rcm1 snpaA1a 1cmcx amnr connxoA
1onn cx mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn oooo ypnpax aryyAAaryypwn
opAoro1o nncx;
aoxnon aryyAaA11a rcm1 snpaA1a 1cmcx 1aAaa 1onn
cx mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn oooo ypnpax ocnw aryyAAaryypwn
ypnpAara, aAan 1ymaaA1nyypwn arccc ann xccrxAx y ara
xcmxccnp xn amwn arccc pcmxAcr aAcx;
crnn o1onnnxnnr 1onn cx mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn
oooo ypnpax ocnw aryyAAaryypap myraAax snpAwr
raraxr ax 1aAaa xyyAr caxnyAax aryyAAaryyp, xcnAcA
mcpccAAnn xccrccA, oAon nn1nn aryyAAaryypwn snyyAx y
A axnAAaraar ysApyyAan aoxnon aryyAax;
mopon aaaA1wn ma1anp maArarpax, ccn cynaAxAarpax
y xnp oAon on xnp rcm1 xccr Apccnnxcc 1oAoo yrp
omno nr sA mn1rAx acan c1rccppnr 1onn cx mcpAnn
oAon ny1rnn oooo ypnpax ocnw aryyAAaryypap conroxop
cx an xsaraaAaA1 1or1oox aamaa conryyAnn 1yxa xyyAnr
oAonconry oArox;
conryyAr1 aAan 1ymaaA1nyypwn xaApamr paxan
cx, naAamon1wn paxan cx smwn 1oo xcmxcc, aryyArwr
9

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2010] 19
xsaraaAax.
Tonn cx mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn oooo ypnpax ocnw
aryyAAaryypap crnn o1onnxnn ncn1cx, myraAax A
snxoooma1aacpcxacan.
Boxnon aryyAaA11a rcm1 snpAwn yAc 1oxnx anxparn acrpcA
ymy l995-l999 onyypap BBIB-aac oocpnn nc pcnmnrnpnr 1onn
cx mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn oooo ypnpax ocnw aryyAAaryypap
conryyAna pcnmAcn, npcnx1c xoxAcn pcmxnx acan.
ll
0ncx
noxoA apaA nr l999 onw conryyAnn 1yxa xyyAr 1or1oomx1o
npccnpcc xoAoo1o mm. Tyc xyyArp nc pcnmnrn crnn
xanyAarap 1a1arpcan 1yxaraa conryyAnn xccrnn xooonp aaanaA
mcpccAcx maapAara1a 1yxa cx an aoxnyyAaA1r axcc. l999
onw 3 pyraa cawn 30-nw opnn ConryyAnn cxnn npccn a1aAraa
a x nn1nn canaA xyaaA1ap ooAox xoAoonw xyyArp ncmcA1,
oonAoA1 oyyAax 1yxa XoAoonw xyyAr (N55-4B) xnnn 1oroApo
oAcon1o xoAorpyyAx conryyAr1 aAan 1ymaaAp nc pcnmnx y
nc pcnmnrn mn1rAccn sAwn parana xnnnr oAoor ccxA
cpcAx pyycar sAaa OXV-wn 0rnn xyyAnn xcpprcc aA aaaA1,
sma rcm1 xccr1 npccAcn mn1rcrpccn 1yxa nannnAan 1ycrax
rnr cxxAccn ana. Mon cnc 1yxa BXV oAon XoAoo1on Brp
Haampax VAcwn crnn xyyAr 1or1oomxnp nnAcn a1Aarpcan
crnn xyyAnn aA, aaaA1, rapaap yAcwn crnn xyyAnn aA,
aaaA1wr npccAcn nc pypcan xyyAr 1or1oomxnn paryy OXV-wn
xnnn 1oroApo AnnAx y 0rnn xyyArp rcm1 xccr1 1ooorpox
ApcA xncnn yAmaac sA mn1rAccn oA sAr oAoor ccxA
cpAcx pyycaar sAaa aaanaA 1ycrax cr xAccnc.
Icm1 snpAwn yAc 1oxnx anxnw A sn raaa ancan nr crnn
o1onnnxnn 1c oonAorpcon1c xoAoo1o mm.
axAarpcan xyAran-pwn xaxyyraa xyAranpwn aan A,
yAamxAaA (npccnn omooxoA, pacarnaA, yAc 1o, nnrmnn
amrpaAp ooAox xonrooc 1a1raAaax, aAAara Apcx, xyyAr caxnrnnpap
xaApax, rcm1 xcrnn o1onnxnn ncrpcA, xynm1AaAaac 1a1raAaax)-
wr
l2
A omoox, pArcc aonpor aAmap crnn 1oAroAorn

,
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(
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-

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2
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[4(31)
20
c1rccpp (acAcr, aAmap apryycyyp)-crnn o1onop npcnx1c
cr rc1rcx ana. l990-ccp onp pccx xcccr c1rccpp 1onn
cx mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn oooo ypnpax ocnw aryyAAaryypap
conrorpoxwn1yApnxcxccnnpcnx,namaA1raraxacan.
VraonAroopooxcnnpaaacrnno1onnn1oAooAoAoAcon
xmc 1onn cx mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn oooo ypnpax ocnw
aryyAAaryypapoocpnnacyynaxyyArocnwoArox,canxrnn
noo, cp xoonrnr xyyAr ocoo cacmmnx, aaxnan aayyAax cx
oAxannyAmaa1onnaryyAAarwnnapanx,oAomxnrrcm1A
axnAAaraaraa xccrxAcx, 1nnrcc xoxAcn 1c1rcxcp oronoo
amnrAaxoAcon.
Icm1 xccr1np 1onn cx mcpAnn aryyAAaryypwn A
axnAAaraanp ooAox cxAcx op aoxnon aryyAaA11a rcm1
AcrAcApnn A axnAAaraa OXV-wn aanm myxnn 1onn A
axnAAaraanw moxannam1a xoAnApox, ny1rnn oooo ypnpax ocnw
aryyAAaryyp1ancrpcnnnAcx,nonopccyycaxAsnsnarpcan.
OXV-wnXoAoonwXyAwnTonnymwnconryyAnnnonononaA
ymyxynr1cnAcxaraaaoxnonaryyAax1or1oAoonpmnAxccn,
canaA xyaax opo xnp, on xnp rcm1 xccr, onorpyyAcan sA nr
xnnnroAoorccxA1nnrcccpAcxpyycarc1rccpnr1onn
cx mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn oooo ypnpax ocnw aryyAAaryypap
conroxopcxanxsaraaAaA1or1oocon,conryyArpooAoxyyAc
1onnnamyypwncanxxnA1nryAamnannoArocon,conryyAnn
vamnannp axAwr canxxAcx xyam aoncon xyyAnn c1rccpnn
xanyAarwr nanra1rcan, monro yraacan xccr1 xoAorpoA1o xcmccn
ccxnrAcrpccn xcp xcpcn anv-canx, accAnn aryyAAaryypwn
Anonanr xyaacan, 1onn cx mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn oooo
ypnpax ocnw aryyAAaryypap rcm1 o1onnn 1oAooAoA aArax
maapAarar, BBIB-wn amnr connxoAp AnAcx xoAoonw oAon
c ny1rnn 1onn aryyAAarwn 1or1oAoon paxr anAnrap o1con
ypnpaxoAonrc1rcxaAan1ymaaA1nyypwn1o,aacarAaAwn cx
xcmxccr amnrAacnaa raax onpo noAoo accr nr BBIB-wn arccc
oocpnn nc pcnmnrnpnr 1onn cx mcpAnn aryyAAaryypap
a1rAcx noAoo1c ara xcmxccnp nr ara, 1av1nvaa oonAoxop
xrcccn.
l3
: ..
. .: -, 200. 4-46 , .. /
, , 2006. 95-96 .

- - ()- /
2005.05.8./5-;
- - , ()- -
- ,
/ 2005.07.2./9-;
- -
()- - ,
2010] 21
2006-2008 onp oAx onocon c ny1rnn oAon oon ny1rnn
conryyAnn c1a1nc1nv mcpccAcA nr aoxnon aryyAaA11a rcm1
AcrAcAnn arccc conryyAnn vamnann1 axnAp ooAox mnncAcr
xanpAaranoAcon1yxarcnnAnc.
,onooopconryyAr1aAan1ymaaApmyypncpcnmnxcc
canaAaa orn y BBIB-wn 1oAooAoA oAcon xmcnn 1oo, xcmxcc
mcpcrpcxcc yycan. Opoornn noxoAp crnn o1onnn
1oAroAornnp ncxcc nccp1c nc pcnmnrnpcp conryyAnn
vamnannp axAwr nr canxxAcxcp ooAox canaA 1annx ccxA
1onn cx mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn aaxnraanw aryyAAaryypap
rccAp oxnyAaar, yrp omno nr sA mn1rcA cpcAx araar,
BBIB, 1cprccnn xanr, xanAaa1a xoAorpoA1o oAox nr oAon
nn1cpnAoAx,ncnrraaaroocpnnxmcnrncn1Acxnn
1yApyrpnnAancA1rcxana.
,xyyAr1or1ooxaryyAAaryypapconrorpconcrnn
oonnn1oAroAorn-pony1a1yypccxAconryyAr1aAan1ymaaA1nyyp
acyyroAonoAorwncxcncccxyyArocnwoAroconaraaraac
AxamaaanxcnnrnoocpnnxnnnAcrAcA(aopoon,xamraaAarn)-
pcc1a1anyyAraarana.0prcc1c,cApcxnnr1or1con
ocoooAxynnnxamraaAaA1wnaAaccxAamyArapAwnaAanw
xaAxannnnp po A axnAAaraa snyyApar ana
14
. Tnmccc conryyAr
aoxnon aryyAx snyyAax snap yAc 1onn mnpnc raraxap
noAooAox, noxoA apAwr 1or1norxAcx, ap 1mcnp apac
1oAcxnn 1yAp rcm1 AcrAcAnxcnp conryyAnn A snap xn
xccrAcx aamaa noAooAoA aAcx oAomx xapraAarppar. Tnccc
rapna,OXV-wnny1arpcncrc1AaxnAAaraaraasnyyAxynpccnn
rcm1 AcrAcAnn 1oAroAornnp OXV-wn myxyypap cpcr npcc1cn
xooonpwn moroApoonn snap ccr aApaanw ncrx, caAaaa
amnrAaxoAoAoo1oapar.
, conryyAnn A sn paxr yAc 1onn namyypwn
cr, a cyyr ncmcrpcx araar xaraAaan BBIB-wn crnn
1arnyyA,coox1arnyyAwnnyxaAanxoAorpoA1oaonA1nrnpcnx1c
A axnAAaraa snyyAx y yAc 1onn namyypap (namyypwn c
ny1rnncaAancrxpcp)xsnaA11or1oox,namwncaAa,ncrxpnr
amnrAan oocpnn xmcnr 1onn cx mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn
ooooypnpaxocnwaryyAAaryypapa1rAcx,aamnpmyrAyyAax
snpaAmm.
, BBIB-wn 1oAooAoA oAcon xmc conryyAnn
occmonroyraapraaoArcon.0ncnoxoAapaApBBIBconryyAnn
vamnann1 axAwr canxxAcx oAon 1onn xyyAr ocnw cnc1c
-
4
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[4(31)
22
oAcon,conryyAnncanxxnA11cxoAoo1oxyamaoncnoocxAccx
xyyAnnxanyAarananracanaccropn1xnnnaAcnoAooAcon.
ConryyAnn vamnann1 axnAp ooAox BBIB-wn pcc pypcan
xanpAaryyp 1onn cx mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn oooo ypnpax ocnw
aryyAAaryypwn conryyAnn snap ooAoxwr xonrAox xyyAr
caxnyAax aryyAAaryypwn 1ycraAan nnrAcrpccn A axnAAaraanp
cxmccA ynyyApar a nmcx A snwn nnrmnn amyAwr
ncmcrpApcr.
BBIB-wn 1oAooAoA oAcon c1rccpp 1onn cx mcpAnn oAon
ny1rnn oooo ypnpax ocnw aryyAAaryypap conrorpox nr nnrmnn
amyA nx1c a yr amyAwn nAcx xcAc nr sna mm .
l5

0prcc c1rccpp conryyAr1 aAan 1ymaaAp 1omnAorpox oAox nr
rcm1 xccr1npnn xsnaA1 po y paAp cpnn aacrnn napanxnr
raaar ncmcrpAcxnn maA1raan oApor. Icm1 AcrAcAp
1ocnnn xoonrnr xyyAr ycaa aaxnan aayyAax, noo xoonro,
xonroAoA1, noAooAoA1 xynaaAax cx1c oAcnoo OXV-wn myxyypwn
cpnn aacar1 1crAcx a cyyr caAcx oAomx1o oApor.
BBIB Aonpox araa cx an xcm xcmxccnn av1 a1Aax nr
ap nrcpnn arccc 1onn cx mcpAnn (ny1rnn oooo ypnpax
ocnw) 1oAooAAnn aryyAAaryyp oAon xyyAr 1or1oorn (pony1a1yyp)-
wn a1Aan rarax y xyyAr 1or1oomxnn av1yypap A n1rcx apaA
crcpcr.
Icm1 A axnAAaraa cxAcx a xyyAr 1or1oox axnAAaraanw raaA,
ccA, yrmnA nr 1cc oo 1yA xooonpoo nncx ynnr mm. Hnrmnn
xanAaanw cx an aoxnyyAaA1wr rcm1 AcrAcAnn amnr
connxoAwn pnccc aoxnyyAax nr xn amwn oron panxarwn cx
an yxamca1 oonnAx oAmr ccn, raxyypaA crcx parana1a
a cx an nnrnAnma(nn1cc xAccn aonmooorpcon nc1 aAcnr
xcAp nr rcrcx acA)-wr paamxyyApar.
Icm1 xccr1np 1onn aacarAaAwn cx mcpcA, conryyAr1 aAan
1ymaaA1nw cx pax, naAamon1wn rnmnn xaApamr cx oAx
anax nr xyyAr 1or1oox, aoxnon aryyAaA11a rcm1 snpaA1a 1cmcx
A xccr1 aca nx xo xonooA ynyyApar. Tonn cx mcpAnn oAon
ny1rnn oooo ypnpax ocnw aryyAAaryypap conrorpcon crnn
o1onooc raaA1a c1rccpp oocpnn ocoApornnp1crcc 1cmcx,
xyyAr caxnyAax aryyAAaryypwn axnA1nyyp, novyo, mrnpcp
xyyAr ycaa noAooAoxnn 1yAp aacarAaAwn cx mcpAcc oroox1c
amnrAaxwr x 1aAaa cmcAacx apar.
XaApamr cx pax, sma1a rcm1 o1onnn 1oAooAornpnr
xanyAarap 1a1ax cxmccA, rcm1 AcrAcAnxnn arccc anAnrap
5


.
2010] 23
o1con 1onn aryyAAarwn para, axnA1nyyp, 1c pynpaa, xyyAr
caxnyAaxaryyAAaryypwnaxnA1nyypappcmxAcraAcxnr1onn
aryyAAarwn ncnn axnA1nyyp, y napna1a, mcrcmccn oAoncon
xnnn, mcrcxnA1npnn yam aonr xyraax, yAmaa axAaa oxnx,
xaAarpaxap xrcpcr
l6
.
Ynnr xaraAaan aoxnon aryyAaA11a rcm1 AcrAcAnn arccc
oocpnn nc pcnmnrnpnr 1onn cx mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn
oooo ypnpax ocnw aryyAAaryypap conryyAna nc pcnmAcxnn
cccr oAon nn1 a 1onn aryyAAaryypwn arccc 1cmcx 1onn
nn1Acr (yAc 1onn, cx an, aoxnon aryyAaA1 oAoncon xnnn,
mcpccAcA-yxyyArwn) a 1ycra or ara xcmxccr xomAyyAamrrcc,
1oAonAoroo, o ma11araa xccrxAcx aaAmr maapAara1a
ana.
Tonn cx mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn oooo ypnpax ocnw
aryyAAaryypap BBIB-aac raaA1a nc pcnmnrnpnr conryyAna
nc pcnmAcxnn cccr oAon nn1 a 1onn aryyAAaryypwn
arccc ann xccrxAcx 1cmAnn mnnx1c 1onn nn1Acr ara
xcmxcc nr 1onn cx mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn oooo ypnpax ocnw
aryyAAaryypwn rcm1 xccrxnx maA1aan noxAnr aaanaA anAraxap
nnrAcrpccn ana.
Tonn cx mcpAnn aryyAAaryypwn rcm1 xccrxnx A sn1a
1cmcxcp oAon nn1nn oAon xcnAcA mcpccAAnn xccrcAnn ooAoo
aaAmr maapAara1a mm. Vnn nr a cyyna cxxAccn BBIB-
wn raaA1a nc pcnmnrnpnr 1onn cx mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn oooo
ypnpax ocnw aryyAAaryypap pcnmAcxnn cccr 1cmpcrrrccc
rapna nmcx ooApAorwr oo1 oArorpcon 1onn cx mcpAnn cx
xcmxccrcc (aaxnraanw noo)-r amnrAan aanm apAaa pcmxpcr
ana.
BBIB-wn arccc oocpnn nc pcnmnrnpnr 1onn cx mcpAnn
oAon ny1rnn oooo ypnpax ocnw aryyAAaryypap conryyAna
nc pcnmAcxnn cccr oAon nn1 a 1onn aryyAAaryypwn
arccc 1cmcx 1onn nn1Acr yAc 1onn ara xcmxccnp crnn
o1onnxnnr yAc 1onn amrpaAp oAon conroxop ooAyyAaxr
ax 1aAaa Tonn 1crn, OXV-wn myxyypwn 1onn pccp aAan
6

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[4(31)
24
1ymaaA1an, conryyAnn xooo, xyyAr caxnyAax aryyAAaryypwn
ypnpAaryypwn aAan ocnw paaArana, 1onn cx mcpAnn oAon
ny1rnn oooo ypnpax ocnw aryyAAaryypwn rcm1 xccrxnx A
sn1a 1cmcx xoAoonw oAon c ny1rnn xo1oAo, oooo xcAcA,
xoAoonw oAon c ny1rnn conryyAnn omnox yAc 1onn namyypwn
rcm1 xcrnn cccr nav1 oAoncyyAax accr ara xcmxcc ar1ana.
l?

Boxnon aryyAaA11a rcm1 snpAwr caamarxyyAaxwn 1yAp
cxnn ccAxnnp 1onn a c ny1rnn onpo aAan 1ymaaA1nyypwn
yAc 1onn xccA aonr, 1nnAcn oAon nn1, xcnAcA mcpccAAnn
xccrccA, 1onn aryyAAaryypwn xam1acan pcc paaa1a, 1yym1a
A axnAAaraa maapAara1a mm.
Tonn cx mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn oooo ypnpax ocnw
aryyAAaryypwn rcm1 xccrxnx A sn1a 1cmcx cx an ara
xcmxccnp nr oon pasa ccn cynaAxAarpax y (qopoaArnw
oawcv) oAon xnp ccxA on xnp rcm1 xccr Apccnnxcc 1oAoo
sA mn1rcA1c (1c pynpaa sAaac noAooAorpcon, cpcAx pyyccan sA)
c1rccppcp 1onn cx mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn oooo ypnpax ocnw
aryyAAaryypap conrorpox cx an xsaraaAaA1 1or1oox aamaa
xyyAr 1or1oomxnr oAonconry oArox A axnAAaraa ncrcn accr
xamaana.
XoAoonw conryyAnn 1yxa xyyAnypap xyyAr 1or1oox aryyAAara,
conryyAr1 aAan 1ymaaAp nc pcnmnx y nc pcnmnrnnp cpcAccn x
sAaa (1c pynpaa sAaac noAooAcon, cpcAx pyyccan sA) aaanaA aaax,
1nnAcn yAc 1onn nam, conryyAnn xooop x nc pcnmnrnpnn
sA mn1rcrpccn cccxnr 1yc 1yc mcpccAcx cr1c oAoxwr 1ycraxwr
canaA oArocon apar.
Tonn cx mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn oooo ypnpax ocnw
aryyAAaryypap conrorpcon rcm1 xcrnn o1onnxnn
1oAooAornpnn xyyAr yc A axnAAaraar 1acAan aorcoox, xanyAara
1a1ax, xoAorpox ma1onaAyypwr cA1rcx aonAroo naAamon1wn
rnmn (pony1a1) oAon conryyAr1 aAan 1ymaaA1nw cx xcmxccr
1prcAaAcx nnc1n1y1wr amnrAarAaxwr canaA oAropor. Ynnr
xaraAaan OXV-wn XoAoonw XyAwn rnmnn cx an apaA
oAon OXV-wn XoAoonw XyAwn Tonn ymwn pony1a1wn cx an
apAwn 1yxa l999 onw ? pyraa cawn 5-nw opnn (200? onw 3
pyraa cawn 02-nw opnn ncmcA1, oonAoA11c) XoAoonw xyyAnn
4 prcc aA (OXV-wn XoAoonw XyAwn rnmn, XoAoonw XyAwn
Tonn ymwn pony1a1wn cx xcmxccr 1prcAaAcx 1yxa)-p paaaxr
aryyAra1a aAnr ncmcx nr a1c:
7
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2010] 25
l.XoAoonw XyAwn rnmn, OXV-wn XoAoonw XyAwn Tonn
ymwn pony1a1wn cx xcmxccr paaaxr 1oxnoApoAp 1prcAaAnc:
a) XoAoonw XyAwn rnmn oAon OXV-wn XoAoonw XyAwn
Tonn ymwn pony1a1 nr OXV-wn 0rnn xyyAnn Tycra
anrnp aaacan mn1rcA xAccx xnp a on xnp rcm1 xccr Apcx
crnn xccr cccn;
) XoAoonw XyAwn rnmn oAon OXV-wn XoAoonw XyAwn
Tonn ymwn pony1a1 nr OXV-wn 0rnn xyyAnn Tycra anrnp
aaacan mn1rcA xAccx xc1 panarn, xnnxnAnn mnnx1c rcm1
xccr Apcx crnn xccr cccn;
n) XoAoonw XyAwn rnmn oAon OXV-wn XoAoonw XyAwn
Tonn ymwn pony1a1wr xoAoonw 1nmnnp ccn cynaAxnAx
araar aaAacan.
2. XoAoonw XyAwn rnmn, OXV-wn XoAoonw XyAwn Tonn
ymwn pony1a1wn cx xcmxccr 1prcAaAcx 1yxa mnpncnn
xcAc nr OXV-wn XoAoonw XyaA, OXV-wn XoAoonw XyAwn
Tonn ymwn raracan xoAorpox 1or1ooA ana. Vr 1or1ooAp
XoAoonw XyAwn rnmn, OXV-wn XoAoonw XyAwn Tonn
ymwn pony1a1wn cx xcmxccr 1prcAaAx y ornoor 1ycrana.
ccx1c nxnA 1oc1c naAamon1wn rnmn, conryyAr1 aAan
1ymaaA1nw cx an apAwr 1opoxoAx y xcm xcmxccr OXV-wn
cy+ov1yypwn xyyAr 1or1oomxnp mon apnA ncmcA1, oonAoA1 oyyAx
oAno.
Icm1 xccr1np1c 1cmcx aoxnon aryyAaA1-oAoncon xnnn
mnnx1c ara xcmxcc nr xoo Acr ara xcmxccnpccc pcnc:
0xnn Acr1 namwn po1oop oAoncon xnnn opAoro xamaana.
TyxaAaA, namwn rnmn nc pcnmnrnpnr maArax, namwn po1oop
annAra, xccA xaxyyAnn anm1, qav1wr nAAcx, yrAyyAcan anm1
ma1onaAaa xyyAr caxnyAax aryyAAaryypap xrAcx, yAc 1onn
namwn xarcaaA1aac nc pcnmnx y namwn rnmpnr maArax,
xc1 panarn, xnnxnAAnn mnnx1c A axnAAaraa snyyApar
aryyAAara, aoxnon aryyAaA11a rcm1 AcrAcAp1c xoAorpoA1o
oAox nr 1or1oorpcon c1rccppnr namwn rnmnnAcAccc xacax.
aaarnn Acr ara xcmxcc nr 1onn aryyAAarwn x
1or1oAoon paxr oAoncon xnnn oon 1oor pAcx1c xoAoo1o
mm.
Casxnwr x1cA 1onn cx mcpAnn oAon ypnpAarwn
aryyAAaryypwn oAoncon xnnn opAoro xanraA1r rcx mcrcxAnn
cA1rcA, oAoncoA ara1a, ca1a maArarpaar oAoncon xnncc
oon 1ooroo pAcx opAoro snyyAaxap nnrAcrpcx acnwr onAon
1cmpcrAcx nr a1c.
l8

8
.. : . //
. . - , . 2000. . .
, ,
[4(31)
26
BBIB-wn arccc oocpnn nc pcnmnrnpnr 1onn cx mcpAnn
oAon ny1rnn oooo ypnpax ocnw aryyAAaryypap conryyAna
nc pcnmAcxnn cccr 1cmcx snap aAr xcpnncc a cyyna
oAcon rcm1 xccr1np (rcm1 amnr1 connxoA1o annArap o1con
aAan 1ymaaA1nyyp)-nn arccc aoxnon aryyAaA11a rcm1 snpaA1a
1cmcx A axnAAaraar xccrxAx y 1opoxo ypnpAara, aAan
1ymaaA1nyypap aAcx paam1, maxaA1wr yrpnnAan 1ooooAox
maapAara1a a nmcx 1oAnn paam1 maxaA1wr 1acAan aorcoox,
caamarxyyAax 1aAaa yrpnnAan xany ara xcmxcc oAoncyyAcan
ax, yr 1cmcAp ooAox y 1onn aAan 1ymaaA1an, xyyAr caxnyAax
aryyAAaryypwn axnA1an, namwn a1rcA1cn, rnmp, cc1rAnpnn
amyAr apAwr xanrax a ocnw maapAara rapar.
Harpaarnn aryyAAara (OE), XoAoonw amyAr apAwn aAa,
XyyAr an sam, Hovyown aryyAAara oAon 1onn cx mcpAnn
ycap aryyAAara rcm1 xccrxnx A sn1a 1cmcx nnrAcc XoAoonw
1oryyp paxr OXV-wn EonxnAornnn Bcn 0x1 1oAooAornnn
axAwn aAa1a xam1wn axnAAaraar xccrxAcxpcc rc1rcx axAwn
an xoAorpoA1o mcpccAcA ccA1 oAaomr apAaa rcm1 xccr1npcp
aapaxwr rcrcxr ax xccr1c. Yn1c xoAorpyyAan nmcx
mcpccAcA aapax snpAwn cccr axnAAax coor paranawr anArax
1aAaa ara xcmxcc anaxwr xaraAaan acx nr a1c.
Boxnon aryyAaA11a rcm1 AcrAcAnn arccc oocpnn nc
pcnmnrnpnr 1onn cx mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn oooo ypnpax ocnw
aryyAAaryypap conryyAna nc pcnmAcxnn cccr 1cmcx oAon
nn1 oAon 1onn aryyAAaryypwn mcpccAcA-cy1aAnnAraanw ara
xcmxcc nr nrcpnn nnrcm, cx an yxamca, cooAwr pccmAAcxcp
nnrAcrpccn ax oc1o.
ConryyAnn xooo, xyyAr caxnyAax aryyAAaryyp, XoAoonw
myxyypwn 1onn aryyAAaryyp, aaAyy onnxnn pynp yrpnnAan
ccrnAcx axnA snyyAaxap onro cr, an xoAorpoA1o oAox nr
xaarpax ana.
Oocwn nnrcm, oAon nn1nr ncr1rcx, aoxnon aryyAaA11a rcm1
AcrAcAnn A axnAAaraa, rcm1 xcrnn 1oAroAorn, 1cprccnn
yAc 1onn amrpaAp ooAox y anm1, qav1, 1oAonAoroo, 1onn
cx mcpAnn oAon ny1rnn oooo ypnpax ocnw aryyAAaryypap
conrorpox ooApAorwn 1aAaa oAon nn1nn pynp coor cc1rcrpcA
n oAroxop xcnAcA mcpccAAAnn xccrcAnn aryyAAaryypwn
noAoo1c A axnAAaraa onro nyxaA an xoAorpoA1o.
ccx A snwn cccr 1cmcA snyyAax 1ycra ara xcmxcc nr
1onn nn1Acr or ara xcmxccnn xam1 oroox1c apar. Tycra
ara xcmxcc nr BBIB 1oAonAoroo, 1c, cApcxn, xyyAr yc
axnAAaraaraa xccrxAcxcp rcm1 AcrAcApcp 1ycAaAaa, pcmxAcr
2010] 27
aAx y 1onn oAon ny1rnn aaxnraanw aryyAAarwn aAan
1ymaaA1an, conryyAnn xyyAr yc canxxnA1nn cx cynaAx, aam
cynar, OXV-wn amyAr apaAp xo xoxnoA ynyyAaxap nnrAcrpccn
yAc 1onn A axnAAaraanw 1aAaa mcpcc, mcpccAcA yrAyyAax
aonAroo BBIB-nn pynp a ypnpax ma1nw 1oAooAoA oAcon xmc
pynpaac nyy mcpccAcrn n oArox accr ara xcmxccnccc ppcr.
0rnn o1onnn xaAyyn, cmacr cr, raayypap BBIB-nn
amnr connxoAp AnnAx y nc pcnmnrnpnn xanr, xanAaa,
yAc 1onn namwn a1rcA1np, 1onn a ny1rnn aaxnraanw
aryyAAaryyp paxr anAnra, xccA xaxyyAnn anm1, qav1wn 1aAaa
mcpccAcA yrAyyAax 1aAaa conryyAnn xooopwn rnmp, xyyAr
caxnyAax aryyAAaryypwn axnA1nyyp, yAc 1onn nam, oAon nn1nn
aryyAAaryyp1a xam1an axnAAax nr nyxaA an xoAorpoA1o.
BBIB-nn 1oAroAorn, ooAornpwr crnn xanyAarap 1a1axap
maapAara1a ma1onaA pAcx aonAroo aoxnon aryyAaA11a
rcm1 A axnAAaraar pcc paaa1a anm1xyyAax nr 1ycra ara
xcmxccnn ncr caAmr cApcxn xcccr mm
Onoornn noxoAp BBIB-nn A axnAAaraar cn xcmxccnp
anm1xyyAax axnA xanraA11a 1nmnnp snarpaxr araar
1cmpcrAcx xccr1c.
l9
Opooroo xyyAr caxnyAax aryyAAaryypwn nn1
axnA1nyypwn 60-aac pccm xynr nr rcm1 AcrAcAnn rnmpnn rcm1
A axnAAaraanw aonxon xcp xcpcn ApAp A crnn xcrnn
ma1onaAp anm1 oAon Appcr a xann rcm1 AcrAcAnxnn
oocpnx nr A axnAAaraa pcArccnr apAaa or1 1ycrarpparr
rcx axcc.
20

Ic1rcx axAwn myramaa xyyAr yc axnAAaraar anm1xyyAax
axnAAaraanw nyxaA noxoA nr yr axnAAaraanp 1a1an ooAyyAcan
xyyArcaxnyAaxaryyAAarwnaxnA1an,nyycxcynaAxnnamyAr
apAwrx1aAaaxanraxsnpaAmm.
BBIB A axnAAaraar 1acAan aorcoox (ApcA pcc nr anx,
annnAax, rcm1 AcrAcAnn aoxnon aryyAarn, ooAornpwr
crnn xanyAarap 1a1ax) acyypAwr ccnn pnrnn xynrp ann
9
- ,
-
,
, ,
- , , - 208-20

,
,
.
, - - ,
, .
20
.: // .,
: .// - // . 200 .
.2.
, ,
28
acxoAno.
VAc pamnacan ymy xnAnn nanapap oron xanAaa1a aoxnon
aryyAaA11a rcm1 AcrAcAnn A axnAAaraar anm1xyyAax nr
axAwn1ycraAcannnrAcAp1ooorppor.
Banm1xyyAaA1wn nana, pnr caxyyAax, rcm1 snpaA1a
1cmcxncn1oxnomx1oaraxcmxccnpcA1rcxaonArooHn1onoA,
Xam1wnnnrcmAcrnnonyypwnaoxnonaryyAaA11arcm1snpaA1a
1cmcx A axnAAaraar ypnpan aoxnyyAax 1onnoo, rapaap yAcwn
1ycra aAa, xyyAr caxnyAax aryyAAaryyp1a mcpccAcA coAnAox
axAwrxorxAcxnrnyxaAanxoAorpoA1o.
ConryyAnnvomnann1axnAppaxrBBIB-nnooAooxyyArocnw
nrcnnnnrmnnyAc1onnAaxnAAaraanpcaapynyyAaxocr

29

Vrp sA mn1rcA1c, 1c pynpaa moonrooc


cyAAarpcan xmcnr paxnn rcm1 xccr
Apcxccc yrpnnAan ccrnAcx acyypaA nr
vnmnnoAornn 1ycra anrnn 1opnr
nonoAornn cypAarpaxyyn oAoop araa
onoo op cnc caAawn cypAaan np pcAxn
nn1nn nnr xanpAara1a xoA nnAAcn
aAxax xccr1c ana. apaA oAcon, oopnn
rcm1 xccr1cn xcmccn 1opoxoAx acan
ar o ap onron rcm1 xccr1cn no xnnr
cypAax nr aaAmr oAoop araa nr cAnn
op raaap araa on no1o xcrpccc
xaarpax ana.
Xonx oAon annnAax sA cpAccp
cyAAarpcan xmcnr nnrcmp xAccn anax,
axAwn aaa xanrax, 1ycAamx pcmxAcr aAcx, amrpax oAomx,
onnn noxoA can pccr accr apAaac sA cpAccp pyyccan oAon
omooA, yynAaAaa cyAAarpcan xmc pan1an rcm1 xccr Apcx, sA
mn1rAcx, xonx raaa pacan aoxnox xanpAara axnrAarpax ana.
VAcwn xcmxccrcc 200? onp 6l49 xn, 2008 onp 6282 xn, 2009 onp
5069 xn annnAax oAon xonx sA cpcAx acan a 1cpnn 42-48
xynr nr yrp omno sA mn1rcA cpcAx acan xmc araaraac
l
acxcp
aamnp yAam ocox 1oAon1c araa nr nAcxn.
Xcpnrcc xn rcm1 xccr Apcx 1npcc 1oxncon mn1rcA xAccx
oc1o ann xonx aryyAAaraac xnA cyAAarpax y 2000 onnm
xnp 1ycAaAaa, pcmxAcr py1ax araa nr 1onn aryyAAarwn A
axnAAaraanw oAon cx an aoxnyyAaA1 axr1c xoAoo1o mm.
Onoopo yrp sA mn1rcrpccn, xonx sAaac cyAAarpcan, omoorpcon
xmc pan1an rcm1 xccr Apcx, yAc onw crnn oAon xcn
xymwn noxoA apAwr xnpAx ana. MonroA VAcwn nn1 xn
am, Apcrpcx 1rcrpccn rcm1 xccr, 1np xoAorporn, 1nccc yrp
sA mn1rcrpccn xmcnn caAcx xynr, xopoAroonnr cAnn l0
xnAcc pyrpnaA 2000-2009 onp yrp nr mxcc sma ncrcn xcAccc
sA mn1rcrpccn l8ll? xn paxnn rcm1 xccr Apxcc. 0nc nr rcm1
xccr Apccn nn1 xmcnn 9.8 xynnr cacAx ana.
2
CAnn 3 xnAnn xyraaanp yrp sA mn1rcrpccn 48l? xn,
xnAp pynpxaa l606 xn pan1an rcm1 xccr Apxcc. 0npccc acxcp
cAnn anan xnAp yrp moonrooc cyAAarpcan xmcnn pynpxaa

- .

- -
-.
-
,

,
.
[4(31)
30
8-l3 onnm xynr
nr paxnn rcm1
xccr Apcx, sA
mn1rAxcc.
Ic1cA 2006,
2009 onp racan
OmooA aAcx
1yxa xyyAna
xonx nacanp
xccrnpnn
4ll, 40? pyraa anrnac cyAAarpcan xxpp ncr nx ypaAr crccp
moonpoo opor ccncA nacanp xccn xmcnn xonx anrnp pcrAcm
orcox xonrppor
3
, 50-?0 xynr nr cyAAarpcanaac xom 3 xnAnn po1o
paxnn rcm1 xccr Appcr ana. Xxpnn pan1an rcm1 xccr Apcx
oAcon maA1raan, noxoAnr cypAan acxcp:
Xonxooc cyAAarpaap onnx raaar (oon rcr);
0cr cx nr oxnn oAoro axr, amrpaAwn a1aAraaxnx
1nmnnrccc pooryy amrpaA1a;
AxnA, cyryyArp oox rcxcp nrcnn nnnr anm1r,
cyryyAr aancapcan, mcrcxnA oAoncoAr oooo xcAcA
1cpnnr nnrmnn arccc xAccn anax sma n cA1rcA xanrarpaar
araa
4
nr pan1an rcm1 xccr Apcxcp noAooAx araa ncr xnnn
aA oAx ana.
XyyAnn aryyAAarwn aAa xaarn, moonrooc cyAAarpcan
xmc1c Arnn snAAarwn cypaAraa xnx snap pan1an rcm1
xccr Apcx araa maA1raan nr nnrcmp xcnnn amrpan napaxr
araa1a xoAoo1o 1opnr rcm1 aan A 1oAonmcon, crccp rcm1
xccr Apcx onnnpoo onpor accr noxoA1c xoAoo1o mm. 0nc nr:
XyAraAax;
Bycpwn no maxopnp rcm1cA ynyyAax;
Xnnnpcx;

, ., - .
006 . .

009
.
2010] 31
Tanxaax;
cccmpcx;
Xnnr canaa1a aAax rcm1 xcrpnr roA 1oAon Apcx
araac xaarpana.
5

Ic1cA pan1an rcm1 xccr Apcx araa maA1raanwr xyyAnn
aryyAAaraac 1annx xaaa xsnaA1 py1can1a xoAon accp 1cpcnp
aAcx 1ycAaAaa, pcmxAcr axrrccc paxnn rcm1 xccr Apccn
noxoA apAwr anxaan acxr ana. Bopn1 apaA pcc arpaarnn
aryyAAaraac 1anrx araa aaxnraanw xsnaA1 nr cap ncr ypaa
pyypax, 1rcx xcAc1c araa a arpaarnn aryyAAarwn
xccrnn 1oAooAorn, aaarnaac n 1c xsnaA1ap araa xmcccc n
cnc ara xcmxccr 1ccmaacan apaA1a apar nr axnrAarpAaa.
6

Hrcpnn canaa opoA: Icm1 xccr Apcrpcxcp sma sma noxoA
noAooAx ana rcx 1a acx nc? rcccn acyyArap
?
ooAcon nrcp acxpcc:
axnAr ax, xnx axnAr, ama xsAa araa amrpax rcccn
xccA, xnn aan apaA, ann aanmnn, oc cy1axyynw poroApoA1o
xoAon accnccc rapna xonxooc cyAAarpcan xmc1 anxaaaA 1annx
1or1oAoo pccr, rcm1 xcrccc yrpnnAan ccrnAcx axAwn
noAoo xanraA1r araa acrnr ann axcc. Xnnr moonp
cyyAracnaa rcm1 xcrccc yrpnnAan ccrnAcx axAwr can aoxnon
aryyAax nr nA pn1c apar rcccn canaAwr my rcx acx ana
nc? rcccn acyyAraac acxcp moonp xmcnr aArax ccAAcx
nr pn1c, moonp A xnnnxncA oAno rcccn
cncnryyycanaAnnAcxraraanrrcxaccnnr35
onnmxynnrcacAxana.
Ic1cA moonp sA cpcAx araa xmcccc xonxooc cyAAarpax
racnwpaaaynaxcxmccApnn1aAaacypAaxap

:

cyAAarpaap raaxap 1cpcnp ynax cxmccA nx1c, ncn sAanrysa 1cpnnr
amrpaAp xAccn anax xcn ncrcn1c A oAroAox apaA n oAno
rcccn apac1a axap nrcp cccrcc moonrooc cyAAarpcan xmcnn
1aAaa coor 1ocooAoA, xanpAara1a apar nr axnrAarpAaa.
TnnAcn 1onn oAon xynnn xcnmAnn aryyAAarap axnAp oox
nrcnccc x 1oxnoApoAp sA mn1rcAnn 1yxa AanAaraar raryyAx

000-009
. -
. 00 .
6
, ,
0 , 0
. 00 8 . .

- - 008
,
.
8 , - - 008 .
, ,
[4(31)
32
anpar oAxcc. Hmccc sA mn1rAx acan c1rccp nnrcmp axnA,
aAan 1ymaaA cxAcx sma n oAomxr, sAranaAan rapyyxarpax
npccn noxoA oAx ana. 0rnn rcm1 xccr nr canaa1a oAon
oAroomxrrcc Apcrppcr, 1yxan xnn xnccn ApcA, cc ApcA
nr rcm1 xccr mon cccx nr acA opAwn pnccc xaranry maraan1a
1yA sA mn1rAccn xmcnr x nacaa nr xaAyyAan rapyyxax nr
xnn cxnn aannmp nncxr mm.
AxnA xopoAmo cxAcx, conron maArayyAaA1ap oox, 1onpo1
ocoApox, rapaapap axnAAax, rccc xcAcAcc xnx, ax axyn A
axnAAaraanw 1ycra aonmoooA, accA anax, aanm cyryyArp cAccn
oox, xn A 1oxnoApoAp arpaarnn aryyAAaraac sA mn1rcAnn
AanAaraa anpar xyam AnnAx ana. HEI-wn McpccAcA AanAaraanw
1on nr anrwn anaaAaA pyraaAaA11a oAx, nrcpnn AanAaraa anax
ccA1, xccrcc yAam occoo ana.
9

cAxn paxnnp pan1an rcm1 xcrccc yrpnnAan ccrnAcx npccn
xoo xanpAara apar oroop nn ncr nr nnrmnn xsnaA1 ymy
socIaI conIroI, noroo nr nnrmnn axAwn 1ycAaAaa ymy roIabIIIIaIIon
o crImInaI oondors rcccn xcAcp mm. CypAaannn arccc canaA
oArox y xynnAa nr 2 paxr xcccr oroop npnn yAamxAaA1
xanpAara oAox rcm1 xccr1nnr xsnax, arpax, 1rccncc pan1an
rcm1 xcrccc yrpnnAan ccrnAcx axnA pnp xxcxr araa nr
cypaAraanw pnrccc xaarpAaa.
Xonx sA cpAccp cyAAarpcan xmcnr nnrcmp pacan aoxnoxop
nr 1ycAaAaa pcmxAcr aAcx axnA nr nnrmnn AnnArccnn ncr
1ooA oroop
l0
nnr rapaapwn aanm onw 1ymAaraac acxcp 1onn
9
, , . 009 . 60
.
0

resocialization reintegration and rehabilitation
of criminal offender
2010] 33
aAr ncr nnc1n1y1cc rc1rApcr ana.
ll
Hoonrooc cyAAarpcan
sA1nwrnnrcmmAcx1aAaapcAxnnyAconyypap1or1conxcpxcpcn
xanpAaraapar.Ynp:
1. Social control ymy nnrcm-aaxnraanw xsnaA1 1or1oox rcccn
manayAcaparaaaarnanropoornnnoc1conaAnc1aanmoonp
apar.Kaaavc1an,Knrnac1anrcx mc1;
2. Probation, Parolymy1ycraAcanaAa,axnA1anxsnaA11anrx,
pcmxAcraAcnaxnAAax.0ncnraanm1oxnoApoApbootcamp,
halfwayhousercccnxcAcymy1amrpax,1ycAaAaaanax,
oornoxaccroonaxcAc1cana.AnrAo-Cavconwcxan
1or1oAoo1oonyypap1rccmcAaparxcAc;
l2

3. Imprisonment type: open and close nr xonx sAwn nccA11c,
xaaA11a pcrAcmnr nnrmnn axAwn pn1c xcAc1c
xocAyyAan xccrxAcx cnc1om ymy Pom, romanw cx an
1or1oAoo1o aanm yAc oonp n. TyxaAaA: Ioman, 0c1onn,
EnonwnxoAoonwaanmyAcar1ana;
4. Programm ymy TycraAcan xo1oAo raran axnAAax ymy
moonrooc cyAAarpcan xmcnr nnrcmmAcx xo1oAo nr
xyyArcxanonnnxaranrycanxorxooryAconyypap
xccrxpcroroopnnncr1opxnmccnr,OmnopAqnvnnBrp
HaampaxyAcmm.
13
0ncyAcnrsA1nwrnnrcmmAcxxo1oAonr
2002onoocoAonyAcwnpcmxAcr1crccxccrxAxcxcAccnoroop
npcc xynnn xcnmnA, 1onn yc aryyAAaryypwr oronoo
1a1anooAyyAx,1onnaanmnnrnrrc1rAxaraa
can1ymAarwrncn1Axcc.
CypaAraanw axAwn snap MonroA VAcap Xonx sA1nwr
nnrcmmAcx xo1oAo racan camaaA1a oAonn nn pnr
1ooox, oAoA11o 1aAwr mcpcx oAoAoor ana. Ynn ynn nr
XyyAr a, po1oop xcrnn capwn 2009 onw Nl98 1ymaaA, HHIEI-
wn parwn 2009 onw l0 pyraa cawn l4-nn opnn NA,9l 1ymaaAwn
xancaA1yypaa a1Aarpcan xo1oAo nr ponrox xccrxnx cxcAx
ana. Xo1oAonn xccnp aaAmr mnpncAcx acyypaA nr:
l. HA cpAcrccpcp xmxAnn noAoo aAcn 1oAonmAcx;
2. McrcxAnn oAoncoA cacmmAcn, xopoAmonn papaA
oArox;
3. Tcpnnr rcm1 xcrnn yAmaac xoxncon nrcp1c o1yyAax,
cnAcAcn ayynAax, ycpap ynyyAcan xoxnAwr noxon 1oAAcx
nnrAcAcc 1opoxo ara xcmxcc anax, sA1nwr cyAAan raaxap
.

