This chapter presents a discussion of the literature and studies related to the present study.

It also presents the theoretical and conceptual framework upon which this study is based. Theoretical Framework Thousand of teens experience difficulty in school almost every day of their lives about social interaction. Bullying is a problem that affects millions of students, and it has made everyone worried, not just kids on its receiving end. Adaptation is defined as, “the process and outcome whereby thinking and feeling persons, as individuals or in groups, use conscious awareness and choice to create human and environmental integration.” In expanding her philosophic statements in 1997, Roy drew on the richness found in a diversity of cultures. The philosophic premise is stated as “nursing sees persons as co-extensive with their physical and social environments. Nurse scholars take a value-based stance. Rooted in beliefs and hopes about the nature of the human person, they fashion a discipline that participates in the well-being of persons” (Roy, 1997a, p. 42). The philosophical assumptions in the model are the following; a focus on awareness and the notion of eliminating false consciousness, enlightenment to reach self-control, balance and quietude, and the reclamation of earthly creation as the core of faith. Roy continued her development of philosophic assumptions to include a focus on people’s mutuality with others, the world and God. The four major concepts of the Roy Adaptation Model (RAM) are the following; Humans as adaptive systems as both individuals and groups, the environment, health and the goal of nursing.

outputs as behavioral responses that serve as feedback and control processes known as coping mechanisms. matter.Roy conceptualizes the human system in a holistic perspective as holism stems from the underlying philosophic assumption of the model. These system qualities are held by the individuals as well as by groups or aggregates of humans. The human adaptive system has inputs of stimuli and adaptation level. Adaptive . The human adaptive system has input coming from the external environment as well as from within the system. The cell is a living system. therefore. The three levels define by Roy are: 1) Integrated processes are present when the adaptation level is working as a whole to meet the needs of the human system. Roy identifies inputs as stimuli and adaptation level (a particular internal pooling of stimuli). and energy between system and the environment. Roy categorizes outputs of the system as either adaptive responses or ineffective responses. System openness. 2)Compensatory processes occur when the human’s responses systems have been activated. Holism is the aspect of unified meaningfulness of human behavior in which the human system is greater than the sum individual parts. Output responses become feedback to the system and to the environment. Adaptation level is the combining of stimuli that represents the condition of life processes for the human adaptive system. implies the constant exchange of information. which activates the system’s compensatory processes . Stimuli are conceptualized as falling into three classifications: 1) Focal stimulus most immediately confronting the human 2) Contextual stimuli are all other stimuli of the human system’s internal and external worlds that can be identified as having a positive or negative influence on the situation. and 3) Residual stimuli are those internal or external factors whose current effects are unclear. and 3)compromised processes.

information processing. Roy specifically defines environment as “all conditions. Ineffective responses. meaning purposefulness in the universe. and output. in relation to others.responses are those that promote the integrity of the human system. 3) Role function mode refers to with the roles that individuals occupy in society fulfilling with needs for social integrity or it is knowing who one is. Roy represents a unique nursing science concept of control mechanisms: 1) regulator subsystem has the components of input. These adaptive modes: 1) Physiological-physical mode represents the human-system’s physical responses and interactions with the environment. According to Roy. learning. or transformation. and influences that surround and affect the development and . stimuli from within the human adaptive system and stimuli from around the system represent the element of environment. Ineffective responses can immediately or gradually threaten the system’s survival. and 4) Interdependence mode. judgment. mastery. the regulator and the cognator are postulated as interrelated and acting together. Roy has used the term coping mechanism to describe the control processes of the human as an adaptive system. internal process. the close relationship of people and their purpose. circumstances. do not support the goals of human as adaptive systems. and emotion. growth. and 2) cognator subsystem are related to the higher brain functions of perception or. structure and development individually and in groups and the adaptation potential of these relationships. on the other hand. In maintaining the integrity of the person. Roy has identified four adaptive modes as categories for assessment of behavior resulting from regulator-cognator coping mechanism in persons or stabilizer-innovator coping processes in groups. reproduction. 2) Self concept group identity mode focuses on the psychological and spiritual integrity and sense of unity.

