Late Adulthood

Gains & Losses

Gains & Losses
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Continuity Theory
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Growth Maintenance Regulation of loss

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Social Trends for Older Adults ‹ ‹ ‹ Life expectancy 76.7 1 in 89 Older Adult in 1999 – In 2050: 1 in 5 Age 85+ fastest growing group ‹ Women ‹ Poverty Increased education ‹ Mental disorders ‹ Health impairment ‹ – People of color Physical Changes ‹ Mobility – Muscle/ bone strength – Joint functioning – Pain ‹ Cardiovascular functioning Respiratory system Digestive system ‹ ‹ Sensory – Energy – Hearing – Sight – Taste ‹ Cognitive Declines ‹ Fluid intelligence speed – Terminal Drop/ Decline ‹ Processing ‹ Memory – Sensory register – STM ‹ Reaction ‹ Internalized time stereotypes .

Dementia/ AD Dementia Severe cognitive impairment ‹ Extreme memory loss ‹ Disorientation ‹ ‹ Alzheimer’s Disease 1% in 65 year olds – 20% in 80 year olds Dementia w/ language deficits ‹ Plaques & tangles ‹ Early vs. Late onset ‹ 5 Stages ‹ Psychosocial Factors ‹ Time of transition – Health – Roles – Occupation – Housing – Social support ‹ Loss – Transportation – Financial – Economic position – Marriage ‹ Functioning of friends and other support of spouse ‹ Divorce and loss – Sexuality – Perceived control Well-being in Late Adulthood ‹ Erikson – “social witness” to human condition – Seeking to integrate experiences ‹ Maslow – More likely to reach selfself-actualization .

Self-Determination Theory ‹ Autonomy ‹ Competence ‹ Relatedness Identity Theory ‹ “I know who I’ve been. but who am I now?” ‹ Identity assimilation ‹ Identity accommodation Selective Optimization with Compensation ‹ Selection ‹ Optimization ‹ Compensation ‹ Control strategies: – Primary – Secondary .

practical.Selective Optimization of SocioSocio-Emotional Experience ‹ Selective social network ‹ Emotional experiences – Increase emotional regulation – Positive maintained – Negative reduced – Complexity increased Life Review ‹ Increased reflection ‹ Integration of life experiences ‹ Connect past with future ‹ Valuation theory – Self ‹ Process ‹ Organization Wisdom ‹ Broad. comprehensive approach to life’s problems – Rich factual knowledge – Knowledge about “pragmatics of life” – Contextual approach – Acceptance of uncertainty – Recognition of individual differences .

Activities that Promote Healthy Aging ‹ Exercise ‹ Nutrition ‹ Mental and Physical Activity Health – Social support – Education – SelfSelf-efficacy ‹ Social Connections .