- Halfway house 0-80




.

, The rehabiltation of offender act (9)



, .

KC.Goyer. Incarcerating and rehabiltitating offenders. 00.


, ,
[4(31)
34
cA1rcx maapAara1a xcmccn acx cnc 1oAonAoroor a1aAxcc.
Hnx pcc pypcan noxoA apAwr xaraAaan acx cx an
onnwr caxyyAax nnrAcAcc XBXH-nw Hxnn mnpnc
rc1rcx aryyAAara, xonx anrn sA1nwr nnrcmmAcx xo1oAo
a1Aan xccrxAx, xonx aryyAAarwn 1ooA, pcrAcmnr 2012 on
rcxcpnccA11c,xaaA11acnc1ompmnAxAcx1aAaaxyyAnn1ocoA
oAoncyyAanaxnAAaxaraanrncncamaaA1aana.


.
ccxnoxoAapAaacprncxcpmoonrooccyAAarpcanxmcnr
nnrmnn axnA AnnArccnp ayynAax, 1ycAaAaa aAcx cx
an onnn axr, xann Harpaarnn aryyAAarwn 1yxa oAon
Hxnnmnpncrc1rcx1yxa,Icm1xcrcccyrpnnAanccrnAcx
1yxa xyyAnypap moonp araa oAon moonrooc cyAAarpcan
xmc1 1annx xsnaA1wn 1aAaa pcArccnr aaax, 1ycrax orncc.
Hav1nv1xyyAnnaryyAAarwnAaxnAAaraa1yxaAaA,arpaa,
novyownaryyAAarwnxyyAnaaaacanpccxnaxnAAaraanpnrcp
mmxAcA1cxanpax,cyAAarpcanxmc1paam1ynyyApar,aApcan
pccnrpaxnn1Axpcr,1cpnnrnnrcmpxcnnnaxnAAaxamrpaxap
nrcaapynyyAxaraa1yxaanm11apypaxana.

XBXH, Hxnn mnpnc rc1rcx aryyAAaraac 200 onp


oAoncyyAan,a1aAcanHA1nwrnnrcmmAcxxo1oAo-1xnnnccn
xamarpcannrcccnxncyAAarpaap1opoxopcmxAcr1ycAaAaaann
napaxroApccxnxo1oAosmanpnroAoxmm.Hmynaac
aaAramx mnnx nana1a, noAoo xn xo1oAo oAoncyyAx,
moonrooccyAAarpcanxmc1pcmxAcr1ycAaAaaaAcxcxan
onnnnoAroxmaapAara1a.
Ynn 1yAp Bacrnn raaaac xo1oAo a1Aan rarax aampaa
1ycraAcan xyyAr oAoncyyAan xccrxAcx, ccncA Icm1 xcrccc
yrpnnAan ccrnAcx 1yxa xyyAr, Harpaarnn aryyAAarwn
1yxa xyyAr, Hxnn mnpnc rc1rcx 1yxa xyyArp xonx
aryyAAaraaccyAAarpcansA1nwraxnAxopoAmo1ayynAax,nnrcmp
axnAAax amrpaxap pcmxAcr aAcx 1aAaa 1opoxo aaaA1yypwr
oyyAaxxccr1c.
CypAaannnxynrpxo1oAoraranxccrxAx,moonparaa
oAon moonrooc cyAAarpax rcx araa, cyAAarpcan xmcnr
nnrmccc nr xonpnAcxr ax, moonp rcm1 aan A, papaAp
cyaAyyAaxr ax, xcnnn axnAAax amrpaxap nr 1ycAaAaa
2010] 35
pcmxAcr aAcx npccnn xo1oAo raran xccrxAcx opAorwn
oAomxn1 xynnAawr pcnmAx ana. 0ncx xo1oAonr
oAoncyyAax,xccrxAcxaxAwroma11araasnyyAcanwpaaaraa
oAconoAoA1,amxnA1,aApaa,prncA1pccnpccAcnxonxsAwnnccA11c,
xaaA11apcrAcmnrnnrmnnaxAwnxcAc1cxocAyyAanxorxAcx
nropAorwnroAomaxmm.
0ncx xo1oAonn roA aonAro nr paaaxr mnnxnr aryyAcan
anaAaoxnno.Ynp:
Hoonp araa, cyAAarpax rcx araa, cyAAarpcan xmc1
nnrAcccnax.0prccxmc1nnrAcccnaxnAnrxooonpooysApaa
xoAooxnopn1pnraaxapnpccAcccnaxoc1o;
XyyAnn aryyAaryypwn A axnAAaraanp xnpcA
ynaxaar ax. XyyAr, xyam, aaanyypwr oonAoArrcc
xccrxnx oAomx1o, opo 1y1mwn A axnAAaraa, 1yxaAaA,
ooxooonpooysApaaxoAooxnnooccwr1ycracanax;
XccrxAcxaraaam1cpynpaa1ycAaAaapcmxAcraAcx
xcAcpnr aaax orox. 0prcc xcAc nr xyyAr, 1or1oomxnp
xamAaxr ax, moonrooc cyAAarpcan xmc1 xcx
ax;
HnrmnnaxnA1anroAAoxxcAc1carpaarnnaryyAAarwn
1ycAaAaaxnAaxnAAaraanrpan1anrcm1xcrcccyrpnnAan
ccrnAcxpn1cncrxcAcaxoAoxooana.
CypAaannncanaAoAroxyaonAomxnrarpaarnnaryyAAarwn
opoornn A axnAAaraanp nxccxcn xamaaaA1a oroop aamnp
aonxonxccrnnaaarn,arpaarnnanxanma1nwncrxcncaxAwr
panraaxnxnraxAwnpaam1annnpar.
Xccrnnaaarn,1oAooAornnropo1y1mwnAaxnAAaraaoAox
xccr 1rcx, xcn xyam, aaxnraanw xsnaA1 rcx mc1nnAcn axnA
prncx oAon aAcA1cp 11cx araar xyyAnn aryyAAarwn
ypnpaxaAan1ymaaA1nyypopn1oroooAxxaaxxccr1cana.
, ,
36


I.

MonroAp ...nn1pcc 20-noc poomr xnA
1c1rcnnn paa1raAwn mnm1rcA 1oAcon oroop
60 nac xccn paa1ryyAarn onpo nacnw 1c1rcnc
1or1ooAron anax cx1c. Xann 20-noc poomr
xnA mnm1rcA 1oAcon oroop 55 nac xccn
cmcr1c oooo xcncA onpo nacnw 1c1rcnc
1or1ooAron ann oAox
l
a cncx 1c1rcnnn
xcmxcc nr cawn pynpax xopoAmonn xoAc,
1n1c apnA1rax oAorwn 45 xynr apar.
2

Toooc oArox y
3
1c1rcnnn accrcc
axnA1anoAonaxnAoArornaryyAAaraxam1an
xynm1AaA n oArox, xoxnm axnA1anr 1c1rcnc1 racan xono yr
xynm1AaAwr oAropor cnc1om ac n. Ynnr oonxnp nr Xynnn
1c1rcnnn cnc1om rcpcr. 0nc nr 1onn myyp ooAoorrcc
1c1rcnnnxynm1AaAwrnoArox,yaanxynaanAaxaramm.Xoo
npccn 1ooA1c. Tcprccnr AnrAna Defined Benefit a Defined
Contributionrcpcr.DefinedContribution
4
po1oooAon1oAp1c.
5

TBTC (Tonn yc (xynnn) 1c1rcnnn can)-nn roA aannm nr


axnA1an, axnA oArorn aryyAAara xoo xanAan 1oxnoAcon
1opoxoxcmxccrccmonronxynm1AaAyrAyyAax,1cxynm1AaAwr
xoonro oyyAaA1wn araa orcox/ncmcrpAx, ncrcn1 n oAcon
xynm1AaAwn monrnr axnA1anr 1c1rcnnn nacanp xn axAaac
racan

1oxnoApoAp axnA1anp ncr ypaa, ccxA 1opoxo xyraaanp,


1or1ooconpnrccoAroxsnpaAmm.TBTC-nnroAaonAronrccnn
pnp1c1rcnnnncmcA1oAorwrnoAroxopompor.

, , 99
.

00 0 -
, ...
, , ,
...
.

Defned Contribution- .

Proft sharing plan, Money purchase plan, Employee stock ownership plan, A 401 (k) .
6

. (http://www.timesonline.co.uk/
tol/money/pensions/article721744.ece 00-0-0).

,
.
2010] 37
0nccnc1omrynan1aAwnanxoAorpoA1o.,axnA1an1yxan
aryyAAarap 1or1no cyyrmnA1a, 1ccA1c axnAAacnaa
1c1rcnnn ncmcA1 oAoro1o oAox, , aryyAAarwn xnn
noonn opAorwn xccnp 1ymAara1a can axnA1anr xapraAx
Apccx, axnA1nyypwn axAaac raax 1oor aracrax, mnnc axnA1anr
pan1an cyrax1a xoAoo1o aapAwr yyyyAax r.m, ,
xn amwn nacxnA1 anra ocon ncmcrpcx araa onoo op 1onn
nnrmnn xamraaAaA, 1c1rcnnn 1aAaax rnr xonronnAox,
1onn1c1rcnnnamnrmyy1amoxannamwnaapAwryyyyAax
r.moAon1aAwnanxoAorpoA1ooAoxwrpcAxnnycapoonxAccn
aonmooconana.

TnnAcn cnc oAroA1wr Deferred Salary ymy XomAyyAcan


aAnnrcxncAcpcr.0nccnc1omp:
AxnA1nw ca nn xopoAmonn xoAc, 1n1c apnA1rax
oAorwn1opoxoxccrnraxnA1nwncpccpancnccnamyyAax
a, axnA oArorn aryyAAara mon apnA xcmxccnn

monrnr
pancanpmnAxAnc;
Vrxynm1AaAwrxoonrooyyAaA1wnaraaocrono.Yrcccc
xapraAamxaacsAraa1a;
Mon cnc monrnr aryyAAarwn npccn xoonronooc 1ycap
nr 1rcpcr. Oooo xcAcA, aryyAAara cnc monrnr A
axnAAaraanpaaaayyAaxcxr;
Xaranryy1xyraaanwrcccnnmnnx1c;
Hcrcn1 n oAcon, (ac ca aAnnraac ncmcrpcn ox
araa) xoonrnr no paacan xaaa1 yc Fund Managor, TrusI
r.m xoonrnn ypnpAarwnmcrcxAnnaryyAAara,xynrxncc
ypnpyyAx ocropor. Xoonrnr ypnparn nr 1ymAara1a, cx
xnaryyAAara,xynrxnapar.Tcpcn1crcccaryyApar;
Xoonrnrnc1aac,onp,xynraa,xapraAamxnnco1nqnva1,
canxrnnycapcmcAxccrcAp,AxopAoxxoonropxoonro
oyyAax oAon ycap ara aamaa ocropor. Xoonro oyyAaA1
amnr1a ax oAomxr oroop aanm 1oxnoApoAp aAparpaA
xAccx n o rana. 0nc ccpcAnr TBTC oAon axnA1an xAccnc.
Xamrnn ara aAparpaA xAccx amnr oAoxwn 1yAp 1ymAara1a
xoonro ypnparnnr oAox xccr1c a xoonro oyyAaA1wn ysn
xa1an,ccpcAcccccrnAccnopAoro1oaxmaapAara1a

;
AxnAoArornymyaxnA1nwcanaanAaraaxopoAmonnrccc
pyycrana oAcon 1oxnoApoAp 1opoxo 1oryyAr1araa, xann
axnA1an xopoAmonn napnaaa cn aApax, 1c1rcnc1 raax
nacnaacomno/paaanacacan1oxnoApoApaxnA1anpxynm1AaAwr

IOPS, Principles of Private Pension Supervision, 2006, p.1.


8
,
.
.
9
, .
, Fund Manager-
, . (Makau, Act of Private Pension
Funds).

, ,
[4(31)
38
cn xcmxccrcc yaan oAropor. 0nc nr yr cnc1om oA ornno
xyraaanw xoonro oyyAaA1 yc, y1 xyraaanp xapraAamx n
oArox ymy ncmcA1 1c1rcnnn oAoro pAcx aonAro1o
apar1axoAoo1o.
TBTC-nn amnr aAparpaA, A axnAAaraanw 1aAaax mcpccAAnr
axnA1nyypapxamrnnarapaaxnApncrypaaxrcxacncmcpccAcAp
popyrpcanaAcnr1ycrana.Ynp:
AxnA1an oAon axnA oArornnn ca nn xynm1AaAwn
pn;
Hcnnpancanpaxrxynm1AaApnorpoxxoonrooyyAaA1wn
oroox
10
(aAparpaA)-nn xcmxcc;
TyxanxnAnnpancanpxynm1Aarpcannn1pn;
HaapAara1aycapmcpccAcA.
TBTC-nnxoonrooyyAaA1,ccpAnnypnpAarwnAaxnAAaraanp
1ooocxsnaA11annna.
II.
Anxnw Xynnn 1c1rcnnn can l800 onw cA op Kanap yAcap
ll

cn paaa nr 50-nap onw op ayyn onon, AHV-p ncn1cccn ana.
Tcprcc nr can pywn rnmnnAcA xn, xynnn vomnannypwn
ypnpAara po A axnAAaraaraa snyyApar an.
80-aap onooc can pywn, xynnn 1c1rcnnn canryypwn 1ymAarwr
1onn 1c1rcnnn norammyyp1a xocAyyAan xccrAcx cxcAccn.
Hnmcc nr, HnAnn Tc1rcnnn aarna-wr Aron1nn, Vyrna accr
Aa1nn amonvnn xcp xcpcn oon, mon Hnop, H1aAn r.m ononwn aanm
oonp xccrxAccn apar.
l2

90-ccp onooc HoArm, BoAra, CAonav, BaA1wn onyyp, OXV accr
oonp xynnn 1c1rcnnn canryyp aryyAarpax, nn1 axnA1nyypwn
3-l0 xynnr xaman cxcAccn ana. l992 onp OXV-p nn1 950 can
acan oA 2000 onp l00 onnm oAx ooncc. 2002 onooc OXV-p
nrcpcp ncnn panc crcn, 1c1rcnnr 1nccc 1oApor 1c1rcnnn
mnnc cnc1om n oAcon.
l3

Onoo op onpo xorxnA1c onyypap cnc cnc1om pynpxaa
axnA1nyypwn 50 x1cA xynnr xamax oAcon a xnmcc nr, IoAAanpap
90%,
l4
AHV, Iomanp ooAooroo axnA1nyypwn 50%, ayyn
ononwn ycap ononp l0-30% -nr xamancc. TBTC nr rnmnnAcAnn
0

.

OECD, Description of Private Pension Systems, 2008, p.65.

., , , 009 .

OECD, Description of Private Pension Systems, 2008, p.73.

2010] 39
xynrp XaaA11a ymy sma ncr rynn vomnannypwn xccnp
aryyAarpcan oo ycap aryyAAara cAccx oAomxr, HccA11c
ymy TBTC-p xamarpaxwr xcccn aAr n aryyAAarwr cAcApcr rcccn
1ooA1c apar. Hxcnx oonp TBTC-wn A axnAAaraar xyyArnnAcan
apar. Hoon xcpnr pyrpnaA AHV,
l5
Vnra
l6
, Yn1na, Mavao
l?
mm.
AxnA oArornnn oAon axnA1nw yrAayyAcan monron xccrccA nr
aonxon 1c1rcnnn av1nn xcAccc xccrAcrpcx oroop 1c1rcnnn
canrnn ooAornnn (axnA1nw) xopAomr omn ana. Tc1rcnnn
xynm1AaAwr ycap aonAroo amnrAaxwr xonrAono.
TBTC nr can pywn oAon aaanaA ooAox rcccn xoo 1ooA1c
apar. Banm oon (HnAn, Aron1nn, Vyrna, Hnop, H1aAn, HoArm
r.m)-p aaanaA ooAox xcAcnr xyyArnnAcan apar. Xann can
pywn rnmnnAcAnn xcAc nr nA 1rccmcA mm. (AHV, ayyn
oAon an ononwn onyyp, Hnon, Anc1aAn r.m.).
Xynnn 1c1rcnnn canryyp nr xoonro oyyAaA1wn mam xnnxcr
1nr n oAropor oroop 1cprcc nr nx xcmxccnn canxrnn
noonr cacmmnx, aax accAnn cpnn aacrnn xorxnAp nxccxcn noAoo
aAx, xoonrnn oAon nc1 aacnw aax accAp xoonro oyyAaA1
xnx, 1om 1om 1ocApnr accAxApcr,canxxApcr ana. Hnmcc
nr, AHV-p xoonrnn aax accAp aaarpax y xynraanw 25%-nr
xynnn 1c1rcnnn canryypwn av1nn pApcr oroop 1cpnn nn1
xoonro oyyAaA1wn xcmxcc nr cpnn aacar1 oyyAx y 1ocnnn
xoonro oyyAaA1aac panpar ana.
l8
Xynnn 1c1rcnnn canryyp
nr axnA1nyypwn ncnn pancanp yrAayyAcan monron xoonrnr
crcA1cp oyyAcnaa 1nnr y1 xyraaanw 1ymnp monronn
xanmnw ynaA1aac xamraaAx, ocrox nappar. Canxrnn xnnxcr
1orAorn oAox 1c1rcnnn canryyp nr xmcnn nccpnxcc omno
xAccx xanyAarwr onpocrox, 1cpnn cpnn aacrnn npcnxnr
ncmcrpAx, xoonro oyyAaA1wn mcpAcr, papAwr n oAropor
l9
1yA
TBTC-yypap 1oooc 1a1nawn xonroAoA1 aApcr. Anc1n, BaanA,
HnAn, 4nnAsnp, 4an, Ioman, IoAAanp, Tyv, AHV, AnrAn accr
yAcap axnA1an oAon axnA oArornnn ca 1oAx y xynm1AaAwr
oAorwn aAan 1a1naaac noAooApor oroop TBTC-nn xoonro
oyyAaA1wn orooxnp 1a1na norpyyAparr.
20
TBTC-nn xamrnn roA
acyypaA oA xynm1AaAwr ccpcAr ymy xamrnn ara ccpcA1c
xoonro oyyAaA1ap amnrAax mm. Oooo xcAcA TBTC-nn roA
ccpcAp nr xoonro oyyAaA1 (xoonro oAon o 1oAonn ao)-

Pension Protection Act ( ).


6
Act LXXXII of 1997 on Private Pensions and Private Pensions Funds.

Makau, Act of Private Pension Funds.


8
.
9
-
. .
0
OECD study Private Pension System in Turkey, 00.
, ,
[4(31)
40
wn ccpcA, nnqAsn, nomo1nv ccpcA, 1oAonn napnar oAox
snpaA apar.
2l

III. MonroA VAcwn cx an onnw onoornn apaA
Onoopo MonroA VAc (MV)-p TBTC-nn cx a aoxnyyAaA1 aar
axr rcx xcAx oAoxoo ana. Xann HHEI, IoAom1 anv, Xacanv,
Earno Aan XXK accr vomnann TBTC-nn cxAcAnr xcpnn 1anrxcc.
XaamcaA1a nr xyyAr, cx an aoxnyyAaA1 xanraA1rrccc cprcc
canryypwn A axnAAaraa xnnxcnc y1raaaa xccrxnx napaxr
ana. TBTC-nn cx an c1a1yc MV-wn Tonn yc aryyAarwn
1yxa xyyAnn paryy InmnnAcA xn, amrnn 1oAoo yc
aryyAAara apAaa aryyAx oAoxoo ana.
22
Xann TBTC-nn
A axnAAaraanw onAorooc xamaan TBB-wn nn1Acr aoxnyyAaA1aa
aoxnyyAax oAomxr ana. Canr aryyAax, 1a1an yyArax acyypaA,
xoonrnn ypnpAarwn opAoro, can, axnA1an, axnA oArornnn cx
cr, 1oooc canrnn A axnAAaraanp 1annx xsnaA1, maapAara
rcx mc1 acyypAyypwr cnc xyyAna aoxnyyAax oAomxr mm. Ync1
aacnw aax accAnn 1yxa xyyArp aaacan Xoonro oyyAaA1wn can nr
amrnn 1oAoo A axnAAaraa snyyAax, 1opoxo pmnn can1a ax
mnnxcccc TBTC nm oAoxwr xayyAx ana.
AxnA1an oAon axnA oArornnn 1oAx y
xynm1AaAwr 1a1naaac noAooAox, xonroAox, xoonro oyyAaA1wn
amnr, oArox y 1c1rcnc1 1a1na norpyyAaxr ax ymy 1opoxo
xcmxccnp noAooAox moxannamwr ycap oonp oron amnrAax
araar MV-p ncn1Acx, nnrccncc xynnn xcnmApcp TBTC
aryyAax ccpAnr 1oAcx, pcmxnx maapAara1a ana.
, Opoornn
cx an aoxnyyAaA1aac xaaxap Xoonro oyyAaA1wn can
23
,
anAxaanw anvyyp xoonrnr ypnpax oAoxoo ana.
TyxaAaA, Banvnw 1yxa xyyAnn 6.2 pyraa aAp aaacnaa
anv, 1nn xaaa1 oAon oxnn vomnann Canxrnn aoxnyyAax
xooonw 1ycra aonmoooA1crcc n1rcAAnn AnnArcc
24

snyyAax cx1c ana. Oooo xcAcA TBTC-nn xoonrnr ypnpax
oAno rcccn r mm. Xann xoonro oyyAaA1wn opAoro,
25
1nnr

OECD, Evaluating the Design of Private Pension Plans: Costs and benefts of Risk-Sharing,
009.

. .

- .

Trust .

: -
0%,
0% - ,
. (Private Pension Fund Regulation In Lithuania, Lithuanian Banking, Insur-
ance and Finance Institute) -
2010] 41
xccrxAcx A axnAAaraanp 1annx xsaraaAaA1, maapAara,
axnA1nyypwncxamrnrxamraaAaxaccracyypAwraoxnyyAax
moxannamrAcrpcxana.
0cpcAnr yyyyAax, 1nccc
ccrnAcxnn 1yAp axnA1an oooo 1c1rcncc paa1ryyAax ccxA can
xoonro, A axnAAaraaraa paa1ryyAax xcAc apar. Onoopnn
apAaa NaIIonaI LIo, Bopr paa1raA na cnc 1oAnn A
axnAAaraa snyyAax 1ycra aonmoooA ancan ana. Haampaa
TBTC-nn xoonrnr aaanaA paa1rax xcAc1 mnAxnx nr a1c
oAon yy. AHV-p xynnn 1c1rcnnn canryypwn ccpcAnr 1onn
ooAoo1o can paa1rapar
26
. Bn omnop aann xsmaAwn oc
Hnonw xynnn 1c1rcnnn canryyp nxccxcn aAparpaA xAccccn 1yA
yr cnc1omnr pcmxnx aonAroo yAcwn 1ocnooc nxccxcn xcmxccnn
xoonrnr raracan mm.
2?

IV. ?
TBTC-yypwr aryyAax, A axnAAaraar oroxAcx nr nnrmnn
opn1 xccrcc 1yA xyyAr cx an onnn, xoc cyynr aon pAcx
maapAara a ocoo ran ana. Oooo xcAcA, TBTC-nn cx an
aoxnyyAaA1wr oAonconry oArox, pcAxn nn1nn nnr xanpAarwr
parax nr a1c. 0nc aonAroo po pypcan acyypAwr mnpncAcx,
sAanrysa mnpncAcx ara aamyypwr ca1a 1ynraax xccr1c rcccn
prncA1cp xn ana. Ynp:
TBTC-nn cx an c1a1yc, TBTC-nn A axnAAaraa
snyyAax 1ycra aonmoooA oArox cccx, canrnn ypnpAara aoxnon
aryyAaA1, axnA1nyypwn cx amrnr xamraaAax, canp cAccx,
canraac raax acyypaA;
Xoonro oyyAaA1wn A axnAAaraanp 1annx maapAara
(aaAmr aArax noo, xsaraaAaA1yyp, ccpcAccc ccrnAcx
moxannam);
TBTC-p aaanaA,can pyaa xamarpax cccx (1omooxon ccxA
xnxnr vomnannypwn sAraa);
Xoonro oyyAaA1wn A axnAAaraanw 1onn xsnaA1,
monn1onnr, HBB-nn xsnaA1, xonpAonrnn aypn1;
0cpcAnn ypnpAara, paa1raAwn acyypaA, 1oooc aAcx
1a1nawn xonroAoA1 accr acyypAwr cxnn ccAxnnp mnpncAcx
maapAara1a mm.
10%- . (Supervisory Structure for Private Pen-
sion in the Philippines, By Dir. Emilio B. Aquino, OECD/INPRS Conference on Private Pensions in
Asia, May 28-30, Hyderabad, India (2002))
6
Pension Beneft Guaranty Corporation.

., , , 009 .
, ,
42


Hxnn mnpnc rc1rcx 1yxa
MonroA VAcwn xyyArp aaacan ...nrcnn
oAon crnn xcrnn 1aAaaxn mxnn
mnpnc rc1rcx... axnAAaraanaac xonx
sA cpAAcx axnAAaraa ymy crnn sA
cpAAcxcc 1or1oocon mxnn mn1rcx
1or1ooAwr rc1rcx axnAAaraa, 1nn
xccrxnA1nr xanraxap ynnn y cxmccA,
cx an aoxnyyAaA1wn mon nana,
1or1oAoonw opn1 a 1or1oA acrnn 1aAaa
mnnxAcx yxaanw npccAcA1c cypaAraa,
mnnxnArccnn axAwr 1or1moA snyyAx,
pnr nav1nv1 aoxnc1oroo amnrAax
nr cncx 1onn onAor nnr rnr
amxnA11a xccrxAcx aonA1wr xanraxap
nyxaA an xoAorpoA1o.
MonroA VAc nnrcm, cpnn aacrnn mnnc 1or1oAoonp mnAxnx
y cAnn xnApcp rcm1 xcrnn 1oon aAcA1 ocoxnn xam1 rcm1
ApAnn ara nancn nA xo amyA1a oAx oonAorpox araa
a aoxnon aryyAaA11a, nnrcm cpnn aacar, yAc 1o, nanocnn
caAa 1nnAcn crnn rcm1 xccr1npnr xamacan mnnc onro
asc xn AcrAcAp cn crnn rcm1 xcrnn noxoA apaA
xnpcccc ana.
Mana yAcwn crnn xyyAr 1or1oomxnn onAorooc maA1raaAx
on xnp, xnp, xnpcn1c rcm1 xccr1 ccxnrAcrpcn xoAorpox
aryyAAarap maArarpax araa ccxnr1cn, sAAarparnnr arpan
xorx maArapar, mon 0rnn xyyAnn 1ycra anrnp aaacan pnAcnx
rcm1 xccr nr xonx sAwn canv1a apar ynn yAc onw crnn
noxoA apaA Hxnn mnpnc rc1rcx aryyAAarwn (HHIB)
xarsa xonx anrn, annnAax, arpan xonx anw (aamnp xonx
anrn rcx) po1oop noxoA apaAp 1opoxo xcmxccrcc noAooAx
apar. Oooo xcAcA, ApAnn ara xcAc, nnrcmp ynyyAcan xo
ymraa xnp no1o xcrnn nxcnxn ccxnr1cn arpan xonrppor,
yAmaa rcm1 ApcA nr mxnn ma1anp xcAcAcrpcn no1Aorpcon
1oxnoApoAp mon pnAcnxnxynr nr mxnn mn1rcx 1or1ooAoo
xonx sA mn1rcrppcrccc yAaaAan 1yxan xonrporn, sA1nw xynnn
apaA, rcm1 canaa opAwn xc xcmxcc, cyrov1nn mnnx nr xonx
aryyAAarwn po1oop noxoA apAwr xnpAcx myyp xnnn
-

,
, ,
.
2010] 43
aAcnn ncr oAx apar.
Xonrporn, sA1nw pynpaac aAan xaarnnn cr rc1rcA1, yAmaa
aAanw A axnAAaraanp noAooAoxnr ooApox, oo1oo amnr1a
mnpnc raryyAaxwr cmcAacx, aAan xaarnnr sna nn araa
cxmccApcc oyyAaxwr xnnccx rcx mc1 xonx anrn, annnAax arpan
xonx anw opo 1y1mwn xcnnn A axnAAaraar aAparpyyAax
aonAro xn ApAnr anrwn ymy 1acaA1r mnnx1crcc
Apccc ana. TnnAcn xonrporcop nr xonx anrn, annnAax
arpan xonx aanp ycpwn amr nac, cA mcnpnn cccr Apcx
araa, mon xonx anrnac xayyA xamraaAaA1wn cyA apaA ccxA
1yxan anrn, aAanw A axnAAaraanw onAor apAwr amnrAan
xamraaAaA1wn nnxono 1oxnnvnn xccrccAnr cnpcx, aonyAaA1wn
caap, 1oxooomxnr panx 1yyAax aamaa ranaa oAon AcrAcn
orox rcm1 xccr Apcrpccc ana. 0nc nr xonx anrnn amyAr
apAwr xanrax ara xcmxccr xcxcn pn1c aoxnon aryyAax a
1or1Awr onoAwn pnccc ma1 paaa1a cypAan, nav1nv an xoAorpAwr
ncmcrpAcx aaAmr maapAarwr n oArox ana.
Mon onoopnn apAaa xonx anrnn amyAr apAwr xanrax
ara xcmxccnn cx an aoxnyyAaA1, opn1 a 1or1Awr no paacan
apAaa mnnxAcx yxaanw pnccc ann accn 1ccA, cypaAraanw
axnA 1nm n xanraA11a yc araa nr cnc nnrAcAcc cypaAraa
mnnxnArcc snyyAax ac ncrcn maA1raan oAx ana. E nr aAnnaa
yAc onw 0rnn opAoro ymy 1onn arccc rcm1 snpAwn
ocoA1nr yyyyAax, 1or1noxyyAax aonA1wr xanrax ononn1o
opAoro oAoncyyAx xccrxAcx aamaa nnrmnr rcm1 xaApAaraac
xamraaAax nnrAcAcc snyyAx y npcnx1c A axnAAaraa-nw
l

caAmr ncr xcccr nr crnn sA cpAAcx axnAAaraa 1opnr
Hxnn mnpnc rc1rcx aryyAAara nr 1o nnrmnr rcm1
xaApAaraac xamraaAax, rcm1 snpaA1a xnx 1cmAnn nnrAcAcc
snyyAx y crnn opAorwr xccrxAcrn ncr nyxaA cyrov1 mm.
TnnAcn MonroA VAcwn Ynpccnn amyAr apaA-wr 1yxaAaA,
1nn cApcxn xccrpnr xamraaAax, 1cprcc1 xaApax oAaomr
rcm1 snpaA1a 1cmcx, ynnn oAaomr xo ymraac yrpnnAan
ccrnAcx, 1acAan aorcoox aonAroo 1oooc ymy 1onn cx xn
cyrov1yyp nr MonroA VAcwn xyyAr 1or1oomxnn xccnp 1yc 1ycwn
nnrAcAcc 1opoxo nnr rnr xccrxApcr. TyxaAaA: MonroA
VAcwn acnccr1 xnnn nr yAc onwr crnn xncc a1Aan xamraaAax
cr xAccpcr oA, TEI nr MonroA VAcwn npccnn amyAr apAwr
1arnyyAwn ara aamaa xanrax aonArwr xccrxAx, HEI nr rcm1
xccr1c 1cmcx, nnrmnn xcn xymwr xamraaAax aamaa 1yc 1yc
MonroA VAcwn npccnn amyAr apAwr xanraxap 1opoxo cr

... . ,
2003, .7.
, ,
[4(31)
44
xAccpcr.
TcrncA HHIB 1onn 1ycra nnr rnr xccrxAcrn cyrov1
oAoxwn xynrp crnn xcrnn 1aAaaxn mxnn mnpncnr
rc1rcx snpaa crnn sAwn aonA1wr xanrax pnccc rcm1 xccr
Apcx xonx sA mn1rcrpccn xmcnr nnrmccc 1ycraaAax, arpan
xonx 1acAan ccrnAcx ara xcmxcc anarpcan ccxnr1cn sAAarparnnr
xonx, xonrporn, sA1nw arccc Apcx oAaomr rcm1 xcrccc
yrpnnAan ccrnAcx, 1acAan aorcoox ara xcmxccr xccrxAcx cr
xAccpcr. TnnAcn xonx anrn, annnAax, arpan xonx anw
xcnnn A axnAAaraar xanrax, xonrporcpwn oAon axnA1an, aAan
xaarn, ycap xmcnn (...xonrporn sA1nw a rcnnxcn, HHIB-
wn anrn, aAapwn c po1o axnAAax y xyyAr xsnaA1wn, 1nnAcn
1onn oAon 1onn yc oAon nn1nn aryyAAarwn axnA1nyyp r.m)
amyAr apAwr xanrax aamaa MonroA VAcwn npccnn amyAr
apAwn cApxn xcccr oAcon nnrcm-1onn aryyAAwn amyAr
apaA, nrcpnn cx, cx noAoo amyAr apAwr xanraxap 1opoxo
cr rc1rcx ana rcx acx oAox mm.
Ynccc ancA ncr 1aAaac Hxnn mnpnc rc1rcx aryyAAara
nr 1onn crnn opAorwr xccrxAcrn cyrov1 xcpn oAonn
noroo 1aAaac MonroA VAcwn xyyAr 1or1oomxnp aaacnw paryy crnn
sAwn aonArwn xccnp rcm1 xccr Apccn c1rccpnr paxnn rcm1 xccr
Apcxccc yrpnnAan ccrnAcx 1nnAcn xonx anrn, annnAax,
arpan xonx anw amyAr apAwr xanrax aamaa nnr rcc
xccrxApcr aryyAAara mm.
Xonx sA cpAAcxcc raracan mxnn mnpncnr noAAcx
snap xonx anrnn po1oop noxoA apAaac maA1raaAx 1nn amyAr
apAwr xcxcn xanrax 1aAaa nannnAan cypAax maapAara1a apar
oA arpan xonx annnAax anw xynrp opoornn moporpox y
xyyAr, cx an av1yypwn xccnp xayyA xamraaAaA1wn A axnAAaraa
nr mon apnA 1nmnnp aoxnon aryyAAarppar a 1cnp xsnaA1, xayyA
xamraaAaA1wr 1yxan orov1wn onAor noxoA apaA1a ysApyyAan
ononn1o, nsr1 aoxnon aryyAax aaAmr maapAara ana.
VHX-aac 2002 onp 0x an mnnc1rcA-n opAorwn snap
a1Aarpcan aanm xyyAnr xccrxAcx ara xcmxccnn xccnp
annnAax, arpan xonx a nr HHIB-n xarsanp mnAxnn
nccncc annnAax, arpan xonx 1aAaaxn mxnn mnpncnr
xcxcn rc1rcx, sma maapAara, c1anpa1 xanracan noxoAp xonx,
xsnaA1, xayyA xamraaAaA1wr sax aoxnon aryyAax 1aAaa HHIEI-
aac ma1 paaaAcan ara xcmxccnpnr ann xccrxccc nccn. 2002-
2008 onw xyraaanp annnAax, arpan xonx aanp Apcrpccn rcm1
xccr, aonnA, po1oop noxoA apAwr cypaAx ancA 1cnp Apcrpcx
y rcm1 xcrnn ApAnn ara xcAc nann, ca1a 1oAonAocon,
2010] 45
raax paranawr yrpaac 1oocon axwn accrcc xonrporcpwn
cc1rcA an onomo onAor apAaac maA1raaAan ynyyAx araa
xo ymnr xnp no1o mnnxnr aryyAx ana. TyxaAaA, xonx
anw aAan xaarnnn oAon ycap xonrporcpwn amr nac, cA
mcnpcp xaApcan no1o rcm1 xcrp n Apcrpcx ana.
Hmccc annnAax, arpan xonx anw amyAr apAwr xanrax
acyypAwr 1ycap nr oxnrpyyAax yc HHIB-wn A axnAAaraanw ncr
onAor nnrAcA, nyxaA orov1wn xynrp xonx anrn1a xam1a1ran ncr
aanmaa xanpan 1yArampax y acyypAwn 1aAaa cypAax nr a1c
rcx acx ana. Mnnn no 200? onp arpan xonx anw amyAr
apAwr xcxcn xanrax 1aAaa marnc1wn cypaAraanw axnA xnccn a
cnc nnrAcAcc cypaAraanw axnA rcAxnAx araa.
Xonx anrnn amyAr apAwr xanrax 1yxa cypAaxwn 1yAp mynw
omno amyAr apAwr xanrax 1yxa oonxn oAroA1 1nn mon
nana, opn1 an xoAorpAwr ann acx nr a1c.
AmyAr apAwr xanrax rcpcr nr nyxam sma aAnn amyAr
apAwr xanrax 1aAaa ann acx araaraac maA1raaAan 1opoxo
xcmxcc 1opoxoAorpcon ara xcmxccnpnn ncrpAnn 1yxa
oAroA1 mm. AmyAr apAwr xanrax ara xcmxccr 1opoxoAoxwn
1yAp po1oop aryyAra, mon nanawr 1or1oox oAon xcmxcc 1yxan
orov1wn mnnx apAwr 1opoxoAoxwn accrcc nnrcm, cpnn
aacrnn ymy yAc onw omnn 1or1noxyn oAon xorxAnn nyxam sma
an xoAorpoA, nc cnc aryyAx araar xaraAaan apcr. TnnAcn
aAnnaa aAnn amyAr apAwr xanrax ara xcmxccr 1opoxoAox
roA xnnn aAnn ncr nr 1np noAooAx y rapaap, po1oop xnnn
aAc oroop nyxam sma amyA aanaAxnAcA noAooAx oAaomr
araar 1or1oox snpaA mm. Oooo xcAcA, amyAr apAwr xanrax
maapAara, amyA aanaAxnAAnn 1nmnn, cx cynaAxnr ononn1o
1opoxoAox aaAmr maapAara1a.
AmyAr apAwr xanrax ara xcmxcc nr 1yAran y opn1
maapAara, 1nn an xoAorpoA, 1yxan orov1wn onAor acrccc
maA1raaAan xynr xnn, aryyAAarwn, yAc onw 1ycraa 1or1noAwn,
mcpccAAnn 1nnAcn 1opoxo nnrAcA1 A axnAAaraanw, cpnn
aacrnn, xorxAnn, cvoAornn, cooAwn, 1xnn an xoAorpoA
xn nc1 aAcnn amyAr apAwr xanrax rcx mc1 mam oAon
1ooA aA ax oAno. 0npccc 1yxan xamraaAarpax maapAara1a
orov1wn amyAr apaA rcprnr 1nn opn1 a 1or1oA, xcnnn
omnn 1or1nox, ycap mon nana1 coroo noAooAx oAaomr 1cx
rapaap, po1oop xnnn aAc ymy coor noAooAAooc xamraaAax noxoA
xanrarpcan apaA ymy amyAr apAwr xanrax aonAro amxnA11a
xccrxccn apAwr xcAx oAox mm.
Tcrcxcc HHIB nr MonroA VAcwn Ynpccn xyyAr, ycap xyyAr
, ,
[4(31)
46
cx an av1yypwr ypnpAara oAron oonn npccn nnr rcc
xccrxAcx snpaa xonx anrnn amyAr apAwr xcxcn xanrax
1aAaa nx ncc nr ann acxnn 1yAp paaax or oAroA1yypwr
1onn 1opoxoAox maapAara1a oAx ana. Ynp:
Xonx anrnn amyAr apAwr xanrax ara xcmxccnn
aonAro, aonA1wr 1opoxoAox;
Xonx anrnn amyAr apAwr xanraxap noAooAx y rapaap
oAon po1oop xnnn aAcnr 1or1oox;
Xonx anrnn amyAr apAwr xanrax 1c;
Xonx anrnn amyAr apAwn 1yxa oAroA1 1nn
cApcxn, onAor mnnx;
Xonx anrnn amyAr apAwr xanrax ara xcmxccnn
1or1oAoor 1opoxoAx ann acx accr acyypaA ar1ax ana.
.
,
: BonAro nr xonx sA cpAAcx oAon annnAax, arpan
xonx 1aAaaxn mxnn mnpncnr noAAcx axnAAaraar MonroA
VAcwn xyyAr, 1or1oomxnn xccnp aoxnon aryyAax snpaa xnn
cx, cx noAoor xanrax, yAmaa xonx anrn, annnAax, arpan
xonx anw xcnnn, amyAr axnAAaraanw 1or1oAoor pAcx
snpaA mm. 0ncx aonArwn xccnp paaaxr rynan Acr aonA1wr
xccrxAnc.
1.
0ncx aonA1 nr HHIB-wn xyyAna xAccccn cr, nnrAcA1c
caAmr xoAoo1o mm. Oooo xcAcA HHIB-wn A axnAAaraanw
npccn nnrAcAnn ncr nr xonx anrn, annnAax arpan xonx anw
xcnnn axnAAaraar xanrax snpaA.
Xcnnn A axnAAaraa xanrarpcan apaA rcpcr1 mynw 1np
xonrporn, sA1nw arccc Apcrpcx oAaomr rcm1 xccr, aonAooc
yrpnnAan ccrnAcx, 1acAan aorcoox, no1o rcm1 aonAro xn
nyyrpmaA canaa, 1oAonAoA1nr nAAcx ara xcmxcc pn1c
xccrxccn axwr oArono. Ynn accrcc xonx anrn, annnAax
arpan xonx anw anAra aryyAamx, xamraaAaA1wn 1oxnnv
xccrccA, 1onor 1oxooomxnn anrwn napna1a axnAAaraa; -
canxrnn oAon ycap ma1onaAAar xanramx 1acaA1r xanrarpcan
apaA accr nr xonx anrnn xcnnn A axnAAaraanw cApcxn
xccrp mm.
Mon xonx anrnn xcnnn A axnAAaraar xanraxap aaAmr
anxaanaA aoxnx ncr nyxaA cApcxn xcccr nr HHIB-wn oAoncon
xnnn xanramx, axnA1an, aAan xaarnpwn mcrcxAnn y napna,
l.
2.
3.
4.
5.
2010] 47
anxan ma1nw oAon pan1an cyraA1 1nn pn rcx acx ana.
TnnAcn HHIB nr MonroA VAcwn xyyAr 1or1oomxnp aaacnaa
Tonn nyy-1a xoAoo1o nnr rnr xccrxApcr Tonn
1ycra aAa oAoxwn xynrp aryyAAarwn mcpccAAnn amyAr
apAwr xanrax axnAAaraa nr mon xcnnn A axnAAaraar xanrax
aonA1wn xccnp xccrxnnc.
2.,
Xonx sA cpAcx araa oAon arpan xonrpox y xonrporcop
nr sma ncr rcm1 canaa opAoo amxnA11a xccrxAcx ccxA nyyn
paApAax, oonn xanr xamcaa1an1a xoAoo 1or1oox rcx mc1 coor
ApAnnxcc snap axnA1an, aAan xaarnnn amyAr apaAp myyp
oAon myyp ycaa xaApax oAaomr apar. TyxaAaA, cxmccApcc
oyyAaxwr cmcAacx, aAran cpAcx, paam1Aax mon amr nac,
cp mcnpcp xaApax rcx mc1. Hmccc xonx anrnn axnA1an, aAan
xaarnpwn amyAr apAwr xanrax nr 1yAwn nyxaA aonA1 mm.
Xcpnrcc HHIB-wn oqno axAarnnp nr aAan cr rc1rcx
snpaa pcm1 xynac, aanm noxoAp acnccr, 1ycra xccrcAcc
xanrarppar oAonn aAan xaarnpwn amyAr apAwr xanrax ara
xcmxccnn xccnp cr rc1rcxccc ycap ar xyraaanp,
1yxaAaA, oAon nn1nn raaa1, axnAp ncx, yax aamp xcxcn
amyAr apAwr xanrax 1aAaa aaAmr anxaan acx nr a1c.
3. ,

Xonrporn, sA1nw arccc xam1 xonrporcpwn amr nac, cA mcnpcp


xaApax, paam1Aax accr rcm1 xccr, aonnA Apcrpccc araa nr
cypaAraanaac xaarpax ana. TnnAcn crnn xanyAaraac
aaAcxnx aonAroo ccxA cc1rcA an onAor, ycap maA1raanw
yAmaac amna xoAox, no cx1cnpcc rcm1cA ynyyAax accr no1o
ApAccc yrpnnAan ccrnAcx, 1acAan aorcooxwn 1yAp xonrporn,
sA1nw amyAr apAwr xanrax ara xcmxccr pcc paaa1a xccrxAcx
maapAara1a mm.
0np ycap xmc rcpcr1 omnA xcccr1 pypcannAan xonx anrnn
c, aAaAp 1 xyraaaraa ncn1cn araa oAon 1opoxo axnA
cr rc1rcx araa aAan 1ymaaA1an nrcpnr xamyyAx oArox
nr a1c mm.
.