When an individual becomes aware to the environment of bullying. Awareness of self and environment is rooted in thinking and feeling. For the philosophical assumption it says that persons have mutual relationships with the world and God Human meaning is rooted in the omega point convergence of the universe. System relationships include acceptance. Persons are accountable for the processes of deriving. For the scientific assumptions it consist of the systems of matter and energy that progresses to higher levels of complex self. The consciousness and meaning are constitutive of person and environment integration. Persons use human creative abilities of awareness. Thinking and feeling of an individual mediate human action. and fostering of interdependence. Humans by their decisions are accountable for the integration of creative processes. the student initiates action to adapt to the environment and decides for what specific coping mechanism that is effective to that will be applied to address the problem of bullying. Persons and environment transformations are created in human consciousness. sustaining and transforming the universe. It also explains that the world and the individual is one even though individual characteristics of . The philosophical assumption of Roy describes the relationship of the individual to the environment and others.” In the adaptation model of Roy the assumptions are specified as to scientific assumptions or philosophical assumptions. The integration of human and environment meanings results in adaptation. enlightenment. The scientific assumption of Roy represents the factor that affects the student to cope with bullying situation. God is intimately revealed in the diversity of creation and is the common destiny of creation.behavior of humans as adaptive systems with particular consideration of person and earth resources.organization. Persons and the earth have common patterns and integral relationships. protection. and faith.

In the environment the focal is the internal and external and immediately confronting the person. Conceptual Framework . To respond positively to environmental changes. This statement relates to the ability of an individual to cope with the changes in the environment. To cope with a changing world. Which means an individual is always interacting with the environment and other people as to student interacting to other student in the school. The contextual are all the stimuli present in the situation that contribute to effect of focal and the residual is a factor whose effects in the current situation are unclear. An individual is responsible in improving and preserving the environment and if environment cannot be modified it is the initiative of the individual to adapt to its another are diverse. A bullied student tries to solve the conflict between the bully through the coping mechanism that were innate and acquired. psychological and social in origin. the person must adapt. According also to Roy (1976) a person is a bio-psycho-social being and is in constant interaction with a changing environment. person uses both innate and acquired mechanisms which are biological.

The bullying experienced by the participant may it be physical. In the first box contains the word bullying which represents the problem that the participant experiences. This second box is the summary of the effects of bullying to the participant may it be positive or negative so it follows a certain chains of event which is the coping strategies. The third box represents the adaptation of the participant towards the effects of bullying wherein a two-way arrow is seen between the effects and coping strategies furthermore it shows the interaction of the effects of bullying and the coping strategies applied by the participant to adapt towards bullying.Bullying Outcomes of the Coping Strategies Effects Coping strategies The figures represent the paradigm of the researcher used in determining the different factors that affects how a student copes up with bullying. In addition to that there is an arrow that points toward the fourth box which represents the outcome of the coping strategies employed by the participant. emotional. If the coping strategies employed by the participant is effective enough to addressed bullying the positive adaptation occurs but if the coping strategies employed by the participant is not effective then negative adaptation occurs hence a two-way arrow is connecting the first box . social. verbal. or cyber or electronic is being represented by the first box in the paradigm which is preceded by an arrow down going to the second box that contains the word effects.

. coping strategies. In addition to that if a negative adaptation occurs. The more effective is the coping strategies employed by the participant to addressed bullying and its effects the easier is the participant to break the process of bullying. This paradigm used by the researcher shows that over-all interaction and interrelationship of bullying.and the fourth box that represents the interaction of bullying and the outcome of the coping strategies employed by the participant. and outcomes of the coping strategies. the process of bullying will go on just like an unending chain which may hinder the participant to positively adapt to the effects of bullying. effects of bullying.

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