Xonx anrnn amyAr apaAp noAooAox xnnn aAnr ycap
, ,
[4(31)
48
amyAr apAwn 1aAaa nnnrpccn nom cyax nnnr, cpcm1cn
cypAaanpwn accnnAcn cx cynaAx, mnnx nanaaa nr rapaap oAon
po1oop xcmccn nn1Acr apAaa xynaan ann anc. Xonx anrnn
amyAr apaAp noAooAox rapaap xnnn aAc rcpcr1 paaax aAnr
xamyyAan oArono. Ynp:
l. 0xnn Acr xnnn aAccp aAnnaa yAc onw nnrmnn
xorxAnn opn1 a 1or1oA, cpnn aacar, canxrnn 1or1no1o
apaA, ap 1mnn amrxnraanw 1nmnn rcx mc1 nn1Acr
noxoAp xamaana;
2. Mon yAc 1onn oAon xyyAr, cx an 1or1oAoonw 1c,
1cprccnr pAcrn cAomon1pnn a 1or1oA, amrpaAp
xccrxnx opn1 pn1c xoAoo1o noAooAAnr rapaap xnnn
aAp xamaayyAx oArono;
3. VAc onw crnn noxoA apaA1a xoAorpcon xnnn aAc.
0np np rcm1 snAwn opn1 apaA 1nn vnmnnoAorn mnnx
oAon nnrmnn amrpaAp noAooAx y noAooAoA, rcm1 snpAwn
1c, 1nn ocoA1, yyaA1, nnrcmp xo amyA1a mnnx
nanawn oonAoA1 rcx mc1 aAnr xamaayyAx oArox oAno;
4. BaraAr, ar yywn xnnn aAc. Onoornn pcAxnn nn1nn
omno 1yArampax y 1omooxon acyypaA nr araAr, ar yywn
oonAoA1, 1nccc ynnn oAox xo ymraac yrpnnAan ccrnAcx
snpaA mm. Xonx anrn nr araA, ar yywn rcnc1nn oonAoA1,
1nccc pcn raax paranwr yrpnnAan 1ooox, no1o xo
ymnr ynaxaac yrpnnAan ccrnAcx anrwn 1oAonAoroo1 cAcn
apaAp ax maapAara1a;
5. Xonx anrnn amyAr apaAp noAooAox rapaap xnnn aAccp
aaAmr xamaayyAnaA aoxnx ncr aAc nr xonx anrnn aAanw
A axnAAaraa, aAan 1ymaaA1nw cr rc1rcA1cp myyp a
myyp ycaa noAooAox connxoA xn orov1nn oAon cyrov1nn
xanpAara mm. Ynp, rcm1 xccr, aonnA Apcx oAaomr
xonrporn, sA1nw xanr xamcaa1an, AcrAcAp 1cprccccc
xccrxAx y npcnx1c ApcA canaaxaA mm.
Xonx anrnn amyAr apaAp noAooAox po1oop xnnn aAcnn
mon nanawn 1aAaa pcc amyAr apAwr xanrax ara xcmxccnn
1aAaa cypAax maapAarwr 1opoxoAox snap pypcan xcpn n
pAcrn xnnn aAnr ann aro. Ynp:
l. Xonx anrnn po1oop noxoA apaA;
2. Xonrporn, sA1nw arccc Apcx oAaomr rcm1 xccr,
aonAnn xo ymnr, amyA aanaAxnAAwn 1nmnn;
3. XamraaAaA1wn 1oxnnv xccrccA, 1onor 1oxooomxnn xcAcc,
anAra aryyAamxnn nana;
4. Xonx anrnn ypnpAara aoxnon aryyAaA1wn axnA, 1nn
pn;
5. AmyAr apAwr xanrax nnr cr xn aAan 1ymaaA1nw
mcrcxAnn (ccxA mcrcmAnn), y napna, axnA cr
rc1rcA1, aAanw oAon mcrcxAnn cA1rcAnn 1nmnn.
2010] 49
.
Xonx aryyAAarwn amyAr apAwr xanrax nr Hxnn
mnpnc rc1rcx 1yxa MonroA VAcwn xyyAnn 3 pyraa aAp
aaacan aannm, 5 pyraa aAp aaacan 1or1oAoonp npccAcn paaax
1c1c ana. Ynp:
(A) XccrxAcrn cyrov1wn xynrp:
l. Ton ypnpAara ymy HHIEI;
2. McrcxAnn ypnpAara ymy TII;
3. Hyyp ypnpAara ymy xonx anrnn para;
4. Xonx anrnn xayyA xamraaAaA1 cxAcccn pcp para, 1nnAcn
arpan xonx anw para;
5. Xonx anrnn xayyA xamraaAaA1wn npccn cApcxn;
6. Topoxo 1oxnoApAyypap xonx anrnn nn1 oqno axAarn;
(B) Toxnnv xccrcAnn xynrp:
l. BanAra aryyAamx;
2. IaA1 acnccr, 1ycra xccrccA;
3. XamraaAaA1wn 1onor 1oxooomx xccrcAp;
4. Mamnn 1oxnnv ycap 1ycra aonyAaA1wn 1oxnnv;
(E) YA axnAAaraanw xynrp:
l. Opo 1y1mwn ymy 1oAonAoroo1 A axnAAaraa;
2. Icnc1nn ymy oAaomr xn A 1oxnoApoAp axnAAax
myyxa axnAAaraanw 1oAonAoroo1 A axnAAaraa;
3. BoAaomr amyAwr yrpnnAan 1ooox, 1cprccnr panan 1yyAax
aonAroo cx an, ypnpAara aoxnon aryyAaA1wn oAon ycap
ara aamwr oAoncyyAax nnrAcA xn cypaAraa, mnnxnArccnn
A axnAAaraa.
.

Xonx anrnn amyAr apAwr 1nn A axnAAaraanw onAor
mnnx, npccn aonAro, aonA11o ysApyyAan: Xonx anrnn amyAr
apaA rcpcr nr xonx anrn, annnAax, arpan xonx anw xcnnn
A axnAAaraanp coor noAooAoA aAcx, yAmaa xcnnn A
axnAAaraar aAparpyyAx, no1o xo ymnr ynyyAx oAaomr
rapaap, po1oop xnnn aAnn noAooAAooc xamraaAax aonAroo cx,
cr xn cyrov1pccc xccrxAx y 1acaA1r mnnx nana
xn ara xcmxccnn or, ononn1o 1c pcx snpaA rcx
1opoxoAx oAox mm.
.
,
, ,
[4(31)
50
Xonx aryyAAarwn amyAr apAwr xanrax ara xcmxccr
1opoxo pcc paaaAaA, xanAan no no1c aoxnoApcon, nsr1 ysApaa
xoAoo xn or apAaa xccrxAcx maapAara1a. 0ncx
amyAr apAwr xanrax or ara xcmxcc ymy 1or1oAoor aoxnon
aryyAaxpaa paaax npccn aanmwr anm1Aana. Ynp:
l. Xonx anrnn amyAr apAwr xanrax aonAro, aonA1oo
1opoxoAx, 1np nnccn A axnAAaraa snyyAax;
2. AmyAr apaAp xo ymnr ynyyAx oAaomr amyA aanaAaac
yrpnnAan ccrnAcx ara xcmxccr 1crAcx mnnx nana1a
xccrxAcx;
3. Xonx anrnn amyAr apAwr xanrax xn A or ara
xcmxcc myyxa, 1acaA1r mnnx nana1a ax;
4. Xonx anrnn amyAr apAwr xanrax ara xcmxccnp ymy
nnxono 1oxnnvnn xccrccA, ycap A axnAAaraanp mnnxAcx
yxaan, 1oxnoAornn pcnmAnr ncn1Acx;
5. Xonx anrnn amyAr apAwr xanrax 1or1oAoonw xccnp
snarpax araa ara xcmxcc, A axnAAaraa, xn xccrcAp nr
xooonpoo nsr1 ysApaa xoAoo1o ax;
6. Xonx anrnn amyAr apAwr xanrax ara xcmxccnp nr
rapaap oAon po1oop xnnn aAccc maA1raaAan ysn xa1an ax.
Oooo xcAcA, amyAr apAwr xanrax ara xcmxcc nr xonx
anrnn onAor noxoA apAaac xamaaaA1a ax maapAara1a
mm.
cAxn nn1cp 1rccmcA xccrAcrpcx y amyAr apAwr xanrax
ara xcmxccnn 1or1oAoo 1nnAcn xonx anrnn amyAr apAwr
xanrax nnrAcAcc xnccn aanm cypaAraa, onoAwn oAon nav1nv
prncA1cp 1yAryyAan ancA xonx aryyAAarwn amyAr apAwr
xanrax ara xcmxcc nr paaax 1or1oAoo1o ana. Ynp:
l. VpnpAara, aoxnon aryyAaA1wn ara xcmxcc;
2. BnonnAccn xayyA xamraaAaA1wn ara xcmxcc;
3. Hnxono 1oxnnvnn ara xcmxcc;
4. Ic1rcx axAwn ara xcmxcc accr ara xcmxccnp
ar1ana.
Xonx anrnn amyAr apAwr xanrax pccxn ara xcmxccnp
nr xanAan no noncc noxox, anrwn ysApaa xoAoonp ax
aanmaa xccrxnx oroop aAr ncr ara xcmxccr norooroo oAyyAx
rc1rcx ccncA oxnrpyyAax nr xcnnn A axnAAaraar aAparpyyAax,
amyAr apAwr xanrax npccn aonA1 xccrxnxr ax noxoAnr
pAx oAaomr. 0nc nr xonrporn, sA1anp rcm1 canaa opoA,
ApAcc xccrxAcx, xonx anrnn xcnnn A axnAAaraanp coroo
noAooAox oAomx oArox, no1o rcm1 xccr, aonAnr 1acAan aorcoox
oAomxr oAox rcx mc1 parana ynyyAx oAaomr rcccn r
mm. TyxaAaA, pccxn ara xcmxccnpccc ypnpAara, aoxnon
2010] 51
aryyAaA1wn ara xcmxcc nr ycap ara xcmxccnpnr xccrxnx
noxoAnr pAcx, xooonpwn ysApaa xoAoor xanrax, ccnn
pnr yrpnnAan 1ooox rcx mc1 nnrAcAcc ypnpax, 1oAonAox nyxaA
cr rc1rcpcr a cnc nr amyAr apAwr xanrax ara xcmxccnn
1or1oAoor pn1c aoxnon aryyAaxap Acmx nyxaA an xoAorpoA1o
mm. Xann nonnAccn xayyA xamraaAaA1wn ymy 1opoxo aAan
1ymaaA1naa pamxnn xccrxnx ara xcmxcc, nnxono 1oxnnvnn
ara xcmxccnp nr xanAan no nonnxcc cyA 1aAwr noxox aamaa
xamraaAaA1wn nsr1 pAnr pAcx oAomx1o. TnnAcn HHIB-
wn A axnAAaraanw ncr nyxaA nnrAcA oAox Ic1rcx axAwn ara
xcmxccr amxnA11a xccrxAcxrrcc xonx anrnn amyAr
apaA cn xanrarpax, pccxn 1or1oAoo opn1 y1raaaa xccrxnx
sma n oAomxr mm.
ccxn rpccc prncx ancA xonx anrnn amyAr apAwr
xanrax ara xcmxccr onpo 1nmnnp aoxnon aryyAax nr HHIB-wn
xyyAna xAccccn nnr rnr amxnA11a xccrxAcx, xnn cx,
cx noAoor xanrax oAon ycap oAon 1aAwn an xoAorpoA1o oAox nr
xaarpax ana. Hmccc paaax A axnAAaraar xccrxAcx aamaa
cncx aonArwr xanrax nr a1c mm. Ynp:
l. Xonx anrnn A axnAAaraanp moporpox y xyyAr, cx
an av1yyp, 1cprccnn xccrxnA1nr cypAan cx an onnnr
oAonconry oArox;
2. cAxn nn1nn xnmnr1 nnAcn mnnxAcx yxaanw
cypaAraanw A axnAAaraar oroxAcn anrwn A axnAAaraa1a
cpcm mnnxnArccnn no paacan ncrxnr HHIEI-wn pcrcp
axnAAyyAax;
3. CypaAraa mnnxnArccnn axAwn pnp 1yAryyAan Xonx
anrnn amyAr apAwr xanrax ara xcmxccnn 1or1oAoo-r
HHIB-wn xarsa ncrxpcp aon, ononn1o xccrxAcx;
4. VrpnnAan ccrnAcx axAwr oroo nr xccrxAcx;
5. AmyAr apAwr xanrax nnr cr xn aAan 1ymaaA1nyypwn
mcrcxAnn y napnawr pccmAAcx, cnc nnrAcAcc anxan oAon
pan1an cyraA1wn ma1 paaaAcan ara xcmxcc anax rcx mc1 oAon
axnA aoxnox oAox mm.
Xcpnrcc onoopnn apAaa HHIB nr omnoo 1anrcan aonA1oo
amxnA11a xccrxAcn, aAa ncrxpnn A axnAAaraa xcnnn
aoxnon aryyAarpax araa oAonn cncx orAcA nr cypaAraanw
1nmnnp, acyypaA pcnmAccn ma1onaA ynn xoAorpox canaA,
mmx nr cypaAraanw aampwn pnp 1yc pcm oAox nr raaar.
Hmp XyyAr pccpAcx oc cc1rAnn opavnp oonn canaA opAoo
xynaaAaxwr xcro.
, ,
52



CAnn xnApcp 1ooA xcc nr oroxnn Apcx ara nr yAam


nancn y rcm1 xcrpnn ncr nr aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xccr oroop
xnn xccrcc, mynaA, ar onn noxoA apAwr oAon 1yxan
c1rccpnn cyA 1aAyypwr onxnn amnrAax Apcrppcr onAor1o. 0ncx
rcm1 xcrnn ApAnn ncr ara nr nrcnn cx an aoxnyyAaA1a
rccc, 1nn po1o rcccr amnrAan Apcx araa nr cnc 1oAnn
nrcnn xccr maraanwr aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xcrccc sAran caArax,
aon mnpncAcxcp aanm cxmccA ynyyAax oAcon ana. Hrcp,
xyyAnn c1rccpnn xooonp maraanwr rcm1 xccr ccxA nrcnn
xcrnn aAr nr oAoxwr sArax aaarAax napaxr araa nr nrcnn
acyypAaa crnn xccr crcx, crnn xcrnr nrcnn maraan
rcx anpyyn crnn xccr crcxr ax, crnn xccr crcccn
oA npccAcAr rcx acrcc yyy mnpnc rarax maraan 1acaxr
ana. Ynccc rcm1 c1rccpp sA aanmnx ccxA nrcnn xanAaanp
ooAorn crnn xanyAarap xyyAr ycaa 1a1arpax 1oxnoApoA
oonr ran mypara ocnw aannmaac raxyypax, xnn cx, xyyAr
ocnw amnr connxoA xonporpox oAcon ynaac aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1
xcrnr nrcnn cx an 1ocoo1c xanAaanaac sArax aranAaA
oAoncyyAax maapAara1a rcx accn oAno. CypaAraanw 1aAanrnn
1c nr cypaAraanw aonAro, cypaAraa xnccn apaA, cypaAraanw
pn, canaA, prncA1 rcccn npccn rynan xccrccc pcx araa oroop
cxnn xcccr1 cypaAraar xcxcn snyyAcan 1yxa, cypaAraanw pn
xcmccx xcccr1 aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xccr a nrcnn cx an xyyan
mcxcAx xnccn xcAcA, accAnn rccc 1n1c 1oc1c nxnA 1oAnn
rcccnn oAroA1, sArarpax onAor, vnmnnaAnc1nv mnnx oAon cnc
acyypAaa VAcwn pccp mxnn xnccn 1aAa, pn mcpcc, mxnn
mnpnc, mn1rcx 1or1ooAwr cypAan oyyAcan oAno. TorcroA xcccr1,
pcnmAccn canaA, prncA1nr nnAcc.
-
2010] 53
I . ,
1.1.,
Bycpwn cp xoonrnr aaAnAan mcxAcx anax rcm1 xccr a nrcnn
xyyArp aaacan rcccnccc sArarpax onAor, mon nanawr cypAan
cprcc xanAaar sArax aranAaAwr oAoncyyAx, cypaAraanw
pnr xoAorpox aAan 1ymaaA1an oAon oAon nn1cp 1annAyyAax
aonAro1o. BonA1:
Bycpwn cp xoonrnr aaAnAan mcxAcx anax rcm1 xccr
a nrcnn xyyArp aaacan rcccnn cx an onoA, 1nn
npccAcAnr cypAax;
Bycpwn cp xoonrnr aaAnAan mcxAcx anax rcm1 xccr a
nrcnn cx an xyyan mcxcAx xnccn xcAcA, accAnn rccc
1n1c nxnA 1oAnn rcccnn 1ocoo1c mnnx oAon sArarpax
onAornr cypAax;
Bycpwn cp xoonrnr aaAnAan mcxAcx anax rcm1 xcrnn
vnmnnaAnc1nv mnnxnr cypAax.
1.2. ,
CypaAraanw axnAp xynnn amnr connxoA xn cyrov1nn
noAooAAooc anrnp no paacan apAaa, mnnxAcx yxaanw ara ar
anm1Aan, cypaAraanw prncA1nr aonxon 1yxan cypaAraaraa
1or1oorpcon pnp npccAcn opn1o rarax aanmwr nm npcc
oAron. CypaAraar ccpnnn xccnp xyyAr an cx cynaAx oAox
anm1 nnrnn aapAan mnnxnArcc, 1oon oAon nana (nav1nvnn
apAwr raaa pcc nr axnrAax, snAAara, acyyAra, cynaAxAara)-wn
araa snyyAAaa. Ynp:
Banm1 nnrnn mnnxnArccrcc VAcwn pccp mxnn 1aAa
oAon crnn xcrnn l4 xan1ac1 xccr, mon 2006, 200?, 2008,
2009 onw HncAcAnn Cxaa1a, HnnrcA1c prnn ll34
mxnn mn1rcx 1or1ooA oAon mxnn mnpncccc onoornn
nav1nv;
Hanawn cypaAraaraa aanm mrn, novyo, mopon
aaarn na1a snAAarwn cypaAraa xnccn.
CypaAraanw aonAro aonA1wn xccnp paaaxr axAwr rc1rcAcc.
Ynp:
HncAcAnn xcmxccnp 2006-20l0 onp maArax mnpncAcccn
c, nrcnn xccr maraanw xarcaaA1-cypaAraar prnn
mx, arpaarnn aryyAAarwn 1rcA, mcpcc 1aAanr 1mnrAcn
rarax pn mnnxnArcc xnn;
VAcwn pccp mxnn xoAorpox 1aAa 1or1ooAp pn
mnnxnArcc xnn;

[4(31)
54
CypaAraanw ccpncc yrp 1yynncan cpcm mnnxnArccnn
nA1rcA, orAAcrpnr cypAan;
Hx, novyown aryyAAarwn axnn1 xapraAx y c,
nrcnn xccr, maraanwr xsnan mnpncAcccn 1or1ooA, mnpnc,
xan1ac1 xcrnn ma1onaAwr 1ncAcn cypAacan;
Banv, canxrnn oAon ycap aryyAAarwn A axnAAaraaraa
xaAxannAan ycpwr aaAnAan mcxAcccn ApAp, xonxno1
cyraAaa rarax, ayynAax, monrnr nr ocrox oroxnr amAax acrcc
xmcnn xsAa xoonroxnx connxoA pcc nr 1orAox ycpwr
mcxcAccn ApAnn 1yxa xcnAcA, mcpccAAAnn xccrcAnn
nn1AcA, aa mcpccr cypAan prncA1 xnn.
II .
2.1.

,
()

Bycpwn cp xoonrnr aaAnAan mcxAcx anax rcm1 xccr (aamnp


aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xccr rcnc) nr 0rnn xyyAnn 1ycra anrnn
omnAox cxnn cccr rcm1 xcrnn Acr1 xamaapar. BaAnAan mcxAcx
rcm1 xccr nr omnAox cxnn cccr rcm1 xcrnn nn1Acr mnnxnr
aryyAaxaac rapna oonn rcccn onAor1o nr yr rcm1 xcrnn crnn
cx an mnnxcc nAcpcr.
l
0rnn xyyAnn 1ycra anrnn l48
pyraa aAp Bycpwn cp xoonrnr aaAnAan mcxAcx anax rcm1
xcrnr 1opoxoAcon crnn cx an paaaxr rynan xcm xcmxccr
xyyArnnAcan.
2

, 200 2 1-

14.4.,
,,

,
..
l. Bycpwn cp xoonro, ccxA 1nnr omnAox cxnr xyyn
mcxAcx, n1rcA cnpcx araa oAx ancan oA xopoAmonn xoAcnn
poop xcmxccr 5-50 paxnn ncmcrpAccn1c 1cncx xcmxccnn
1ororoo 1orox, ncr ayyraac xoo ayyn 1annn ar x1cA
xyraaaraa aAapan axnA xnArcx, ccxA ncrccc rynan ca

, ., ,008 ,
.


2010] 55
x1cAx xyraaaraa annnAax sA mn1rcnc;
2. 0nc rcm1 xcrnr pan1an, AcrAcx ymy yrpnnAan rccx
1oxnoAcon Acr, ccxA aAan 1ymaaAwn apAaa amnrAax
Apccn, 1nnAcn cnc rcm1 xcrnn yAmaac nx xcmxccnn
xoxnoA ynncan oA xopoAmonn xoAcnn poop xcmxccr 1annn
ncrccc ncr ayyn 1anr paxnn ncmcrpAccn1c 1cncx xcmxccnn
1ororoo 1orox, rynaac pccm ayraan ca x1cA xyraaaraa
annnAax, ccxA xooooc 1anan xnA x1cA xyraaaraa xonx sA
mn1rcnc;
3. 0nc rcm1 xcrnr yrp nr cnc xccr1 oAon xyAraAax, yAaax,
aanmnx, pcccmpcx rcm1 xccr1 mn1rAccn c1rccp, ccxA on
amyA1a rcm1 xccr1cn, aoxnon aryyAaA11a Acr, rcm1 AcrAcA
Apccn, 1nnAcn cnc rcm1 xcrnn yAmaac on nx xcmxccnn
xoxnoA ynncan oA cp xoonrnr xyaax xopoAmonn
xoAcnn poop xcmxccr xoo ayyn 1annn ncrccc 1anan ayy paxnn
ncmcrpAccn1c 1cncx xcmxccnn 1ororoo 1orox, ccxA
1anaac pccm anan xnA x1cA xyraaaraa xonx sA mn1rcnc.
3

XyyAr 1or1oorn pccx aAnn I xcccr1 yr rcm1 xcrnn npccn
cApcxnn mnnxnr, II xcccr1 cnc rcm1 xcrnr xnpAcx
cApcxnn mnnxnr, III,IV xcccr1 pccx I, II xccrpcp aaarpcan
rcm1 xcrnr on xnpAcx mnnxnr aaax orcon ana.
4
0nc
apAaac acxcp ycpwn cp xoonrnr aaAnAan mcxcAx anax rcm1 xccr
nr:
Ynpccn cApcxn;
XnpAcx cApcxn;
On xnpAcx cApcxn mm.
5

BaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xcrnn npccn cApcxnn mnnxnp yr
rcm1 xcrnr omnnn cccr ycap sArarpax, aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xccr
rcx acx xamrnn anxparn oonxn orov1nn, cyrov1nn mnnxnr
1opoxoAx orcon.
6

BaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xcrnn mnnx nr xyyan mcxAcx, n1rcA
cnpcx rcccn ApcA, cc Apcxrcc nAcnc. Xyyn mcxAcx rcpcr
nr rcm1 c1rccp ycpwn cp xoonro oAon 1nnr cacmmnx cxnr
1nn cacmmnrn ccncA xanyan xamraaAx y c1rccpnn rcc
ymy ApAcc xyyn mcxAcn 1ooorpAx xoxnornnr can pyaa
cp xoonroo mnAxAcn oroxop xrcx y ApcA mm
?
. H1rcA cnpcx
rcpcr nr naa noxop, 1annA 1aA, 1ooA 1oorcpnn xanAaar amnrAan
n1rcAnr oAx ycpwn cp xoonro 1nnr cacmmnx cxnr rcm1 c1rccp

.
6
.

. ., ., 2001 , 246 .

[4(31)
56
oAx anaxwr xcAnc
8
rcx crnn cx an onoAwn nomyypap pccx1c
apnA 1aAaAacan apar.
H1rcA cnpcx rcprnr mon xoxnornnn n1rcAnr cnpcx aamaa
aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xcrnr rcm1 xccr1cn xoxnornnn n1rcAnr
oAx ancan 1cprccnn xooonpwn xanAaar yrpaac 1oAonAon crcx,
n1rcA ncmmAnn npccn pcc y oAcon oonn rcc rcm1 xccr1cn
A noAAcx araa Appcr ana
9
. HnmccAcA, 1ccccc ancan cp
aAc, omn xoonrnr crAcn oroxr ax, yrpnnAraa ancan xc nr
axnA AnnArccr cn pyycraAr oxnx, ancan o, accAcc crAcn
1oAoxr ax accr xamaana.
Xyyn mcxAcx rcpcr nr ycpwn omnAox cxnr cApcn xyyamn araa
1ooorpAcx aamaa cp xoonro, cp mmcwr oooo oroxop xrcx, 1nn
cp xoonro, cp mmcwr cacmmnx, amnrAax cxnr xyyAr ycaa oAx anax
ApAnr xcAnc.
l0
HnmccAcA, rapaap onw nna rarana, rapaap oAon
po1oopwn cyryyArp oyyAax, amnn anArwr onpo ncc aax orno,
opo coArx orno, monro ocrox orno rcx mc1. Xyyn mcxAcx
ll
rcpcr
nr rcm yyy1a c1rccp cp xoonrnr xanyarn ymy cacmmnrnnr
rcc ymy pAcc ncn apAwr rynyyAx ymy nyyn paarpyyAx,
1ooorpAcncc yyA cp xoonrnr anax cx1c rcx xyy1arpcan c1rccp
cp xoonrnr can pyaaaa mnAxAcn orcon apAaa nAcnc.
H1rcAnr cnpcx
l2
rcpcr nr rcm yyy1a c1rccp ycpwn cp xoonrnr
anaxwn 1yAp 1aAyypwn n1rcAp npccAcn 1opoxo rcccnn xanAaar
amnrAax ymy cp xoonrnr xanyarn, cacmmnrn aoxnx anm1 nnnr
pAcAr ymy 1or1con xymwr mopoArrcc mnAxAcnnr
amnrAan 1nnr oonn omnAoAp mnAxAcx ApAcc nAcnc.
ccx onoAwn oAroA1, 1aAayypaac xaaxap xyyn mcxAcx rcpcr nr
rcm1 c1rccp 1yxan cp xoonrnr cacmmnrn, omnAornnr rcc ymy
ApAcc xyyan mcxcAx, 1ooorpAcn xyyAr ycaa cp xoonrnr
oonn omnAoApoo mnAxAcn aanmnx ApcA, cc Apcxr xcAnc.
Xann n1rcA cnpcx rcpcr nr 1yxan rcm1 canaaraa xccrxAcxnn
1yAp n1rcAAnn npccn pcc n oApor xanAaar amnrAan n1rcx
xAccArcccn rcc A noAAcx araa cp xoonrnr oonn omnAoAp
oyyAaxwr xcAnc rcx 1aAaAax oAoxoo ana. BaAnAan mcxAcx
rcm1 xccr Apcrpcx y apAwr cypaAx acxcp xmcnn mynaA,
xccrccr amnrAan xyyamn amAaA1 orox, ccncA noAcrpcx oAomxr
aAnr oAomx1o mc1cc oAryyAx mon aaanaA 1onn aryyAAarwn
cx an av1aa mnpncAcx acyypAwr mnpncAcx orn napna rcx
n1rAcx npcc xyyamn aAan nnnr, anm1 amnrAax accr ApcA
8
.
9
, ( ), ., 00 . .
0
.

., . ., 008 ,
.

.
2010] 57
nr xyyan mcxcAx araa ApcA, cc Apcx n1rcA cnpcx araa
Apcrpcx araa nr nxcnxpcc nrcnn cx an rcccnn xanAaar
amnrAan aoxnx ocoo rc1rcx cr, rcccnn noroo 1aAp xAccArcccn
cr, rcccnp ooAorn c1rccpnn anm1Aax oc1o cr acrnr
anxnaacaa noAAcxr rcccn aonAro1oroo rcccnp ooAon ycpwn
cp xoonrnr xyyAr ycaa oonn omnAoAp mnAxAcn ann araa
ApAcc yr rcm1 xccr Apcrpcx ana.
()

Hrcnn cx an cyax nnnr, cypAaanpwn 1ccAccc ancA rccc
oAron xcAcA, xcAcA oAron rccc nm. XcAcA nr ncr 1aAwn ax
oAproooo rcccnccc sAraa1a axcc. Hrcnn xyyAnn 39.l.Hrcnn
cx, rnr crcx, oonAox, mnAxAcx, pyycrana oArox aonAroo
xccA aonroo nAcxnAccn nrcn, xyyAnn c1rccpnn ApcA (cc
Apcx)-r xcAcA rcnc. Xoo ymy 1nccc pccm 1aAyyp sma ncrcn
aAnr xnxcc ccncA xnxr axaa 1oxnoAcon xyyAnn xnnn
1oroApo xcAcAccnr rccc rcnc. Iccc nr aAr aAr 1aAyypwn can
pywn npccn pcc, cx 1crm, noAoo1c aryyAcnaa xccA aonr,
amnr connxoA nr xanrarpax, cx cr, parana cn apar.
l3

Hrcnn xyyAnn 1ycra anrnp ycpwn omnAoAp xoonrnr mocon
mnAxAcxcp nnrAcccn npccn 4 1oAnn rcccr, 1yxaAaA, xypaApax-
xypaApan anax rccc, anAxaa, cAcrAcA, accAnn rcccr aoxnyyAcan
ana.
l4
BccAnn rcccrcc accApcrn nr accApAcrnnn omnAoAp
monro oAon ycap 1oAnn mnnxcc 1opoxoAorpox cp xoonro
mnAxAcx, accApcrn nr n1c nxnA 1ooA, 1oo, nana, xcmxccnn cp
xoonro yaan orox rnr xAccx apar. 0ncx rccc nr cAnn
xnApcp mana yAcap nrcnn cx an caAa1 xamrnn oron
1axcan acrpcA oAoop ana. Haa noxop, 1annAwn xccnp ornno
xyraaa1a, xr accA oArox 1oxnoApoA mam ara xynnr caAcx oA
canxrnn crcA1cp xamaaax accA panamraAx yr xax oAno.
Tnmccc accAnn cx a nr onoopo roA 1oAon anvnaac oArox accA,
xapraAamxnn xoonrnn crcA1, xapraAamx accAnn xomoopooc
rnmppcc accA oArox snpaA, ax Apncnn accA, 1o oAon 1nn
ncrxnn accA anax A axnAAaraa 1Ax apar.
l5
BccAnn rcccr
orov1nr nr xaraAaan monro accAcx oAon cp xoonro accAcx rccc,
cyrov1nr nr xaraAaan anv canxrnn A axnAAaraa cxcApcr
xyyAnn c1rccpccc accAcx, ycap c1rccpccc accAcx xcmccn anrnAx axcc.
Onoornn amrpaAp monro accAcx rccc oAon anv canxrnn A
axnAAaraa cxcApcr xyyAnn c1rccpccc accAcx mon nrcp xooonpwn

., , ., 009 .

., , ., 00 . 9 .

, 60 .

[4(31)
58
accAnn rccc xamrnn nx apar. BccAnr crAcn 1oAox snpaA nr
accAnn rcccnn xamrnn nyxaA cr apar.
l6
Yrnn xanAaanp
ooAorn c1rccp rcc aoxnx ocoo myparaa noAAcx nr nrcnn
cx an xanAaanp xamaaax mypara ocnw aannm mm.
Hrcnn cx ap xyyan mcxcAx xnccn xcAAnn xyyan mcxAcx
ApAnn aonAro nr sma ncrcn 1ooorpAnr ccpcx n oArox ccxA
n oAcon 1ooorpAnr xcncc xapraAax snpaA oroop mcxAcrn c1rccp
opn1 noxoA apAwn 1aAaa 1amaa aA a1aAx, ncmmAcxnr
cmcAacx no1Aox rcx ooAppor. 0prcc ApcA nr paaaxr rynan
xcAcnn aAr ncrnr xccrAcpcr.
McxAcrn c1rccp ncnp A nncx aAnr ncn xcmccn n1rcx,
ncmmAcxnr ooAppor;
McxAcrn c1rccp opn1 ncn, noxoA apAwr paApaAx, mymrnn
rynyyApar;
McxAcrn c1rccp mcpccAcx rcc aonnn opn1 ncn, noxoA
apAwr nyyn paarpyyAaxwr ooAppor.
Xyyan mcxAcrn c1rccp xyyan mcxAcx aonAro canaa1araa
ApAcc rc1rcnc, xcAAnn noroo 1aA 1ooorpoxnr mcpcx,
aonAroo oArocon ax oc1o.
l?
Xyyan mcxAcrn c1rccp amnr xonxoo
oAox, asxnx, ccxA mcxAcrpccn c1rccpnn omnnp rcm xo ynyyAax
aonAro1o acan cccx nr xamaar ynn nr xoxnornnn omnnr
yc xann xccA aonroo noAoo1c nAcxnAcx cx, cx noAoor
xamraaApraaaa aaAnAanrnn rcm1 xcrccc sArarpana. XcAcA nr xccA
aonrnn nAcxnAcA apar ynaac xcAcAp ooAorn 1aAyypwn xccA
aonrnn nAcxnAAnr xamraaApar. Bonxon 1yxan xcAAnr xnx
rcx xyyan mcxcApcrcccc sAraa1a. Mon Hrcnn xyyAnn 56.l.l.-nn
xyyAr aoncon ymy nn1cc xAccn aonmoocon aan cy1axyynw xcm
xcmxccnp xamnAcan xcAAnn nann sAraar rarax maapAara1a.
Hn1nn oAon ryanparn c1rccpnn cccr aan cy1axyynw xcm
xcmxccr aoncon cyrov1nn xnnn aA 1aAyypap ax oc1o. Hma
ncr xcAcA orov1nn opn1 apAaa aan cy1axyynw xcm xcmxccr
xaaaxan aonnx, Apcrpccr oAonn 1nn aonAro, maA1raan nr
aan cy1axyynw aonnAp xrcx oAno.
l8
0nc nr aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1
xcrnn xyyn mcxAcx ApcA1c nxnA 1oc1c oAonn roA sAraa nr
aonAro maA1raan nr aan cy1axyynw xcm xcmxccr aoncon apraaaa
xann aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xccr yr aan cy1axyynw xcmxccr aoncon
apar. Hnmcc nr, xc1 onpo x1c accA oArox, nx pccp cyryyArp
maAraA1r oyyAx orox, nna rarax orno rcx mc1 rccc, xcAcA
aryyAax nr rcm1 xccr mon. BaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xcrnn cyrov1nn
mnnx nr xyyan mcxAcx, n1rcA cnpcx ApAccc omno rcm1 canaa opoA
6
, 66 .

, ( ), ., 006 , .
8
, 8 .

2010] 59
cccn apar oroop ycpwn omnnr amnrAan mammnrpyyAax rcccn
canaa aonAro1o apraaaa nrcnn accAnn rcccnccc sAraa1a.
2.2.
XyyAr aoncon ymy nn1cc xAccn aonmoocon aan cy1axyynw
xcm xcmxccnp xamnAcan xcAcA xnx nr oooo aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1
xccr oAno. Xyyn mcxcAccn xcAcA nr 1yxan xcAAnr xnxnn
1yAp xcAcAp ooAorn noroo 1aAaa xyyan mcxAcccn apar nnrccncc
1yxan xcAAnn roA aAnn ncr oAox cp xoonrnn mypara yc
cacmmnrn oAproooo aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xcrccc sAraa1a. Vnn nr
aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xccr nr 1yxan cp xoonrnn aanmnx amnrAan
mammnrpyyAcan apar oA nrcnn cx ap 1yxan cp xoonrnn
mypara yc cacmmnrn oApor onAor1o. Hrcnn xyyAnn l06
pyraa aAnn l06.l. OmnAorn xoonroo ycpwn xyyAr yc cacmmAccc
maapax cx1c apar, mypara yc cacmmnrn rcpcr nr 1yxan cp
xoonrnr xyyAr ycaa cacmmnx araa 1nnr cacmmnx cx1c cccx
nr 1opoxo yc araa c1rccpnr mypara yc cacmmnrn rcx xcAx
oAno. 0npccc xaaxap nrcnn cx an xanAaanp mypara yc
cacmmnrn ax oA aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xccr1 1yxan cp xoonrnr
xyyn mcxAcx, n1rcA cnpcx aamaa oonn mcpcAp oyyAan aanmnx,
amnrAan mammnrpyyAcan aaAnAarn rcccn cyrov1 apar. 0prcc
cyrov1nn cyrov1nn canaa aonAro nr nx sAraa1a apar. BaAnAan
mcxAcrn c1rccp nr anxnaacaa yr cp xoonrnr oonn mcpcAp anaxaa
canaaxcan yr cp xoonrnr crcx xcacc n oroxr rcccn canaa opoA
1ox 1nnrcc xccrxAcxnn 1yAp yrpnnAan 1oAonAox rc1rcccn
apraaaa sAraa1a. Icxpcc aanm 1oxnoApoAp anxAan nrcnn cx
an accAnn rcccnn xanAaa acan oAonn rcccrcc xAccccn
cr nr noAcrpcx oAomxr oAmor 1rcc maA1arAax aaAnAan
mcxAcx rcm1 canaa cn oApor. Tcrcxcc aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xcrnn
cyrov1nn canaar anxAan cccn rcm1 canaa, cmcA rcm1 canaa rcx
anrnAx oAoxoo ana. Anxaaax aA nr nanocnn A axnAAaraa
oAon sma ncrcn maA1raanaa npccn accAcc 1oAx napaxr noxoA
apaA cn oAno cnc oAronwr aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xcrnn cmcA
canaa rcx acx oAoxr, nnr xccr 1rcx, mopon aaax
axnAAaraanw snap 1or1oox maapAara1a. Oooo xcAcA, n1rcA
cnpcx snpaA nr myyp n1rcA cnpcx, ccxA A axnAAaraanwxaa snap
n1rcA cnpcx apAaa nAcpcr. Yrcc aoxnx ocoo rc1rcx napaxr
oAcon rcprcc noroo 1aApaa mcpcrpcx accAnn rcccnn xyraaar cynrax
ccncA araa xoonrnr aax oAyyAax 1aAaa aonmoooA orcon rcx
mc1 nr oooo rcccnn noAoo1 apAwn aannm mm.

[4(31)
60
2.3.
BaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xcrnr mopon aaax axnAAaraa nr ycap
rcm1 xcrnr mopoxooc sArarpax onAor mnnx1c apar.
l9
0nc nr:
20
l. Tyxan rcm1 xcrnn xoxnorn, rcm1 c1rccp xoo 1opoxo
xyraaanp no no1crcc xarparaac xoxnorn rcm1 c1rccpnn
1aAaa sma ncr xcmxccnn mcpccAcA orn nappar;
2. Vr rcm1 xccr Apcrn ycap rcm1 xccr Apcrnpccc sArarppar
oooo xcAcA rcm1 c1rccp onxnn anxaaAx1a ax ycpwr oo1oo
1a1ax, oonn 1aAaa 1aaAamx1a cc1rcrpcA 1oAx nappar.
BaAnAan mcxAcrn o nr oA on xnn1c, cc1rcn opox xorxnA
onpo1c, xmcnr oo1oo 1a1ax napna ca1a, xxnrAcx
anrsac1a, rcm1 canaaraa xccrxAcxnn 1yAp sman apAwr
napnaAaraa amnrAapar c1rccp ana;
2l

3. Icm1 c1rccp xoxnornnp n1rcA 1oAcxnn 1yAp sma ncr
nnnr anm1 aAcx, a1aAraa rarax orpor accr nr mopon
aaaA1wr 1opoxo ar1 nnrAAx orpor an xoAorpoA1o.
0npccc prncn xaaxap mopon aaaA1wn ma1anp poox aAcnr
aaAmr maArax xccr1c:
Icm1 c1rccpp oocpnroo yr rcm1 xcrnr Apccn rcprnr
nyyAax aonAroo aryyAAara, nrcpnn canxrnn nnnr
anm1yypwr xyyamnaa Apcx;
Hrcp, aryyAAarwn rccccn nnnr anm1, nrcnn ncmAcxnr
amnrAax;
Tyxan rcm1 xcrnn 1aAaa sma n mcpAcr, oAroA1r
xmcnr xoAcoAx, rcm1 ApcApcc amnrAax;
Hn1onc1cc 1yxan aryyAAara, nrcpnn 1aAaa mcpccAcA
ann rcm1 ApcApcc amnrAax;
Vrp nr axnAAax acan aryyAAara, ax axyn ncrxccc oAx
ancan mcpccAAcc aaAnAanrnn rcm1 ApcApcc amnrAax rcx mc1
oAon arwr xccrAcx aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xccr Appcr ana.
Mopon aaaA1wn axAwr 1oAonAoxpoo crnn xccr crcccn
npccAcA nr xoxnornnn rompoA acan oA 1nnr oAon xacan
xnnr aaax, rcm1 xcrnn acnccr, xccrccAp aAcr xnx,
xyyamn xcAcAp cvcno1na xnArcx accr axnAAaraa 1oAonAoroonp
1ycrarpana.
22
Mopon aaaA1wn anxnw axnAAaraaraa rcm yyy1a
c1rccpnn ApcA, xoxnorn xcxcn xyyn mcxAcrpccnnr 1or1oox
maapAara1a.
23
Xccn xoxnornnp xyyamn xcAcA, cp aA-monro
ymy cp mmc, xyyamn nc1 aAc rcx mc1 araa 1np aAcr xnx
9
, . ., ., 2001 , 248 .
0

., ,00 , 9

., , ., 00 , .

2010] 61
cvcno1na xnArcnc.
24
0nc rcm1 xcrnr mopoxop rcm1 xccr Apcrpccn
ara, xoxnornnn ooAoo, rcm1 xccr raaxap noAooAcon maA1raan,
noxoAnr nAAcn 1or1ooxop onro anxaaax xccr1c.
BaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xcrnn cyrov1nn roA mnnx ymy rcm1
c1rccpccc rarax y canaa aonrnr xopoAor 1or1oox nr onro
nyxaA. 0nc apAwr 1or1ooxpoo sAanrysa xoxnornnn n1rcA ncmmAnr
oAx ancan ara, rcm1 c1rccpnn amAacan, oAaoA oArocon aA, axnA
AnnArcc nr opn1 apaA pcc noAcrpcx, xccrxnx oAomx1o cccx,
1oxnoApAwn nana1a cxmccA 1yAracan nr ncn cccx, yr c1rccp
yrp nr 1yxan 1oAnn oAon oo 1oAnn rcm1 xccr Apcx acan
cccxnr 1or1oox maapAara1a.
25

2.4.,

Hx, novyo oAon arpaarnn aryyAAarwn 1aAan mcpccnccc


ancA cnc 1oAnn xccr maraan ncAccp cAcr 1oxnoAppor ana.
N On
Xcrnn 1oo
(HncAcAnn
xcmxccnp)
HAAcA1 Vnncan xoxnoA
XoxnoA noxon
1oAAcA1
l. 2005 403 94,?9% ?568,5 cas 1oror 288,5 cas 1oror
2. 2006 424 9?,2% 3530,6 cas 1oror 490,? cas
3. 200? 569 32,9% 324?025,9l 1oror 3l990l,9l 1oror
4. 2008 656 32,?% 8,8 1cym l,l 1cym
5. 2009 640 5l,5% l3 1cym 6,9 1cym
HnA oAron aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xccr ocox 1nn xccc yr rcm1
xcrnn yAmaac ynncan xoxnoA nxccx araa nr pccx c1a1nc1nv
mcpccnccc xaarpax ana.
BaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xccr xnA ncx 1ycam Appcr ara nr yAam
nancn, nyy paAp xcAc1c oAx ana. TyxaAaA, yrpaac
1oAonAox nrcnn cx an xanAaar amnrAan rccc, xcAcA xnx
aamaa xaAxannnAx aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xccr Apcx araa nr 1yxan
1oAnn xcrnr xsnan mnpncAcxcp 1opoxo 1oncr1c cxmccAnr
y oArox ana. Vnn nr xcrnn aarwr nrcnn xymaa mxcc
xsnan mnpncAcxcp nxccxcn xyraaa maaparpax xoxnAoo noxon
1oAAcxcp ar xyraaa aApax araa mc1 ncxcmxAcrn 1aAp canarpnaA
1yxan nrcnn cx an maraanwr rcccrcc xaAxannnAcan aaAnAan
rcccn aA oAron crnn xymaa maAryyAax connxoA 1opor
ana.
HncAcA, prnn mxnn mn1rcx 1or1ooA, marapAaAaac ancA
ycpwn cp xoonrnr aaAnAan mcxAcx anax rcm1 xcrnr paaaxr ara
xcAccc nx 1oAon Apccn ana. Ynp:

, . ., ., 2001 , 252 .

[4(31)
62
xyyamn nnnr anm1 amnrAan anv, anv yc canxrnn
aryyAAara, xapraAamx accAnn xomoo, xynr xmcccc monrnr
xyyn mcxAcx, n1rcA cnpcx araa aaAnAan anax;
araa xoonrnr aoxnomAoo n oArox accA anax;
rcm1 c1rccp oonroo xapraAamx, accAnn xomoo axnAAyyApar,
accAnn a noAooApor, ornno xyraaanp amnr1a nanoc xnnc
rcx acrcc n1rAcn, onpo x, marnaA amAax nrcpnn omnAox
cx oAon cAcn monrnr aaAnAan anax;
nrcp1c oon cyynw aaxnaArwn rccc aryyAx, monrnr
yrpnnAan anaap rcm1 c1rccp nrcpnn n1rcA cnpcn monrnr oo
aonyAaA1aa amnrAax crpAcx;
xyyamn aA1 rcprnr mcpccc ax ycpap nx xcmxccrcc
xypaApax;
nnann anrnAaA oonAox, nnann cynraA1 xnx, omnn cyyx
aonmoooA oArox oAon Iapaapwn nrcn, xarsa1wn acyypaA
cxAcx aAanw N02 pyraa1a 1cmpcr acrnr amnrAax aonAroo
xyyamnaaa Apcx yAmaa rapaapwn nrcnn rapaap nacno1ap
(yr papacnyypwr) pax orox;
AxnAp oAon cyryyArp ayynAax.
0prccccc accAnn rcccr amnrAan Apccn aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1
xccr, accAcc xypaApax, xypaApan anax rccc, mon nna
26
raraxaa
amAax aaAnAan mcxAcccn rcm1 xccr cacAx ana.
,

:
Conrnnoxaxan prnn mx 200? onw 4 prcc cawn l8-nw
opnn l32 pyraa mn1rcx 1or1ooAoo X.C nr ycap1a AcrAcn
ycpwn cp xoonrnr xyyn mcxAcx, n1rcA cnpcx araa oAx ancan
rcm1 xccr1 yyy1ap 1ooox 0rnn xyyAnn l48 pyraa
aAnn l48.2 paxr xcccr1 aaacnaa X.C-nr 2 xnA 6 ca mn1rcccn
oAonn mxnn mn1rcx 1or1ooA raaxwn omno X.C nr nrcpnr
aaAnAan mcxAcx, nn1 30 onnm cas 1orornn xoxnoA ynyyAcan
rcm1 xcrnr Apccn oAox nr mxnn mn1rcx 1or1ooA racnw
paaa 1or1oorpcon apar. X.C nr anvnaac accA anaxpaa xyyamn
A xopAox xoonrnn rcnnArcc pAcn xyyamn araa
oAron accA ancan ApcAp nr mn1rcx 1or1ooA racan oAonn
1or1ooA raaxwn omno oAon nrcpccc accAnn rccc amnrAan
aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xccr Apccn apar. 0nc xcrnn xynrp
rcm1 c1rccpnn cyrov1nn canaa aonArooc nr ycpwn cp xoonrnr
xyyAr ycaa oonn mcpcApcc ann aanmnx crpAccn ApAp
nr aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xcrnn mnnxnr aryyAx ana.
6
009
17
, 16
.
.
2010] 63
HnnrcA1c prnn mxnn 2009 onw ? pyraa cawn l6-nw
opnn 2l? pyraa mn1rcx 1or1ooAoo: ... .0 nr AcrAcn 2004
onw l2 pyraa cawn 2l-nn opo, 2005 onw 2 cawn ?-nw oppcp
mynaxan ccpcA1cc oonn axnAAax acan X anvnw HnnrcA1c
pcr pcx caAaaac rynan ypaarnn ApAcc 55 cas 1orornr
oon cyy omnAox cxnn xyyamn nnnr anm1 araaAan
xyyn mcxAcx araa aaAnAan mcxAcx ancan xccr1 xoAorpxcc.
0rnn xyyAnn l48 pyraa aAnn l48.4 pcx xcccr1 aaacnaa
5 xnA l ca xonx sA mn1rcx... mnpncAcxcc. Xann panx
aaaApax ma1nw mx sA1an, 1cprccnn omrooAornpnn raracan
rompAwr npccAcn 2009 onw 8 pyraa cawn 25-nw opnn ?42
pyraa marapAaAaa mn1rcx 1or1ooAwn 1or1oox xcccr1 mx
sA mn1rccnnr xnnnr oArox, 0rnn aaan mn1rcx
xyyAnn 24 prcc aAnn 24.l.l-p aaacnaa rcm1 xcrnn
cApcxnr rcx mnpncAcxcc. Xccr1 anarpcan 2004 onw
l prcc cawn 24-nn opnn 40 prcc mn1rcx 1or1ooAooc
ancA oon cyynw omnAox cxnn rcnnArcc oAon omnAox cx1c
xoAoo1o cp xoonrnn cxnn yAcwn 1rcAnn AanAaraar
xyyamnaa pAx 1nnrcc amnrAan anvnaac accA nccc
xyyan mcxAcx, monro anpar acan a nnr panx aaaApax ma1nw
mx anxaaaAr sma npccAcAcc rcm1 xcrnn cApcxnr
rcx accncc 1aAaAaar anvnw araanp 1anrx araa A
xopAox xoonro nr oooo opn1oroo axr, A xopAox xoonro
omnAox cxnn rcnnArcc nr xyyamnaa Apcrpccn, 1yxan A
xopAox cp xoonrop cr norpyyAcan cccxnr no1oAcon anm1
oAox cxnn yAcwn 1rcAnn AanAaraa xyyamn axap nrcnn
xccr oArox araa nr oAromxr ana.
Hrcnn cx an xanAaanw anv canxrnn A axnAAaraa
cxcApcr xyyAnn c1rccp1c accAnn rccc aryyAcan oAonn
oonn xAccccn rcc noAAcxccc 1a1raAaan xam1an cr
rc1rcrnnnxcc n1rcAnr cnpccn ApcA nr nrcnn xymaa
xsnan mnpncAcncA aoxnx nrcnn maraan oAoxwr sAraAr
mnpncAcccn xcrnn ncr nr: H.B nr ycap1a xam1an omno nr
anvnw araanp 1anrcan oon cyywr araanp 1anrcan rcprcc
nyyn paApaAx, araanp 1annar rcx xoxnorn H.C-p n1rAcn
yr anw A xopAox cp xoonrnn 1rcAnn rcnnArccr
araaAcan accAnn rccc aryyAAaa rcx xyyan mcxAcx 1nccc
l8,900,000 1orornr aaAnAan mcxAcx ancan rcx xcrnr Oxon
amar paxr Cym pynpwn mxnn mxnn 2009 onw 9 prcc
cawn l-nn opnn l34 prcc araa1rax 1or1ooAoo rcm1 xcrnn
cApcxnr oroop nrcnn xccr ana rcccn npccAcAr
prncA1 xnx, xccrccxr oAron, 1nnr araa1rax, panx
aaaApax ma1nw mx yr araa1rax 1or1ooAwr xcncc Apccccn nr
H.B-rnn ApAnr sAraAr mnpccn ana.
Hxcc mnpncAcrpccn pccx aaAnAan mcxAcx xcrnn orov1nn
1aAwn ApAnn ara, xcAc, ycap mnnx:

[4(31)
64
l. Banv oAon anv yc canxrnn aryyAAara1a cp xoonrnn
xyyamn araa pAcn nrcp accAnn rccc aryyApar.
0nc A xopAox xoonrnn AanAaraar VAcwn B1rcAnn Eonrn
Iaaaac ca1a AanAaxrrcc 1yxan accApcrncc oooo nr
1yxan AanAaraar xnArccncc anv oAon anv yc canxrnn
aryyAAara rcm1 c1rccpcp aaAnAyyAcaa ana;
2. Banv oAon anv yc canxrnn aryyAAara1a xanApar
aryyAAara, ax axyn ncrxnn axnA1nyypap aAnnrnn
accAnn rccc aryyAcnwr xanAarnnn canxrnn axnA1nyyp
xyyamnaa oo xcccr axnA1an oArox accAp xamyyAax aamaa
monro nppcr ana. Xyyamn accApcrn na ancan monronoocoo
1opoxo xynnr nsr1Aan opornnp orn Apccn monroo oooo anan
o cyarr aAra oApor ana;
3. BccAcc canxrnn apAaac oAx 1 1oAx napaxr oAonryy1
noroo 1aA nr myyp arpaap xanppar. Mon ax axyn ncrx accAcc
1oAx napaxr canxrnn xsmaAp oox o apar ac pamnyyax
1oxnoApoA rapar. Icxpcc xyyamnaa pamnyyax, canxrnn
xsmaAp opor. 0nc 2 1oxnoApAwr sr nxnA rcx oAron aaAnAan
mcxAcx rcm1 xccr rcx acx araa nr nrcp oAon ax axyn
ncrxnnr xoxnoox ana;
4. Iapaapwn vomnannyp MV-wn nrcpnr aaAnAcan oAon xccr
ana. CoAonrocwn xoonro oyyAaA11a XXK nr MV-wn ncrcn XXK-
1a xam1an axnAAax rccc aryyAx xynr nnAAcn axnAAaxaa
1oxnoAxcc. Icnn coAonrocwn vomnann oonn axAwr xnx
rc1rcAr cyarr aAra oAonryy1 monroAwn vomnann mxcp
xanpxcc. Hx pcc coAonrocwn vomnann np xoxnAwr 1oAno,
cnAcro rccp xcrnr xsAamyyAcan xymaa mnpncAcxcc.
Tcrccp mxnn mnpnc rc1rcx axnAAaraa snyyAax rc1cA
x xoonrnr nr coAonrocwn oo vomnann mxnn mnpnccc
omnAorn nr oAcon apar ana. XsAamyyAcan xymaa xccr
xsnan mnpncAcxccc omno coAonrocwn vomnann oo pcr pcc
oonn omnnn xoonroooo oo coAonrocwn vomnannp ynyyAcan
rcx xoxnAoo aarpyyAax mnpnc raryyAcan apar ana.
Tyxan xcrnr cypAan acxcp x mm rcccnn paryy mc1 oAonn
sr ncnpcc aaAnAan mcxAcx amnr oApor;
5. Hn1onc1cc aaAnAax, cAnn op nn1onc1 amnrAan ycpwr
xyyan mcxcAx monro oAox ara, cAxccnn nanoc pcArcncc.
0nc nr cxAccp cAcAccn xmcpcc amAacan amAaA1aa noAAx
araap xmc n1rccp nx monro oyyAanryy1 rcnc1 o cyarr
aAra oApor xcrp nxcc Apcrpcx ana. cAxnn yAc onyypap
1oAo anax aamaa 1yxan cAxccnn rnmnnAcAp cAcAcx
ymy Hnamnp xcAc1c cAxccnn nanocnr xonrAocon
apar. MonroA VAcwn Ax axyn A axnAAaraa cxAcx 1ycra
aonmooAnn xyyArnn 4.l.-p cnc 1aAaa aoxnyyAcan apar
a cAxccnn nanocnn A axnAAaraa snyyAaxwr xonrAocon
apar n nm A axnAAaraa snyyApar xyyAnn c1rccp acaa
ana.
2010] 65
Hrcnn xcrnr mxcc mnpncAcx axap xccr maraanw
sn ypaamaA1a ax mm oA aaAnAanrnn rcm1 xccr oAron
maAryyApar xyyAr yc xnmnr 1or1oop araa 1aAaa pcc pyrpcan
nAcc. 0rnn aaan mn1rcx xyyArp aaacnw paryy crnn
xccr crcx cx xn cyrov1 novyown ma1anp cnc A sn
nx 1oxnoApox ana. Vnn nr mopon aaaA1wn ma1anp ynncan
xoxnAwr noxon 1oAApcr 1yxa omno orAccn a cnc nr yyy xnmnr
1aAaa pov1o, noqocco .BmccAAxam MonroA VAcwn 0rnn
aaan mn1rcx cx a pcx rcm yyyrn noaymnn
2?
nomonpoo
rcm yyy nr cccAcn mnpncAcrpccr axap ccxnr1cn, sAAarparn,
mrpcrncc xoxnornnp ynncan xoxnAwr noxon 1oAAx araa,
nnrcc xccr 1rcA1, mopon aaaA1wn axAwn aAcA1 oArox
prncpcr accr rcm yyyrn noaymnnn aannmp xam nav1nv
1or1con ana. Ccxnr1cn, sAAarparn, mrpcrn nr xoxnornnn
ncxcmxAcAnr can pywn npccn pcc aarpyyAax xccA1 1anrcnaac
ycap 1oxnoApoAp mxnn 1acAan mnpncAcx 1or1ooA raaar
axap xoxnAwr 1cpncc aAapan 1oAAcx nr xyyAr yc mm rcx
1aAaAacan apar.
Hrcnn xcrnn ooAorn nr mnnc noxoA apaA nAcccn 1yxa
xccA1cc xcrnr mnpncAcccn 1yxan ma1nw mxcp xcrnr xsnax
oAcon npccAcA araar mcpccnccc xom 30 xonornn po1o raraxaa
Hrcnn xccr mxcp xsnan mnpncAcx 1yxa xyyArp aaacan ana.
Hnpnc1cc nrcnn xcrnn ooAornnn xccA1cc mnnc noxoA
apaA nAccnn yAmaac mx xsnax xccA1nr xanracan 1oxnoApoAp
ooAorn nawn rompAoo crnn xccr crcx cccxnr mnpncAcnc.
Xnnn 1oroApo mnpnc1c nrcnn xcrnr mnnc noxoA apAwn
yAmaac rcccn npccAcAcc crnn xccr crcx accrAcn maArax
oAoxr.
0nc 1aAaa VAcwn Eonxn novyown raaaac nnrAcA orcon
apar. CAnn op nrcnn xymaa mnpncAcccn mxnn xnnn
1oroApo mnpnc1c xccr1 crnn xccr crcn maArax 1oxnoApoA
oonr ran ana. Hrcnn xcrnn ooAorn nr mnnc noxoA
apaA nAcccn 1yxa xccA1cc xcrnr cccAcn mnpncAcccn 1yxan
ma1nw mxcp xcrnr xsnax oAcon npccAcA araar mcpccnccc
xom 30 xonornn po1o raraxaa nrcnn xcrnr mxcp xsnan
mnpncAcx 1yxa xyyArp aaaxcc.
Xnnn 1oroApo mnpnc1c nrcnn xcrnn ooAornnn
xccA1cc mnnc noxoA apaA nAccnn yAmaac mx xsnax
xccA1nr xanracan 1oxnoApoAp ooAorn nawn rompAoo crnn
xccr crcx cccxnr mnpncAcx ax nr a1c rcx anc. Hmp
xnnn 1oroApo mnpnc1c nrcnn xcrnr mnnc noxoA apAwn
yAmaac rcccn npccAcAcc crnn xccr crcn accrAcn maArax

9 .

[4(31)
66
oAoxrr anxaaax nr a1c
28
rcx nnrAcA orncc.
,
420

Hrcp xooonpoo, nrcp, ax axyn ncrx anv oAon BBCB-


1a accAnn rccc aryyAan accA anpar. 0prcc accAnn rccc nr
xyyAnn paryy araa xoonro nr accApcrnnn oonn omnAoAnn
xoonro oAox nr xanraA11a no1Aox anm1aa no1Aorpox anaA
nrcnn xccr oAon nrcnn mxcc xsnan mnpncAcrpccn
ana.
Hrcp xooonpwn accAnn rccc nr xyyArp aaacan rcccnn
maapAarwr noAAccn oA, mon amaa xcAcA xnccn 1oxnoApoAp
accApcrn accA ancnaa xAccn aonmoocon, 1c nr no1Aorpcon
1oxnoApoAp nrcnn xymaa xsnan mnpncAcrpcx ana.
ccx xcrpcp prncA1 xnxcp rcccnn 2 1aA, mon ryanparn
c1rccp1c xoAoo1o accAnn rcccnn rnn rc1rcAnr
xanrax1a xoAoo1o ncxcmxAcAnr myyp nrcnn xymaa
xsnan mnpncAcpcr xann oAon xoAorporn1o mon accApcrnnn
araa xoonro oonn omn mon oAox nr 1opoxor, ax axyn
ncrx rcc rc1rcx napaxr oAox oooo xcAcA pamnyyax,
rcnc1nn xnnn aAcnn yAmaac 1oAo 1oAx napaxr oAcon
1oxnoApoAp mon nrcp xooonpwn amaa xcAcA xnccn nr
no1Aorpoxr anaA crnn xccr rcx acn xcrnr mnAxApcr
ana. 0nc 1oxnoApoAp xccr1 anarpcan no1Aox anm1wr 1aA
ccc nr cn opn1o ncAcx maapAara1a.
TyxaAaA: HnnrcA1c prnn mxnn 2008 onw 5 pyraa
cawn 2l-nn opnn 53? pyraa mnpnc, HncAcAnn panx
aaaApax ma1nw mxnn 2008 onw 6 pyraa cawn 30-nw opnn
40l prcc marapAaA1a, H.T, Y.B-wn ncxcmxAcA1c, H.H-p
xoAorpox 6.9ll.300 1oror raryyAax 1yxa nrcnn xcrnr
VAcwn ccp mx 2008 onw 9 prcc cawn ll-nn opo xcAcAccp
39l 1oo1 1or1ooAoo panx aaaApax ma1nw mxnn marapAaAwr
xnnnr oArox, anxan ma1nw mxnn mnpncnr xcncc
Apccccn ana.
Anxan ma1nw mxnn mnpnc Hrcnn xccr mxcp xsnan
mnpncAcx 1yxa xyyAnn ll6 pyraa aAnn ll6.2-1 aaacan
npccAcA xn oAx, aoxnrnpwn xooonp aryyAarpcan rcccnn
xanAaanaac cccn maraanwr npccAcA1c aon mnpncAcccn,
xccr xsnan mnpncAcx axnAAaraanw xymwr aonoor ana.
Xann panx aaaApax ma1nw mx Hrcnn xyyAnn 28l prcc
aAnn 28l.l pcx xcccr1 aaacan npccAcA 1or1oorpoxr rcx accn
nr npccAcA myy1a prncA1 oAcon ana.
Boxnrnpwn xooonp 2003 onw ll prcc cawn 2l-nn opo
aryyAarpcan accAnn rcccnn ap 2004 onw 2 cawn l5-np
ncxcmxAcrn Y.B xanyarn H.H-p 4.000.000 1orornr 2 cawn
xyraaa1a, 6 xynnn x1c accAccn 1aAaax A anm1wr anxan
8
2009 3 18- 1467 .
2010] 67
ma1nw mx ncAcxpcc Hrcnn xyyAnn 28l prcc aAnn
28l.l pcx xcccr1 aaacnw paryy accAnn rcccnn xanAaa cccn
rcx accn. 0ncx anm1ap xanyarn H.H rawn ccr ayx
aonmoocon oAox nr Hxnn mnnxnArccnn npccnn 1onnn
KnmnnaAnc1nvnn xcA1ccnn mnnxccnnn 2006 onw 3 pyraa
cawn l5-nw opnn ?l?, 2006 onw l0 pyraa cawn l2-nw
opnn 303l,3 1oo1 prncA1pcc 1or1oorpconw pcc accApcrn cnc
accAnn rcccnn rnn paryy 2004 onw 5 pyraa cawn l5-nw
opo 240.000 1oror 1oAorpcon, A anm1wn 1aAaa maraar
ana.
Hmp aoxnrnpwn xooonp accAnn xanAaa or1 cccr rcx
acx npccAcAr oroop cnc 1aAaa panx aaaApax ma1nw mx
prncA1 xnrccr, aonxon 1yxan anm1wr Apccn rcx opo ymy
2004 onw 2 pyraa cawn l5-nw opo xanyarn H.H nr MonroA
VAcap araar oAox nr XnA xamraaAax oonxn raawn 2008
onw 4 prcc cawn 2l-nw opnn l-6,ll50 1oo1 aAan nnrcc
no1Aorpcon rcx acx, Y.B-ooc xanyarn H.H monro accAccr
rcccn prncA1nr xnccn nr oAromxr oAxcc.
0ncx mxnn prncA1nn roA npccAcA oAcon pccx aAan
1oo1wn xancaA1 nr 1yxan aAan nnrnn xancaA1 mon oAoxwr
no1oAcon aryyAAarwn 1cmpcrAcrccr, noroo1cr aoxnrnpwn
Apccn rcx anm1wr 2004 onw 2 pyraa cawn l5-nw opo
xncnnr no1oAcon anm1 n xccr1 anarpaar ana.
BccApcrn accA ancan 1yxaraa no1oAcon anm1wr xcpnp n xnx
oAox oroop ornoor ncn aonoo nnnxr ax nr cnc nr A
anm1wn aonxon ncr xccrnr 1opoxoAoxooc 1aAyypwn xooonp
accA ancan, anaar acyypAwr cn rcrcx anm1wn xcmxccnp
prncxcp ynn py1arpaA1a oAoxwr mx anxaaaar ana.
Hrcnn xyyAnn ?l prcc aAnn ?l.2-p aaacnaa Xyraaar
aaAmr n oAox A snpAaa 1opoxoAx oAno rcccn
aaaA1wr panx aaaApax ma1nw mx yyy 1aAaAan xccrAcx,
cnc xcrnn xccnp aonxon ar xyraaar A snpAwr rcrcx
anm1 oArocon pyAnmar prncA1nr xnxcc.
Xanyarn H.H mxcp raracan 1aAa1aaa Y.B-ooc monro
accAccn A anm1wr cn rcrccr, oonn ax H.H-r accA
anaxap ayynnAcan rcccn 1aAa orn mc1rcAccnn pcc 1nn ax
H.H nr mx xyaApaanp rcncc ooAoxpoo Y.B-ooc 4.000.000
1oror accAccn, cnc xcAAnn 1aAaa nnnr anm1 Apccr
rcprnr n xAccn aonmoocon, rcn P.0 cnc acyypaA ncn oAoxwr
no1Aon rcnnAccn axap panx aaaApax ma1nw mx oxncon
ana.
BccAnn rcccnccc pcA1c maraanwr xsnan mnpncAcxpcc
anxaaax aAcnn 1aAaa VAcwn pccp mxccc aonAomx raracan
apar. Ynp:
HcxcmxAcAnn maapAarwr aon 1opoxoAox, maapAarwn
aryyArwr 1nn npccAcA1c aon ysApyyAx acx maapAara1a;

[4(31)
68
BccApcrnnn cr noAAcx rcccnn xyraaar aon
1opoxoAox. Hnmcc nr: Hrcnn xyyAnn 222 pyraa aAnn
222.5-p xc1cccn xyraaanp 1oxncon x rcx 1opoxoAorpcon
oAroA1wr 1oxncon x rcx yyy 1aAaAan xccrAcccn
xnmnr ana.
Xc1cccn xyraaanp 1oxncon x aaanaA anvnw x 1oopor
xyamp nnccn ax maapAararrccc rapna ncxcmxAcrnnn yr
maapAarwr xanyarn nsaaraar 1oxnoApoAp mx yr xrnn
xcmxccr anvnw xyamp nnAcx crr oAno. Horoo 1aAaa
ncxcmxAcrn xc1cccn xyraaanw xr rc1rccr rnn
nnn pnrnn 50 xynrp pAcn ncxcmxnAccn nr 1nn cx
xcmxccnn acyypaA oroop nnx maapax nr xyyAr aonoor
oAno;
29

BccAnn oAon araanw rcccnn xnnn 1oroApo cccxcp
mon prncA1 xnx maapAara1a. Hrcnn xyyAnn l?5 pyraa
aAnn l?5.l .... nno1ovnn aA oAox A xopAox cp xoonrnr
mxnn mnpncnn paryy aAapan xypaApana oooo xcAcA,
araanw rccc xnnn 1oroApo cccxcp mx prncA1 xnx,
araanw cp xoonrooc rnn rc1rcAnr xanryyAax 1yxa
mnpnc raax oc1o;
Ycr rc1rcrn araaraa xanrarpcan rnr ymy
rcccnp aaacnw paryy rc1rccr oA araaAarn 1crn
ccAxnnp araanw aAccc maapAara xanryyAax cx ymy A
xopAox xoonrnn araanw cx cccncc rnn rc1rcAnr
maapax panyy cx n oApor ana.
ccx aonAomx nr Hrcnn xyyArp aaacnw paryy accAnn rccc oAox
nr xanraA11a no1Aorpox araa 1oxnoApoAp mon 1nnr mnpncAcx
snap cn oAox cxmccAnr xcxcn aoxnyyAax 1aAaa raracan.
Hxnn mnpncnr ynmnx cypAax snap mnpncnn npccAcx
xcccr1 sma ynaac accAnn rccc, araanw rccc rcx accn, sma
xccA aonrnn npccn pcc rccc rcx acx araaraa npccAcx
xcccr1cc nnpcrr nr saraap rcccn acyyA1wr anra paryyApar ynn
py1arpaA1a ana.
0rnn xyyAnn l48 pyraa aAp aaacan Bycpwn cp xoonrnr
aaAnAan mcxAcx anax rcm1 xcrnr Hrcnn cx an rcccnn
xanAaanaac cccn maraanaac sArax, aon aAnAcxcp anxaaax
aanm acyypAwn 1aAaa
30
1aAaAacan VAcwn pccp mxnn 1or1ooA
aanm nann sAraar can rarax napaar, nyxam myr rcccrcc
xaAxannnAcan aaAnAan rcx accp ncAccp araa nr 1opoxor.
BccAcc 1oAx napaxr ccpcA cccn xcn rcccrcc xaAxannnAcan
aaAnAan nm. Hrcnn cx ap oo xcAAnr xaAxannAax aonAroo
xnccn xcAAnn xaAxannnAcan xcAcA nr xnnn 1oroApo yc xann
9
. 009 , .
0
. ., 008 , 006 -
.
2010] 69
paAp xcAcA nr xnnn 1oroApo apar. BaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xcrnr
Apcxpcc nrcnn cx an rcccr amnrAan Appcr.
III . ,
Xyyn mcxAcx ymy n1rcA cnpcx ApcA nr aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1
xcrnn orov1nn 1aA oroop 1yxan rcm1 xcrnn npccn mnnxnn
ncr oAno.
Xoxnorn nccpp cp aAc, omn xoonroooo xoxnoxwr A yxaaan
1cprccnr rcm1 xccr1cnp can pyaa mnAxApcr onAor1o. Icm
yyy1a c1rccpccc xoxnornnr oonn cp xoonroo can pyaa oo1
nr mnAxAcn oroxop xrcccn xyyn mcxAcx ara nr xyyamn nnnr
anm1 Apcx, nrcnn cx an xanAaaraa xaAxannnAcan p
aAccn rccc xcAcA xnx xoxnornpwn cp aAc, omn xoonrnr
oonn oArox anax ccncA xoxnorn n1rcx ncmmnn oooo omnoo
mnAxAcn orox nr aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xccr1 amnrAapar ncrcn ara
mm.

:
BaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xcrnr Apcxpcc nrcnn cx an
xanAaanw accAnn rcccr amnrAan yr rcm1 xcrnr Apcx ana.
Icxpcc aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xcrnn orov1nn 1aAwn l mnnx oAox
xyyn mcxAcx ApAnr nrcnn xyyAnn 59 prcc aAnn Xyyan
mcxcAx xnccn xcAAccc sArax xaax maapAara1a.
Xyyan mcxcAx xnccn xcAAnn pnp cp xoonrnr xyyan
mcxAcrn c1rccp oo1oo mnAxAcn ancan 1oxnoApoAp mypara yc
cacmmnrn oApor. XyyAr ocnw cacmmnrn nr mypara yc cacmmnrnccc
Hrcnn xyyAnn l06 pyraa aAnn l06.l.-1 aaacnw paryy oonn
omnAoAnn aAcc maapax cx1c apar. Xann rcm yyy nr cccAcn
mnpncAcrpccr axap mopon aaaA1wn ma1anp xoxnAwr noxon
1oAAx araa nr rcm yyyrn noaymnnn aannmp xam xccr
1rcx, mopon aaax axnAAaraanw nav1nv 1or1con apar. 0nc
nr nrcnn cx an maraanwr rcccrcc xaAxannnAcan aaAnAan rcx
aarwr crnn xymaa xsnan mnpncAAx xoxnAwr aAapan
1oAAcx rcccn connxAwn yAmaac nrcnn cx an maraanwr
aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xccr oAron mnpncAcx ana. Hnrcxpcc
Hrcnn xccr mxcp xsnan mnpncAcx 1yxa xyyArp aaacnw paryy
mnncc nAcccn noxoA apAwn yAmaac rcccn npccAcAnn paryy
nrcnn xccr xsnan mnpncAcx axnAAaraanw snap crnn xccr
panxa crcn maArax xyyAr yc xnmnr araa nr aaAnAan mcxAcx

[4(31)
70
rcm1 xccr oAon nrcnn cx an rccc, xcAAnr oocpnn xcccn
cx an xanAaanpaa xynnrax araa nr cnc 1oAnn rcm1 xcrnr
apnA1rax araa roA maA1raan mon;
VAcwn pccp mxnn 1aAa1 y rcccrcc xaAxannnAcan
aaAnAan nr aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xcrnr Apcxpcc rcccnn
1oAnr amnrAax Apcx araa arwr 1opo1rox orncc. Icccnn
xanAaa nr 2 1aAwn n1rcAcA apar. H1rcAAnr aApax, n1rcA
cnpccn ApcA nr aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xccr oAoxr. Vnn nr aoxnx
ocoo rc1rcx rcc xcxcn noAAx araa oAon 1np xanpax
araa xanpAaraac maA1raaAna. TyxaAaA, rccc anxnaacaa noAcrpcx
oAomxr, accAnr yaax 1oAox opn1 a1aAraar, araanw
xoonror, xoonro nr cxnn aonnA1c, 1yxan cp xoonrnr
araaAax cn cxr c1rccp araaAcan, xyyamn nnnr, anm1
amnrAan rcccr aryyAcan nnr rcccnn ncr 1aA mcpccc ax
canaa1araa nyyn paApaAx ycpwn cp xoonrnr aanmnx amnrAan
xyyAr ycaa aaxnan aayyAax cx crcpcr. Icccnn rnn
noAcA1nr cr rc1rcrn anxnaacaa noAAx napaxr, xanrax
oAomxr apAwr canaa1araa nyyn paarpyyAcan nnr rcccnn
noroo 1aA mcpccr ymy mcpcx oAomxr apar nr aaAnAan mcxAcx
rcm1 xccr oAno. Hrcnn cx an xyyan mcxcAx xnccn xcAcA
nr 1yxan rccc, xcAAnr xnxpcc opn1 apAwr rynyyAan 1yxan
c1rccpnr 1ooorpAcn xcAcA xnx cx noAoor nr xsaraaAapraaaa
aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xcrccc sAraa1a. Hnmcc nr, canaA opoA,
acmx, a cyyr, aa cy1aAnnAraa, roox nnmccn mar1aaA ccxA
nn1Acr sna, xcAAcr ono. Oooo xcAcA mcxAcrpccn c1rccp xcAAnn
1aAaa 1ooorpcon apar. BccAnn rccc, accAcc xypaApax xypaApan
anax rccc, araanw rcccnn xynrp xyyArp aaacan aoxnx xymwn
paryy aryyAarpcanaa rnn cx an xanAaa cnc. Ycr
rc1rcrn rcccnn rcc canaa1a oAon oAroomxr xcAccc
aoncon 1oxnoApoAp xyyArp aaacan xanyAarwn, oooo xcAcA,
maapax cxnn xcmxccr ncmcrpAcx oAon 1nnr xsaraaAax
cccxcc 1aAyyp noAoo1c 1oxnoAox oAno.
3l
0nc nr rcccnn noAoo1
apAwn aannm1a xoAoo1o. Yrcc noAAcx oAomxr oAox
1oxnoApoA nr anxaaax oc1o. 0np rcccnn opnn ccpcA, rccc
aryyAarpcanaac xom noxoA apaA no1o oonAorpcon, ccxA
cnc noxoA apAwn 1aAaax 1aAyypwn 1ocooAoA yyy 1amaa oAox
nr nAcxn oAcon, cr rc1rcx xyraaa xc1cx accr nr cr
rc1rcxcp ynncan noxoA rcx nrcnn cx ap acx nn yAmaac
ynncan xoxnAoo noxon 1oAAcx cx cpcr onAor1o;
BaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xcrnn roA onAor nr rcm1 c1rccp ycpwn
cacmmnAp araa cp xoonrnr oonn mcpcAp ann, anxnaacaa crcx
xcacc n oroxr rcccn canaa opoA 1ocon apar oAonn mon rcccrcc

. . ., 006 , 86 .
2010] 71
xAccccn cr nr noAcrpcx oAomxr oAmor 1rcc maA1arAax
ycpwn cp xoonro, ccxA 1nnr omnAox cxnr rpnr ymy
aanmwr mnAxAcxr ax rcm1 canaa aonAro 1ox, nnrcc
xccrxAcxnn 1yAp cacmmnrn, omnAornnr 1ooorpAcx aamaa
xyyn mcxAcx, n1rcA cnpcx, 1opoxo ApcA xnccn nr xccr 1rcx,
mopon aaax axnAAaraanw snap 1or1oorpnoA aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1
xccr rcx acx crnn xanyAara xAccArcnc
32
rcx 1aAaAacan
apar. ov1o .Aprsaccn oonn 1ccApcc aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1
xcrnr nrcnn cx an 1oc1c xanAaanaac sAraxap ApAnn
ara nm cyrov1nn canaa aonAroo sAraa1a rcx accn apar.
,
BaAnAanrnn xcrnr maAraxpaa nrcnn cx an xanAaanaac
cccn maraan yy ccncA aaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xccr rcprnr
1or1ooxpoo cx an xanAaaraa aon 1or1oox maapAara1a;
XanAaanp ooAornpwn canaa, aonAro, xccA aonrnr aon
1or1oox oc1o;
Xccr1 anarpcan no1Aox anm1wr ncAx maArax
maapAara1a;
BaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xcrnr Apcxpcc amnrAacan nrcnn
cx an rccc, xcAAnr, nrcnn cx an accAnn rccc oAon
1n1c 1oc1c rcccnn xanAaa, xyyan mcxcAx xnccn xcAAnr
aryyAaxpaa xanpcan cyrov1nn canaa aonAro, ccpcA1nr nann
1or1oox oc1o;
Icccnn xanAaanw roA anxaaax aAc nr rccc aryyAax
o ma1, 1nnr aryyAax onn rcccnn 1aAyypwn ApcA, A
sn ymy orov1nn apaAp ncAcA prncA1 orox oc1o;
BaAnAan mcxAcx rcm1 xcrnr Apcxpcc rccc amnrAan Apccn
oAoxwr xccr1 anarpcan no1Aox anm1aa maArax xccr1c.
Anxaaax aAc: Hxcnx accAnn rcccr anv oAon canxrnn
A axnAAaraa cxcApcr xyyAnn c1rccp1c aryyAx araa ynaac
cnc 1aA pcc anxaan axnAAax aon ncAcA1 orox maapAara1a.


72


AnAnra1a 1cmcx A xccr nr nnrmnn
oAon 1aA1 xanAaar xamacan nx cn
or ara xcmxcc oroop nn ncr caAmr
xcccr nr 1onn aAa paxr amnr connxAwn
aonAooc yrpnnAan ccrnAcx snpaA mm. 0nc
acA canaar mana yAcwn nnrcm, yAc 1onn
xn A xccnp cn pcn oArox,
xAccn aonmoon araar onAon 1cmpcrAcx
xccr1c.
Amnr connxAwn aonAooc oAx cpnn
aacar, npccnn amyAr apaA, mn
1acAax axnAAaraanw cccr oAon ycap oAon
1oAnn rcm1 xccr, aonnA Apcrppcr
ynaac amnr connxAwn aonAnr aonxon
anAnra1a xoAox acx nr ynn py1arpaA1a
ana. Amnr connxAwn aonAooc yrpnnAan ccrnAcxcp AnAnra1a
1cmcx raaaac rapna 0rnn arpaarnn raawn 0pnn aacrnn rcm1
xccr1c 1cmcx xcA1cc, TarnyyAwn oonxn raaa, VAcwn oonxn
novyown pcrcpcx Mopon aaax aAa, 1a1nawn oAon 1onn
ycap aryyAAara npcnxn canaannAra1a ooAox oc1o. AcyypaA nm
oron y1raa 1annrpax araar npccAcn 1onn aAan xaarnnn xynnn
amnr connxAwr nn1nn amnr connxoAp aaxnyyAax nnrmnn
opn1 maapAara yran ran ana. 0nc maapAarwn pnccc Tonn
aAa paxr amnr connxAwn aonAooc yrpnnAan ccrnAcx 1yxa
xyyAnn 1ocAnr oAoncyyAax axAwn xcccr aryyAarpaap arar
xyraaa onron araa oAonn nnmcc cyar aAra A ana. 0nc xyyAnn
1ocoA1c xoAorpyyAx rapaap onyypap 1yxan acyypAwr aoxnyyApar
aanm xyyAr 1or1oomxooc 1annAyyAax nr a1c oAon yy rcx aAcc.
AAnnaa onpo accrAcAnn aAan 1ymaaA1an, 1onn aAan
xaarnnn amnr connxAwn aonAnr mnpncAcx acyypaA pcAxnn
x yAcap ncn nyxaAp 1ooorpox ana. 0nc acyypAwr mnpncAcx
npccn aonA1 nr 1onn ypnpAarwn noAoor pccmAAcx, 1onn
aAan xaarnnn amnr connxAwn aonAnr anArax snpaA mon oAonn
xccrxnx araa apaA, ran araa pn nr yAc oon 1 oo oo
ana.
. -

l. HYB-wn pmnn l0l prcc aAp 1onn aaxnraa a ypnpAarwn
paaaxr rynan 1yAryy aanmwr 1ynxarAacan apar. Hcrprcc1,
1yym1a mypara ax aannm. ApnnAcan nnrcmp 1onn aAa
-
,
,
.
2010] 73
nn1nn n1rcA pcc ompor rcccn a 1or1oA AnnApcr. To, aacar ap
1mnn n1rcAnr oAx anaxwn 1yAp 1onn aAan xaarnpwn srcan,
xcAccn aA nr xnx, 1ccx araa aAccc aooxr ax oc1o.
Horoo 1aAaa, 1o pcnmAccn aonA1oo opn1o xccrxAcxccc
rapna cApcn maA1ar, maA1raan 1oonnx aonA1oocoo yxax snpaA
raraxrr xa1yy ccAcx oc1o. Xoopyraa1, 1onn aryyAAarwn
A axnAAaraa nA 1op, 1ynraAar ax aannm. Tonn aAan xaarnnn
xanyAarwr maapAarwn xcmxccnp aArax npccn ara oA 1nnr
1omnAox, axnAAyyAax A sn, mon 1nn mnpnc rarax, cr
paaArana noAAcx accr xn A A axnAAaraar nn1cp nA 1op
aArax snpaA mm. Ynn 1yAp 1onn aryyAAaryypap nn1cp
nccA11c ax aannm AnnAnc. Iyanpyraa1, 1onn aryyAAara
A axnAAaraaraa nn1nn omno nccA11c 1aAarnax, pnrnnx
nr 1oAoo xanyAara xAccx aannm. Tonn x ma1nw aryyAAara
oAon aAan xaarnnp oonn axAwn pnr ap 1mncc ncAAcn
prnAx, oAon nn1nn xsnaA1wn po axnAAax oc1o. 0nc aannm
amrpaAp xccrxccncc 1o, aacar 1yym1a mypara ax napax
araa cccx nr 1opono. 0nc rynan aanmwr oAon yAc oonp 1onn
aaxnraa, ypnpAarwn 1yAryy aannm rcx acx Ynpccn xyyAr oAon
ycap xyyArpaa 1ynxarAan aaacan apar.

2. HYB-wn Eonxn AccamAo l996 onp Hnrcm, 1onn aAan
1ymaaA1nw oc an oAon yAcwn xyyAr-nr a1aAx mopAccn ana.
Vr xyyArp aaacnaa 1onn aAan xaarn nr amnr connxAwn aonnAp
o1oxrn 1yAp xcxcn sax axnAAax 1aAaa 1opoxo aaacan ana.
Ynp:
l. Tonn aAan 1ymaaA1nyyp oonn nnr rcc noAAcx,
1nn po1o oAon nn11c anxaaaA1a, mypara aAarnAaxr
xanAax oc1o. Tcp aAnnaa c1rccp oAon Acr c1rccpcp xyyAr
yc paam1 maxaA1wr sma ncrcn xcAccc aAcxr ax,
sma ncrcn c1rccp, Acr c1rccpnn cccr xanpaxpaa sAranaAan
rapyyaxr ax ymy oo1 oArorpcon cx mcpcA, cn cxcc oo
ycap apAaa xc1Acxnr xonrAono;
2. Tonn aAan xaarn aAan 1ymaaAaa oonn a rc Annxcc
1ycwn 1yAp xynnn amnr xonxoo, canxrnn oAoro oAox
aonAroo amnrAax ocr. Tcp oocpnn aAan 1ymaaA, 1omnAroo,
cx cr1 A nncx aAnnaa rccc xcAcAp ooAox, sma ncrcn
aAan 1ymaaA panxa cxAcx, cr rc1rcxccc 1a1raAaaxwn
accrcc canx, anAxaa namaa oAon 1n1c 1oc1c amnr
connxoA 1cpcnp ax ynnr;
3. AAan 1ymaaA sma ncrcn apAaa aAan xaarnnr
xanyAaraxyyAna. Tonn aAan xaarn 1onn xyyAr,
aaxnraanw pcm, xymwn paryy axnA xccr, anAxaa namaa,
canxrnnxcc amnr connxoA, ccncA amnr connxAwn aonnAp
xrcx oAaomr canxrnn amnr oAox aonAro xn A
axnAAaraanwxaa 1yxa mcpccApcr. Tnn aAan rnn oAon
,
[4(31)
74
xynnn amnr connxAwn xooonp aonnA cn oAaomr, ccncA
1nm canaA nccn 1oxnoApoAp amnr connxAwn aonAnr aracrax
ymy anAraxwn 1yAp aoxnx pcm, xymwn paryy aoxnon
axnAAax maapAara rana;
4. Tonn aAan xaarn xcacc n 1onn can xomor, omn,
AnnArcc a aAan rcc rc1rcx oAon rc1rccnn pnp
oAx ancan mcpccAAnr oonn cr1c xoAoor A axnAAaraa
xccrxAcxcp amnrAax oAoxr;
5. Tonn aAan xaarn aAan 1ymaaAaacaa xaAarpcanw paaa
yrpax aAan 1ymaaAaa xo1oroo amnrAaxr axwn 1yAp
xyyAr, aaxnraanw pcm, aaanwn paryy axnAAax oc1o;
6. Tonn aAan xaarn cxcAx y aAan 1ymaaAwnxaa paryy
xyyAr, pcm, aaanwr npccAcn xynnn oAon oAomxoooo rc
Annxcc (cxnc, noxo) xoonro, oAoro, accAnn 1yxa mcpccAcx
cr1c;
?. Tonn aAan xaarn xAccccn rcc noAAcx, aAan
1ymaaAaa xccrxAcx, ccncA mnpnc raraxap noAooAox
sma n cAcr pycraA, anxaaaA 1a1can ycap cp aAnr myyp a
myyp yc araa anax, AnnArcc xnArcxccc 1a1raAaana.

3. HYB-wn Eonxn AccamAon 2003 onw l0 pyraa cawn 3l-nn
opnn xyaApaanaa a1aAcan HYB-wn AnAnrwn cccr vonnonn-
p amnr connxAwn aonnAp xaaA1 1annx (xonrAox, xsaraaAax rcx
mc1) acyypAwr nA 1opoxo 1ycracan apar. 0nc nr aonxon aAan
1ymaaA1an, 1onn aAan xaarnnp 1opnr yr vonnonnp ncrpccn
ooAorn yAc 1 xamaaaA1a axcc. Tyc vonnonnp aaacnaa:
l. OoAorn yAc oocpnn xyyAr 1or1oomxnn npccn
aanmwn paryy 1onn aAwr 1ynraAar aArax 1or1oAoor
pAx, pcmxnn cxxAcxnr cmcAacx, amnr connxAwn
aonnA raraxaac yrpnnAan ccrnAcx oc1o;
2. OoAorn yAc oonn onw xyyAr 1or1oomxnn npccn
aanmwn paryy aAan 1ymaaA1nyyp aAan cr1 nr xamnAx,
amnr connxAwn aonnA crcx oAaomr aAan yc A
axnAAaraa, axnA cxAcA1, xoonro oyyAaA1, oAoro, 1omooxon
cAcr pycraAwn aA, amrnnxaa 1yxa mcpArnr aoxnx
aryyAAaryypap orn ax 1aAaa cr amAaA1 anaxy 1or1oAoo,
ara xcmxccr xccrxAcxnr cmcAacx xccr1c;
3. OoAorn yAc oon oonn xyyAr 1or1oomxnn paryy
1yxan aA anrna 1or1oocon oc an xcm xcmxccr aoncon
1onn aAan 1ymaaA1anp caxnArwn oAon ycap ara xcmxcc anax
oAomxnr ann acx xccr1c.
MonroA VAc 2005 onp HYB-wn AnAnrwn cccr vonnonnp ncrpcn
ocnoo yr vonnonnc xAccccn rcc myparaa can noAAcx
oc1o oroop 1yc vonnonn nr mana yAcwn xyyAr 1or1oomxnn ncrcn
apnA AnnAx araa nAcc. 0nc vonnonnp: VAc onw anAnra1a
1cmcx opAoro, A axnAAaraa nr xyyAr pccpAcx, 1onn ypnpAarwr
2010] 75
aon aoxnc1o snyyAax, 1yym1a mypara, nA 1op, xanyAara1a ax
aanmyyp pcc 1yAryyAax oc1o rcx aaacan apar. MonroA VAc HYB-
wn AnAnrwn cccr vonnonnn aanm aA, aaaA1ap pypcanaa ncrp,
nnrmnn ooAoor pcmxccn, xyyAnr pccpAcx oc, 1onn A xccr
oAon 1onn omnnr aoxnc1o ypnpax xo1Aox, mypara ax, nA
1op ax, xanyAara xAccx aanmyypwr nAcxnAccn noAoo1c,
ysApaa1a anAnrwn cccr opAoro oAoncyyAx xccrxAcx oc1o.
Xoo1, 1onn aAan 1ymaaA1nwr axnAp anax, conron maArayyAax,
aAa xaax, aAan 1ymaaA pcnmnx, noAooAoxop nA 1op ax, cx amrnn
aonnA ccxccc yrpnnAan ccrnAcxcp poxom oAox 1or1oAoor n
oArox, cxxAcx cr xAccArcccn. Iyan1, 1onn aAan 1ymaaA1an
oonnx nr nnr rnn xynrp cx amrnn aonnA crcx oAox aAan
rccc rapyyx A axnAAaraa, axnA cxAcA1, xoonro oyyAaA1, cp
xoonro, nnnccAcr cAcr ymy panyy 1aAwr xoAorpox aryyAAarap
1aAarnax ax cnc1om oAon ara xcmxccr 1or1oox oc1o. oon1,
1onn aryyAAarwr 1oAooAx aaa, AnnArcc xypaApan anaxap
ooAox araa 1onn aAan xaarn 1yxan A axnAAaraa1a
xoAoo1o amnr connxAoo mcpccAcx, cnc mcpccAAnr maArax accr
acyypAwr aoxnyyAcan ana. Tanp, amnr connxAwn aonnA raraxr
ax pnccc 1onn aAan 1ymaaA1an c1rccpnr maapAara1a rcx
ancA 1opoxo xyraaanp mcrcxAnn nnrAcAcc nr, ccncA 1nnr
orocon ymy 1c1rcnc1 racnw paaa xynnn xcnmnAp axnAAaxap
xonr 1annx maapAara1a. 0prccnr mana yAc xyyAr 1or1oomxpoo
1ycrax, noAAx axnAAax cr xAccccn apar.
.
Enonwn xoAoo 2000 onp Hnrcm, 1onn aAan 1ymaaA1nw oc an
aarna xyyAr-nr a1Aan mopAxcc. 0nc xyyAr nr aAan xaarnpwn
amnr connxAwn oAaomr aonAooc yrpnnAan ccrnAcx, n1c
xoAorpox cccn acyypAwr aoxnyyAax, amnr connxAwn aonAnr
1acAan aorcooxop nnrAcrpccn ana. Amnr connxAwn aonnA 1onn
aAan xaarn aAan 1ymaaAwn cx mcpAcc opn1oroo, nnn cc1rcAccccc
myparaa noAAcxcp coroo noAooAox, ccncA noAooAx oAaomr
xynnn amnr connxoA1o araa 1oxnoApoAp cpcr. Tonn aAan
xaarnnn xynnn amnr connxoA nr oo1oo oAon rc A, 1ooA
1oorcop, naa noxop, o po1nwxonpoo oAon axnA xcrnn a yAc
1onn 1aAaa xanAaa1a c1rccp, aryyAAarap amnr1a axap
ompor. Mon 1nnAcn amnr connxAwn aonnAp 1onn aAan
xaarnnn x 1oAnn accA xamaaarppar oAoxwr 1yc 1yc onAon
1cmpcrAcccn ana. Amnr connxAwn aonAnn 1aAaa, yr aonnAp
ocnoo mcpccn 1onn aAan xaarn noxoA apAwr xaraAaan accp
xcxcx oc1or aaax paaaxr nnrAcA orcon ana. TyxaAaA:
Amnr connxAwn aonnA opn1 aA oAcnwr onro
anxaaax;
,
[4(31)
76
Amnr connxAwn aonnA raryyAaxr ax ara xcmxcc
anax;
Amnr connxAwn aonnA oAcon nr mcpcrpccn 1oxnoApoAp pccp
ma1nw parapaa mcpcrpcx;
Amnr connxAwn aonAooc n oAox amraac 1a1raAaax, ccncA
1np ocon noxoA apAaac raaxwr maapcan ccnn mnpnc1
aaxnarpax;
Xcncc maapAara1a oA 1onn aAan xaarn amnr connxAwn
aonnA araa r cccxnr mcpcrpcx.
Ynccc rapna aaxnraanw aryyAAarwn 1onn aAanw mnnc aAan
1ymaaAp nc pcnmnx araa xn 1yxan aAan 1ymaaAp 1omnAorpoxwn
omno oonn amnr connAwn aonAnn acyypAwr aoxnyyAcan ax
oc1o. Xcncc 1onn aAan xaarnnn aAan 1ymaaA xynnnx nr amnr
connxAwr xonpox anaA xyyAnn paryy aAan 1ymaaAp 1omnAorpox,
1omnAorpoop xcccr xyraaa onrocnn paaa noxoA apaA oonAorpcon
op pccx amnr connxAwn mnnx apaA, a xcc xcxcn oonAorpcon
1yxaraa mcpcrpcx cr1c.
Mon 1nnAcn 1onn aAan xaarnnp aAanw rcc rc1rcxcp
nr aoxnoxr, ccncA oo1 nr xo xoxnoA ynyyAaxy axnA
xopoAmo cxAcx, A axnAAaraa snyyAax, oo aAan 1ymaaAp
axnAAaxwr xonrAopor. Tonn aAan xaarnnn sma ncrcn A
axnAAaraa 1onn aAa1a aoxnox araa cccx nr 1opoxor op
myyp aaxnax parwnxaa canaA opAwr concox oc1o. Xnnn 1oroApo
AnnAx y xyyAnr xaraAaan acx, A axnAAaraanwxaa aanm
1oAnr xccrxAcx, 1onn aAanw yc sma ncrcn aAan 1ymaaAp
axnAAaxwn omno 1onn aAan xaarn cnc 1yxa 1onn aAanw axnA
oArornpoo mcpccAx, 1n1c 1oxnoAox cr1c. Tonn aAan xaarn
oonn aAanw oAon 1onn aAan xaarnnn xynrp onorpcon rcc
rc1rcxcp xo xoxnoA ynyyAx oAaomr namwn rnmnnAcA,
aAnnaa ncr aryyAAarap xarsaAarppar acyypAaa xyyArp aaacan
maapAarwn paryy mnpncAcx oc1or aoxnyyAcan ana.
Tonn aAan xaarn yAc 1onn ymy oAon nn1nn A axnAAaraanp
ooAoxpoo xcxcn axnAAax 1aAaa n pccx xyyArp aaacan ana.
Ynp:
l. Tonn aAan xaarn Ynpccn xyyAna oArorpcon npccn cxcc
xccrxAx yAc 1onn A axnAAaraanp oAon oAon nn1nn pynp
aoxnox araa cnc nnrAcAnn snAAara, mc1rcAccnp ooAoxpoo
cnc xn oonn xanycan axnA, onorpcon rcc ncnn myparaa
noAAcx napna1a mm yy, r my rcccn crcAaccnp nrcpnr,
ccncA axnA oArornnr oyyAaxr ax oc1o;
2. Tonn aAan xaarn aAan 1ymaaAwn rcc noAAcxpcc
sma ncrcn yAc 1onn aonArop AnAcx ocr;
3. Tonn aAan xaarn yAc 1onn A axnAAaraar
xccrxAcxpcc 1onn aanm aAan xaarnpap xamaaaA1a,
xyyArp aaacan xsaraaAaA1wr nanp caxnn noAAcx cr1c.
2010] 77
0nc xnccc acxcp amnr connxAwn aonAnr aoxnyyAcan rapaap
onyypwn xyyAr 1or1oomx xanraA11a araa 1opnr HYB-wn
rnmn onw xynrp MonroA VAc 1yc aryyAAarwn pcm, a1aAx
mopAccn xyyArp oonn onw xyyAr 1or1oomxnn acA canaar
nnAcx, axr aanm xyyAnr saaA1a a1aAx rarax aamaa
pcAxn nn1nn xnmnr1c xoA nnAcn yarm xorxnx oc1o.
Tonn aAa mon nanaaaaa omnx roA noxoA oA amnr connxAwn
aonAooc anrnp ax snpaA mon. Ic1cA mana yAcwn xynrp cccrcc nr
oAox rccp ana rcxcp ncr nx yyypaxr oAon yy. TyxaAaA, cx
xn aryyAAarwn mnpnc, aAnnaa aAan 1ymaaAwn 1omnAroonw
aana 1opoxo xynr xn, xcccr Acr xmcnn amnr connxoA
smar1 cpc mc1 paraApax oAcon nr nyy nm cc. Tc amnr connxoA
nr 1yxan cacnpcc xcmxccAmr nx an 1ycaa orn, xann nn1nn amnr
connxAwr 1c xcmxccrcc aonnx 1opnr yAcwn cx amnr1 Acmx
xoxnoA ynyyAcaa ana. Ynn ncr roA nAcA nr xyyAr 1or1oomx
a1Aaxap 1opopor. TyxaAaA, Ynpccn xyyAr aoncon xyyAr a1Aax
snpaA opoo aar opnn acrpcA oAox rccp araar aonyp 1cmpcrAcx
xccr1c. Hnmcc nr, xynr xn, xcccr Acr xmc, yAc 1onn
namwn snyy amnr connxAwr xamraaAcan xyyAr raracnaa 1o nr
amnr connxAwn aonAnr oormAcn raaa anaxyyAax cx cyyr oAx
ana. AAnnaa xyyAr oA xyyAr ocnw xamraaAaA1ap ax oc1o xynr
xn, xam1 oAon, aryyAAara, ax axyn ncrxnn cxnn nnAc or
ax oc1o.
AAnn oAron xcn ncrnn, xcccr Arnn cx amrnr xamraaAcan
xyyAr rarax nc, cxcm 1onn 1mccp cc. Ta rpnn cc1rcAp oc a,
oc cy1axyyn rcx apar oA, mypara axnAAax, mypara ax nnn
cmcAaAcA apar oA cx onwxoo xorxnAp, ap 1mnnxcc amrpaAp
ncn xccr1c, aaAmr maapAara1a, monroA xocon pcc oAoncon
xccrxnx y1 nac1a, xcnp n xoopmoA oAroA1 oroxoor oAonconry
xyyAr rarax xccrxAmcc ana, noAcA1cp nr 1annx xsnaA1wr
1or1moAxyyAmaa ana, yAcwnxaa xyyAnr xnpcAx xccrAcpcrr,
1oox noAApcrr aAan 1ymaaA1anp cx mcpcA, cp xoonrnr nr
xaraAaaxrrcc xanyAara 1ooox cymaa ana.
0nc ara xcmxccr xccrxAcxcp Tonn aAa paxr amnr connxAwn
aonAooc yrpnnAan ccrnAcx 1yxa xyyAr a1Aan rarax nr nyxaA
oAno. Tnmccc ncrprcc1, pccx xyyAnr saaA1a xcAcAcn a1aAx
mopAcx nr nn1nn cx amnr1 nncx oAno. Xoopyraa1, 1onn
onpo aAan 1ymaaA1nyyp xcn ncrnn mmyy, xcccr Arnn cx amnr1
AnnAx oAon 1mnn pynp anAnra, xccA xaxyyArp o1por rcccn
xapAarap xamarpax myy nc amccr ax nr nA nyxaA mc1
canarpana.
Amnr connxAwn aonAooc aAr oAox anrnp axwn 1yAp aAr n accr
annpaanw 1onn aAan xaarn, ypnpax axnA1an mypara 1onmnn
araas, mypara axnAAax amrparaas rcccn xa1yy maapAarwr
1annxaac oo arar oAoop ana.
,
78


Amnr connxAwn aonAnn 1oo xcmxcc,
nana (accrAcA)-wn aAcA1, 1nn
nnrcmp ynyyAx araa xo amyAwn
apaA nr 1onn aaxnraanw aryyAAarwn
ypnpax axnA1an, aAan xaarn oAon
xnnn nrcpnn oc cy1axyyn, xnn
mocnr nAcxnAcx nyxaA xcmx oAno.
Tnmccc amnr connxAwn aonAnn
maA1raanwr nnrmnn oc cy1axyynw
apaA, ncAcmxccc xax xccr1c.
l. Mana ap 1mcn oAon ayyn, oAon
msnran xnAnn 1ym 1ooo pccpAcn m1cx,
1onn aAwr xnpc1rcn xamraaAx nccn
asAar yAamxAaA, aan aanmAwn onpo
cooA1o. Xcncc cncx yAamxAaA, aan
aanmnA, oc an xcm xcmxcc, ncAcmxnn
cocr nnr anmxaa aAparpax mm oA nnrcm
xcApcc oc cy1axyynw poo1oAp oox amyA1a. Mon 1nnAcn yAc
onw cpnn aacrnn amrpaA, cx an aoxnyyAaA1, yAc 1onn
opAoro xcacc n nnrmnn oc cy1axyynaac anrnp araar 1yA cprcc
acyypAwr oroo nr cypAax maapAara1a ana. Horoo 1aAaa pcc
occ 1ooo xnpAcn pccpcAx ncnn ncr a1aAraa oA xo1, xopoor,
xormnn aaAyyr, Tonn mnnr cAp omoo rcx aaAnn, monx
xox 1cnrc1cc anwxaa pccxnr oropor acan. Ic1cA cAnn op
cnc xnpc1rcA aAparpax amyA nAccp ana. Haraap rcncA VHX-
wn nyyAranw oc cxcm 1mccpnn rarax araa aam aanmnn,
xanAaanw cooAr apaA, cap, para nawn aAan 1ymaaAwn
1oAoox 1cmcA, xn xoocon amAaA1, oonroo ponnArocon apamnaA
oAon 1mnn pyrAnr 1oAx, 1opoo n1rcx n1rcAnr aAparpyyAx
ana. cccc cyypAaa oAoxr oA poooo rpAcc oAoxr rcrncc
oc cy1axyynw xcm xcmxcc, xnn moc nanawr pccp 1nmnnp mynw
omno 1oAonmAcx maapAara1a ana. Hm 1oAonmnA axrrccc
amnr connxAwn aonnA pccccc cxcAx npccAccp araar myparaa
xAccn aonmooox xccr1c. Vrax araa, yraxaa 1cmAx araa
amnr connxAwn aonAnn npcnr nnrmnn ycap panxarap
xanan ox cxxnxccc nr omno, 1aA 1aA 1nm caAaaAx nn1nr
xamaxaac nr omno 1an aracrax, 1acAan xasx maapAara1a ana.
2. Xynr xn, 1onn aaxnraanw aryyAAarwn ypnpax
axnA1an, aAan xaarnnn oc cy1axyyn, xnn moc nr nnrmnn

,

,

.
2010] 79
asArnr ocron annxyyAax, myparaa xynaanAax, yAc onw
xorxAnr yarmAyyAax acyypaAp nxccxcn noAoo aAnc. 0pnn
aacar nr oron y1raaaa xn amwn amrxnraanw xccrccr xanrax
aonA1wr xccrxApcr. Ic1cA xcccr Acr xmc npccAcAr
asxnx, nrcpnn oAonxn nr spyyaAp oox acrcc cpnn aacrnn
xorxnAp raxyypaA cn, oc cy1axyynr acrpAnr yAam 1c1rcn
paamxyyAax noxoAnr pAx ana. Hnrmnn xccnp
xmcnn 1crm yc apaA, ama xsAa araa axnA 1ccx,
xoonro xynm1AyyAax xccA 1cmAcA xnn cx, amnr connxAwr
1opnr mana 1onn aAanw oc ar pArcc aonnx ana.
Vpnpax axnA1an, 1onn aAan xaarnnn oc cy1axyynw 1aAaa
qnAocoqnn yxaanw pov1o, axmap pnnAoma1n, ccxcc1cn, cypAaan
. (2008.08.29, 170)-
VpnpAarwn ccxcc1cn: opoA, crcAcA orAcApcc: Hnrcm, ap
1mnnxcc omno onro rnr xAccccn cy+ov1 oA ypnpAarwn
ccxcc1cn oAroo. 0x oon, ap 1mnn xynr aasa oopor can caxan
ax nr 1cpnn omyn, ara yxaan, xnAcr, cooAn, mypara, ncnn,
aannmn 1ox, payy aan 1oAon rccp oAon caxan mnnx nanaaac myyp
xamaapar axcc. Vpnpax axnA, aAan 1ymaaAp 1omnAoxpoo ncrp,
oAoncoAwn pnnAom, xoo1, oc cy1axyynw mnnx apAwr xaraAapar.
TcrncA opoo rapaapwn aanm oonp xoopaxr nr ymy oc cy1axyynw
mnnx nana onpo ax oc1or 1crn maAryy oAron ann apcr
oAcon 1yxa oAon yAcwn cpcm1cp nnxcc. 0nc nr ccxcc1nn oc
cy1axyyn smar1 cnc, anyn ax oc1on nyxAwr nnrmnn nav1nv
orAx y xccr nAcc. Bopox oc1o A aA rccp aam nr nnx
ccxcc1cn nr Hnrcmp 1opoxo a cyyr cacAccn, nann 1onor1c,
xnp xc omynw xopoAmonr panamraAan cxcApcr, po1oop cooA, oc
cy1axyynw onpo mnnx nanawr cacmmccn xcccr Acr xmc rcx
1opoxoAcon ana. Bax accAnn ooo ycraa cncx ar op ypnpax
axnA1an (ypnpAarwn ccxcc1cn), 1onn aAan xaarn (ccxcc1cn)-nn
1c cApcxnp n, xn nanawn aAcA1cp n arar oonAoA1
ran, 1c xcmxccrcc oAon 1mnccc mmxAcA xAccx nr ncmcrpccc
ana. TyxaAaA, cx mcpcA1cn, para, 1mmcApnn pynp ma1aAcan
aaxnan 1ymaax oc, snyy xcc raaa ann, oroo anaa, xccA xaxyyAr
ax oc1o mm mnr opnn, xcnnn acrpcA mc1 oAx, nnrmnn
amrpaAwn xccr xamacan 1om cAxcc crccncc ap 1mnn
yxnmpAwr 1oAx, nnrmnn spyyAwr raayyAax oAon. Hnrccncc
pccpcnn xccAAnnxnccc ccxcc1cnp aaAmr anaA aoxnx oc
cy1axyynw oAon axnA xccrn, aannmn, mypara, xnAcr ocnw accr
aAr cocr mnnx nana yAam prccn xoApox ana. rcx xaamcan
nnccnnr anxaaaxr onron oAoxr. 0nc nr snan sncaa raaa
ann xmcnn oc cy1axyynwr ncAcnxp nr poo1yyAax amyA1a
,
[4(31)
80
1yA ma1 ma1anpaa xsnyy nsma axnAAax maapAara1a ana;
3. 0x an aoxnyyAaA1 oAonconry ycaac maA1raaAx nrcn
n, 1onn aAan xaarn n oc cy1axyynw xcm xcmxccr aonnx, xnn
moc nanaaa aApax 1oxnoApoA xoo apAaa rapar nr axnrAarpcan.
Hcrprcc1, mopox araa cx an av1aa aonnx ana. Haraap
rcncA cmncAcr, anAra, cooA, oAoncoA, xaAamx, nnrmnn
xamraaAaA rccp 1onn AnnArcc1c xoAoo1oroo sam, aron1Aarnn
cap, para nawn a1aAx mopAccn pcm, xyam, aaana accr
nn1Acr xcm xcmxcc 1or1oocon cx an av1yyp ma1 pamxAara
oAon1o, xc1 nx nncrpcA1c araa nr xmc1 1nnr 1on raax
xsAa ara aamwr xax, oAon caap panaar aAracn 1onnAoxwr yr1aA
oAropor aymnA 1or1ooroop ana. Xoopyraa1, xam1an axnAAax,
xanAan 1ycAax1a xoAorpcon anm1 nnnr oAoncyyAax, ccncA
axnA, AnnArcc cxAcx cx anaxwn 1yAp xyyAr 1or1oomx aonnx
snpaA rarapar. TyxaAaA, rccc, von1av1 aryyAaxpaa panyy
cx, sAnmr nA apaA oo1oo n oArox, aanm ncr nr 1onpo1
ocoApox snpaa sAx pnAcxnn 1yAp xyyAr yc ara xccrAcx acrcc
mon A amnr connxAwn aonnAp xy1raApax cxcApcr ana. 0nc nr onro
xaaxap ararn cxcnp xnx araa mc1 xaarpann ncn xccr pcccc
oApcon oAomxnr paAnmpyyAan amnrAax myy arap cyaAaxaa
cA1rcx araa, aanm nr cA1rcAcc pyycraap npccn anrnp nr pcnmnn
ox cyaAax araa rcccn r mm. Tnmccc nrcpnn xynrp n, 1onn
aAan xaarnnn xynrp n nmcx oo ccn, panxapaA, xnpAnr
amnrAax napaxrrcc xyyAr 1or1oomxnr nsr1 nsma, nA
py1yy oAroA1 oroxoor, xccrAcx mopoxop 1onn 1opoxo, yAam
oAonconry oAroxwr onoornn ar o ncxcA xa1yy1a maapax ana.
81

XyyAnn aA anrn xcccr nr


amrpaAp xccrAcx nappar xnnr
xyyArn rcx nr oAon1aa. TcrncA yr
xyyAr nr oooo xoopmoA canaar, ncr
mo oArorpoxoo, xooonpoo y1rwn
aonnApoonr ax oc1o. 0rnn
xyyAr, 0rnn aaan mn1rcx
xyyAr, Hxnn mnpnc rc1rcx
1yxa xyyArp aaacan xonx anrn oAon
rsnpanrnn 1aAaaxn aaaA1, 1cprccnr
nav1nv1 xccrxAx y nooccwr
xaryyAan cypAaxap anxaaaA 1a1can
aA oonr ana.
MonroA VAcwn 0rnn xyyAnn
Eonxn anrnn 52 pyraa aAp Icm1
xccr Apccn c1rccpnr cnc xyyArp
aaacan xyraaaraa cx noAoor nr xsaraaAax, nnrmccc 1ycraaAan
xonx anrn, rsnpanp aAraxwr xonx sA rcnc rcx 1opoxoAcnwr
acxcp xonx sA mn1rAccn c1rccpnr xoo oo raaa ymy xonx
anrn, rsnpan xcmccx 1ycpaa o+ov1op xonx sAwr cpAAx oAoxoo
aaaxcc.
Ic1cA Hxnn mnpnc rc1rcx 1yxa xyyAnn l05 pyraa aAp:
Xonx aryyAAara nr annnAax a, nacanp xccrnpnn
oAon nacanp xcrcpnn xonx anrn, rsnpan (aamnp xonx anrn
rcx) 1cprcc1c apnA pcrAcm xn aryyAAaraac pcnc rcccn
nr rsnpan 0rnn xyyArp aaacan xonx anrn1a sr nxnA y1rwr
aryyAcan araa nr aamnp raax coor paranwr n oArocon
ana. TyxaAaA: rsnpanr xonx anrnn ncr apnA oArox anrnn
pyraa oArox (405 pyraa anrn r.m) ncAcccn, 1np sA cpcAx araa
sA1nwr xonx anrnn rsnpanrnn pcrAcm-nn sA1an rcx, xonx
anrnn sA1anp xoAorpox mxnn mn1rcx 1or1ooA noAAcx1c
xoAorpcon axnAAaraanp rsnpanrnn sA1nyypwr xamyyAx y accr
nr xonx anrn a rsnpanrnn mon nanawn aryyAra aAparpax aonxon
sA1an sA cpAcx noxoAoo xooonpoo sArarpax 1opn oAcon ana.
On amyA1a rcm1 xccr1ncc 1ooorpcon oAon l8 nacanp xccnn
paaa on xnp rcm1 xccr1 l5 xnAccc pccm xyraaaraa xonx sA
mn1rAccn ccr1c sA1nw xonx sAwn aanmwr rsnpanp cpAAcxcc
mx 1or1oocon ccxA aaaaa anax sA mn1rAccn c1rccpnn



,
,
.
[4(31)
82
amnr MonroA VAcwn EonxnAorn yynnAcan 1oxnoApoAp 30 xnAnn
xyraaaraa rsnpanp xonx sAaa coArcon sA1an rsnpan-p norpcon
sAaa cpcAx pyycrax ynn1a rcccn canaar pcnmAx ana.
XyyAr 1or1oornnp aonxon xonx anrnn po1oop xymwr nanp caxnx
0rnn xyyArp aaacan, onorpyyAcan sAwn aoxnx xynnr cpcAccn,
aacan xmxccncc aan apAaaaa xayyAx, rcm1 xccr Apccnn
yAmaac ycpap ynyyAcan xoxnAoo noxon 1oAcon, rcm xowr anAracan,
ccxA sAwnxaa 1aAaac poomr xynnr cpcAx caxnArwn aonnA
raraar xopoAmoAox rcc amxnA11a noAAx yammyyAarpax
acan sA1nwr sA cpAcxccc xyraaanw omno 1cnccn cyAAax ymy pcrAcm
yyyyAx oAoxwr xyyArnnAcan ana.
Xann mxnn mn1rcx 1or1ooAp aaacan xonx sAwn aanmwr
oAon MonroA VAcwn EonxnAornnn aaAnraa yynAarpcan 30
xnAnn xyraaaraa rsnpanp xonx sA cpcAx araa sA1nwr
rsnpanrnn xyraaanaac omno pcrAcm yyyyAax 1yxa aAr n xyyArp
aaaraar axap cpAcx sAwn 1aAaac nA xynnr cpcAccn, cA
mcnpnn apaA acrnr npccAcA oArox raracan Hxnn mnpnc
rc1rcx aryyAAara oAon Hovyown canaA, 1opoxoAoA1,
prncA1nn paryy mx mnpncAcx araa nr cn aon npccAcA1c
rcx acxcp crcAacc1c ana.
0rnn aaan mn1rcx xyyAnn 335 pyraa aAnn 335.l
pcx xcccr1 aaacan rsnpanp xonx sAwn aoxnx pcrAcmnr xonx anrnp
cpAAcxcc mxnn mnpnc rc1rcx aryyAAarwn canaAwr
npccAcx raracan novyown prncA1nn paryy mrn aaxnamx
rarax mnpncAcx 1yxa aaaA1wr xcxcn xccrxAcx 1aAaa ncrpccn
oAroA1 axr, sA cpcAx y aryyAAara myr npccAcx canaA
rarax nr 1opoxor, cnc 1aAaa VAcwn pccp mxnn xoAorpox
1aAa raaar accr ooxo-r amnrAan xonx anrnn onro,
nanra pcrAcmp sA cpcAx araa sA1nw pcrAcm yyyyAax acyypaA1a
apnA1rax 1ocoo1c apAaa mnpnc rarax araar aorcoox ar
oAcon ana. 0nc acyypAwr crcAx 1opoxo mnpnc ra1aA
rsnpanrnn sA1nwr mxnn mn1rcx 1or1ooAp aaacan xyraaanaac
omno xonx anrnp sAwr cpAAcxcc coArx y apAwr 1prcAaAcx
nr a1c mm.
MonroA VAcap aaaaa anax sAwr rc1rcxccc 1a1raAaax, yAmaa
xaAax canaA canaanAara orox xccnp ran yAmaa 1yxan sA1an
c1rccpnr aaaaa anaxaac nA1crcc aonxon rsnpanp 1or1oocon
xyraaanp Hc aArax xonx sAwr cpAAcx nr xanraA11a ccAcA
oAox 1yxa srx araa onoo op opn1 apaAp rsnpanrnn sA1nwr
xonx anrnn sA1an apnA xyraaanaac omno pcrAcm yyyyAx
mnpncAcx araa nr npccAcAr mm. Ian xnmcc pyrpaxap 2009
onp l4 sA1nwr rsnpanraac xyraaanaac omno oo xonx anrnp sAwr
2010] 83
cpAAcxcc coArcon ana. 0nc nr xyyAr cx an onnnr oAonconry
oArox maapAara1a araar xayyAx ana.
Hxnn mnpnc rc1rcx 1yxa xyyAnn ll0 pyraa aAp
Hacanp xccr sA1an l8 nac xmcr sAwr nr cpAAcxcc
nacanp xcrcpnn xonx anrnp mnAxAcx acyypAwr xonx anrnn
1opoxoAoA1wr npccAcn mx mnpncAcnc rcx aaacan nr an
xoAorpAoo aApaar xoAorpox acyypAwr sma ncr maraanr
mnpncAcx ana. Ynccc canaa ann Hxnn mn1rcx 1or1ooAp
aaacan rsnpanp cpAcx xonx sAwn xyraaa pyycmar yr sA1nwr
aoxnx pcrAcmnn xonx anrnp mnAxAcx acyypAwr xonx anrnn
1opoxoAoA1wn paryy raracan novyown prncA1nr npccAcx mx
mnpncAcnc rcx 0BH xyyAnn 335 pyraa aAp ncmcA1, oonAoA1
oyyAx nayyAax nr aon mm. TnnAcn cnc aA anrnp rsnpanp xonx
sAwr aoxnx pcrAcmnn xonx anrnp cpAAcxcc coAnx 1yxa canaAwr
mx xccrccxr oArocon 1yxa aaxnamx racan opooc xom l
xnAnn po1o yr acyypAwr mx paxnn ann xcAcAcxr rcccn aaaA1
nr xnn cxnr no1o aoncon ncr xcAc rcx acx oAoxoo ana.
Vnn nr xonx anrnn canaA 1opoxoAoA1, novyown prncA1nr
mx npccAcAr rcx acx xccrccxr oArocon nr rsnpanp xonx
sA cpcAx araa sA1nw yyy nm xann cx xn aAan 1ymaaA1nw
xanyAarar axnAAaraa1a xoAoo1o axap mx ncr xnAnn
xyraaa aaax paxnx xcAcAcxr rcccn nr ooocroA, opn1 amrpaAp
nncxr ana.
Hmp pccx acyypAwr ncr mo xyamAaxap mynw omno:
l. VAcwn pccp mxccc 0rnn aaan mn1rcx xyyAnn 335
pyraa aAwr 1aAaAax;
2. Hxnn mnpnc rc1rcx aryyAAara, novyo, mx nr
xyyAr xccrxAcx 1aAaa ncr mo oAroA11o oAox;
3. Isnpanr xonx anrnn ncrcn apnA ncAcxr ax;
4. Isnpanrnn sA1nwr mxnn mn1rcx 1or1ooAp aaacan rsnpanp
ax xyraaar pyycmar aoxnx pcrAcmnn xonx anrnp sAwr nr
coArx cpAAcx;
5. XoAorpox xyyAnypap cnc 1aAaa 1opoxo ncmcA1, oonAoA1
oyyAax aamaa xyyAnn xnpAnr anArax nr pnrcc orno
rcccn canaA pcnmAx ana.
,
84
A
, .
Anc1nn Ynpccn xyyAnn mxnn cxAcAnr l86? onp
aryyAarpcan 0acn1 rnn mx 1anrcan rcx apcr. Tcrccp l9l9
onooc Ynpccn xyyAnn mx nc1c oAx Ynpccn xyyAnn xsnaA1wn
aryyAAarwn cxnr 1anrcan anxnw mx mm.
Anc1nn Ynpccn xyyAnn mxnn mrnpnr XoAoonw Bacrnn
raaa, Ynpccnn aonAoA (naAamon1) ccncA XoAoonw aonAoAnn
canaAwr npccAcn EonxnAorn 1omnApor. Xcpnrcc cnc 1omnAroo
nr yAc 1onn mnpnc ax oAox oAonn mrnnp cn cxcc
xccrxAx cxcAcncc 1cp xaaa1 yc A axnAAaraa snyyAax oroop
yAc 1onn aAr ncr nnr myramwr paraparr.
Ynpccn xyyAnn mxnn l4 rnmn (1nnAcn 6 oAorn rnmn)
nr xyyAnn cyryyAr 1orccon, mcrcxAnn onpo 1ymAara1a ax
oc1o oroop mrn, nx pccp cyryyAnn arm, omrooAorn accr
xyyAnn nann mcrcmAnn xmc apar. Hrnnp nr ?0 nac
x1Acc yr aAan 1ymaaAwr xamnx oApor. Ynpccn xyyAnn mxnn
mnpncccc ycap sma n mnpnccc 1cprccnr aAan 1ymaaAaac nr
oryyAx oAporr.
Ynpccn xyyAnn mxnn Brp xyaApaanaac mxnn mnpnc
rarapar oroop Brp xyaApaan nr mxnn EonxnAorn, cp
oonxnAorn a l2 mrnccc ppcr. Tnccc rapna oAorn mrn rcx
ax oroop 1cprcc nr anrwn rnmp connxoAwn aonnApoon1c
ax, onn1c accr 1oxnoApoAp 1cprccnr oAono.
l4 mrn xnAp 4 ypaa xyaApana. HaapAara1a 1oxnoApoAp ncmcA1
xyaApaan xnx oApor. XyyAr, cx an pnccc mnpnc raraxap
xsAa, oAromx1o acyypAwr 4 mrn , ncr paraAarn1araa Bara
xyaApaan rcx ncAcpcr xyaApaanaa mnpncAcnc. Bycap acyypAwr
Brp xyaApaanaa mnpncAcnc.
Ynpccn xyyAnn mx 80 ray aAan xaarn1a. Hrn xooooc
rynan 1ycAax1a. Eonxn nann nnrnn para, cypAaanpwn xcccr,
monoxo, xccr 1rcrn na nr mxcp nx y xcrnr 1rcx,
xoAorpox xmc1 nArccx, xcrnn ma1onaA cA1rcx accr opo
1y1mwn acyypAwr xanyna. Ynpccn xyyAnn mx nr xnAp 3000
onnm mnnc xccr xcAcApcr oroop xnAp rarax y mnpncnn
1oo xnAccc xnAp ncmcrpccc ana.

XoAoonw Ynpccn xyyArp Ynpccn xyyAnn mxnn xcrnn
2010] 85
xa+saAaAwr paaaxr apAaa 1opoxoAcon apar.
0nrnn mxcc mnpncAcx oAomxr, aaxnraanw
aryyAAara mnpnc rarax rc1rcx oAomxr XoAoo oAon
myx yAcyyp, aon, ncrpcA, ncrpAnn aonAoAp xanpan raracan
x xoonro-cx an xoAorpoA1o maapAarwr Ynpccn xyyAnn
mx ann xcAcAcx oroop np paaax maraan xamaana.
Hx oAon aaxnraanw aryyAara xooonpwn maraan;
Baxnraanw xcrnn mx oAon ycap mx xooonpwn
sAanrysa Baxnraanw xcrnn mx a Ynpccn xyyAnn mx
xooonpwn, cnrnn oAon ycap mx xooonpwn maraan;
Myx xooonpwn oAon myx yAc, xoAoo xooonpwn maraan.
XoAoonw aacrnn raaa ccncA myx yAcwn aacrnn raawn
maapAaraa 1yxan xyyAr cx an av1 ccncA rc1rcx
aacarAaAwn av1 xoAoonw ccncA myx yAcwn cx mcpcAp xamaaax
cccxnr 1or1oono.
YXH XoAoo oAon myx yAcyypwn aryyAaryypwn 1or1ooA
Ynpccn xyyAr aonnx araa cccxnr mxnn ncxcmxAcAcc xsnan
mnpncAcnc. Mon Ynpccn xyyAnn mxcc cx an maraan xsnan
mnpncAcxcp yr 1or1ooAwr xccrAcxcc oAnoA oo1 ororpcon rnn
paryy mx oonn canaanAaraa xsnan mnpncAcnc. Mon oropoA
orcon nrcnn cx cncx 1or1ooAooc pcn mxnn mnpnc,
1opoxo 1ycra 1or1ooA raaar n rcccn aonnrpox araa rcx ancA
nrcnn oropAoo yr acyypAwr xcAcAcn mnpncAcnc.
YXH XoAoo oAon myx yAcyypwn aryyAAaryypwn xyyAr Ynpccn
xyyArp nncx araa cccxnr Baxnraanw xcrnn mx, ccp
mxnn oAon xoopaxr ma1nw mxnn xynrp xcrnr xsnacan
mxnn ncxcmxAcAcc xsnan mnpncAcnc. Mon Ynpccn xyyAnn
mxcc cx an maraan xsnan mnpncAcxcp yr xyyAnr xccrAcxcc
oA oo1 ororpcon rnn paryy mx oonn canaanAaraa xsnan
mnpncAcnc. Mon oropoA orcon nrcnn cx cncx 1or1ooAooc
pcn mxnn mnpnc oAon 1opoxo 1ycra 1or1ooA raaar n
rcccn aonnrpox araa rcx ancA nrcnn oropAoo yr acyypAwr
xcAcAcnc.
VAcwn rccc cx an napamx1a cccx 1yxa xcrnr xcAcAcnc.
Xcncc yAcwn rccc xyyAr aoncon, Ynpccn xyyAr aoncon rcx
1or1oorpnoA Ynpccn xyyAnn mx cncx rcccr aamnp xccrAcxnr
xyraaa aaaraar oA mxnn mnpncnr xcnAcrpcn racan opooc
cxAcn 1nnr xccrxAcrn aryyAAaryyp noAAcx ocr. VAcwn
rcccnn xynrp cnc xyraaa 2 xnAccc xc1cx ocr.
:
XoAoonw EonxnAornnn conryyAr, nn1nn 1oAooAornpnn
raawn conryyAr, EnonaAamon1, mcrcxAnn 1oAooAornpnn

l.
2.
3.

,
[4(31)
86
xyyAr ocnw ypnpax pccp aryyAaryypwn conryyAnr cccrccn
xccr;
Myx yAcyypwn aacrnn raawn oAon 1oor, ncrpApnn
rc1rcx aacarAaAwn conryyAnr cccrccn xccr;
Inmpnn nn1nn 1oAooAAnn aryyAAarwn oropAoo
oonn rnmpnn po1ooc ncr rnmnn manpa1wr yAax;
Anc1n VAcaac Enonwn naAamon1ap cyyraa ll-ccc poomr
rnmpnn oropAoo ncr rnmnn manpa1wr yAax;
XyyAr ocnw mcrcxAnn 1oAooAAnn aryyAaryypwn ypnpax
cApcxnn oropAoo ncr rnmnn manpa1wr yAax.
Ynpccn xyyAna XoAoo oAon myx yAcwn pccp aryyAAarwn
xanyax acyypAwn xccnp aAan 1ymaaA1an xanyAara aApan
xyyAr aonconp yyy1rarpcan xcrnr xsnana: Ynp:
XoAoonw VAcwn EonxnAorn XoAoonw Ynpccn xyyAnr
aoncon oA-XoAoonw xyAwn mnpnccc;
XoAoonw Bacrnn raawn rnmp oAon 1n1c apnA1rax
xanyAara1an xyyAr aoncon oA-Ynpccnn aonAoAnn
mnpnccc;
BonAoAnn 1oAooAornnp XoAoonw xyyAr 1or1oomxnp xamaaax
acyypAaa xyyAr aoncon oA-Ynpccnn aonAoAnn mnpnccc,
mon myx yAcwn xyyAr 1or1oomxnp xamaaax acyypAaa xyyAr
aoncon oA -Yanpc1arnn mnpnccc;
Myx VAcwn Bacrnn raawn rnmn mon 1n1c apnA1rax
xanyAara1an xyyAr aoncon oA- Yanpc1arnn mnpnccc;
Myx VAcwn Bacar para, 1nn oAorn, Bacrnn raawn
rnmp xyyAr aoncon oAon myyp yc xoAoonw ypnpAarwn
acyypAaax XoAoonw 1or1ooA, mon acyypAaax Myx VAcwn Bacar
parwn aaanwr noAAccr oA-XoAoonw Bacrnn raawn
mnpnccc
Eona xo1wn aryyAaryyp xoAoonw aonA1yypwr rc1rcx
oonn cx mcpAnn xccnp xyyAr aoncon oA-XoAoonw Bacrnn
raawn mnpnccc;
Myx VAcyypwn Bacar para na l4 prcc aAnn 8 pyraa
moonp aaacan aaanwr noAAccr oA XoAoonw Bacrnn
raawn mnpnccc;
Myx VAcyypwn cyryyAnn aonAoAnn EonxnAorn XoAoonw
1or1ooA oAon ycap xyyAr 1or1oomxnr noAAccr oA-
XoAoonw Bacrnn raawn mnpnccc;
Myx VAcyypwn Bacrnn raawn rnmp ll prcc aAnn
l, ll prcc aAnn 9 pcx mop 1ycracan acyypAaa XoAoonw
xyyAnr aonnx, 1or1ooAwr noAAccr ymy caap 1o1ro
ynyyAcan oA.
Xcncc Ynpccn xyyAnn mx yyy1ar nr 1or1oonoA cprcc aAan
1ymaaA1nwr oryyAx, xnpAcx maA1raan1a oA yAc 1onn
cxnr nr 1 xyraaaraa xacna.

2010] 87 ,
XoAorpox (YX-nn l42 pyraa aAp aaacan) aAan 1ymaaA1an
crnn rcm1 xccr1 xoAorpoxoo A axnAAaraa snyyAcan oA
Ynpccn xyyAnn mx xcrnr xsnana.
Ynpccn xyyAnn mx aaxnraanw aryyAAarwn mnpnc, ccncA
Ynpccn xyyAnn cccr xyyAr, xyyAr yc 1or1ooA, 1crm yc rcccr
xccrAccnn yAmaac Ynpccn xyyAna oArorpcon cx nr aonnrpcon rcx
acx oropoA orcon nrcnn rompAwr ann xcAcAcnc.
OAon yAcwn cx an xcm xcmxcc aonnrpox ana rcx accn
xcrnr XoAoonw 1ycra xyyAnn aaaA1wn paryy Ynpccn xyyAnn
mx ann xcAcAcnc.


Hx y oropoA YXH-nn axAwn aAanp 1rcrpcnc. Hxcnxpcc
oropoA myypanraa npcr. Banm nr omrooAornoooo pamxyyAan
nApcr. Bx oropAnr Eonxn nann nnrnn para xAccn anna.
Tccc xAccn ancan oropAnn npccn aAcA1pnr vomnrm1onn
po1oop cAxccnp oyyAna. Eonxn nann nnrnn para cA1rcccn
qaAaa YXH-nn EonxnAornnp orn xcrnn 1aAaa mcpccAcn,
oonn canaAwr Banrwn nA1rcrn rnmnp xcAx, cnc monooc xcrnr
1c xanyna. EonxnAorn mnnc xccr pcc axnAAax mrnnn
ncnr xccr pcc nnnx orno. EonxnAorn nm mnpnc raraxpaa
oonn acmxcc xynaanAna. Icxpcc 1ccc xcrnr xynaanAaxpaa
mrnnn nann mcrcmAnr xaraAaan apcr. Ynn paaa xcrnn
roA aryyAra anxaaAwn 1onp ox npcr. Banrwn nA1rcrn mynw omno
oropAnn ororpAp aon cccxnr maArana. HAanrysa Ynpccn xyyAnn
xa+saAan mnpncAcx acyypaA mon cccx, oropoA cx an xsnaA1aa
oox maapAara1a cccxnr maArana.
Banm oropoA rararn yrp omno nr YXH-cc xcAcAcrpccp
mnpncAcrpccn acyypAaa oropoA rarapar. Hm oropoAp xoAorpox
1aAawr xnx, xcAcAcxccc 1a1raAaax 1yxa mnpnc rarax orpor.
Mon oropoAp pcnmAccn acyypaA nr Ynpccn xyyAnn xa+saAaAwn
yc acyypaA anaA 1a1raAaax mnpnc rarapar.
Xcrnr yrpnnAan xsnax y mrnnn opAoo xcrnr
xcAcAcxcp cAcn rcx acx mm oA xcAcAArnn 1ocAnr cApcn
xoAorpox ycap xancaA1wn xam1 mrnpcp nArccnc. Hrnnn
1ycAaxyyp canaA cA1rcxcp 1ycAana. Xcrnr cA1rcccn ma1onaAyypap
npccAcn xyaApaanw oc xcAcAcnc. l4 mrn xnAp 4 ypaa xyaApax
(saaA1a xcrcc mon xyaAppar) 1ocAnr xcAcAcn canaA xyaax
mnpnc rarapar. YXH-nn xyaApaanwr oAon nn1cp nccA11c
xnpcrr. Hrnnp cxAccp 1ocAoo cApccp cncx mnpncnr rarax
oAcon maA1raanwr aaax orno. EonxnAorn xcAcAAcr cxcAcnnr
[4(31)
88
mcpcrpcx xyaApaanwr nccnc. XcAcAArnn op ocon ncmcA1,
oonAoA1 oAon aacnawr xnrccp mnpncnn 1ocoA pcc canaA
xyaana. TocoA oAonxnn canaA ann napaxr oA xcAcAArnn
snap racan canaAyypwr 1ycracan mnpncnn mnnc 1ocAnr cApcnc.
0nc 1oxnoApoAp oo mrn 1ocAnr cApcnc. OAonxnn canaAwr ancan
mnpncnn 1ocAoo ccnn mnpnc rarana. Xcncc xccr ccpcc1c
ax anaac xcAcAAcr xcpcn nyyAran pamxnn xcAcAcrppcr.
Xcncc yrpnnAcan xsnaA1wn snap x acyyA1ap xanyA1 anax
oAomxr oA ccncA xccr cx an oAon yAc 1onn nyxaA an
xoAorpoA1o oA xyaApaanwr nccA11c xnx oAno. XyaApaanw op
1aAyyp mrnpnn 1anrcan acyyA1ap xanyAna. 0nc xccr1 xoAoo1o
xmc xyaApaanw 1anxnmp ax oc1o. XyaApaanwr Hxnn
EonxnAorn ypnpan snyyAna. Hcr xcrnr ncr xyaApaanaa
mnpncAcn ccnn mnpnc rarax oAomxr 1oxnoApoA rapar.
TyxaAaA, mrn ncr xyyAnr xccrAcx rc1cA 1c xyyAr nr oooo
Ynpccn xyyAr aoncon ax mm oA Hxnn xyaApaanwr aorcoon
xyyAnn maraan1a aaaA1 pcc anxaaAaa xanpyyAna. Ynn yAmaac
xyaApaan cynxnpar. XcAcAcx araa acyypAaa Ymvcomyr pcx
Enonwn mxnn mnpncnr n xAccx xccr rapar.
Brp xyaApaanaa mnpncnn 1ocAnr a1aAcanw paaa
xcrnr xaana. OAonxnn canaAwr cA1rcccn mrn Brp xyaApaan
pcc 1oxncon mnpncnn ccnn xynnAawr nnnc. Hxnn
EonxnAorn cccAcn nsr1Aan maArana. HaapAara1a 1oxnoApoAp
1c HA1rcrn mrnnn aonmoooA1crcc aanm aAnr 1opyyAx
oAno. Onro 1oxnoApoAp 1c Brp xyaApaan1a paxnn aonmnAox
oAno. EonxnAorn rawn crcc aycnaa mnpnc ccnn xcAc1
opor. TycAaxyyp mnpncnn 1ovc1nr anxaaaA1a ynmnx nanawn
maAraA1 xnnc. Ynn paaa YXH-nn mnpncnr xcnAcn xyaApaanw
1aAyypap nArccnc. Hrcpcp xoAorpoA1o nyxaA mnpncpnr
XcnAcA mcpccAcAnn xccrccApcc pamxyyAan mcpccAnc.

89

-
,

MoponaaaxaAanwparwncrnn
xcrnn mopon aaaA1wn axnAAaraanp
xsnaA11annxcxccpncccypaAraanwaxAwr
snyyAxana.
0rnn xcrnn mopon aaaA1wn
axnAAaraan paxr mopon aaax aAanw
parwn xsnaA1 1annx cxnr mnnxAcx
yxaanwnpcc1ccypAaxwn1yAp0BHA-nwcnc
ooAornnr MonroA VAcwn 0BHX-p xcacc
anx 1ycracan,xyyArp mopon aaax aAanw
pararcx 1om+ooAcon nr ononn1o cccxnr
ycap onw 0BHX-na cncx cx xn
ooAornnr ncAcccn nc 1om+oo, 1nn
xyyAna oArorpcon cx xcmxcc1cxaryyAx
cx an onnnr 1aA ccc nr npccAcA1c
cypAaxroAoAomxrmm.
Hmp pncco1ann cypaAraanw axAwn
xccnp np opoo xnnn 1oroApo AnnAx araa MonroA VAcwn
0BHXoAonomnonrAnnAxacan0BHXyyAnyp,ycapcxan
av1,1nnAcn mopon aaax aAanw para 1nn cx xcmxccr
aoxnyyAx araa ycap onw 0BHX-nn aoxnx aA, aaaA1wr
xaryyAancypaAcan.
Bnpnn acx araaraa or cypaAraanw pnrcc xyyArp
xccrAcccn nc 1om+oo ononnr, 1c aryyArwn xynrp n xyyArp
ax nayyArwn oAoop 1oxnnvnn maapAara xanraxr araap
mmxAcA1c xanpax nc 1om+oor ononn1o oAron ycap onw
xnmnr1xrcx,oonAoxmaapAara1aaraanrxaarpaxana.
l. Mopon aaax aAanw parwn cx an onnnr xyyAna n
oArocon anxnw cx an av1 nr BHMAV-wn Apwn Hx XyAwn
TcrAcrnpnn l968 onw 0l cawn 25-nw opnn l3 1oo1 BHMAV-
wn 0BHX-p ncmcA1, oonAoA1 oyyAax 1yxa aaAnr mm. Vr
aaAnraa1yxan op AnnAx acan l963 onw BHMAV-wn 0BHX-
p Mopon aaax xcA1cnn paraHAXH-nw xarsa aryyAAarwn
mopon aaax xcA1cc, 1acrnn para, 1cprccnn oAornnp rcccn
aryyAra1a 6a-r 34prcc aAp, l2?
l
prcc aAMopon aaax
xcA1cnn parwn cx xcmxcc rcccn ncmcA1pnr 1ycracnaa BHA-
- -

,
.
[4(31)
90
nw cncooAornxyyArpanx1ycraAaaoAxcxxcmxccrnrxyyArnnAx
orconana.
l992 onp MonroA VAc apnnAcan mnnc Ynpccn xyyAna a1aAxmnnc
1or1oAoo1 nnrcmp mnAxnn ocnoo aanm roA roA xyyArp 1omooxon
ncmcA1, oonAoA1 ox monncAccp xyyAr mnncc a1Aan raracnw ncr nr
MonroA VAcwn VHX-aac l994 onw 3 pyraa cawn 28-nw opo a1Aacan
MonroA VAcwn 0BHX-p ncmcA1, oonAoA1 oyyAax 1yxa xyyAr mm.
0nc xyyAna MonroA VAcwn 0BHX-nn 34.? pyraa aApMopon
aaax aAanw paramopon aaax raaa, xcA1cc, 1acrnn para,
1cprccnn oAornnp, l2? pyraa aA Mopon aaax aAanw
parwn cx xcmxcc rcx 1yc 1yc oonAon nayyAcan ana.
Xnn cx, cx noAoor pccpAcx, apnnAaA mnncnAcAnn aanmwr
1yym1a xccrxAcx, cx an onnnr oAonconr oAroxop
nnrAcccn oAon 1aA1 axAwn xccnp 1yAryy xyyAnypwr mnncc paxnn
oAoncyyAaxarap MonroA VAcwn 0BHX xamarpcanaa VHX-aac
2002 onw l prcc cawn l0-nw opoMonroA VAcwn 0BHX-nr mnncc
a1Aan raracan nropoo xnnn 1oroApo AnnAxaraa xyyAr mm.
XyyAnn 5 pyraa aAnn 5.l.4-p Mopon aaax aAanw para
rcx mopon aaaA1 snyyAax aryyAAarwn mopon aaax raaa,
xcA1cc, 1acrnn para, 1nn oAornnr, 29 prcc aAp Xccr
1rcx, mopon aaax aAanw parwn cx xcmxcc
l
rcx 1nn nc
1om+oo, BHA-np ooAox cx an onnnr pAx orcon ana.
2. CypaAraanw axnA onoAwn npcc1c, opn1o, 1aA nnax
pnccc xyyArp xccrAcccn nc 1om+oonooc cxcAro. Ynnr aapAax
ann ancA para,mopon aaax aAarcccn xoo xccrccc pcx
ana.Yrcnn 1aAa 1oArp:
- sma ncrcn aAnr ypnpax, cxAcx araa aAan
1ymaaA1anc1rccp
2
rcx1aAaAacanana.
Banm onw 0BHX-p cnc ooAornnp ypnparnrcccn
1om+oorxccrAcxcc. TyxaAaA,OXV-wn 0BHX-p ypnparnrcx
1om+ooAon xyyAnn 5 pyraa aAnn 38
l
xcccr1 Mopon aaax
aryyAAarwn ypnparnxarsa mopon aaax ncrxnr 1crAx
araa aAan 1ymaaA1an, mon 1nn oAorn
3
rcx 1ycracan ana.
OXV-wn 0BHX-p omno nr Mopon aaax xcA1cnn para rcx
acnwr 200? onw 6 pyraa cawn 5-nw opnn N8?-4BOXV-wn
0BHX-p oAon OXV-wn Hovyown aryyAAarwn 1yxa xyyArp

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2010] 91 ,
ncmcA1,oonAoA1oyyAax1yxaxyyAnaparwrypnparn;xcA1cnr
aryyAAararcccnnc 1om+ooroo 1yc 1yc coArcon ana.
Knrna yAcwn 0BHX-p mon ypnparn rcccn nc 1om+oo xccrAcn
xyyAnn 3? pyraa aApmopon aaax ncrxnn ypnparnnn cx
xcmxccr 1opoxoAon orncc.
4
TcrncA ypnparn rcx xcn c? Yrcnn
1aAa 1oArp:
xcn ncrnnr oAon sma ncrcn aAnr ypnpax
araa c1rccp
5
rcx 1aAaAacan ana. ara, ypnparn xoo
rnrxaryyAaA;
sma ncrcn aAnr ypnpax cxcAx y aAan
1ymaaA1an c1rccp;
sma ncrcn aA, xnnr ypnpax araa c1rccp
ymyncrnraAan1ymaaA1annoroonrarccc1rccpana.
MonroA VAcwn Tonn aAanw 1yxa xyyAnn 8 pyraa aAp
6

aaacnaa 1onn 1ycra ypnpax aAan 1ymaaA1nwr para rcx
ncAcccn oroop mopon aaax raaa, xcA1cc, 1acrnn para nr 1onn
1ycra aAan 1ymaaA1nw anrnAaAp ar1ax 1yA MonroA VAcwn 0BHX-
nn 5 pyraa aAnn 5.l.4-p para rcx 1om+ooAcon nr rnnxcc
1aAa1 nncx araa 1yA aon 1opoxoAcon rcx np acx ana.
3. Opoo aAarcpcrrnn1aAawrannaro.Yrnn1aAa1oAr
nnnr1:
:...1. AAa xaarnnn axnA, xnnccA mon 1nnAcn 1nn
axAwna.(..),2.Hcrnn
rccnoAAcx,3.oAon.HmancrcnaxAwn
mcrcxAnn xcccr.( . .
.)...rcx1aAaAaxcc.
0nc 1aAa1 aaacnaa aAarcx sma ncrcn aryyAAarwn nc
nmaxnA,smancrcnaxAwnmcrcxAnnxcccr,crnncr1nn
axnAaxaa1aAaAarpcanana.
CypaAraanaac acxcp aAa rcx nc 1om+oor MonroA VAcwn
0BHX-pMoponaaaxaAarcpcr1xccrAccncccooyAcxyyArpaa
xccrAccrana.
4. Bycap onw 0BHX-p sma ncr 1om+oor xccrAcccn ana nc?
rcprnr cypaAaA: mopon aaax xcA1cc,mopon aaax ncrx


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php?vlawid=6

[4(31)
92
rcccn nc 1om+oonyypwr xccrAcccn ana. TyxaAaA:
BoAaycr yAcwn 0BHX-nn 6 pyraa aAnn l5 paxr xcccr1
Mopon aaax ncrxnn paraVrpnnAcan mopon aaaA1wn
acyypaA cxcAx araa yrpnnAcan mopon aaax 1on raawn
para, yrpnnAcan mopon aaaA1wn para, mopon aaax
raawn para, mopon aaax xcA1cc, 1acrnn para 1cprccnn
oAornnp
?
rcxmopon aaax ncrxnn para rcprcc 1ycraxcc.
Tapxnvnc1an yAcwn 0BHX-nn 6 pyraa aAp Mopon aaax
ncrxnn paraoonn cx, cx mcpAnn xccnp raaa, xcA1cc oAon
ycap mopon aaax ncrxnr ypnpax araa aAan 1ymaaA1an
8
,
Kaaavc1an yAcwn 0BHX-nn 63 pyraa aA Mopon aaax xcA1cnn
paral prcc xcccr Mopon aaax xcA1cnn paraoonn cx
mcpAnn xccnp yrpnnAcan mopon aaaA1 oAon mxnn
omnox axnAAaraar xccrxAx araa aryyAAarwn mopon aaax
ncrxnn para 1nn oAorn
9
rcx 1yc 1yc 1opoxoAxcc.
TcrncA xyyArp xccrAcccn aryyAAara, xcA1cc, ncrxrcx
my nc? aAr nr onon1o nc? rcccn acyyA1 yran ran nnc. Mon rnn
1aAa 1oAnr coxon xanaA:
-1.Topoxonnrcr,cncxxnxyyAna
xAccnaonmooorpconxyyAnnc1rccp;
10
-Hma ncrcn aryyAAarwn 1cp ox araa ncrx
aryyAAara
11
;
-1. 1om xcmxccnn cApcxnp ar1ax araa sma
ncrcnxcccrAcr;2.Hcrnn1omncr1rcAnncApxnparaa
crnn ncrx
12
rcx 1yc 1yc 1aAaAacan ana.0npccc prncxcp,
aryyAAara1onn oAon nnrmnn aryyAamx;xcA1cc
aryyAAarwn 1nn pAnn ncr xcccr; ncrx1nn
xamrnnaraxcccrana.
BnpnnxnccncypaAraanwprncA1cc1nnmnnxnanaoAoop
nc 1om+oonw 1aAaaa cprccnn po1ooc xamrnn ononn1o nr
moponaaaxaryyAAarwn1cpxcA1ccrcxnc1om+oorxccrAcx
nra1crcxprncxana.VnnnrxcA1ccnraryyAAarwn1cp
ar1ax1nnpAnnncrxcccroAxana.
5. MonroA VAcwn 0BHX-nn 2? pyraa aAp aaacnaa mopon

. . -
: , 2001.
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, 2009.
9
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0
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2010] 93 ,
aaaA1snyyAaxaryyAAaryyp:
TarnyyAwn oonxn raawn mopon aaax aAanw mopon
aaarn MonroA VAcwn 0rnn xyyAnn 1ycra anrnp aaacan
MonroA VAcwn npccnn amyAr apAwn cccr oAon TarnyyAwn
aryyAAara oocpoo nAAccn 0rnn xyyAnn l?5(0p aAnr
xyyAr ycaa MonroA VAcwn xnA ncn1Acx) pyraa aAp aaacan
rcm1 xccr1;
Hovyown aryyAAarwn pcrcpcx mopon aaax aAanw
mopon aaarn arpaarnn aryyAAarwn axnA1an, xccr
1rcrn, mopon aaarn, novyo, mrnnn Apccn
xnpcn1c, xnp, on xnp rcm1 xccr1;
AnnAraA1a 1cmcx raawn Mopon maArax xcA1cnn mopon
aaarn MonroA VAcwn 0rnn xyyAnn 1ycra anrnp aaacan
aAan 1ymaaAwn xccr1;
Harpaarnn aryyAAarwn mopon aaarn MonroA VAcwn
0rnn xyyAnn 1ycra anrnp aaacan npccnn amyAr apAwn
cccr oAon aAan 1ymaaAwn rcm1 xcrccc ycap xnpcn1c, xnp,
on xnp rcm1 xccr1 mopon aaaA1 snyyAx ana.(Harpaarnn
aryyAAarwn 1cp VAcwn mopon aaax raaa 1nn xarsa
1on oon ny1rwn mopon aaax xcA1cc, 1acryyp ar1par.)
0prccccc novyo oAon1arnyyAwn aryyAAarwn mopon aaax
aAanaac ycap aryyAAarwn 1cp mopon aaax xcA1ccaraa nr
nc 1om+oonw oAoop 1nn xynrp ononn1o ana.
6. MonroA VAcwn 0BHX-nn 29 prcc aAp Xccr 1rcx
aryyAAara, mopon aaax aAanw parwn cx xcmxccrcxncr
aAcc BHA-nw xoo oo ooAornnp1cn cx xcmxcc oArocon
ana. MonroA VAcwn 0BHX-nn l?? pyraa aAnn l??.l, l?8 pyraa
aAnn l?8.l-p aaacnaa xccr 1rcrn nr MonroA VAcwn 0rnn
xyyArp aaacan xonron rcm1 xccr1 xccr 1rcA1nn axnAAaraar 2l
xonornn xyraaa1a snyyAax a ncmcA1 axnAAaraa xnx aaAmr
maapAara ranaA 0HBX-nn l?8 pyraa aAnn l?8.2-p aaacnaa
novyo cnc xyraaar l5 xonoroo cynrapar. Xonron rcm1 xccr1 xccr
1rcA1nn axnAAaraa snyyAx araa aryyAAarwn para xnpcn1c,
xnp, on xnp rcm1 xcrpcp mopon aaaA1wn axnAAaraa snyyAx
araa mopon aaax aAanw para1a xyyAna oArorpcon 1cn cx
xcmxcc1c ax oAox yy? rcccn aanmwn acyypaA ran nx ana.
0BHA-np ooAox araa xcAc,caAcx a cyyr, cx xcmxccnn
xynrp saraap n ncr aAcc aoxnyyAx 1cn cx xcmxcc1c ax
oAoxr xoo oo ooAorn. Horoo 1aAaa cypaAraaraa sma n onw
0BHX-p cnc xoo ooAornnn cx xcmxccr ncr aAcc aoxnyyAaar
ana. Bnpnn acx araaraa xyyAnn 1c, aryyAra, 1oxnnvnn
1aAaacaa n aApaa1a ana.
?. Xccr 1rcx, mopon aaax aAanw para xyyAna oArorpcon

[4(31)
94
1cn cx xcmxcc1c araa maA1raan nr MonroA VAcwn 0BHX-wn
28 pyraa aAnn 28.2-p xccr 1rcrn, mopon aaarnnn cx
xcmxccr mon A ncr aAp aaax aoxnyyAcanp omnx ana.
Omno nr MonroA VAcwn 0BHX-nn l?? pyraa aAnn l??.l-p
MonroA VAcwn 0rnn xyyArp aaacan xonron, xnpcn1c xccr1
xccr 1rcrn cnc xyyArp aaacan xarsaAaAwn paryy xccr 1rcA1
snyyAnarccnnr 200? onw 8 pyraa cawn 09-nw opnn xyyAna
xnpcn1c rccnnr xaccanaa xccr 1rcrn xonron rcm1 xccr1
1rcA1nr 2l xonornn xyraaa1a snyyAx araa. Oooo xcAcA,
0rnn xyyArp aaacan xnpcn1c xcrp mopon aaaA1ap mnAxnx
mopon aaarn xnpcn1c, xnp, on xnp xccr1 mopon aaaA1
snyyAx ana. XyyAnn cnc oonAoA1oo xccr 1rcx aryyAAarwn
axAwn anaaAaA Acmx xcmxccrcc aracn, 1c oon 1oonw ncAccp
xynr nr mopon aaax aAanp mnAxccn. Yn1c ysApyyAan axAwn
anaaAaA 1cnAcx,1c oon 1oor xnrpAcx pnccc nncAcAnn
BasnroA, Basnax, Conrnnoxaxan, Cxaa1a, HnnrcA1c prnn
arpaarnn xcA1cc1 mopon aaax 2 1acar axnAAax ana.
Mon xyyArp aaacan npccAcA xymwn paryy sAAarparnnp arpan
xonx TCAX xccrAcx,sAAarparnaa 1a1axrcx mc1mopon aaaA1wn
axnAAaraanw cx xcmxccr xccr 1rcrn mopon aaarn1a 1cn
cpAcxcc 0BHX-nn 28 pyraa aAnn 28.2.4, mon aAnn 28.2.6-p
1ycracan nrncr aAp 1ycrax oAoxr araa nrxaarpax ana.
Hmp cypaAraanw pnr npccAcn xyyAnn aaaA1wr ononn1o
oArox aonAroo mopon aaax aAanw para 1nn cx xcmxcc1c
xoAoo1o MonroA VAcwn 0BHX-nn 5 pyraa aAnn 5.l.4, mon
xyyAnn 29 prcc aAnr paaax apAaa oonAon nayyAax oc1o
rcx acx ana.
5 pyraa aAnn 5.l.4-p Mopon aaax aAanw para rcx
mopon aaaA1 snyyAax aryyAAarwn mopon aaax raaa,
xcA1cc, 1acrnn para, 1nn oAorn rccnnr Mopon aaax
xcA1cnn paramopon aaaA1 snyyAax aryyAAarwn mopon
aaax raaa, xcA1cc, 1acrnn para, 1nn oAornnr rcx;
29 prcc aApXccr 1rcx, mopon aaax aAanw
parwn cx xcmxcc rccnnr Mopon aaax xcA1cnn parwn
cx xcmxcc rcx oonAox;
Xccr 1rcx aryyAAarwn para, xccr 1rcrnnn cx xcmxccr
xyyAna 1ycap nr aoxnyyAax maapAara1a ana. Hnrccncc xyyAnn
nc 1om+oor aon xccrAcx, cx an onnnr oAonconr oArox,
ycap onw xnmnr1 xrcx araa nyxaA an xoAorpoA1o rcx acx
ana.
l.
2.
95


,

.
Hnrcmp rc Ann xnnxnAAnn 1aAaa
sna nn a cyyr, xanpAara araa a
nnr oo oocpnn acA opAoo 1aAaAax
ana. 0ncx orAAnr nnnxpcc xoAorpox
xyyAr 1or1oomxnp cypaAraa, mnnxnArcc xnx,
xyyAr an pnccc 1aAaAaxwr aonAoo.
Ic Ann xnnxnAcA, 1nn cx
an aoxnyyAaA1wn 1aAaa 1oooc 1opoxo
opAoro, xo1oAo, cx an onnnr pAcx
1aAaa arar axAwr xnx rc1rcccn nAcc.
Ynp:
HnA nn 5 pyraa cawn l5-nw opnr Ic Ann opo
oAron 1cmpcrAcn onroAx axaa mnpncAcccn;
2004 onwr Ic Ann xnA oAron aaAacan;
2003 onp MonroA VAcwn 1oooc rc Ann xorxAnn 1aAaa
anm1Aax opAoro xo1oAo;
2005 onp Xn xypaApax, sAanrysa xxcp, cmcr1cnpnr
cArnn moAxAornn aonAroo amnrAaxaac xamraaAax Ynpccnn
xo1oAo;
200? onp Ic Ann xnnxnAcA1c 1cmcx Ynpccnn
xo1oAo;
2004 onp Ic Ann xnnxnAcA1c 1cmcx 1yxa xyyAr;
2006 onp Ic Ann xnnxnAcA1c 1cmcx 1yxa xyyAnn
aanm aA, aaaA1wr 1aAaAax 1yxa VAcwn pccp mxnn
1or1ooA.
VAcwn Hx XyAwn 2003 onw l6 pyraa 1or1ooAoo a1Aarpcan
MonroA VAcwn 1oooc rc Ann xorxAnn 1aAaa anm1Aax
opAoro-wn aonArwr xccrxAcxnn 1yAp ... rc Ann rnmnnr
xnnxnAcx, cxnr nr aonnx snpAwr 1yym1a yyyyAax cx a,
aan Ann cocr onnn pAcx ... aonA1wr pcnmAcn A
axnAAaraanpaa ypnpAara oAron axnAAax ana.
VAcwn Hx XyAaac Ic Ann xnnxnAcA1c 1cmcx 1yxa xyyAr
2004 onw 5 pyraa cawn l3-nw opo 5 Acr, 20 aA1crcc a1aAcan
oAon VAcwn pccp mxccc 2006 onw l0 pyraa cawn 30-nw opnn 4?


,
,
.
[4(31)
96
pyraa 1or1ooAoo Ic Ann xnnxnAcA1c 1cmcx 1yxa xyyAnn
aanm aA, aaaA1wr 1aAaAacan nr nnrmnn coor acrpcA oAox
rc Ann xnnxnAcA, 1n1c 1cmcxcp 1onn oAon 1onn yc
aryyAAarwn ooAoor ncmcrpAcx, xoxnornpwn amyAr apAwr
xanrax, 1cpnn aonnrpcon cxnr ccrccn xamraaAax, xnnxnAcA
Apcrnnp xanyAara xAccArcx moxannamwr pAcxcp nyxaA an
xoAorpoA1o.
Ic Ann xnnxnAcA1c 1cmcx 1yxa (IBXTTX) xyyAnn 5
pyraa aAnn 5.l.l-1 rc Ann xnnxnAcA rcx Ic Ann 1yxa
xyyArp
l
aaacan rc Ann rnmn, 1ooA, capanrnn xn, rcAcA1cc
xyyArp aaacnw paryy 1onn cx xn aryyAAarap 1rAccr
oAonn xam1wn amrpaA1a araa xmc
2
, 1nnAcn Ic Ann
1yxa xyyArp aaacnw paryy xxpnr rc Apcc ann xmxAcnn,
ccxA acan xamraaAarn, xaraAaan pcmxnrn 1or1oocnw pnp 1yxan
nrcnn acamxnp araa c1rccp aAr ncr c1rccp noroo c1rccpnn cx, cx
noAoor aonnx rcm xo ynyyAcan, ccxA ynyyAaxaa aanaAxnAccn
crnn xanyAara xAccArcxccr ApcA, cc Apcxr xcAnc
rcx xyyArnnAcan ana.
Icnn 1yxan ApcA, cc Apcx nr crnn xanyAara
xAccArcxccr anaA aaxnraanw aonnA rcx acx oAox oAonn
Baxnraanw xanyAarwn 1yxa xyyArp Ic Ann xnnxnAcA1c
1cmcx 1yxa xyyAr aoncon c1rccpcp sma 1oAnn xanyAara
xAccArcx 1aAaa xyyArnnAx oroor araa nr aonnA raracan
c1rccpcp aaxnraanw mn1rcA norpyyAaxr sncaa ax yy? ccncA...
rcccn acyyA1wr ncxccc...
Vr xyyAr xccrxnx cxcAcnccc xom 2009 onw l0 pyraa cawn
l5-nw opnn apAaa 52 maraanwr mnpncAcccn ana. Ynn
26 mnpnc nr Ic Ann xnnxnAcA1c 1cmcx 1yxa xyyAnn
l6 pyraa aAnn l6.l.l-p aaacan 1ycpaa amrpaxwr paaArax cx
xsaraaAax ara xcmxcc anncc.
Tycpaa amrpaxwr paaArax rcpcr nr rc Ann xnnxnAcA
Apccn oAon Apcx oAaomr c1rccpnr xnnxnAcA Apcxccc
yrpnnAan ccrnAcx aonAroo, xnnxnAcA Apcx oAoAoo,
noxoA, maA1raan anAax x1cAx xyraaanp xoxnorn1o xam1 ncr
rc1 amrpaxr axwr mxccc cr oAroxwr xcApcr oAonn ncr
rc1 amrpapar, oo amrpax ar xnnxnAcA Apcrnnr xaana
aArax nr 1opoxo yc ana.
Hrcnn xccr mxcp xsnan mnpncAcx 1yxa xyyAnn l29

, , 999 , 8.

.
2010] 97 ,
prcc aAnn l29.l.3-1 rcAcrnpnr 1ycpaa amrpaxwr paaArax
yrpnnAcan ara xcmxcc ann oAno rcx aaacan. Icnn xnnxnAcA
Apcrn oAon rcAcrnpnr aaxnamxnp aaacan xyraaanp 1ycpaa
amrpan araa cccxnr sma noopyaa, xcn xccrxAcx cccx nr
1opoxo yc, ynn py1arpaA1a ana.
Hxnn mnpnc rc1rcrn xsnaA1 1annx yy, 1yxan prnn
xarsa arpaarnn aryyAAarwn axnA1an xsnaA1 1annx yy rcpcr nr
1opoxo yc ana.
Ic Ann xnnxnAcA1c 1cmcx 1yxa xyyAnn paryy
mnpncAcccn xcrnn 39 ymy ?5 xynrp nr xnnxnAcA Apcrn
axn xccrAcpcr rcccn cypaAraa racan nr xnnxnAcrn nxcnx
1oxnoApoAp cor1yyyyAax aA xccrAcccn opcc xnnxnAcA Appcr
nr xaarpax ana.
XnnxnAcA Apcrnnn 42 xccr ymy 80.8 xynr yrp nr rc
Ann xnnxnAcA Apccnn yAmaac sma ncrcn mn1rcA xAccx
acan ana.









-345.3;
-15
2.;
- 3 5.
.
[4(31)
98
,

,
, ,

:
2-35(1223);
3-45(130.).
(24
.)
:
1-25(5.);
2-35(11.5);
3-45(134.);
45- ( 13.4
).
(130.

.)
:
(52100).

(130.);
(315.);
(5
.).

:
(2344.2);
(132.);
(12 23
.).

(244.1).
(253.
.)

:
(1121.1);
(134.);
(13.4).
(1.

.)

-2344.2;
-52100
;
- 11 21.1
.
()

:
-35;
-1325.
2010] 99 ,



:
-420.;
-101.2.


:
(2
1.1);
,

- (12 44.4
);

, ,
-(141.);

- (3
1.)
(
,
,


.,
,

.)

IBXTTX-nn 8 pyraa aAnn ny1rnn oooo ypnpax oAon
ny1rnn aaxnraanw aryyAAarwn cn cxcp xyyAr xamraaAax
aryyAAaryyp1a xam1an axnAAax ..., mon xyyAnn 9 prcc aAp
aaacan Harpaarnn aryyAAarwn rnn paryy arpaarnn aAan
xaarn nr xoAorpox xyyArp aaacnw paryy xnnxnAcA Apcrnnr
aAapan caa1yyAax, annnnAx ana.
Yn1c xoAoo1oroo 200? onw l prcc cawn l0-nw opooc 200?
onw 2 pyraa cawn 8
3
-nw opo x1cA aAapan caa1yyAax, annnAax
1onp l982 xn annnAarpcanaac 4l4 xn nr rc1cc arcam 1anrx rc
Ann rnmpnn amraAan 1anan apAwr aAparpyyAcan ana.
BannnAarpcan xmcnn nacnw xsaraa l9-58 nacnw xooonp,
cxcAccn 1opoxo axnAr, ccr1c xmc ana. 200? onw 8 pyraa
cawn 20-nw opooc 200? onw l2 pyraa cawn l6-nw opnn xooonp
29?0 xn caa1yyAarpcanw 206 xn nr rc1cc arcam 1anrx, xcA opoon
rc Ann rnmpcc aopox 1anxacan ana. 0prcc caa1yyAarpcan
xnn 99.6 xynr nr ccr1c xn ana. ? ymy 3.3 xynr nr xopoAmo
cxcApcr a caa1yyAarpcan xmcnn nacnw apaA nr l9-6? nacnw

.
[4(31)
100
xmc ana. Mon Harpaarnn oonxn raawn xarsa Xxpnn
xasr 1or1oox raaa1 2004-2008 onw cxnn 4 cawn apAaa xaaa
xsnaA1r 1cncx snaa xxpnn 1oo l254 araar xccc ann ancA:
0cr1c-l005 (80.l xynr);
0mcr1c-249 (l9.9 xynr).
Tyc 1onp 2004-2008 onw cxnn 4 cawn apAaa 4483 xxcp
xAccn ann AnnAccn ana. Xxppccc 1cncx oAcon maA1raan
my oAox 1aAaa 1yc 1onnn axnA1nyyp 1anpaxap nn1 xxpnn
3? nr aan aoppor, 4? nr xo1 ccr aoppor, l44 xxcp oooo 1cncpcr
rcx xanyAcan araa nr ncr onrooc xaaxap xxpnr rc Ann
xnnxnAcAp o1Ax araa oAon o1ox oAaomr noxoAp
aArax ana rcx prncx oAoxoo ana. Xasr 1or1oox 1onp nccn
xxppnn nacnw apAwr ann ancA 3-? nacnw 39 xxcp, l0 nac1a
55 xxcp, l2 nac1a 36 xxcp ana. Harpaarnn oonxn raawn
xarsa Xxpnn xasr 1or1oox 1onnn axnA1nyyp1a yyAaax canaA
coAnAoxop oocpnn oAoop xxpnn omno 1yAran y xnpcA
cxmccAnn 1aAaa srcnaac:
Hx y xxppnn nxcnx nr ccr, cx nr caAcan, ccncA
xop ccr, xo1 cx1crcc amrpapar. Ic Ann rnmp nr aopox
paam1aApar ana. Tnmccc rc Ann rnmp 1c pynpaa ccr,
cxnn rcc noAAccr 1oxnoApoAp xAccx xanyAarwr
nann 1opoxo aaax orox;
Hx y xxpnn nxcnx nr arc onronn oAon cArnn aamwn
onn1c npcr. Mana aryyAAarwn ncr xxpnn cmnnArccnn
aapaA cap 25.000 1oror aayyAax nom apar. 0nc nomwr
ncmcx xccr1c ynn nr xxcp rapnw aAnnaa xnnn aAcccc
oAoop onpcon, cmnnArcc maapAara1a 1oxnoApoAp ncr xxpcp
aayyAax nom nr pyyccan rccp cmnAcxr ax yy rcpcr acyypaA
ran nnc. Tnmccc 1ocnnr aax accAnn onoornn apaAp
1oxnyyAan 1oopor oArox.
:
l. Ic Ann xnnxnAcA1c 1cmcx 1yxa xyyArp rc Ann
xnnxnAcA rcprnr ... crnn xanyAara xAccArcxccr
ApcA, cc Apcx rcx 1omrooAcon nr aaxnraanw aonnA rcx acx
oAoxoo ana. Icxpcc Baxnraanw xanyAarwn 1yxa xyyArp Ic
Ann xnnxnAcA1c 1cmcx 1yxa xyyAr aoncon c1rccpcp sma
1oAnn xanyAara xAccArcx 1aAaa ncr mo xyyArnnAx oroor
ana. Tnmccc mn1rcAnn xcAcnr xcn, xcxcn norpyyAax 1aAaa
xyyArnAax nr a1c oAon yy;
2. Ic A nr nnrmnn anxparn ncrx oroop 1nn xccnp ran
y aAnnaa xnnxnAcA nr axyn xccnp paAp, myyp oAon pamxmaA
apAaa Apcrppcr, xoxnorn nr xnnxnAcrn1c roA 1oAon
2010] 101 ,
xam1 amrpapar accr maA1raanw yAmaac xoxnorn nr xnnxnAcA
Apcrnnr nyyn paarpyyAan Ynpccn xyyArp aaacan cyyr cx, cx
noAooroo xsaraaAyyApar. Hmp aAnnaa xnnxnAAccc pcn raax
rcm xown xoxnAwr xcxcn, sax opn1oroo ncAcn 1or1oox
1aAaa aranAaA Hrcnn xoAorpox xyyAr 1or1oomxnp xyyArnAax
maapAara1a ana;
3. Hrcnn xccr mxcp xsnan mnpncAcx 1yxa xyyAnn l29
prcc aAp mrn maapAara1a rcx ancA rc Ann xoAorpoA1o
xccr maraanwr mnpncAcxpcc nacanp xccr xxcp oAon
xopoAmonn napnar ccr, cxnr 1cxccn 1c1rAcx, nacanp
xccr xxpnr ccr, cxnn xcn ncr pcc aArax, rcAcrnpnr
1ycpaa amrpaxwr paaArax, rcAcrn xcn ncrnr 1cxccn 1c1rAcx, oon
cyy oAon xam1an omnAox pynpwn omn, A xopAox cp xoonrnr
omnAox cxnr ycpap mnAxAcx, xypaApax, cAcrAcx, aaxnan
aayyAaxwr xonrAox, mxnn aapAwn aoxnx xynnr yrpnnAraa
oAron 1oAAcx, aoxnrnnr cnAccx 1aAaa xyraaa aaax rcccn ara
xcmxccr yrpnnAan anaxaa aaxnamx rarax oAno rcx aaacan.
Ic Ann xnnxnAcA1c 1cmcx 1yxa xyyArp xnnxnAcA
Apcrnnn cxnr 1ycpaa amrpaxwr paaArax, xamraaAax aanp,
xxcp acan xmxAcx, ccxA nnrmnn xaAamxnn aryyAAarap
araa xoxnorn1o yyAaax oAon yyAaaxaa ooApoxwr xonrAox,
xam1an omnAox pynpwn cp xoonroo cacmmnx, amnrAax, aaxnan
aayyAaxwr xonrAox, acamxnnpaa araa nacanp xccr xn1c
xanAaxwr 1 xonrAox, aan Ap noAooAox aAapan cyraA1ap
xamyyAax, maapAara1a rcx ancA cor1yyax, mancyyax pon1o
onn1c c1rccpnr xyyAr 1or1oomxnn paryy aaxnraanw xymaa
aAapan cmnnArcc xnArcx, ccxA aAapan xopoAmoAAcx rcccn ara
xcmxccr anaxaa xyyArnnAx orcon.
XnnxnAcA Apcrn oAon rcAcrnpnr aaxnamxnp aaacan
xyraaanp 1ycpaa amrpan araa cccxnr sma noopyaa, xcn
xccrxAcx cccx nr (Hxnn mnpnc rc1rcrn xsnaA1 1annx yy,
1yxan prnn xarsa arpaarnn aryyAAarwn axnA1an xsnaA1
1annx yy rcpcr) nr 1opoxo yc ana. Tnmccc sma noopyaa,
xcn xccrxAcxnr nannnAan 1ycrax orox;
4. Xoxnornnn amyAr apAwr xanrax aonAroo Ic Ann
xnnxnAAnn 1yxa xyyArp aaacnw paryy mxccc xnnxnAcA
Apcrnnn cxnr xsaraaAax ara xcmxcc oAox 1ycpaa amrpaxwr
paaArax ara xcmxcc onorpyyAaxpaa 1yc xyyAnn l6 pyraa aAnn
l6.l.2-1 aaacan xoxnorn1o yyAaax oAon yyAaaxaa ooApoxwr
xonrAox cx xsaraaAax ara xcmxccr xam1a1ran ann ax.
102

MonroA VAcwn Hrcnn xyyAnn aanmwn


1xcn xorxAnr ann acxnn omno MonroAwn
Hrcnn xyyAnyp a1Aarpan raaxap noAooAcon
xnnn aAnn 1aAaa ann acxnr aorcon
oroop xyyAr aaawn cc1rcArccnn 1aAaa ann
acxnr xnnccn.
0x an cc1rcArcc c1 pcc occ XII-
XIII ayynw occ xorxnx ncnnr 1xcn
cx cynaAxyyp rcnnAnc. Hnnc onn cx
an cc1rcArcc xcxcn xorxnx ncnnr
1yxan onn 1xcn cx cynaAxyypap pn
mnnxnArcc xnx aamaa 1opoxoAx oAox
l

1aAaa noqocco .Haannnmcr accn axap
pov1o, noqocco H.Ynpcnpox aAnnaa
1xcn onn acA, cx an cc1rcArccr cypAan
acxpcc 1yxan onn xyyAr aaawn pycraA1
nnrpnn cx cynaAx nyxaA cr1c
apar
2
rcxcc.
MonroAnyypwn cx an acA cc1rcArcc, npcAnpnn nrcnmnA
cooA pynp ccn cApcx, on arnn y1wr 1yyAx, 1xnn nyranaanp
aAan, prcn, 1opocoo opn xncc. HpcAnpnn 1o ocnw 1xcn
xynr aoxnoA n nm A p 1ox1c axaac rapna oo arar acan
nacc. Icnn monroA npcc1cn oproo 1yyra 1ycraa yAc rcn xcncc
omnx, 1o ocwr xccrxAx nccn nr cx an cooA cc1rcArccnn
asAar 1xnr Apccx nccn rcprnn xanraA11a no1oAroo mm.
3

Mon MonroAnyypwn cx an cc1rcArccnn yAamxAaA, mnncnAcA,
xorxAnn pnnamnvnr 1opoxoAoxop 1nn po1oop xorxnA, xynrcaA,
pcnmnA, oonAoA1nr maAryy oArox 1xnn opnr 1opoxoAox
snpaA nyxaA mm. Hnrcxpcc 1yxan onn nnrmnn xanAaar
aoxnyyAx acan aAnnaa xcm xcmxccnn cx cynaAxnr roA maAryy
oArox nr onoA, ara an xynrp nyxaA mm. 0nc 1aAaa MonroAwn
cypAaanpwn xnccn cypaAraa nr 1o, cx an 1xcn yAamxAaAwr
1xnn oonxn onAcAnn paryy ann acx snpaA ncAccp 1rccmcA
apar ana. H.BoApaa1a, .Ynpccxanan nawn xam1an nnccn

. ., 00 ,
, ., . , 0 .

.. . ., 2002 . 215
.

.. . ., 2002 . 190
.
- ,



.
2010] 103
To, cx an 1xcn yAamxAaA 1ccAp l9ll onooc xomxn onr
Hnnc onn 1o, cx a (XX ayynw 20-nop onooc 90 on x1cA),
1nn paaax onr MonroAwn mnncxcn onn 1o cx a (l990-ccp
on) xcmccn anrnAan xynaacan ana. 0nc onAcAnr ncAccp oonxn
onAcA oAcon ana xcmccn aanm cpcm1cn prncxcc.
4

Xann Avapomnn C.HaanrccA monroAwn cx an 1xcn
xorxAnr cx an cx cynaAxnn 1ooAxAcA1, 1or1oAoonw
onAornr maAryy oArox, MonroAwn ncrpccn npcc1nn cx an
1or1oAoo cApccn o, XyyAr aAnn nnrpnr 1ooAxAccn
o, onnn onn cx an 1or1oAoo cApccn o rcx anrnAcan.
0prcc onAcA, anrnAAyyp nxcnnAcn on ar, 1x, 1onn aryyAAwn
mnnx nanawr maAryy oArox, xyyAr aaawn cc1rcArccnn xynrcaA
oonAoA1nr xaraAaaxaacaa nA cx an omnn 1or1nox acan
nnc1n1y1yypwr roA npcc, 1yAryy oArox ann accn ana rccp pov1o
H.Ynpcnpox monroAwn cx an 1xcn xorxAnr nnc1n1y1wn
1nmnnp xyyAr aaawn cc1rcArccnn mnnx, nanawr maAryy oAron
l9ll onooc xomxn onr Onnn cx an cooA, cc1rcArcc ncn1cccn
o, ConaAnc1 cx an cc1rcArccnn o, Onnn onn cx an
cc1rcArccnn o xcmccn anrnAan ann accn ana.
Hnnc MonroA VAcwn xyyAr, cx ap onnn cx an cooAxnnry
oAoA1yypwr ncn1Acx axnA ncAccp rnarnccn. 0nc 1aAaa
Avapomnn C.HaanrccA Ynpccn xyyAnn, nrcnn xyyAnn 1ocAnr
oAoncyyAaxap pan ran yAcwn yc, Enonwn oAon yAc onyypwn
xyyAr, cx ar xaraAaan acxnn nyxAwr onoAx acan rcxcc.
5
l920-nop onw cxcn op monroAwn cx an cc1rcArccnp onnn noAoo
ncAccp oAon 1aAaa nccA11c noAooAcon o rcx xcAx oAno. Apwn
xynrcraA sAx, MonroAwn 1ycraa 1or1noA crcA1 yaA1r oAx,
mnnc monroAwn xyyAr aaawn 1or1oAoor pAcxcp xorxnnr
onyypwn cx an 1or1oAoo, onoA, cc1rcArccnn oAoA1ooc amnrAax
maapAara araa rcprnr monroAwn 1yxan onn ccxcc1cn, yAc
1onnp yxaan acan.
6
MonroA Apwn nam, aacar 1o yAc onw cpnn aacar, ap 1mnn
amrpaAwr pccmAAcxnn 1yAp mynw omno l922 onp 0pnn aacrnn
opAoro oAoncyyAax vomncc aryyAx, 1cpnn oAoncyyAcan 1ocAnr
l923 onp Bacrnn raawn xyAaa a1aAxcc. Vr anm1 nnnr1: maA
ax axyr xorxAx, maAwn raaA1a 1xn cp oAoncyyAax, raaa
1anaAan, aam 1ccnc, r, xoAoor crcx, npccnn monron 1cmpcr1
rarax, canx, monronn 1rcAnn cnc1om n oArox accr oAon
nyxaA acyypAwr 1ycracan ana. Tyxan op omnnn yAcwn, xynnn,

. 9 .

.. . ., 2002 . 227
.
6
.. . ., 2002 . 226
.
,
[4(31)
104
xam1wn rcccn 1ooA1c
?
an.
Hrcnn xyyAnypwr MonroA VAcwn Ynpccn xyyAnyp oonAorpon
mnncnAcrpcxcp 1np nnAcn a1Aan mopcon. l922 onp OXV-
wn Hrcnn xyyAr a1Aarpan racan nr mana yAcap Hrcnn xyyAr
a1Aarpan raax roA cx cynaAx oAcon a 1yxan op BonAoA1nn
xyyArn, mcrcxnA1cn H.E. Ecocns1cvn Hx Hamanp ynrpan nx yr
xyyAnr aoxnox vomnccwn rnmn 1opnr rapan oAoncyyAaAan
xn mm.
8
MonroA VAcwn anxnw Ynpccn xyyAr l924 onp a1Aarpcanw paaa
mon anxnw Hrcnn xyyAnr l926-l929 onp xcccrnAcn oAoncyyAx,
1yxa Bacrnn raawn xyaApaanaa xcAcAcn nn1 l0 Acr, 2l?
aA xn xyyAnr a1Aan mopAccn nr anxnw 1ooAxcon xyyAr
oAcon ana.
HoAooAcon yAc 1o, xyyAr a, aan aanmnA oAon aanm rapaap
yAcwn Hrcnn xyyAnn acA canaa, 1c aarna cx cynaAx oAcon
ana.
9

VAcwn ymy ap 1mnn omnnn cx an xanAaanw o+ov1op
raaa, xocon poox asAar, Apnc, ax axyn raaa xamaan acan
oroop 1o 1nnr xypaApax, cAcrAcxrrcc aonxon amnrAax,
aaxnan aayyAx, aoxnon aryyAax cx1c an. Xynnn omnnn
xanAaanw aAp maA, ycap cp xoonro acan, 1nn omnAornnp nr
asn saryy1an, pynp acrnn a spyy rcccn sArana1a acan.
l0

Mcpccx mnncc xamrnn anx ypaa a1aAcan Hrcnn xyyAnn an
xoAorpoA nr nrcnn cx an xanAaar xyyArnAan 1or1oocnooc
rapna nrcpnn omnAox, on onAox rcx mc1 xanAaar aoxnyyAcnw pcc
yAamxAaA1 aan aanmAwn pcnmnA1c1 xcm xcmxccr onAon ancan MV-
wn Hrcnn cx an cc1rcArccnn 1xcnp nyxaA aAxam oAcon nr
raaar mm.
aaarnn ymy 2 paxr Hrcnn xyyAnr l940 onp xyaApcan 8
pyraa Hx XyAaac a1aAcan BHMAV-wn Ynpccn xyyAr nr MonroAwn
cpnn aacar, nnrmnn xanAaanp racan rn rnarn oonAoA1nr
1ycrax, xynrcraAwn apnnAcan ma1naac conaAnc1 aryyAAwn
npcnr xorxAcn cxxAcx mnnc op mnAxnn ocnwr a1Aan
1ynxarAacan nr nccc omno mopox acan Hrcnn xyyAnr oonAon
mnncnAcx aaAmr xccrcc, maapAara racan rcx acx oAno.
Ynccc xom l2 xnAnn paaa Hrcnn xyyAnr l952 onp a1Aan
raracan nr opoornn moporpox araa Hrcnn xyyAr1a 1oc1c
oAcon xcmccn cpcm1cn, cypAaannp prncccn apar.
l952 onw Hrcnn xyyAnr BHMAV-wn Hx XyAwn TcrAcrnpnn
l952 onw 5 pyraa cawn 2?-nw opnn 38 pyraa aaAnraa Hrcnn

.. . ., 006 . .
8
.. - . ., 990 . 9 .
9
.. . ., 006 . .
0
.. . ., 006 . .
2010] 105 ,
mnnc xyyAnr a1Aan raraxcc. 0ncx xyyAnr a1Aaxap l926 onw
Hrcnn xyyAr, l940 onw Ynpccn xyyAnn acA anm1AaA, ycap cx
an av1, rapaap onw cx an av1yyp xyyAr an cx cynaAx oAcon
ana. l926 onw Hrcnn xyyAr1a xaryyAaxap oAonconry oAcon
apar.
XyyArp omnnn cxnn 1aAaa aaaxpaa ncrp, yAcwn omn, xoo1,
xomooAAwn a ycap oAon nn1nn omn, ryan1, ap nrcpnn
amnnw omn ana rcxcc. VAcwn omnnp sma n xoonro ax oAoxoo
aoxnyyAxcc.
3 paxr ypaarnn mnncnAcrpcn a1Aarpan racan Hrcnn xyyAr
mon A l960 onw Ynpccn xyyAnn acA anm1AaAp myyp nnAcn
raracan rcx acx npcc1c. l963 onw 2 pyraa cawn 9-np BHMAV-
wn Apwn Hx XyAwn 1or1ooAoo BHMAV-wn Hrcnn xyyAr-nr
a1aAx, mon onw 4 prcc cawn l-nn opooc cxAcn parax mopoxoo
1or1ooxcc.
l963 onw Hrcnn xyyAr yrpax xyyAr1a xaryyAaA Acr,
aAnn 1c, cnc1om, po1oop aoxnon aryyAaA1, ccmc paaaAaA
nxcp oAonconry oAcon oroop nn saryy npcc nr yAc onw
rapaap, po1oop noxoA apaA xnrccp cx an cx cynaAxyyp acanp
omnno.
ll

Tyxan op omnnn 1oAnr conaAnc1 omn, amnnw omn rcx
sArapar acan. ConaAnc1 omn nr yAcwn omn (x ap 1mnn
xoonro), xomooAAwn omn (xopoo ax axyn ncrpcA, xomooAAwn
ycap aryyAAarwn omn), Apncnnn cnAcA, oAon nn1nn ycap
omnooc ppcr an.
l2

4 pcx ypaarnn Hrcnn xyyAnr l980-aap onw cAn, 90-ccp onw
cxcc conaAnc1 cnc1om aapan, 1onAocon 1oAonAoroo1 cpnn aacrnn
1or1oAoor xaAx, nnrmnn nnr anmxaa1 aax accAnn cpnn aacrnr
xcnmAcx aonArwr omnoo 1anrcan yAc onyypwn ncrcn apnA MonroA
VAcwn cpnn aacrnn rn rnarn oonAoA1nr l990-ccp onooc xom
xnx cxcAccn.
Tyc onw cpnn aacar-nnrmnn xorxnAp racan oonAoA1, mnnx
apAwr prncncA cpnn aacrnn caAa1 vann1aAnamwn ycraA
xorxAnr (xynnn omnn1 maAnnn apwn xnxnr 1a1nawn ax axy,
xnxnr xypaApaannp, ra ynyyp accr) 1onn ypnpAarap aaxnyyAax
ooApAoro xnx 1yc cov1owr xn1c oArox, xcpnrcc apwn ax
axy1nwr xoxnoox aamaa oAonn cpnn aacrnn xorxAnr aamnp
xanrax xynm1AaAwr sma ncrcn xcmxccrcc y oArocon nr 1omooxon
oAoA1 an.
Mana yAcap yrp nr or1 araar, Apnc ax axyn caAayyp
oAon cooA, oAoncoA, cAnr xamraaAax mon 1cnAcn panw

, 88 .

.
[4(31)
106
xnApcp nxcp occon a1Aan xamraaAaxwn aapaA maA ax axyraac
anax aAan 1a1na, maA ax axyn 1ccrpcxnnr yAcaac xsmp ncc
anax (cvcno1, nmno1wn aorccc) xoonrnn 1onAooA n oAx
acan.
l940-oop onw cA onn BHMAV-wn cpnn aacrnn 1cp
cAnccnn maA ax axy npccn caAa nr acan. Ax Apnc, yyA
yyxa, 1ccnc xoAoo, anAra accr ycap caAa mnncc xorxnx
acan oAonn yAc apwn ax axyn 1cp 1cprccnn caAcx xynr
ara acan. 0pnn aacrnr omnnn xanAaanw pnccc nr ann
ancA xynnn, xomooAAwn, yAcwn rcccn rynan npccn omn omnx
an. Icnn omnnn cprcc xcAcnn omnnn mnnx nana nr nam,
1onn npccn anm1 nnrp 1x nnrcm cypAaAwn 1ccApcp
1opoxoAorpconooc ncn xccr1cc aa oo apaA1a axcc.
MaAnnn apyyp maAaa xcAcnn xynrp omnAox cx1c, xynnn
omn1onn va1oronp ncn xccr1cc maA ocrox maxyy paaArana
1oAonAoroo 1ccrpcxncc yAcap xa1yy ncc 1ymaax snpAwr 1oooc
xyyArnAan 1or1oocon, po1oop aax accA xymnrpax, po1oop aax accAp
ran oon1o xanAax (ocoApoonr ynaac xypaApaa rcx xcAcxcp
xc) oAx, 1anaawn ApncAcA snyyAax oAomxr oAcon accr
nr maAnpwn xynnn omn1onn mnnxnr aAparpyyAx omnnnxoo
cn cacn ax cx 1yAwn xsaraaAarpmaA yAcwn aAa1, xamxAarwn
apaA1a oArox, omn xoonroo annxyyAax yc xann 1nccc caAax
cmcAacA1c oAroxcc.

Opoornn xnnn 1oroApo moporpox araa MonroA VAcwn Hx
XyAwn 2002 onw l prcc cawn l0-nw opo a1Aan raracan Hrcnn
xyyAnn l prcc aAnn 2 paxr xcccr1. Hrcnn xyyAr 1or1oomx
nr:
nrcnn cx an xanAaanp ooAornpwn cx 1crm;
no paacan apaA;
omnnn xaApamr apaA;
rcccnn cx noAoo;
xynnn xccr1 xonpAonrooc ooAoxr ax;
nrcnn cx rnr sma ncr xsaraaAaA1rrcc
xccrxAcx;
aonnrpcon cxnr ccrccArcx;
mxcc xamraaAyyAax aannmp npccAcnc xcmccn 1opoxoAon
aaacan ana.
Opoo moporpox y Hrcnn xyyAnn apnA aanmwr 1opoxo
aaax oroor n l926 onw Hrcnn xyyArp 3 pyraa aAp AAnnaa
acamxAan xamraaAax xcrnr rc1rcxcc 1omnAorpcon xmc
2010] 107 ,
acamxAan xamraaAax 1cx xmc a xoonro acrnr canaa
acamxAan xamraaAaxaac rapna 1cpnn omnooc 1oAooAon aAnnaa
xcrnr rc1rcx anaac aoxnmo. Mon xyyAnn 6 pyraa aAp
AAnnaa acamxAan xamraaAax xmc ymy 1cpnn xoonro xormnA
xn raawn apwn mx 1acAax raaa1aa mcpAcn a1AyyAnaac
aoxnmo. Mon l0 pyraa aAp AcamxAan xamraaAax xmcnr
1omnAoxpoo c cm sAraAr n1rcmx xn oroop napna1a xmcnr
conron 1omnAnooc aoxnmo.
l03 pyraa aAp AAnnaa xam1wn xoonrnr aoxnx c1rccpcp 1yc 1ycap
nr xynaanAan anaxap aanca1aa xcAcAcx, 1ycra rccc aryyAnaA
aoxnx aAanw raaaa rcnAAcx ymy xccn oocpoo cncc xcAcAcn
A 1oxnox anaac xarsa1 mx 1acAax raaaa mcpAx mn1rAccc
aoxnmo rcccn nr aonnrpcon cxnr ccrccArcx aannm, 1crm cxnn
aannm, mxcc xamraaAyyAax aannm rcx acx oAoxoo ana.
Xann 1yc xyyAnn oApyraa Arnn Xoopyraa anrn nr AAnnaa
cp mmcwr araaAyyAan orox a anaxpaa aryyAax rccc nnrnn
1yxa aaacan nr rcccnn cx noAoonn aannm mm.
Ham, aanpyraa Acr nr AAnnaa nrcnn xcrnn ynaa xanAan
cpAcx a xAccx cx, rnn 1yxa aaacan nr 1crm cxnn aannm1a
nncx ana rcx prncx oAoxoo ana.
Xann MonroA VAcwn xoo paxr Hrcnn xyyAr oAox l952 onw
xyyAnn Xoopyraa Arnn 4-1 cxnn cy+ov1wn 1aAaa 1ycracan
a Brp naampax MonroA Ap VAcwn ax axyr xorxAcx a
xopoAmonpnn ax apAwr caxyyAax aonAryypwn pnccc
mxcc cxcc xsaraaAyyAaar x nrcpcp 1cprccnn ccr1c,
cmcr1c, arc onro, npcc1cn, mamnn m1Acrnr sAraArrcc cxnr
cpAAnc. Oooo xcAcA, xyyAna xonor axnA a mcrcxApnr
noAoo1crcc conron anax nrcnn rArccnccc xacarpaar cp
xoonronpnr oo1oo oAx anax a ycpap mnAxAcx accr nrcnn
cx, rpnr cpcAnc.
Mon xyyAnn xoopyraa Arnn 5-p: XyyArp 1ycra aaacnaac
ycap maA1raanaa xcn n a1yra nrcnn cxcc xsaraaAyyAcan ymy
xacarpcan ax oAoxr rcccn nr cx 1crm ax aanmwr aryyAcan
ana.
0nc xyyArp rcccnn cx noAoonn 1aAaa yrpnw xyyAnac
pcArccnr aoxnyyAcan nr rcccnn cx noAoonn aanmwn nAcA
rcx acx oAoxoo ana. TyxaAaA, anAxaanw rccc, cp xoonrnr
xoAcAox, oon cyy xoAcAox 1yxa, axAwr rc1rcxcc xcAcAcn anax
1yxa ymy axAwn rccc, von1av1a rcccnn 1yxa, accAnn rccc,
a1Aan paax rccc, paaAranwn 1yxa, n1rcmxAcA, vomncc, xapraAaA1,
paa1raAwn rcccnn 1aAaa 1ycracan ana.
l963 onw Hrcnn xyyAnn ? pyraa aAp Hrcpnn cpcAcA aoxnx
[4(31)
108
nrcnn cxnn 1aAaa 1ycracan. BHMAV-wn nrcp nr amnnwxaa
omnnp cp xoonro, maA1a ax; oon cyy ycap cp xoonro amnrAan,
xccrAcx; omnn cyyx raaa, cxAcn xnx axAaa conron anax; nccA1,
mnnc 1ccA, ononn1o canaA rarax; mnnxAcx yxaan, y1ra aoxnoA,
yAarnn 1ccAnn 1aAaa aoxnornnn cx cpAcx; cp xoonro onAox,
rccccAcx, mon cp xoonrnn oAon cp xoonrnn yc nrcnn ycap
cxnr xyyAr ocoo cpcAnc.
Mon omnnn xaApamr cxnn oAon rcccnn cx noAoonn
1aAaa 1yxaAaA, xypaApax-xypaApan anax rccc, cA1rcAnn (cA1rcn
nnAAcx) rccc, cp xoonro xoAcAox, 1cccAcx, oon cyy xoAcAox
rccc, axnA rc1rcx rccc, 1ccncAcA1nn rccc, paa1raAwn rccc,
accAnn rccc, paaAranwn rccc, vomnccwn xypaApaanw rccc,
xapraAaA1wn rccc, anAxaanw rccc, cp xoonro nc 1oAor
xccrAcx rccc accr rcccnn 1aAaax aaaA1 ax oroop 1yc 1 nr
rcccnn cx noAoonn 1aAaa 1ycraxcc. Omnnn xaApamr apAwn
1aAaa mon 1ycracan ana.
MV-wn 4 pcx Hrcnn xyyAr l994 onw ll prcc cawn l-nn
opo a1Aarpcan. Opoornn xnnn 1oroApo moporpox y Hrcnn
xyyArp aaacan aanmyypwr cncx xyyArp 1ycraar. Xann l992
onp a1Aarpcan mnnc Ynpccn xyyAnn Ananayrapyraa aAnn 3-
1 MonroA VAcwn nrcn paaaxr npccn cx, cx noAoor a1aAraa1a
cpcAnc:
... 3) xopAox, A xopAox xoonro myparaa oAx anax, cacmmnx,
omnAox, on aaAramxAyyAax cx1c. Xynnn omnnr xyyAr ycaa
xyaax, panAan anaxwr xonrAono. To, 1nn cx xn aryyAAara
nr nnrmnn aaAmr xccrccr npccAcn xynnn omnnn cp
xoonrnr panAan anaA noxox oArono, nnr 1oAno xcmccn nrcp
xynnn omn1c ax oAox 1aAaa xyyArnnAcan nr omnnn xaApamr
apAwn aanmwn npcc nr oAcon. l994 onw Hrcnn xyyAnn l0
pyraa Acr1 Hrcnn xynnn omnnn 1aAaa 1ycracan. Mon omnAox
cxnn a1aAraanw 1aAaa l53 pyraa aAp aaacan.
Vr xyyArp nn1nn rccc, rccc aaanaA aryyAax, yrpnnAcan
rccc, cnAcAnn rccc, rcAcrnpnn cp xoonrnn rccc, ncAcrpccr
rccc, ryanparn c1rccpcp amnr1a rccc, rcccr oonAox a yAax
1aAaa xyyArnAarpcan ana. Mon 1yc xyyArp cAcrAcA, xanpnnwn
rccc, xypaApax-xypaApan anax rccc, cA1rcn nnAAcx rccc,
anAxaanw rccc, cnnm xn, ycap noooo xanrax rccc, accA, cp
xoonro xoAcAox, oon cyy xoAcAox, cp xoonro 1cccAcx, cp xoonro
nc 1oAor amnrAax, omynw nc1 aA amnrAax rcccnn 1aAaa
1ycracan. Mon axnA rc1rcx, 1ocoA aoxnox axnA rc1rcx, cypaAraa,
mnnxnArccnn a 1ymnA1, aoxnon 1ccx axnA rc1rcx rccc,
aoxnoA 1ccA 1yynnx axnA rc1rcx rcccnn 1aAaa xyyArnAan
2010] 109 ,
yr xanAaanyypwr aoxnyyAx acan oA xopoAmoAox cxnn
1aAaa xopoAmonn rcccr Hrcnn xyyArp 1ycracan acnwr mnncc
XopoAmonn xyyAr a1Aarpan racnaa xnnnr oAcon.
Mon 1ccncAcA1nn rccc, paaArana, ayynAaA, vomncc, xapraAaA1,
acan 1c1rcx, paa1raA, monron xapraAamxnn rccc, xam1an axnAAax
rcccnn 1aAaa 1ycrax 1yc 1 nr rcccnn cx noAoonn 1aAaa
xyyArnnAcan ana.
Mon l994 onw xyyAnn 8 pyraa aAnn l pcx xcccr1: MonroA
VAcwn nrcp nr xyyArp aaacnaa cp mmc, omynw nc1 aAnr omnAox,
xcAcA xnx, aoxnornnn cx cpAcx, cp xoonro, cx onAox, rccccAcx,
xyyAnn c1rccp aryyAax, xyyAnn c1rccp aryyAaxrrcc ax axy
cxAcx, omnn cyyx raaa, cxAcn xnx axnA, mcrcxAcc conron anax,
xyyAna xonrAoor ycap A axnAAaraa snyyAax, cp xoonrnn
oAon cp xoonrnn yc amnnw ycap cx cpcAnc. Mon aAnn 2 paxr
xcccr1 Hrcnn cx an cxnn napna ymy nrcnn cx cpAcx,
cr1c ax napnawr MonroA VAcwn nrcp 1crm cpcAnc xcmccn 1crm
cxnn aanmwr xyyArnnAcan ana.
ccxccc acxcp MonroA VAcwn Hrcnn xyyAr l926 onooc opoor
x1cA 80 ray xnAnn xyraaanp 5 ypaa mnncnAcn oAoncyyAx
nccn oroop xyyAr 1yxan onn nnrmnn xccrcc, maapAaraa
racan nr mcpccx. 0prcc xyyAr mana yAcwn nnrcm, cpnn aacar, omyn
canaa, mamnn, aan Ann xorxnA oonAoA1nn opn1 oonAoA1nr
xayyAcan nyxaA anm1, cpcm mnnxnArcc, cypaAraanw oAon nrcn,
cpnn aacar, ax axyn xanAaar aoxnyyAx nccn nyxaA anm1, cx
cynaAxyyp mm.
Hrcnn cx an aannm nr 2002 onw mnnc Hrcnn xyyArp
1ycraAan 1ycrarpcan ana. MonroA VAcap xnnn 1oroApo moporpox
acan xyyAnypap smanaa ncrcn apAaa 1ycrarpax acan 1aAaa
pcc orAccn nAcc.

2009 3-

-
,

,
,
- .
.
x x
110


.
I
, ,


1
0pcn mx oAon ycap xcAccc xcrn, xnAcr ycaa,
xnn nc 1onr poomxAon xarax mn1rcxnn cccr HYB-wn
vonnonnpMonroAVAc2000 onw11 prcccawn2-nwoponcrpcn
ocon a cncx vonnonnp aaacan c mA1nn 1aAaaxn nc
1om+oo,1n1c1cmcxpn1caramoxannamwrpo1oopwnxyyAr
1or1oomxnpoonAoA1oyyAaxaamaannAcxaxnAxnrpcxaraa
xcpnncxAcA1opn,cmA11c1cmcxcpxyyAr,cxanonnn
oAon aAan xaarnpwn cc1rcArccnn mnncnAcA1 xanraA11a pccn
rcxacxcpynnpy1arpaA1a.
0pcnmxoAonycapxcAcccxcrnxnAcrycaaxnn
nc 1onr poomxAon xarax y xn A nAcA, xcAcpnr
crnnxyyAr1or1oomxnpxyyArnAan1or1oox,monpccxApAnr
xnxycy+ov1pnraon1or1ooxoroxacyypaAnyxAaa1annrpax
araaoroopnrcp,cxxnaAan1ymaaA1nyypwncc
mnncnAcAxnxnrncn1crnn1yArampcanaAoAoopana.

?
0pcn mx rcx xcn ncr xn ymy ryan paxr c1rccpccc mcpcc
ccA1,mcpAcranax,1yxanxnymyryanpaxrc1rccpnnApccn
ymyccpcrpccnxccr1mn1rcx,aArancpAcx,maxaA1aAcx,
aAnnaa apAaa aAarnnAax aonAroo 1onn aAan 1ymaaA1an,
aAanw cr rc1rcx y ycap xnn opoon xa1raA1, nA, paAp
aonmooAoo 1yxan xn ymy ryan paxr c1rccpnn no maxopr,
cc1rcA canaar xn1c manaAran aonoox aAnnaa canaa1a ApAnr
xcAnc.
2
rcxaaacanapar.
MonroAVAcwn12onwYnpccnxyyAnn1pyraaaAnn13paxr

. 00 .. , 6 .

1 1 .
2010] 111
xcccr1...xcnpoAonncmA11yArax,xnAcrycxcrnxanpax
nc1onrnrpoomxnAxoAoxr,MonroAVAcwn0BHX-nn35,
3pyraaaAnn35.3,3.4-1Ccxnr1cn,sAAarparnoonnxoocccr
mcpAcrorox,1nnAcnoonnrcmyyyrroAonxcrnnycap
apAwr no1Aox cr xAccxr, mon xyyAnn 10 pyraa aAnn
l0.4-1 0 mA1 1yArax, xnAcr yc xcrn xanpax, nc 1onr
nr poomxAon xarax oAoxr xcmccn 1yc 1yc xyyArnnAcan.
Ic1cA mana TarnyyA, Harpaarnn aryyAarwn ypnpax aAan
1ymaaA1nyyp Xcrnr nr xAccArc!, Oooo xcrcc xAccccn mm yy?
rcx mc1 acyyA1wr cx xn cy+ov1cp 1anrpar. 0nc acyyA1 nr pccx
xyyAnn aaaA1wr aonnx araa aA oroop xcrnr nr oooo nr
xAccArcccn anm1 nnnr nr 0BHX-nn ?9 prcc aAnn ?9.4-1
aaacnaa no1Aox anm1 yrAyyAax, cxxAcx 1aAaa xyyArp aaacan
xymwr anm1Aaar ymy aoncon oA cprcc nr no1Aox napnaaa
aApax oroop mxnn mnpncnn npccAcA oAoxr mm.
Ccxnr1cn, sAAarparn oonn rcm yyyr xAccccn nr rarx xccr1
araa ycap no1Aox anm1aa a1AarpnaA sAAax npccAcA oApor oroop
pan ran xcrcc xAccccn anm1 nr no1oAroonw nanaaa aApana. Mon
Hovyown aryyAAarwn aanm xsnaA1wn novyo xccr 1rcA1,
mopon aaaA1 snyyAcan xcrnn ma1onaA1a 1annAaap yrAacan
ycap no1Aox anm1wr anxaaaxr Oooo xcrcc xAccccn apaA-
p nr nyxaA an xoAorpoA orpor yyy cc1rcArcc onoor x1cA acaa
ana.
Xccn ccxnr1cn, sAAarparn oooo xcrcc xAccccn oA sAAax
prncA1nr aonr1o Appcr, xcrcc xAccrccr, xAccArcxrrcc
ycap no1Aox anm1aa crnn xcrnr no1oAcon oA crnn
xcrnr mopon aaaA1ap yaapar (mcpArnn aor anArax
rcm mc1), xcrnn xyraaar cynrax, maArarpax y c1rccpcp xnpcA
ynyyApar accr coor acrpcA ymy Cc1rcArccnn xoorpoA omcoo
araa mm.
II
..., ,
,

3

MonroA VAcwn 0rnn aaan mn1rcx oAon Ic1rcx axAwn
1yxa xyyAnn paryy xccr 1rcrn, mopon aaarn, rc1rcx
axnA1nyyp aAnnaa rcm1 xcrnr nAAcx, rcm1 xccr Apccn
c1rccpnr ccn cynaAxAax, rcm1 xccr Apccn cccxnr 1opyyAaxpaa
ccxnr1cn, sAAarparn, mrpcrnnr sAAax a araa1rax, crnn

6 6.
,
[4(31)
112
xanyAarwr xnpAcx a xonroAcx noxoA apAwr cn
1or1ooxcrxAccpcr.
Ic1cA xccr 1rcrn, mopon aaarn, rc1rcx axnA1nyypwn
axAwnanaaAaAnx,yammyyAAwncnc1om,axnAprncx1or1oAoonr
aonnmaraaraacpcncmA1snyyAaxnoxoApccparaa
mm.
2008 onw 02 pyraa cap HnnxAcx yxaanw avapomnn 4nAocoqn,
conoAorn, cx an xccAcnrccc xccr 1rcrn, mopon aaarn,
rc1rcx axnA1nyypwn pynp snyyAcan cypaAraanaac acxcp
ooAornpwn 52.?% nr AxAwn anaaAaA, paam1 nx, aAnn xoAc
ara, yammyyAaAwn cnc1om yyy
4
rcccn xanyr orcon ana. 0nc
nr xccr 1rcrn, mopon aaarn, rc1rcx axnA1nyyp xcrnr
maAraxpaa araa1rax oAon yyy1rax, crnn xanyAarwr
xonroAcx a xnpAcx noxoA apAwr cn 1or1ooArrcc
ccxnrAcx y c1rccpnr rcm1 xccr Apccn, xam1an ooAcon cccxnr
xaraAaaxrrcc xccr xAccArcxnr yr1aA oAropor, rcn, xoxnorn
oAon ycap ooAornpooc (xccr1 anarpcan anm1ap nnAx)
xcrnn noxoA apaAp 1oxnyyAx mcpAcr (1aAa) raryyAaxwr
ooApox, 1cpnnr mcpArcc oonAoxnr maapax, xypaA rcnAAcx,
mcpArnn aor rarax nccc oAon paxnn aaax accr ooApAoro
rapar.
Mon xccr 1rcrn, mopon aaarn, rc1rcx axnA1nyypwn
axAwr prncx cnc1om yyyraac c mA1 snarppar. Oooo xcAcA,
xccr 1rcrn, mopon aaarn, rc1rcx axnA1nyyp aAnnaa
rcm1 snpAwr rc1rcx axAwn myramaa oAon aaan mn1rcx
axnAAaraanw xccnp A axnAAaraa snyyAx sAAax, yyy1rax
anm1 ccA1 yrAyyAx xoAorpox aAapap mnAxAcA 1c nr axAwn
pn rcx apcr. Ic1cA xccr 1rcrn, mopon aaarn, rc1rcx
axnA1nyyp rcm1 snpaAwr rc1rcx axAwn myramaa oAon aaan
mn1rcx axnAAaraanw xccnp ApcA, cc ApAnr maAraap 1yxan
ccxnr1cn yr xccr1 xamaaaAr oAoxwr nr 1or1ooroop, xoAorpox
ara xcmxccr anaA axAwn aAcA1 yypar, sma ncrcn xapAara,
ccpAcrcp o1por (ccxnr1cn c1rccp1c xynaApcan, xaxyyAr ancan, xccr
aamxayyAcan rcx mc1). XapAara, ccpAcrcp o1ox, axAwn aAcA1cc
yyyAx axaa sma ncrcn araa xcrcc pyycraap paaarnn ma1nw
aryyAAara, aAanp mnAxAco rcccn apAaa acyypaAp xanppar.
MonroA VAcwn 0rnn aaan mn1rcx xyyAnn l93 pyraa
aAnn l93.l.24-1 aaacnaa xsnaA1wn novyo cn cxnnxcc
xccnp xccr 1rcA1, mopon aaaA1 snyyAax aryyAAarwn
aaxnraanaac xccr 1rcA1, mopon aaaA1wn axnAAaraanw
1aAaa raracan 1ymaaA, mnpnc xyyArp nncx araa cccxnr
xsnax, aoncon 1ymaaA mnpnc1 cccrcA nnnx cx1c apar.

. 008 . 0- .
2010] 113 ,
Ic1cA onoopnn apAaa xsnaA1wn aanm ncr novyo pccx xyyAr
aoncon 1ymaaA, mnpncnr mcpccc a1Aaa 1oAonAoroonn paryy
1yxan aryyAAarap onnx xcrcc aon 1rcx araa cccx, cp monn
anm1wn ooo nr sma ana rcx mc1 ycap acyypaAp an xoAorpoA
orporcooracrpcAymyomncooana.

0BHA-nw oAon xomAyyAamr axnAAaraanw xccnp cpcn


mx oAon ycap xcAccc xcrn, xnAcr ycaa xnn nc 1onr
poomxAon xarax xccr nAAcxnr yr1aA oAropor xyyAr yc
axnAAaraa racaa araa rcprnr xcAcx xccr1c.
Xcrnr oooo nr xAccArc (Enmnncvnn onoA) xcmccn cr
orpor, mcpAcr, 1aAa xncc anpar, aAnnaa xccr maArax acyypaAp
xynnn connxoAoo xonpAonrooc ooApor accr nr 0 mA1nn
ncr xcAc oroop axnA prncx cnc1om, axAwn xc1 nx anaaAaA,
npccAcAr xapAara, ccpAcrc nr c mA1 snyyAax npcc cyyr
mon.
0pcn mx xcAccc ccxnr1cn, sAAarparn, mrpcrncc xccr
xAccArcxnr yr1aA oAropor cncx cc1rcArccnp mnncnAcA xnx
maapAara1a araa a, Cc1rcArccnn mnncnAcA rcpcr nr cc1rcxr
oonAox A sn oroop cc1rcArccnn mnncnAcA xnx napax mm oA
sma n caAa1 axnA yarm1a, xnp cy1aAr snarpax oAno. Ynn
1yAp:
0pcn mxnn cccr coon rcrccAcx axAwr aoxnon
aryyAax;
0x xn aAan 1ymaaA1nyypwr mcrcxAnn cyraA1anp
xamyyAax;
Ccxnr1ncc oooo nr xccr xAccArcx mcpAcr, 1aAa
anpar acyypAwr 1acAan aorcoox (ycap no1Aox anm1aa xcrnr
no1Aox xcnmnx);
HaArax y aAnnaa acyypaAp xynnn connxoAoo xonpAonrooc
ooAox, maArax acyypaAp caap ynyyAparwr aorcoox (mcrcxnA,
ara an 1ycAaAaa aAcxccc ycap apAaa);
Xccr 1rcrn, mopon aaarn, rc1rcx axnA1nyypwn
axnA prncx cnc1omnr oonAox (y napna, an+sac xcxcn rarax
maAracan rcx mc1cc nr ncAcx);
AxAwn xc1 anaaAAwr aoxnc1o apAaa 1cnncxAcx;
Hma ncrcn anm1 ccA1, maArax 1or1oocon aArrcc
xapax, ccpcx acyypAwr 1acAan aorcoox (npccAcA xn anm1
nnnr, ma1onaAp 1yAryyAax ax) accr aAnr ncn 1crnp
xnx nr a oAon yy.
0prcc aAnr ncn 1crnp xnx xccrxAcncc cpcn
mxnn 1yxa oAon 1nn xo ymnr, 1cmcx acyypAwn 1aAaa

[4(31)
114
ncrpccn oAroA11o oAox, nrcp 1yxan aryyAAarwn 1aAaa aon
oAroA11o oAox, cx xn aAan 1ymaaA1an cpcn mx, ycpap
xnp rcm1cA ynyyAax rcx mc1 rcm1 xccr Apcxccc yrpnnAan
ccrnAcx, axAwn ncArccr aon prncx, axAwn anaaAAwr aoxnc1o
apAaa 1cnncxAx, maArax acyypaAp xynnn connxoAoo
xonpAonroocooAoxr,npccAcArrccxapaxccpcxracnaa
aAan xaarnnp rcm1 snpAwr maAraxpaa y napna, an+sac raraxap
omyn yxaanaa nA nx panAax, mcrcxAnn y napna pccmAcx,
ypnpAarapn1rcxn1rcAnrncmcrpcx,axAwn1ccmxcaxaxrcxmc1
can1aA1axcmccnacxana.

115


Bax accAnn xanAaanp mnAxccnccc xom
rc Ann xnnxnAcA oron pcArcn cc1rcA
aonoocon xy acyypAwn ncr oAoop ana. Hmccc
aamnp xaaaaAan arx xnnxnAcAnr 1acAan
aorcooxwn 1yAp xyyAr xamraaAax aryyAAarwn
axnA1an cc1rcA, a1rcA raran axnAAax
oc1o rcx opox ana. Ic A amraAan oA yAc,
oon amraAan, yAc, oon amraAan oA pcAxn
paxnnp cnx 1anan omnn 1or1nox noxoA pcx
oAno.
0x an 1ycAaAaanw 1onnn pmnn
2.l.3-p aaacan cnAcAcn ayynAax axnAAaraar
amxnA11a xccrxAcxnn 1yAp mnnn no
poox ara anAaa axnAAax ana.Ynp:
Ic Ann xnnxnAcAp o1orn1c nx A cAcrccr po1no snAax
1nn xasrwr 1cmpcrAcx ancanw paaa rc Ann xnnxnAcAp
xcaccnccc xcxcn sax o1con 1yxa mam pcArccnr snyAx
1opoxo oAroA11o oAx anaap aamnp xcxcx 1aAaa aonAoroo orn,
xnnxnAcA Apcrnnn xasrwr anna.
XnnxnAcA Apcrn c1rccpnr 1ooA capan, ccr-cxnn aAr ncrcc
mmyy y1caa, y1acr oA arnn aacar paraa pamxyyAx pyypan
ooonpoo nAx, mcnpAcx 1onnxon 1annAcanw paaa rc Ann
xnnxnAAnr saraap xnx oAconwr, 1np sma xnnn aA
noAooAcnnr 1yc 1yc acyyx snyAaap 1opyyAax aAcnr acyyna.
Tnn onnr rc Ann xnnxnAcAp o1ornnx1c 1oxnn
araa cccxnr maArax xccn ao1c anaA xooyAanr aAyyAx
ax snAan yyy, aonnr nr 1ynraana. Xccn 1oxnn anaA
noAooAcon noxoA apAwr anArax cnc1om1c axnA aoxnono. Oooo
xcAcA, xapmyypaac nr oAx 1cp myypaApar oA 1cpcn1c axnAAax
yyyr nr yxaayyAx oAnyAax, oo xn1c xoAoo1o acyypaA ran
nncA 1nnr 1acAan aocoox rcx mc1 axnA aoxnono. 0xcAccn axnA
1ooArrccc oAx rnmn axnpan cor1yyn xnnxnAcA Appcr
oA axnAp oyyAax acyypAwr ca1a xoooApox 1ccx ara xcmxcc
anax rcx mc1.
Ic Ann xnnxnAcA Apcrn, xnnxnAcAp o1orn xoowr
aAyyAan xnnxnAAnn xo ymrnn 1aAaa ncr nAcn srx
xnrmAcx, oAryyAx mcpAcx ara xcmxcc anna. Ynp: rc Ann
xnnxnAcAp o1ornnn oo1oo n1rcx n1rcAr oAox, ranaapmaA
oAox, rcAx cc1rcAnn paam1ap y1ra rynnr1 an1an cc1rcA ry1aAp
-


.
[4(31)
116
oox (ponocc), amrpax n1rcAr oAox, oonroo ycpaac py1yy
ncAcx, ayAax, py1yy 1oox, xcccr xncmcAcx, anra apac
pynp amrpapar oAoxoo o yxaan nr myypax cc1rcnn oonAoA1c
oAox 1nccc yAaaAaap cA mcnp nr myypax 1ooA nn xor
oAon xo1o xanpa onnnnoo onnAox, aopyyAcanaac oAx no maxopnp
xanpcan, xoxocon, maAacan, ayAracan rcm1cA ccx, sc xyraax,
yyax, 1axn xopAox, 1Acrpcx, anra c1occ1 oconoo nxcnnAcn
no maxopnn aonnywr crcpcr oroop cnc nr 1oAro onpox, ax
pcAccx, axnn mnrpccc, paaA1 nxccx, paxAaA yyax, cAcr, xopoop
myypan maxAaa ccx, xsmax, xooAnw mnnrc myypax, xooAonp
pyr oAox, po1o myyxaax, ycnw crcA1 myypax, no myypax,
ccncAacx, ra, xoA caAranax, amaxan spax accr xamwn xannapnaac
cxAccp cApnnn onnnnp anrpax ncncrpcxccc rapna xnnxnAcA
Apcrnnn ra1 amr nacaa aApax, onpooc ynax, oonroo yypax,
xy1raAax, pxAcx acrcc amr nacaa or1rcxccc rapna xxpnn
xmxnAp n aca nx xo xoxnoA1or ca1a 1aAaAan 1annyAax
xccr1c apar. HAanrysa rc Ann xnnxnAcA pynp occon xxcp
yy yaa1a oApor, pyaaaa aamAax, aanm nr amxa xyAnra, xc1
noomo xaAmnam1ra oApor, apac xpcccc oAx mono xa pax
yn1ax aman napparr, rcnn paaArana xnnccAcc xnx napaAr
cyAara myypax, naa, noxpooc nnnx aonox, ama aasa aAccrrccc
oAx oon rc1cc 1or1oxr 1cnAn oAx A 1cx xmc1c nnAx
xccr aonnAp xoAorpox, cc1rcA canaaraa ynax, sna nn onnnnp
ncncrpcx, ax canpacanaac oAx aon oAoncon xooAAox napaAr
oAcox, anrax, rcccc xoorpoxpoo xarac py1yy xynacAacnaac oAx
ccn paaan xa1raa onnnn 1ycax, ra, xoAoo xoApoox, aanmpaa
xnnxnAcAnn snap aopyyAx c1cx rcm1cx, amr nacaa n aApax
oAaomr. XnnxnAcA pynp occon xxcp 1omoxoooo oooo
xnnxnAcA Apcx marapAaA ?5-80%-1a aprnr cpcm1cp
1or1oocon ana rcprnr o 1onp nr o1oA oAryyAax xccr1c apar.
Ta xoo aoxncr ApAcc cccAcx napaAr paamxyyAan rcAcA1cc
yAyyAax mm oA xxcp onnnxooc rapna xxpnn xmxnAp aca
nx xo xoxnoA ynyyAx xyp yyrnn xoAoo1o oAcon 2 1aAwn x
xamaa1an capanryypaa xooonp nr pacarnyyAan aonxon oocpoo nm
2 1aAwn ccr-cx, ax p naaa cc1rcA canaanw oAon cpnn aacrnn
paam1 maxaA1ap oyyAna rcprcc ca1a opox 1ynraax xccr1cr
aonAono.
TnnAcn 1cpcnp vaaax oAon monroAnyypwn oc aanmnAp rcnn
xmxnA aca nx an xoAorpoA1o acnwr, cnc nr xcA 1cn
apwn cyran xmxAcx yxaan oAoxwr, rcnn ocwr cx xn
xanyax, ccr nr xsnax a1a1rapar yAamxAaA1ar, onor pccpcnn
rc Acc xcxcn aon ann sncan, xxpcc xcxcn aon oAoncon
2010] 117 ,
xmxAx rawr nr ranaranp xoAnr nr pooonp xrcccn 1yxa,
1cpnn aan aanmnA, oc an acyypaA oAon yxan armnn cyraaAr,
aApna, mamnnw rc Ann xmxnA1c xoAoo1o aA aaaA1
oAon rc A, nrcn, rc Ann xnnxnAcA1c 1cmcx 1yxa xyyAr
1or1oomxyypaac 1aAaAan 1annyAx oc aanmnA, yxanw nom cypa,
xyyAna pccpAcn xxpnnxcc aampwn xynr aasar opoAox no
noc yynAan cnAcn can caxan amrpaxwr aonAono.
Mon 1cpcnp yyAax yxaApaxwr 1cnnnx, noc arx cyax, onxcn
1opn n myy mm xnxr ax (crccp oo1 nnnr aonAon oAno) a1aa
xo1oo, a1rar xoon canaanaac xoA ax, mypara anyn Ac, no nopcc
1ycaxar caxan cc1rcA1c ax nr nyxaA rcprnr ca1a oAryyAna.
Tc n a1yra npnn xccAcn araa onnnw 1opyyAnaA
aAnnaa mmc acrpAnn rc Ann amrpaAp aAcx noAoor n ca1a
1aAaAan 1annyAax nr amnr1a apar. Tcrx ax xn yxaan
aApax cnpcx araaraa aonoo oArox napna1a oApor.
Ic Ann xnnxnAcA, xcA maraanwr aracrax ama 1anan
amrpaxwn 1yAp rc1 ccr 1anx nr amnr1araac rapna sma ncrcn
myy mm ara 1oxnoApoxwr cpcm1cp no1oAcon ana. AA rcnn
xaraanw cooAwr xamrnn 1n ccr A mcpcpcr mm ana Acc.
Tyxan rc Ap xcA 1cmcA ranaA yrax araa ccr oonn
cxr ryApax cxcApcr mm ana. Ynnr onnn op mnnxAcx yxaan
no1oAxcc. Xccn rc Ann xoc nnr mcpcn npnn xaraa myypax
xcA maanr xnnxnAcA oAox maxcan ana rcpcr1 aanmnn
prncA1 xnx xooonpoo cnAcn nacar xaraa1a oAx cxcAncA
noroo ccr xyynnn xcncnpcc ox onro aacpar. Hcrnr rcAcrnnp
xaAan xamraaAx ycaAx ax nr xcn xcnp n an 1yc1a. Vnn nr ccr
oA xaaax nappar, ooox n nappar mm. Oooo xcAncA ccr oo1oo
can, myy xanpcan xnp aaanaA xany arpar mm ana. Tanrp rompcon
ccr 1an yy xo aax ponrono. Tc opnc nr 1anwr yy1a, myyxa
aam1a oArox, axnnp oyyAax rcx acrcc AnnArccrcc aApcr
rcprnr n ma1ax oAoxr mm. Marapr 1a xoown cn naampaA1a
can caxan amrpan araar 1anap ox nccn acnn cc1rcA1c,
xa cnorn1c xn xaaap a1aaxax npnn xo, nonn myy cnorn,
xcA amaa mcpcrpcAr 1ycranaA 1a nawn aampwn amrpaAp myy
parana ccxccc rapna nccc oAx caAx cannxap n xn oAaomr
mm. Hm aoxncr snpAaac 1a nawr aonxon vav1yc A anana. Oooo
xcAncA, 1c xnn myy cnorn, npnn xo 1ycax rccp acan xcA am,
myy myyxa xnnr vav1ycwn oroc nr nopcc mnnrccx anaap 1a
nawr xamraaApar mm.
Kav1yc rcrn rapna 1aApaa oroc1c cnc yramaA xcA, maraanwr
aracrax aA rc1 ama 1anan apaA annnpar 1yA nxcnx oonp
1nnr rc1cc yryyApar ana. Ic Ann xnnxnAcA1c 1cmcxcp
[4(31)
118
vav1yc nyxaA cr rc1rcpcr 1yA Xs1ap accr aanm oon ccrAcx
oc 5 xnAp ncr ypaa vav1ycwn as rcx 1cmpcrAcx nccn aanmnA1a.
Kav1yc aAnnaa myy cnornr oo1oo mnnrccx rc po1o caxan yy
amrcraA n oAropor n 1nnr ccr1c xn rompoonoA axnnp py1a
oAropor opnc apar mm ana Acc. Hnm1crAc (roanr) oA xcA
myyrnanp nx pyr ccr 1yA xmcnr myypaAax, xccApcxcc
1anmyyAax opnc sArayyAx cxcApcr mm rcnc.
Bnp ycwr aonxon ynpaaAax, opo 1y1am xn yraax, 1aAa ycAax,
xooA ynpa xnxcp xcrcApcr. TcrncA yc n rc Ann xnnxnAcA1c
1cmcxcp aca nx an xoAorpoA1o mm. Vc nr rc Ann xocwr xaraax
n nappar, aonoox n nappar mm ana. Tonnxon xcAcxcp yc xnn nop
mnnrcccn myy cnornr raparmAyyAx anArax ynnpac1a. Xn ycanp
ooxop mnnn no, omyn yxaanp araa x myy myyxa mmwr yc 1a1ax
ann ana rcx opox xccr1c. TcrncA 1anw xccA noAx no, cc1rcA
canaa nnnr anycax 1annAan1a. B oAoxr oA nann1a ycanp
paAan panc xnx yycraap ooxop xanraA11a. TnnAcn yc oA xn1c
xamraaAarn cAomon1. Tanw cc1rcA canaanp ry1aA anaA mm1
ox yc rooxyyAaap po nr xcccr xyraaaraa aorcnoA cc1rcA canaa
nnnr oopor oAx 1anmnna. Ic Ann xoo cn arcc oAoAr rc
Ann xnnxnAcA ran cxcAncA 1cp xam1paa roA yy xcp xcpcn ypaa
aAxax onoop ynaA xooonpwn xaraa cc caxnn xyynnn xcncnpcc
opor mm. Anc1aAn accr oonp rcAcA1cc yAyyAaxaa mxcp nccn
xocwr aanna paAaraa 1opoxo xyraaaraa asAyyApar nr n n1c
xoAoo1o ax. Mana onor pccpcc roAwn ccr pcc onAx xamrnn
myy myyxa mm srx oAoxr, as xaraAwr ann oppor mm rcprnr
n aaAyyc anxaaaApaa anax nr oAan1c. Hnx oAon aAnr 1aA
1aAaac nr 1aAaAax orox nr nyxaA an xoAorpoA1o. Vnn nr aanm
xoc nnr mcpcxr araaraac oAx amrpaApaa 1om aApaa rarapar
1aA ana.
Xccn 1cp xcAcAcn 1oxnoAnoA rc Ann xnnxnAcA Apcrncc
aamnp xcxcn aacax 1aAaa pcArccnr a1aAraa raryyAan ann
1nn noAcA1cp 1opoxo xyraaaraa xsnaA1 1anrx nonAcn yyAaan
snAax xamaa1an capan, xnnxnAcAp o1ornooc AanAan cr,
paaArana orn axnAAana. Xccn aacaA ancan oA aamnp ac cyramx
oArox pnccc xooyAanr pyypan nAx Anyn rc Ann 1anraar
rcrnnr orAcn rawn ccr ayyyAx ncr xynnr nr rapyyAx rc
Ann amrpaAp nr amxnA1 xccx, ono o1ron aa xaraA1a aA
oAoxwr ooopor. MonroA xcA mcppcrr xmc1 yr 1anraarwr vaaax
xcA pcc xonAcn orAnc.
IcAcrccp xooonpoo 1oxnoAoonp xn napaxr oA rc Ann
xnnxnAcA Apcrnnn ccr, cx mmyy rnr nr concox xnpAcx oc1o
nc xnp1c xn oAox yar onrnn axAarn1a nr yyAaan snAax 1c
2010] 119 ,
xnn 1ycAaAaar ann xoAorpox xmcnr yrx nAcn rc Ann
aonAoroon xnnc. 0ncx aonAoroonnr 1cp oAx ornoA axAwn yc
araa xnx oroxnr xcpcr 1yA aonmoooxooc oo arar. Vnn nr
rc Ann xynnn acyypaA nyy ax oc1o m pcc. BonAoroonnr
nccx xcAcAcx rcx araa acyypAwn 1aAaa ncrp ncrcnr pcArccnr
srx 1annAyyAan acyyx AanAax aA anaA 1opoxo xanyA1 orn
paaa nr rc Ann xnnxnAAnn xo xoAorpoAwr pccx masraa
pcArccnr 1annAyyAan 1opoxo oAroA1 orconn paaa ccr, cx
mmyy omrnn axAarnaa aonAoroo, cr, paaArana orAnc. aaa
nr rc Ann xnnxnAcAp o1orn oAon xnnxnAcA Apcrncc
ccAxAcn snyAx onnrnn aor raran mcrcxAnn aonAoroo orn
cnAcAcx ara xcmxcc anna. Xccn xooonpoo 1oxnoAoxr oA rc
A caAcnaac oAoop xoxnoA amcax y aanm xnn 1aAaa 1cpnn
xxppcp ynnn araa xnpcA cxmccA, amrpaAwn aApaa onoor n
nm 1a1ax srx oocpnn yyyr yxaayyAax ara xcmxcc anna.
Tanap rc Ann xnnxnAcA raaxap noAooAx araa aA
anaA 1nnr 1acAan aorcoox ara xcmxcc anaxap n cAcn rcprcc
n xcAx canaA xccA1nr nr acyyna. Xccn xccA1 1anrnaA 1nnr
noAAcxnn 1oAoo npcnxn1c axnAAax n maapAara rana. Hnrcxpcc
ar xyraaar xsaraaAax oAoxr. Vnn nr ncr rc A n rcccn cnAcn
aamnp aon aamaa amrpax mm oA npnn axAwn pn raAaa A rcccn
r. Ynn 1yAp 1cpcn1c 1yAx axnAAax xccr1c apar. Tcrx ax
1cp cnc omrooAorn aonxon npnn rc Ann acyypaAp onro anxaan
xnpc1rcA1c xanpax npnn axy amrpaA can caxnw 1oAoo ysrr
axnAAax araa mm ana. 0nc xnn aonAoroor n xnpc1rcn xAccx
anaxaac oo sma n arar mm ana rcx xAccn aonmoopor. 0cr,
cx mmyy omrnn axAarnnn orcon aonAoroor n 1cp axmapwn cyraaA aA1
rcx xAccx anax oAno. Hnrcccn noxoAp rc Ann xnnxnAcA
Apcrncc aamnp xcxcn amrpax 1aAaa a1aAraa raryyAan
ann aonAoroonp ooAcon xmccc rawn ccr ayyyAx a1aAraar
xancarax cncx a1aAraanw xccrxnA1nr xcxcn xsnax 1aAaa
xcAx orn aonAoroonoo xaax ynAraa xcAcn nx nc1c aonAoroo
orcon xnp asAacan 1aAaxcanaa nAcxnAx 1araana. Ba1aAraa
raryyAx ancanaac l0 xonorwn paaa rc Ann xnnxnAcAp o1orn
mmyy ccr, cx, omrnn axAarnnn aAr ncrccc apaA sma araa,
aacaA ancan ccxnr acyyx AanAana. HaapAara1a rcx ancA rc
Ann xnnxnAcA Apcrn1c nonAcn yyAaax snAana. BonAoroo
oroxop n nApcxr mm. Tnn xccA1nr noAAcx 1aAaa ara
xcmxcc anna. TyxaAaA, axnA xnmcc ana rcncA axnA 1ooAp
ooxop nr 1yc pcm oAox aonAroo ayynAana. Xccn axnAp oyyAx
napnaA mnnn namp rcccn onpo n1rcA napnawr aApanaa rcprcc
amnnnAan aaxnna.
Hmcx apAaa xcp xcpcn ypaa 1cpcn1c 1yc 1ycpaa yyAaan
[4(31)
120
snAax xccn cn aacan napAaa rcx ancA Anyn rc Ann
1anraar orAcn ncr xynnr nr rapyyAan orn amxnA1 xcn
cnAcAcn ayynAax axnAAaraar ccc oArono. 0nAcAcn ayynAax
axnAAaraanw snap aoxnocon axnA oAronwr 1onnxon 1cmpcrAcx
anna.
Xccn 1a ncr rc Ann xnnxnAcAnr yrar axnAAax ax
cn 1acAan aorcoox, 1cpcnp can caxan amrpaA cAcrAcx napnaA
cnc oA axaxyym1a 1om ranrsa. Tanw axAwn pn raAaa rcccn
r. Tcpnnr xaaap oonn cxr asAax axnAAax yam aonr cn
xnnr anaxaac nA xaraA axr mc1 canarpax 1oxnoApoA n rana.
0nc oA aonxon rc Ann xnnxnAcAp o1orpornnr omrooAon
xamraaAx araa acyypaA nm xcA 1cn rc A, xxcp, xyp
yrnn xoAoo1o oAcon 2 1aAwn xamaa1an capanryypap oAon yAc,
nnrcmp n 1yc xrcx araa aca nx an xoAorpoA1o 1ccAn axnA
rcx nx A xanyAara1a xanpax xccr1c apar.
Mana amrnn nrcpnn nxcnx nr monroA xcA mcppcrr 1yA
1cpnn cnc 1aAwn cx an mcpAcrnr pccmAAcx aonAroo n rc
Ann xnnxnAcAccc yrpnnAan ccrnAcx rawn anAara raran,
Ic Ann xnnxnAcA1c 1cmcx 1yxa xyyAnr vaaax xcA pcc
onyyAan rawn anAara oAron cA1rcn 1yc 1yc 1aaaAaa.
2008 onooc xom amrnn npccnn apno, 1oAonna, vaaax xcA
pcc xcnAcrpcn rapar Hana payn connn, HyrwAa, Hnaa1
cc1rAp accr xcnAcA mcpccAAnn xccrcAcApcc rc Ann
xnnxnAcA1c 1cmcx, xn xmxAcx 1aAaa xnA oAron
cy1aAnnAraanw ma1onaA nn1AAx, aAan aryyAAara, ar,
xooonw nrcp xopoAmonpcp sna 1annyAra xnx, xnnccA aaax acrcc
axnAAacanw pnp mana amar1 rc Ann xnnxnAcA xnAccc
xnAp aracax ana. Ynn ncr syy 1op xnmcc nr 200? onp mana
amar1 56 rc A mxcc rcAcA1cc yAyyAx acan oA 2008 onp
3l oAx 25-aa ymy 44,?%-na yycan oA, 2009 onp 23 oAx yrp
onwxooc 8-aa ymy 25,9 xynna yycan caxan aAcA11c ana.
0nAcAcn ayynAax snap mnnn raracan aApaa. Bn ncr ypaa rc
Ann xnnxnAcAnr cnAcAcn ayynAax snap 1cpnn amnaac
racan oAronwr ncr nAcn nnnx anaap 1cp xooonpoo xcAcAcn
1oxnoor 1yA axwr nr aAyyAan sna xnx snrpcan x acyypAwr
mx xyAwn 1cmpcrAcA mnr oAron mam pcArccnr nnnx anaap
oocpop nr orn ynmnx 1annAaap rawn crcc ayraa rcccn nnnr
xnnxnAcA Apcrn maanr 1cmpcrAcAnr yaap xascan. Haraap yan
rcxcp mana rc Ann nyy aapana, 1a monx nm paaa nr ncr xn
cnc aAanw cyypaAp cyyraap ynmnx npnnr por 1oxyy xnnc m
pcc, 1a aaanaA nnnx oc1o rcx ancA 1onnxon xcrpAx nnccc
rcccn mm. 0nc acyypAwr np ac opoAox oonxn mm nnnx 1cpnn
rc Ann nyywr xamraaAax nr a1c mm ana. 0nc napap 1om
cyramx oAcon mm. Tnccc xom n 1cmpcrAcAcc mam 1onnnAx
xcrp nnpcr oAcon mm.
121



Mana ap 1mnn maanr cx onoo xcmccx cc1rcA omynw npcnx onoo
ar1 xncc anan, npccnnxcc yAamxAaA1 cooA, 1x, oc aanmAwr 1annn
mcpcx, mcpcx rcccn nnn cmcAacA pcn oAxcc. Omynw cncx
xanpAara, maapAarwr xanraxwn 1yAp xmc1 monroA xyyAr, 1nn
aryyAra, acA canaar cy1aAnAan 1annyAax snpaA ncn nyxaA rcprnr
mana xyyArnnp onAon 1cmpcrAcx araa nr camaaA1a nAcc.
MonroA xyyAnn 1aAaax 1ocooAAnr oAx ancanaa: ncrprcc1,
1o nr 1mncc, 1mcn nr 1ooo xcxcn pccpcAx ncnnr., xoopyraa1,
onor pccpcc maanr xyyAr pmnr smar1 pccpAcn caxnx acnwr.,
ryanpyraa1, monroA xyyAnyp nr oocpnnx nr axy, omyn canaanw
xccrcc maapAaraac npccAcn y oAx, aan aanmnA1a nr xocAon
AnnAx, amrpaAwnx nr xnnn xcn aymnA oAcnwr., poonprcc1,
monroA xyyAr nr xmnAcr oAoop, ccAAcx, xmxAcx
aAnr oo1oo a1 mnnrccccn apar acrnr oAx xax oAno xcmccn
0.Annmcp, .amcpcn, I.Conp na MonroA xyyAr VAaanaa1a.,
l99? on 1ccAnnxcc omnAp orAccn nr monroA xyyAnn 1xcn
an xoAorpoA, nc cnc, xamax xccr 1onn, onn1o nAcxnAcn
raracan xccr mm. 0nc n pnccc monroA xyyAna oAon 1mcnpcc
1annyAan xrcx pnccc aanm ncr xcrnr xcxcn mnpcx acan
1aAaa axnn1 xapraAarpan Apccn connxoA 1a1axy anm1yypaac
nn1Acx, nn1nn x1ccA oArox nr pcc orAccn monroA xyyAnn
1ocooAAnr oAx anaxap pycaA ncmc oAox nacc xcmccn canax Hx
samnaac ncrcn nrcnn xcrnr xcxcn mnpccn 1aAaa po cnAcn
xrcx ana.
Xn xyyAr aaaaa cc aonnn, nanpAan caxnx, amrpaAwn
caAmr ncrcn xccrcc xcmccn yxamcaAax ax oA1yra.

, .
.
.
Tmcc1 xan amrnn nyyAranw parwr raaaac Tmcc1 xanw
xomyynw Xa Copnomwn ncr, nono arnaxaa 1anrcan xowr npcn xccn
cnpcn nawn noxonw 1oAo a aaaaAcnwr aonnx sncan 1oAon
nx Xa Copnomwr xcxcn mn1rcxnr 1or1oon aaaxwr cx npnn
xoo samanp ncrcn apnA mcpAcn nccn paraA1aa o1oop samnaac
yr xcrnr 1rcc rc1rcn mn1rcx, xany nAm xcmccn
100
[4(31)
122
xrcx nccn. XyyAr aAp aaanaac monroA aaawn nnnr1 1ycra
aaacan aA r, mx aaanw nnnr1 raxa, xonr accr 1cxccnnr
1amaaan aAax a xo xnx oAnooc sA ynarax r, xoorpyyAcan
nnn 1opn xoon 1oAAcr1n xcmccxx.
Ynp cnc xcrnn Xa Copnomwr aaaaAcan aoncon, aaawn
nnrnn ocoo mxccc rapna rarx noxo xcpn aonyp aaacan aA
r oAonn mana monroAnyyp oAnooc nx 1oAon xopoo 1aA raaa rc
xoonro, maA nccnp n1rcx manyyAan caxnyAax nr o xoocon oAron
mn1rcxcp 1a1raAaaA1a aA y oroop nnr xcxcn 1oAAcx
snpAwr cprccrccc ncr oAron 1or1oox, p parax snyyAnaac aoxnxwn
1yA raaa onw ax axyn apaA 1oAon1 nnAAcn xaasa cnc mc1nr
xynrcran mn1rcx xn xcrnn ocoo nccc xom ycpwn noxor
aonAroo aAax a 1amaaan aAax nr oAnooc 1yxap ynn arx, aaawn
nnrnn ocoo sAran caArax mn1rAcn, xccnn onr rynan nacnw
xcc 1oAAnccc oAox cccx, xcncc A nnAcAnccc xcxcn 1or1oonooc
aoxnxwr ccnnr pcccc oxox, xom xany nAccp, rc1rcn
mn1rAcx axaamyy xcmccn aoxnx raaa snyyAcanp o1oop samnaac
xom oxox nccn nr cnc xcrnr nnx mn1rcxcc 1oAonAocon nr
a1c amy xcmccxx.
Hmnn 1yA cnc xcrnn aaaaAcnwr aonnx, xo 1annn ncr
xomyynw Xa Ccccncn, Baaa, nx manr onron cnpcn nawn nnr
orAcxcp xrAccn xysraa Copnomwr aaaaAcnwr aoncon aaawn
nnrnn ocoo 1annn 1amyy xannnx sA onoocyra. Vr xccn noxon
nnr cprccrnn aonAoApon 1or1oocon ocoo rynan nacnw xc
ymy 1aaax nnr 1nn ncnn pooooc xoon raryyAx aoxnrnpop
1oAAcn pyycryyAx, nccc yarm p xyamAan parax snyyAaxaa
1or1oon mn1rcccn snpAwr Tmcc1 xan amrnn nyyAranw para,
HncAcA Xccnn 0pcnc Hanaypo na1 1yc 1ymaan snyyAaap,
cnc xcrnn Copnomwr ynaracan sAwn ocoo xa+sa1 raaa1 1oonw ocoo
1amyy xannnx mn1rAcn anm1Aan aaxnyyAaxaac rapna cprcc
xccnn nnn 1oAonr pay 1rcn 1ncc 1oAAcn oAryyAx
pyycryyAcyra. Ynnr ac Xonp, VAnac1a, Xnar1wn capyyp, noroo
rynan amar a onopnn xoo rawn nyyAranw para xanxnp,
XoncroA nyywn Vnanxa, A HAnn rn Hapanxan na1 xynaan
snyyAan 1ymaaraap, xsnan acx, oo oonn xa+sa1 raayypap aaAan
1ymaax, ncrcn apnA parax mn1rAcxnn ynn ncrprcc xy1ar1wn
accr ponon samnw xyyAr aAnr aoxnon xn capyypap snyyAaap,
aaan aAcr.
Ynn 1yA nArccn.
OAnoo Ororpconn ayraapyraa on, 1anan cawn anan xoonw
opo.
.
123


-2010
2010, 1(28)
100
1912
HVA-nn OAon yAc cypAaAwn xccAcn, Txnn mnnxAcx yxaanw
pov1o,noqocco.

?
MVHC-nnXyyArancyryyAnnomy1an .

HVA-nn4nAocoqn,conoAorn,cxanxccAcnrnnXyyAran
cypaAraanw1on-nncpcmmnnxnArccnnaxnA1an.


MonroAVAcwnEonxnAornnn1amrwnraawnAAanwpara,XyyAr
anpov1o,noqocco .
:
XyyAr an marnc1, Camo oxnn oAon yAcwn xcmxccnn mac1o
.



HHI-wn Icm1 xccr1c 1cmcx xcA1cnn xcrnn raawn aAcrnn
nnrAcAnn axAax mcrcxnA1cn, Harpaarnn pcp xyanpaa
.


Harpaarnn Avapomnn Hrcnn cx an 1cnxnmnn arm
.

MVHC-nnXyyArancyryyAnnomy1an.

[4(31)
124
MVHC-nnXyyArancyryyAnnomy1an .


MVHC-nnXyyArancyryyAnnaxAaxarm,pov1oan1.

80
*


,

OTHC-nn XyyAr an cyryyAnn Hrcn, nanocnn cx an
1cnxnmnnarm.

Harward Law Review cc1rAccc onyyAcan XyyAr an npccnn
xccAcnrnn Hrcn, cpnn aacrnn cx an cov1own cpcm
mnnxnArccnnaxnA1an .


Harpaarnn Avapomnn Hrcnn cx an 1cnxnmnn arm
.

MVBHC-nn Tx, nnrmnn yxaanw cyryyAnn 4nAocoqn,
pnpav1nvnn1cnxnmnncxan1cnxnmnnarm.

XyyAr an npccnn xccAcnrnn Hrcn, cpnn aacrnn cx an
cov1owncpcmmnnxnArccnnaxnA1an .
,

:
HnonwxxpnrnnccxcanrnnaxnA1an,cypAaan.
, :

MVHC-nn XyyAr an cyryyAnn OAon yAcwn cx an arm
.
2010] 125

, ...
XyyArannpccnnxccAcnrnn0rnncxa,vnmnnoAornn
cypaAraanw cov1own cpcm mnnxnArccnn axnA1an .,
XyyArannpccnnxccAcnrnnBaxnraa,xmnAcrnncxan
cov1owncpcmmnnxnArccnnaxnA1an,marnc1.
,

TarnyyAwnEonxnraawnonopamarpaxrraawnpara,xyanpaa,
pov1oan1.
- -
Hxnn mnnxnArccnn npccnn xccAcnrnn Aaoa1onn
1acrnn para, noAornn yxaanw pov1o ., marnc1an1
.

-
CcAcnrc amrnn BTI-wn XyyAr an xcA1cnn 0x an cyraA1,
cy1aAnnAraaxanycanaxAaxmcrcxnA1cn,marnc1 .


2010, 2(29)

(
?)
MonroA VAcwn xopoAmonn aa1a, apwn arm, ran+sa1 xyyArn,
pov1o,noqocco.


MonroAVAcwnEonxnAornnn1amrwnraawnAAanwpara,XyyAr
anpov1o,noqocco .

MonroAVAcwnoAoncoAwnnxcyryyAnnarm .

[4(31)
126
:

XyyArannpccnnxccAcnrnn0rnncxa,vnmnnoAornn
cypaAraanwcov1owncpcmmnnxnArccnnaxnA1an .


MVHC-nn XBC-nn Hrcnn cx an 1cnxnmnn arm, pov1oan1
.

80
*
Baranyyprnnnovyownraawn1xcn1onnoon


XyyArannpccnnxccAcnrnncypaAraanwar
, ,

ov1oan1.

XyyAr an npccnn xccAcnrnn Hrcn, cpnn aacrnn cx an
cov1owncpcmmnnxnArccnnaxnA1an.
,
,

XyyAr an npccnn xccAcnrnn Hrcn, cpnn aacrnn cx an


cov1owncpcmmnnxnArccnnaxnA1an.

-
(II )
MVHC-nnXBC-nnTo,aaxnraanwcxan1cnxnmnnarm,xyyAr
anpov1o.
, ,

XyyArannpccnnxccAcnrnn0rnncxa,vnmnnoAornn
cypaAraanwcov1owncpcmmnnxnArccnnaxnA1an .
2010] 127

,

XyyArannpccnnxccAcnrnn0rnncxa,vnmnnoAornn
cypaAraanwcov1owncpcmmnnxnArccnnaxnA1an.

Harpaarnn avapomnn 1o, aaxnraanw cx an 1cnxnmnn arm,


marnc1,arpaarnnpccAcrn .
100

Ynpccnn1onaxnnwncpcmmnnxnArccnnaxnA1an.


2010, 3(30)
, ,


O1ron1cnrcnxcyryyAnnXyyArancyryyAnnarm.



XyyAr an mnnxAcx yxaanw pov1o, noqocco .



XBYX-nn0rnncxa,vnmnnoAornncov1owncpcm
mnnxnArccnnaxnA1an,pov1oan1.


XBYX-nn OAon yAcwn cx an cov1own cpcm mnnxnArccnn
axnA1an.-


XBYX-nn OAon yAcwn cx an cov1own cpcm mnnxnArccnn
axnA1an.
[4(31)
128


XBYX-nn OAon yAcwn cx an cov1own cpcm mnnxnArccnn
axnA1an.



,
XyyArannpccnnxccAcnrnncypaAraanw1aAan
, ,
,

XyyArannpccnnxccAcnrnncypaAraanw1aAan
,

XyyAr an npccnn xccAcnrnn Hrcn, cpnn aacrnn cx an
cov1owncpcmmnnxnArccnnaxnA1an.
,

Tonamrnnmxnnmrn.



AnAnrwncccrcan-rnnaaxnaA,xyyAranpov1o,noqocco
.



MVHC-nn XyyAr an cyryyAnn V anrnn omy1an .


2010 7

100



2010] 129
2010, 4(31)
, ,
:

MVHC-nn XyyAr an cyryyAnn 0rnn cx an 1cnxnmnn
arm, XyyAr an pov1o .Bascaxan



OXV-wn ConryyAnn cx an nnc1n1y1wn mnnxccn, xyyAr an
pov1oKacnncvnEAapncAanEsnacAanonnn


XBYX-nn0rnncxa,vnmnnoAornncov1owncpcm
mnnxnArccnnaxnA1an,pov1oan1I.OmynoAp


IoAom1anvnwXyyAranaonAox,marnc1H.Onomaa



HHIEI-wn Tor1ooA rc1rcx raawn HA1nw cyraA1, xmxAnn
xcA1cnnpara,xomyyn,pov1oan1H.OnrccA





XyyArannpccnnxccAcnrnncypaAraanw1aAan

,


VHX-wn1amrwnraawnaxnA1an,xyyAranpov1o,noqocco
Y.Ba1xan

MonroA VAcwn EonxnAornnn xyyAnn opAorwn aonAox, marnc1


I.Ianaonr


[4(31)
130
HncAcAnn novyown raawn HA cpAAcx axnAAaraanp xsnaA1
1annxxcA1cnnpara,xyyAraaawnn1rcmxn1aonAoxH.Monxa1
A
YnpccnxyyAnncnnoqoon1,marnc1.OnoornA

,

OXV-wn HH-nw VpnpAarwn avapomnn ap+mnv1, arpaarnn pcp
xyanpaaB.Opaa1a
..,
HarpaarnnavapomnnHrcnncxan1cnxnmnnarm,marnc1,
arpaarnnpccAcrnO.O1ron1ysa


XyyAr an npccnn xccAcnrnn Hrcn, cpnn aacrnn cx an
cov1owncpcmmnnxnArccnnaxnA1an,marnc1P.BoAomaa

I.Tomoaa1a

Basn-OArn amrnn 0x an 1ycAaAaanw 1onnn omrooAorn
T.Koc1o
100
Hxsamnaacycpwnnoxorcanaa1aoAoopcanamcarrcc
aAcanxnnrxcxcnmn1rcx1yxannnr
2010] 131
,
,
(1911-1990)
s
p ,
p
Hampacapnawnncc
Ornoo
:
(1911-1919 )
l aAamHccnnnmcp l9ll-l9l4
2 aAamamxan l9l4-l9l5
3 XccnnHanaypaBapampox l9l5-l9l9

(1921-1924 )
l aAamHynarpox l92l-l922
2 CccnxanHanaannccn l922-l925
1924-1931
3 YyraarnnHnmcpccn l925-l926
4 ArpanyyrnnAma l925-ll-l926
5 Canaaxam l92?-l2-l929
6 Cyaxas
l929-l93l-05

(1924-1936 )
l K.K.Ba1onn l924-ll-l925-0?
2 HanaanpoxnnHacana1 l925-03-l926-ll
3 HamxnAwnXasnxsnaa l926-ll-l928-l2
4 BoAnnrnnHnxcc l928-l2-l930-05
5 Ba1-Onnwn0Apcn-Onn l930-05-l932-06
6 anaarnnHamca l932-0?-l936-02

(1936-1957 )
l XoAoornnHoaAcan l936-2-l940-08
2 amapaxaa l940-08-l940-09
3 Ba1-OnnwnHarpaxan l94l-0?-l946-04
4 amnnHcpcn l946-05-l949-03
5 B1cmxnnnxcxan l949-03-l95l-09
6 HcpcnrnnHannnn l952-06-l956-04
? Ba1wnox l956-04-l95?-0?

l H.Hannnn l955-0?-l95?
2 Ba1wnox l95?-0?-l959-06

l Ba1wnox l959-06-l96l-02
2 HcncrnnHancaAxan l96l-02-l962-0l
3 BypwnBanaarn l962-0l-l963-0?
4 BapaxwnHamaAccn l963-0?-l9?0
5 Byrnncxnp l9?0-l0-l98l
6 OAanxy1arwnHoxnAccn l98l-4-l98l
? ArnaanxananrnnHamcanxan l984-09-l990-04
(1911-1990 )
l Harpaxan l9ll-l9l5
2
HanaanAyncancpcnrnn Marcaxan
xy
l92l.0?-l922.l2
3 onpornnCopnompox l922.l2-l924.ll
4 cmnnrnnHapanccn l924.ll-l925.ll
5 Yxamccnrnncnpcn l925.ll-l930.05
6 Baa1awnYxamxan l930.05-l932-05
? CanxnnBoanpn l932.05-l932.06
8 Ham+sanrnncnpcn l932.06-l936.09
9 IomoxanwnHccnpox l936.l0-l938-09
l0 CanxnnBoanpn l938.09-l938.l0
ll IcmcAnnamnoopoA l939.05-l939-08
[4(31)
132
l2 OnonnOAanxy1ar l939.l0-l940.0?
l3 ampanaarnnoxncn
l940.0?-l94l.06
l4 Ba1-OnnwnHamaApox l94l.0?-l946.l2
l5 Mcnpnnamapaxaa l946.l2-l95l.0?
l6 CanxnnHcAxcc l95l.0?-l956.06
l? CanparnnHoxam l956.08-l95?.06
l8 HcnpnnYyncanmaan
l95?.0?-l959.03
l9 BnarnnHnmcp
-l982,06
20 OnrnnHamaApox
l982.06-l990.l0
(1927-1990)
l IanxyywnIccp l92?.0l-l929.0l
2 YyncanrnnHcnpccn l929.0l-l930.0l
3 VAamaswnIomoxan l930.0l-l930.04
4 MoornnHpamccn l930.04-l932.04
5 HnrxnpnnIonnnrccn l932.0?-l933.l0
6 OAan1nnHyAyyn l933.l0-l934.06
? IcmnnAnnamnoopoA l934.06-l939-06
8 Ba1cxnnYyncanpox l939.06-l940-l2
9 CanparnnHcpcnnoon l940.l2-l953.0l
l0 Hanaan1aasarnnCanxms1an l953.03-l95?.03
ll IomwnHcnpoo l95?.03-l959.04
l2 CanparnnHoxam l959.04-l960.03
l3 XoAoornnampnn l960.03-
l4 IonnnrnnHm -l982.06
l5 BnaarnnHnmcp l982.06-l986.05
l6 YyncanpoxnnPonnnn l986.05-l990.0l
Mouron Yncmu Rpokypopmu Epouxu Fasap(1930-1990)
1
YxamxanwnHyAyyna1 l930.04-
l930.l2
2
OAanccnrnnHynar l930.l2-
l932.02
3
Ham+sanrnncnpcn l932.02-
4
MoxpcnpcnnnHpamccn l932-l935
5
HoxoornnHoporccn l935.0l-
l93?.l0
6
Box l93?.l0-
l93?.ll
7
Cccc1cnnHynarpox 13.11-
140.11
8
HnrxnpxanwnBanaarn 140.11-
14.05
9
Ba1-OnnwnHamaApox 14.12-
15.0
10
CanparnnHoxam 15.0-
15.04
11
HamaAwnHaAan-Aaxan 15.04-
10.03
12
onponwnnponpnn 10.03-
1.02
13
Haan1anAnxna 1.02-
1.04
14
PanpanrnnInccn -
12.11
15
CopnomaAxnnnBparnaa 11.11-
2010] 133
16
YomopoxnnBaxpaA
17
CopnomaAxnnnBparnaa -
1.05
18
HrpcnnBaAxnnnsm 1.05-
10.0

HarcaaA1wr Apccn: Ynpccnn Ton Axnnwn cpcm
mnnxnArccnn axnA1an I.Cc-Op